Mani: Puranic Encyclopaedia

Based on Mani, Vettam: Puranic Encyclopaedia. A comprehensive dictionary with special reference to the Epic and Puranic literature. Delhi : 1975

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description:multibyte sequence:
long a ā
long A Ā
long i ī
long I Ī
long u ū
long U Ū
vocalic r
vocalic R
long vocalic r
vocalic l
vocalic L
long vocalic l
velar n
velar N
palatal n ñ
palatal N Ñ
retroflex t
retroflex T
retroflex d
retroflex D
retroflex n
retroflex N
palatal s ś
palatal S Ś
retroflex s
retroflex S
long e ē
long o ō
l underbar
r underbar
n underbar
k underbar
t underbar

Unless indicated otherwise, accents have been dropped in order
to facilitate word search.

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Purāṇic Encyclopaedia

A The first letter (Vowel) of all Indian languages. According to the Nānārtharatnamālā this letter has the following meanings:--Brahmā, Viṣṇu, Śiva, tortoise, courtyard, battle, harem, jewellery, sea, Pārvatī and bowstring.

ABALA is one of the fifteen devas who were the sons of Pāñcajanya. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 22, Verse 11).

ABHAYA was one of the sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. He was killed by Bhīmasena. (M.B. Ādi Parva, Chapter 67, Verse 104; Droṇa Parva, Chapter 127, Verse 62).

ABHAYAM King Idhmajihva divided his kingdom Plakṣadvīpa into seven parts and gave them to his seven sons. Abhayam is one of the parts. The other six parts are:--Śivaṃ, Yamasaṃ, Subhadraṃ, Śāntaṃ, Kṣemaṃ and Amṛtaṃ. See "Idhmajihva". (Bhāgavata, 5th Skandha, Chapter 20, Verse 2). It is seen (from M.B. Sabhā Parva, Chapter 30, Verse 9) that the territory known as Abhayam was conquered by Bhīmasena. (See Footnote)

ABHIBHU He was a King, the son of the King of Kāśī and a relative of the Pāṇḍavas. He was killed by the son of King Vasudāna. He had a most wonderful horse. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 151, Verse 63; Karṇa Parva, Chapter 6, Verses 23-24; Droṇa Parva, Verses 26-27).

ABHIMANYU I He was the heroic son of Arjuna the central figure of the Mahābhārata, by his wife Subhadrā.
     1) Genealogy. He was descended from Viṣṇu in this order: Brahmā-Atri-Candra-Budha-Purūravas-Āyus-Nahuṣa-Yayāti-Pūru-Janamejaya-Prācinvā-Pravīra-Namasyu-Vītabhaya-Śuṇḍu-Bahuvidha-Saṃyāti-Rahovādi-Raudrāśvā-Matināra-Santurodha-Duṣyanta-Bharata-Bṛhatkṣatra-Hasti-Ajamīḍha-Ṛkṣa-Saṃvaraṇa-Kuru-Jahnu-Suratha-Vidūratha-Sārvabhauma-Jayatsena-Ravīya-Bhāvuka-Cakroddhata-Devātithi-Ṛkṣa-Bhīma-Pratīya-Śantanu-Vyāsa-Pāṇḍu-Arjuna-Abhimanyu.
     2) Pūrvajanma (Previous Birth). There is a story about Abhimanyu's Pūrvajanma in the Mahābhārata. It was Varcas, son of Candra, who incarnated as Abhimanyu, son of Arjuna. A conference took place between the Devas and Candra about the incarnation of the Devas in the world for the destruction of the wicked people. Candra told the Devas: "I do not like to send Varcas, whom I love more than my life, to the earth. Still, I think it is not right to stand in the way of the plans of the gods. You must agree to one condition if I am to send my son. Let him be born as the son of Arjuna. I am unable to be separated from him for more than sixteen years. My son will enter into the Cakra Vyūha of the enemies to be killed by them and return to me in the sixteenth year." The devas (gods) accepted this condition. That is why Abhimanyu was killed in his sixteenth year. (M.B. Ādi Parva, Chapter 67).
     3) Military Training and War. Abhimanyu received his training in arms from his father Arjuna. Later, he went with his mother Subhadrā to Dvārakā and lived for some time with his uncle Śrī Kṛṣṇa. There he is said to have received training in arms from Pradyumna, son of Śrī Kṛṣna. After the incognito life of the Pāṇḍavas, Abhimanyu married Uttarā, daughter of the King of Virāta. War broke out between Kauravas and Pāṇḍavas. On the first day itself Abhimanyu entered into a duel with Bṛhatbala, King of Kosala. In the terrible conflict with Bhīṣma, Abhimanyu broke Bhīṣma's flagstaff. After that he assisted his father Arjuna to fight against Bhīṣma. Verses 8-13 of Chapter 55 of Bhīṣma Parva of the Mahābhārata describe Abhimanyu's fight with Lakṣmaṇa in the second day's battle. Then he took his place in the Ardha Candra Vyūha (semi-circular phalanx) formed by Arjuna. He fought fiercely with the Gandhāras. He attacked Śalya and killed Jayatsena, King of Magadha, along with his elephant. We find Abhimanyu assisting Bhīmasena in M.B. Bhīṣma Parva, Chapters 63, 64, 69 and 94. After that Abhimanyu defeated Lakṣmaṇa in battle. Then he defeated Vikarṇa, Citrasena and others also. Later he took his position in the Śṛṅgāṭaka Vyūha created by Dhṛṣṭadyumna. He started fighting with Bhagadatta. He defeated Aṃbaṣṭha and Alaṃbuṣa. Next he fought a duel with Sudīṣṇa. After that he encountered Duryodhana, Bṛhatbala and others. M.B. Droṇa Parva, Chapter 10, Verses 47-52 are a description of Abhimanyu's heroism by Dhṛtarāṣṭra. He snatched Paurava's weapon and threw it on the ground. Next he fought with Jayadratha and Śalya. Then he was caught in the Cakra Vyūha (circular phalanx) of the enemies. There he inflicted great losses upon the enemy forces. Śalya was stunned and his brother was killed by Abhimanyu. M.B. Droṇa Parva, Chapter 38, Verses 23 and 24 describe the flight of the Kauravas in fear. At this stage, even Droṇācārya praised Abhimanyu's valour. Duśśāsana fainted during his fight with Abhimanyu. Karṇa was defeated. Vṛṣasena, Satyaśravas and Śalya's son, Rugmaratha were slain. Duryodhana fled. Lakṣmaṇa was killed. Vṛndāraka, Aśvatthāmā, Karṇa and others were amazed by this terrible valour of Abhimanyu. Six ministers of Karṇa were slain. Next, Aśvaketu, son of the King of Magadha was killed. King Bhoja was also killed. Śalya was again defeated. Śatruñjaya, Candraketu, Meghavega, Suvarcas, Sūryabhāsa--who were all kings--were beheaded by Abhimanyu. Śakuni was wounded by Abhimanyu's arrow. Kālakeya, son of Subala was slain. M.B. Droṇa Parva, Chapter 40, Verses 13 and 14 say that at this stage, Prince Duśśāsana beat Abhimanyu to death with his mace.
     4) After Death. M.B. Droṇa Parva, Chapter 71, Verses 12-16 say that after death Abhimanyu attained the immortal world of the Munis (Saints). King Parīkṣit was the son of Abhimanyu. In M.B. Svargārohaṇa Parva, Chapter 5, Verses 18-20, we find that after his death, Abhimanyu entered the moon in his former form of Varcas.
     5) Other names of Abhimanyu. In the Mahābhārata Abhimanyu has been referred to by several other names, such as ĀRJUNI, Saubhadra, Kārṣṇī, Arjunātmaja, Śukrātmajātmaja, Arjunāpara and Phālguni.
     6) Other details. King Parīkṣit was the son of Abhimanyu. Janamejaya was born as his son. It was Janamejaya who performed Sarpasatra. (A yāga) Śatānīka was the son of Janamejaya. Śatānīka had a son named Sahasrānīka. King Udayana, the jewel of the Candra Vaṃśa (Lunar dynasty) was born to Sahasrānīka by the goddess Mṛgāvatī (See 'Udayana', stories about this Udayana are very famous. Kālidāsa has mentioned in his "Meghadūta" about the old rustics who thronged the country-sides to tell and listen to Udayana stories). (Kathāsaritsāgara, Madana Kañcukalaṃbaka, 4th Taraṅga).*
*) There seems to be some difference of opinion regarding the number of. parts into which King Idhmajihva divided Plakṣadvīpa. In the Bhāgavata the number mentioned is seven; but in the Malayalam version of the Bhāgavata (By Ramanujan Eluttacchan) the number is eight. The original Bhāgavata says: "Śivaṃ Yamasaṃ. Subhadraṃ, Śāntaṃ, Kṣemaṃ, Amṛtaṃ Abhayam iti Varṣāni teṣu girayo nadyaśca saptaivabhijñātāḥ". In the Malayalam Bhāgavata an eighth division called Śivadaṃ is seen.

ABHIMANYU II One of the sons of Manu. The ten sons born to Manu by Nadvalā were: Kuru, Puru, Śatadyumna, Tapasvī, Satyavān, Śuci, Agniṣṭoma, Adhirātra, Sudyumna and Abhimanyu. (Viṣṇu Purāṇa, Section 1, Chapter 13).

ABHIMANYU VADHA PARVA A part (branch) of Droṇa Parva. (See "Mahābhārata").

ABHINAYA In Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 342, Abhinaya has been defined as follows: Abhinaya is the art of presenting before the people the ideas that are to be communicated to them. There are four divisions of this art known as Sāttvika, Vācika, Āṅgika and Āhārya depending on Sattva, Vāk, Aṅga and Āhārya. Besides these, another division known as Abhimānika (Abhimānottha) may also be mentioned. This signifies the expression of rasas like Śṛṅgāra. There are two kinds of Śṛṅgāra known as Saṃbhoga and Vipralambha. Four varieties of Vipralambha called Pūrvānurāga Vipralambha, Māna Vipralambha, Pravāsa Vipralambha and Karuṇa Vipralambha are mentioned. The union after Vipralambha is Saṃbhoga-Śṛṅgāra. All Sāttvika bhāvas are included in Śṛṅgāra. All these have to be expressed through Abhinaya.

ABHĪRU A Rājarṣi who was born of the sixth Kālakeya. (M.B. Ādi Parva, Chapter 67, Verse 53).

ABHĪṢĀKAM A Janapada (Village) of ancient India. The warriors of this Janapada were called Abhīṣākas. (M.B. Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 18, Verse 12; Chapter 93, Verse 2).

ABHĪSĀRAM A Janapada of ancient India. (M.B. Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 94).

ABHISĀRĪ Arjuna conquered this city, which was one of the ancient cities of India, in the course of his Digvijaya (conquest of the world).

ABHIṢYANTA A son born to Mahārāja Kuru by Vāhinī. He had three brothers named Caitraratha, Muni and Janamejaya. Abhiṣyanta was the younger brother of Aśvavān and elder brother of Caitraratha. (M.B. Ādi Parva, Chapter 94, Verses 50-51).

ACALA I 1) General. Acala was the son of Subala, a King of Gāndhāra. He was Śakuni's brother and a heroic Charioteer on the side of the Kauravas. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 168, Verse 1).
     2) Acala had also taken part in Yudhiṣṭhira's Rājasūya. (A very expensive sacrifice--yāga--performed by an emperor.) (M.B. Sabhā Parva, Chapter 34, Verse 7).
     3) Acala had a brother named Vṛṣaka. In the battle between the Kauravas and Pāṇḍavas, Arjuna killed Acala and Vṛṣaka. (M.B. Droṇa Parva, Chapter 30, Verse 11).
     4) One night Vyāsa summoned the departed holy souls and Acala also was among them. (M.B. Āśvamedhika Parva, Chapter 32, Verse 12).

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ACALA II Name of a bull. Among the pārṣadas of Skanda we see the bull named Acala. (M.B. Śalya Parva, Chapter 85, Verse 74).

ACALA III An epithet of Mahāviṣṇu. Among the thousand names of Mahāviṣṇu we see the name Acala also. (M.B. Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 149, Verse 92).

ACALA Subrahmaṇya, who was born from Śiva's semen which fell into the fire, was made Commander-in-Chief (Generalissimo) by the gods to kill Tārakāsura. A large number of warriors and mothers were assigned to assist him. A woman named Acalā was included among those mothers. (M.B. Śalya Parva, Chapter 40, Verse 14).

ACCHODĀ A spiritual daughter of the Pitṛs. (For further details see "Amāvasu").

ACCHODASARAS A river, who was the daughter of the Pitṛs called Agniṣvāttas. (Hari Vaṃśa, Chapter 18, Verse 26).

ACYUTA (See Viṣṇu).

ACYUTĀYU He was a heroic warrior on the Kaurava side. Śrutāyu was the brother of Acyutāyu. Both of them were killed by Arjuna in the Kaurava-Pāṇḍava battle. These heroes attacked Arjuna and Śrī Kṛṣṇa furiously with their arrows and Arjuna had some difficulty in killing them. (M.B. Droṇa Parva, Chapter 93, Verses 7-42).

ACYUTA STHALA This is an ancient village in India. In ancient times Śūdras of mixed castes inhabited this region. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 129, Verse 9).

ADHARMA A description of the lineage of Adharma is found in Agni Purāṇa. Hiṃsā (violence) is the consort of Adharma. The couple procreated two children, Anṛta and Nikṛti, and from them sprang up Bhaya (fear), Naraka (Hell), Māyā (illusion), Vedanā (pain) etc. And, out of them Māyā brought forth Death, the destroyer of (all) objects. Vedanā, in its turn produced Sorrow and Grief out of Raurava. From Death were born Disease, Senility, Sorrow, Intense desire and Anger. (Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 20).

ADHARMA Adharma is a person who is an embodiment of Adharmas. (M.B. Ādi Parva, Chapter 66, Verse 53). Adharma's wife Nirṛti delivered 3 children; Bhaya, Mahābhaya and Mṛtyu. Adharma had another son, Darpa (conceit) born of Wealth. (M.B. Śānti Parva, Chapter 90, Verse 27).

ADHAŚŚIRAS I was a great sage. Śrī Kṛṣṇa is said to have met the sage on his way to Hastināpura. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 33, Verse 64).

ADHAŚŚIRAS II There is a reference in Viṣṇu Purāṇa to a hell called Adhaśśiras. (Viṣṇu Purāṇa, Part 2, Chapter 6).

ADHĪRA A King; also a great devotee of Lord Śiva. Once he decreed death penalty on an innocent woman. He also destroyed with his own hands a temple of Śiva. As a consequence of those two sinful deeds he became a devil after death. Ultimately by the grace of Śiva he cast off the devil's form and became an attendant of Śiva. (Padma Purāṇa, Pātāla Khaṇḍa, Chapter 111).

ADHIRĀJYA A Kingdom in ancient India, described in Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 44. Today this place is known as Rewa.

ADHIRATHA Foster father of Karṇa.
     1) Lineage. Descended from Viṣṇu thus: Brahmā-Atri-Candra-Purūravas-Āyus-Nahuṣa-Yayāti-Anudruhyu-Sadānara-Kālanara-Sṛñjaya-Titikṣa-Kṛśadratha-Homa-Sutapas-Bali-Aṅga-Dadhivāhana-Draviratha-Dharmaratha-Citraratha-Satyaratha-Romapāda-Caturaṅga-Pṛthu-Camba-Haryaṃga-Bhadraratha-Bṛhadratha-Bṛhanmanas-Jayadratha-Dhṛtavṛta-Satyakarmā-Adhiratha-Karṇa (foster son).
     2) Foster father of Karṇa. Sage Durvāsas had taught Kuntī some mantras to get children, and Kuntī, then unmarried, tested the first mantra with the Sun-god as her object. The Sun-god appeared before Kuntī and from his power she conceived and duly delivered a child, Karṇa. Fearing obloquy Kuntī concealed the child in a box and floated it on the river, Ganges. At the time Adhiratha, a great comrade of Dhṛtarāṣṭra came to the river for a bath. His wife was one grieving over not having a child of her own. So, when Adhiratha found a child in the floating box, he took it home, and himself and his wife Rādhā brought up the child with pleasure. The child was named Vasusena, and the child grew up to become the famous Karṇa and favourite friend of Duryodhana. (M.B. Ādi Parva, Chapters 67 and 130; Vana Parva, Chapter 309; Devībhāgavata, Skandha 2).
     3) Some particulars. Adhiratha was King of Aṅga. He was a Sūta (charioteer) and Karṇa grew up as his son. Karṇa was sent to Hastināpura to be trained in the uṣe of weapons, and it was here that Duryodhana and Karṇa developed their friendship and alliance. (M.B. Ādi Parva, Chapter 147, Verse 3). Śrī Mahādevībhāgavata, in Chapter 3 relates the following incident: "Thus lamenting Kuntī sent the box concealing Karṇa, by the nurse, to be floated in the river, and after bath, food etc. she spent the hours in the normal way within the inner apartment. Rājā Adhiratha bathing in the river saw the box floating in the river". These facts prove that Adhiratha was not only the King of Aṅga but a good charioteer as well, and further a very good friend of Dhṛtarāṣṭra.
     4) We come across Adhiratha on the occasion of the trial of skill in the use of arms between the Kauravas and the Pāṇḍavas. When Karṇa entered the lists the Pāṇḍavas questioned his nobility of birth. Seeing Karṇa's great humiliation and discomfiture Duryodhana enthroned him immediately as King of Aṅga. Vyāsa, who witnessed the scene has given a picturesque description of it.

ADHOKṢAJA A synonym of Mahā Viṣṇu. (Kaṃsāriradhokṣajaḥ--Amarakośa).

ADHRIGU A great sage (Maharṣi) who lived during the Ṛgvedic period. (Ṛgveda, Maṇḍala 1, Anuvāka 16, Sūkta 112).

ADHṚṢYĀ A river. (M.B. Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 24).

ADHYAPĀYANA A disciple of the great preceptor of Atharvaveda, Sumantu. He divided Atharvaveda into two parts and gave one to Utatthya and the other to Vedadarśana. (Bhāgavata, Skandha 12).

ADITI 1) Genealogy. Kaśyapa, grandson of Brahmā and son of Marīci married Aditi, daughter of Dakṣaprajāpati. Aditi had twelve sisters: Diti, Kālā, Danāyus, Danu, Siṃhikā, Krodhā, Pṛthā, Viśvā, Vinatā, Kapilā, Muni and Kadrū. (Mahābhārata, Ādi Parva, Chapter 65, Verse 12). Devas are sons born to Kaśyapa by Aditi and hence they are known as Āditeyas also. Kaśyapa married all the thirteen sisters including Aditi, and all living beings owe their origin to them. (See Kaśyapa).
     2) Descendants. 33 sons were born to Aditi. 12 of them are called Dvādaśādityas, viz. Dhātā, Aryamā, Mitra, Śakra, Varuṇa, Aṃśa, Bhaga, Vivasvān, Pūṣā, Savitā, Tvaṣṭā and Viṣṇu. Amongst the other 21 sons are the 11 Rudras and 8 Vasus. (See M.B. Ādi Parva, Chapter 65, Verse 15).
     3) Main incidents.
          1. How Mahāviṣṇu was born as the son of Aditi. The Mahābhārata and the Rāmāyaṇa refer to a story about the birth of Mahāviṣṇu as the son of Aditi. Viṣṇu entered the womb of Aditi as Vāmana (Dwarf). This story was related by the sage Viśvāmitra to the boys Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa while they were accompanying the sage in the forest. When they entered Siddhāśrama Viśvāmitra pointed to the latter that the Āśrama was sacred, because Mahāviṣṇu had stayed there for long as Vāmana. The Devas induced Mahāviṣṇu to obstruct the sacrifice (yāga) being performed by Emperor Mahābali, son of Virocana. At that time Aditi, the wife of Kaśyapa was doing penance so that Mahāviṣṇu might be born as her son, and accordingly he entered her womb. 1000 years later she gave birth to Viṣṇu, and that child was known as Vāmana. (See Vāmana; also M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 272, Verse 62, Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 83, Verses 25 and 26, as also Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Canto 29).
          2. Rebirth of Aditi. Once Kaśyapa made all arrangements to perform a sacrifice (yāga). Having failed to get the suitable cow for it, he stole Varuṇa's cow and conducted the yāga. Not only that, Kaśyapa refused to return the cow even after the yāga was over. Varuṇa in hot anger rushed to Kaśyapa's hermitage. Kaśyapa was absent, and his wives, Aditi and Surasā did not treat Varuṇa with due respect. The enraged Varuṇa cursed them to be born in Gokula. He also complained about the matter to Brahmā. Brahmā told Kaśyapa: "Since you, a learned person, have stolen the cow, may you along with your wives be born in Gokula and tend cows". Accordingly Kaśyapa and his wives, Aditi and Surasā, were born respectively as Vasudeva, Devakī and Rohiṇī in Gokula in the 28th Dvāpara yuga. (This story has been told by Vyāsa to Rājā Janamejaya). (Devībhāgavata, Skandha 4).
          3. Aditi in prison. Devakī is Aditi reborn. There was reason for Devakī being imprisoned on the orders of Kaṃsa. When Kaśyapa was living in an Āśrama with Aditi and Diti he was so much pleased with the services of Aditi that he asked her to beg for any boon she wished. Accordingly she prayed for an ideal son. The boon was readily granted, and Indra was the son thus born to her. The birth of Indra engendered jealousy in Diti towards Aditi, and she also demanded a son equal to Indra. Kaśyapa obliged Diti also. As Diti advanced in pregnancy and her beauty also increased Aditi got jealous of the former and she called her son Indra and told him that unless something was done in time, Diti would deliver a child equal to him (Indra) thus relegating him probably to the place of second Deva. Thus admonished by his mother the artful Indra approached Diti and told her: "Mother, I have come to serve you". Diti was greatly pleased. Indra's services drove Diti to sleep very quickly, and Indra used the opportunity to enter the womb of Diti and cut into 49 pieces the child with his weapon, the Vajra. The child in the womb began crying on receiving cuts with Vajra when Indra asked it not to cry. (Mā ruda, don't cry) and so the child got out of Diti's womb as 49 Mārutas (winds). Then did Diti wake up and cursed Aditi as follows: "Your son did treacherously kill my offspring in the womb itself. So he will forfeit the three worlds. You were responsible for the murder of my child. You will, therefore, have to spend days in prison grieving over your children. Your children also will be annihilated". Because of this curse of Diti, Indra once lost Devaloka and had to live elsewhere, and Nahuṣa functioned, for a time as Indra. (See Nahuṣa). In the 28th Dvāpara yuga Aditi transformed as Devakī had to be a captive of Kaṃsa, and Kaṃsa killed her children by dashing them on the ground. (Devībhāgavata, Skandha 4).
          4. Narakāsura stole the earrings of Aditi. Narakāsura, who turned out to be a curse and menace to the three worlds consequent on the boon he got from Viṣṇu, attacked Devaloka once, and carried off Indra's royal umbrella and Aditi's earrings. Mahāviṣṇu incarnated himself as Śrī Kṛṣṇa, killed Narakāsura in battle and got back the earrings etc. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 48, Verse 80; Sabhā Parva, Chapter 38, Verse 29; Bhāgavata Daśama Skandha).
          5. Mahāviṣṇu became seven times son to Aditi. Once, desirous of having children Aditi cooked food (rice) sitting herself in the entrails of Mount Mynaka (M.B. Āraṇya Parva, Chapter 135, Verse 3). Dharmaputra, in the course of singing the glories of Lord Kṛṣṇa after the great war refers to Viṣṇu having taken birth seven times in the womb of Aditi. (M.B. Śānti Parva, Chapter 43, Verse 6).
          6. Budha cursed Aditi. A story in the Mahābhārata refers to Budha's once cursing Aditi. The ever increasing power of Asuras made the Devas anxious. Aditi, the mother of the Devas decided to send them all to annihilate the Asuras. She had finished cooking food for her sons, and lo! there appeared before her Budha and asked for food. Aditi asked him to wait pending her sons taking their food hoping that there would be some food left after that. This caused Budha to lose his temper and he cursed her that (Aditi) she would become the mother of Vivasvān in his second birth as Aṇḍa, when she would suffer pain in her abdomen. (M.B. Śānti Parva, Chapter 34, Verses 96-98).
          7. Former birth of Aditi. During the former years (period) of Svāyambhuva Manu the Prajāpati called Sutapas, along with his wife Pṛśni did Tapas for 12000 years. Then Mahāviṣṇu appeared before them, and Pṛśni prayed for a son like Viṣṇu himself, and Mahāviṣṇu was born as her son named Pṛśnigarbha. This story is related by Śrī Kṛsna to his mother on his birth as the son of Vasudeva. (Bhāgavata, Daśama Skandha, Chapter 3).
     She, who became the wife of Prajāpati as Pṛśni before Svāyambhuva Manu, and was born again as Devakī, the wife of Vasudeva is one and the same person.

ADRA A King of the Solar dynasty. (See Sūrya Vaṃśa).

ADRI was a King, the son of Viṣvagaśvā and father of Yuvanāśvā. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 202, Verse 3).

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ADRIKĀ A nymph (devastrī). There is a story in Devībhāgavata about her being cursed by a Brahmin and turned into a fish.

ADṚṢṬABHAYA is the curse put on King Janamejaya by Saramā, the dog of the Devas. While Janamejaya, son of Parīkṣit was conducting, along with his brothers, a yāga of long duration at Kurukṣetra the son of Saramā went to the place and was thrashed by the brothers of Janamejaya. Seeing her weeping child Saramā naturally got angry. She cursed the king thus: "My son did not commit any offence; he did not even look at the havis (oblations), nor did he lick it. For having thrashed the innocent child you will experience Adṛṣṭabhaya. When the yāga was over Janamejaya got rid of the curse by getting sage Somaśravas do certain proper rites.

ADṚŚYANTĪ wife of sage Śakti, the son of Vasiṣṭha and mother of sage Parāśara
     Kalmāṣapāda, a king of the Ikṣvāku dynasty reached the hermitage of Vasiṣṭha during a hunting expedition when Śakti, eldest of the hundred sons of Vasiṣṭha came walking towards him. False pride prevented either of them from giving way to the other. The King got angry and whipped Śakti. Śakti cursed the king and he was converted into a demon. This happened at a period when sages Vasiṣṭha and Viśvāmitra were at logger-heads. Viśvāmitra got admitted into the body of King Kalmāṣapāda a demon called Kiṃkara, and the king set out to take revenge upon Śakti, the son of Vasiṣṭha. The King was further promised all support by Viśvāmitra. Kalmāṣapāda ate up all the hundred sons of Vasiṣṭha. Overcome with grief Vasiṣṭha attempted suicide many a time. But the spirit (Ātman) did not quit the body. Thus sunken in grief Vasiṣṭha lived in his hermitage with Adṛśyantī, wife of Śakti. One day Vasiṣṭha heard distinct sounds of the chanting of the Vedas and Adṛśyantī told him that a child of his son, Śakti, was developing in her womb and that the vedic sounds heard were sounds produced by that son chanting the vedic hymns. Vasiṣṭha thus was happy to hear that the dynasty will not become extinct and, so, gave up all ideas of suicide. Another day Kalmāṣapāda in the guise of the demon hurriedly came to devour Adṛśyantī and Vasiṣṭha gave him redemption from the curse. He was restored to his old state and form. Adṛśyantī duly gave birth to a son, and the child grew up to become Parāśara, father of Vyāsa.
     While the Pāṇḍavas, in the course of their forest life, were passing the banks of river Gaṅgā at midnight, a Gandharva named Aṃgāraparṇa enjoying in the river-water clashed with Arjuna, and he was defeated. The story of Adṛśyantī is one of the many stories told by Aṃgāraparṇa to the Pāṇḍavas. (M.B. Ādi Parva, Chapters 175-178).

     1) Genealogy. Descended from Viṣṇu in this order Brahmā-Marīci-Kaśyapa-Sūrya-Agastya.
     2) Birth. A story occurs in Uttara-Rāma-Carita about the birth of Agastya. Nimi was the son of Ikṣvāku of the Sūrya dynasty. When he ascended the throne he decided to celebrate a sacrifice of long duration. He invited Vasiṣṭha to perform the sacrifice. But Vasiṣṭha, who had to participate in the sacrifice of Indra, could not accept the invitation and Nimi had to return disappointed. At this he got angry, sought the help of Śatānanda, the son of the great hermit Gautama and the sacrifice was begun. Vasiṣṭha did not like this. He cursed Nimi that life might be separated from his body. Nimi retorted with the same curse. Vasiṣṭha's spirit separated itself from his body and began to roam about in the sky. At last he requested Brahmā to provide him with a body. Brahmā granted his wish and said that he would be born again from Mitra and Varuṇa.
     When the spirit of Vasiṣṭha returned to the earth it was Mitra and Varuṇa moving about, having only one body for both. Vasiṣṭha's spirit entered into that body. One day Mitra-Varuṇa happened to see the celestial beauty, Urvaśī on the seashore. They embraced Urvaśī and immediately the spirit of Vasiṣṭha entered the body of Urvaśī.
     After this Mitra and Varuṇa separated themselves from one another and assumed two different bodies. Varuṇa approached Urvaśī with lustful desire, but rejecting him Urvaśī accepted Mitra. Varuṇa had seminal flow and this semen was taken and kept in a pot. At the sight of this, remorse and passion arose in Urvaśī and the semen of Mitra already received in her womb oozed out and fell on the ground. This also was. collected and kept in the same pot along with that of Varuṇa. After a few days the pot broke open by itself and two babies came out. One was Agastya and the other Vasiṣṭha. As these two were born of the semen of Mitra and Varuṇa, they came to be known as Maitrāvaruṇis later. This story partly occurs in Śānti Parva of Mahābhārata, Verse 343 of Chapter 88.
     3) Education. Very little is mentioned in the Purāṇas about the education of Agastya. Still there are ample proofs that he was well-versed in the Vedas and sciences and well skilled in the uses of diverse weapons. In Verse 9, Chapter 139 of Mahābhārata, Ādi Parva, Droṇa says to Arjuna as follows:
     "Agniveśa, my teacher was the disciple of Agastya, in the art of using bows and arrows and I am his disciple".
     When it is said that even Agniveśa the teacher of Droṇa was a disciple of Agastya, his proficiency in the art of using weapons could casily be discerned.
     4) Marriage. There is an interesting story behind the marriage of such an austere man as Agastya, who had brought all the passions under control. As the hermit Agastya was walking along the forest, he saw his ancestors (Pitṛs) hanging head downwards in a canyon. He wanted to know the reason and they replied: "Child; we would be allowed to enter heaven only if sons are born to you. So get married as soon as possible". The necessity of marriage occurred to him only then. But will there be any woman who could be patient enough to become the wife of this bearded dwarfish hermit? Agastya did not lose heart. At that time the King of Vidarbha was doing penance to obtain a son. Agastya collected the quintessence of all living beings, with which he created an extremely beautiful lady and named her Lopāmudrā. Agastya gave Lopāmudrā as daughter to the King of Vidarbha. The King who was delighted at getting such a daughter, employed hundreds of maids to look after the child, who soon grew up to be a young lady. Agastya once approached the King of Vidarbha and expressed his wish to have Lopāmudrā as his wife. The King was in a dilemma. On the one hand he did not like his beautiful daughter having the brightness of fire, to be given as wife to the hermit, clad in the bark of trees and wearing tufts of matted hair. On the other hand he was afraid of the curse of the hermit Agastya. As the King was trying hard to find a solution, Lopāmudrā herself came to the King and said "Father, I am happy to say that I shall willingly become the wife of the hermit Agastya." At last her father consented and discarding royal garments and ornaments, Lopāmudrā accompanied Agastya. It is mentioned in Vana Parva, Chapter 130, Verse 5, that they were married at Mahāsindhutīrtha. After their marriage they went to Gaṅgādvāra. (Mahābhārata, Vana Parva, Chapter 96).
     5) The story of how Agastya ate Vātāpi. While Agastya was doing severe penance, Lopāmudrā attained puberty and had menstruation. Longing for a child, she went and stood beside Agastya. She expressed her wish to lead a family life. Her demands did not stop there. During conjugation, Agastya should wear flower garlands and ornaments, and she must be provided with divine ornaments. Agastya was surprised at the enormity of her demands. Poor, penniless Agastya! Leaving Lopāmudrā in the hermitage he went in search of money. He at first approached King Śrutarvā, who produced accounts of his income and expenditure and convinced Agastya that he was having no balance at all. Agastya, accompanied by Śrutarvā, then proceeded to King Bradhnāśva. He also produced accounts and refused to help Agastya, who then followed by Śrutarvā and Bradhnāśva went on to the wealthy King Trasadasyu, who also producing his accounts refused to render any help to Agastya. Finally Agastya accompanied by the three Kings, went to the house of Ilvala, a noble asura of immense wealth.
     This asura Ilvala lived in Manimatpattana with his younger brother Vātāpi. Once Ilvala approached a hermit Brahmin and requested that his wish for a son, having the power and status of Indra, be granted. The Brahmin refused to grant such a boon. Since then Ilvala and Vātāpi considered Brahmins as their enemies. The elder brother converted the younger one (Vātāpi) into a goat and whenever a Brahmin visited his house, he would kill the goat, prepare mutton dishes and set them before his guest. When he had finished eating, Ilvala would call aloud. "Vātāpi, come out". Breaking the stomach of the guest open, Vātāpi would come out. In this way Ilvala had killed a good number of Brāhmins. It was at this juncture that Agastya and the Kings came to beg money of him.
     Ilvala welcomed the guests with hospitality and as usual killed the goat, prepared food with it and served the food before Agastya. When Agastya had finished eating, Ilvala called Vātāpi loudly. But Agastya slowly said, "Vātāpi, jīrṇo bhava" (Let Vātāpi be digested) and immediately Vātāpi was digested in the stomach of Agastya. The awe-stricken asura Ilvala gave each Brahmin ten thousand cows and as much gold and to Agastya he doubled the quantity of alms. Over and above this, he presented Agastya with a chariot hitched with two fine horses called Virāvān and Surāvān. Agastya returned to his hermitage and adorned himself as Lopāmudrā had demanded. (Mahābhārata, Vana Parva, Chapter 99).
     6) Birth of a son. Lopāmudrā became pregnant. Agastya told her, "A thousand ordinary sons, or hundred sons, each having the strength of ten ordinary sons, or ten sons, each having the strength of hundred ordinary sons, or a son, greater and nobler than one thousand sons--which of these do you prefer?" Lopāmudrā preferred one son. When she was with child Agastya again went to the forest to do penance. After seven years of pregnancy Lopāmudrā gave birth to a lustrous son. The hermit Dṛḍhasyu, who is also called Idhmavāha, is this son. This child is said to have chanted the Vedas (Holy Scriptures) immediately on his birth. He used to gather twigs for kindling the sacrificial fire of his father, and hence he got the name Idhmavāha.*
     7) How he stamped the Vindhya mountain down. Once the talebearer Nārada happened to come to the Vindhya Mountain, who gladly welcomed Nārada, gave him a seat, showed hospitality and asked for news. Nārada said "May you be blessed. Just now I am coming from the Mahāmeru. Indra, Agni (fire) and other gods live there. Kailāsa, Niṣadha, Nīla, Gandhamādana etc. are mountains far nobler than this Meru. But they are not so haughty as him. That the Sun and the Moon and such others revolve round him, is the reason for his arrogance". On hearing these tales, Vindhya thought that Meru should be taught a lesson. Once Vindhya made his peaks grow higher and higher till they touched the sky. The Sun, the Moon and others found it very difficult to pass over the high peaks in their usual journeys to the West, and so they had to roam about in the sky. When the journeys of the Sun and the Moon were hindered, everything in the world fell into chaos. The gods came to Vindhya in groups and tried to pacify him. But their attempts were futile. So they approached Agastya and made their petition to him. He agreed to pacify Vindhya somehow or other. Agastya and his wife came to Vindhya from Kāśinagara. When Vindhya saw Agastya he began to shiver with fear. Contracting all his high peaks, he bowed before Agastya, who said to Vindhya thus "Vindhya, I am going to South Bhārata. Let your heads be low till I come back". Vindhya agreed. Agastya passed on to the South and built a hermitage in the Malayācala and lived there. Since then Agastya had never gone to the North and Vindhya had never risen up. As he had made the mountain (Aga) bow its head he got the name Agastya. (Tenth Skandha of Devībhāgavata).
     8) Nahuṣa transformed to a huge serpent by Agastya. Devendra killed Vṛttrāsura, an enemy of the gods. As Devendra had resorted to treachery for killing the enemy (see the word Vṛttrāsura) he incurred the sin of 'Brahmahatyā'. Once Indra went to the Mānasasaras, without the knowledge of anybody and hid himself in the petal of a lotus flower. The gods and especially Śacīdevī were much alarmed at the disappearance of Devendra. Heaven was without a King. Bad omens began to appear. Indra, who had hidden in the lotus stalk in the shape of a water-snake, was not at all visible as the petals had closed over him. It was at this critical moment that King Nahuṣa had completed hundred horse-sacrifices and became eligible for the throne of Devendra. At a great gathering of the Gods Nahuṣa was elected as Devendra. Though Nahuṣa got all the celestial maids at his disposal in the Nandanodyāna (Nandana Garden) his passion for women was not satiated. So he began to have an eye on Indrāṇī. She was in sorrow and misery at the disappearance of her husband Indra, and did not at all look with favour on this new move on the part of the new Indra. She sought the help of Bṛhaspati, who agreed to protect her from Nahuṣa. The newly-elected Indra could not tolerate this disloyalty on the part of Indrāṇī. He became furious and threatened Bṛhaspati with death, if Indrāṇī was not sent to him forthwith. All hermits gathered round Nahuṣa and tried with their advice to dissuade him from this attempt, but he would not be dissuaded. Nahuṣa belittled Bṛhaspati and all the hermits and was rude to them. Finally the hermits, being afraid of Nahuṣa, went to Bṛhaspati to persuade him to send Indrāṇī to Nahuṣa. Bṛhaspati suggested to Indrāṇī a way of safety. Accordingly she came to Nahuṣa and said to him "Lord, to become your wife, is a matter of great pleasure to me. But before that I must make sure if my husband is living anywhere. So allow me to make a search". Nahuṣa agreed to this and by the blessings of Devī, Indrāṇī found out her husband. But Indra would not return to the court, with Indrāṇī, who then complained about Nahuṣa's outrageous behaviour. Indra advised her a new way to protect herself from Nahuṣa's onslaught.
     Indrāṇī returned to Nahuṣa and told him "Lord, women generally love pomp and glory. I have a mania for vehicles. You should make a palanquin. Let the palanquin bearers be hermits. You must come to my house in that palanquin with hermits as your palanquin bearers and then I will accept you as my husband." Nahuṣa agreed. He employed Agastya and such other hermits to bear his palanquin. He got into his palanquin and started for Indrāṇī's house. His desire to reach Indrāṇī was such that he thought the hermits to be very slow. To make them quick enough he ordered "Sarpa, Sarpa" (walk quick, walk quick). The hermits began to run. Still Nahuṣa was not satisfied. He kicked at the heads of the hermits and whipped the dwarfish Agastya.
     Agastya got angry and cursed Nahuṣa thus: "Since you have whipped me saying 'Sarpa Sarpa', may you be transformed into a mahāsarpa (huge serpent) and fall into the great forest."**
     The horror-stricken Nahuṣa pleased Agastya by praise. Agastya said that Nahuṣa would be freed from the curse and attain heaven when he happened to meet Dharmaputra. Nahuṣa instantly changed into a serpent of immense size and slided into a great forest in the Himālayās. (Devībhāgavata, 8th Sarga).
     During their sojourn in the forest, the Pāṇḍavas visited many holy places and reached the Yāmuna mountain in the Himālayās. When Bhīma was passing by the mouth of a cave he was attacked by a huge serpent. In spite of his immense strength Bhīma could not extricate himself from the hold of the snake, who eventually informed Bhīma of its previous history. When Bhīma understood that the serpent was none other than Nahuṣa, a King of the Sūrya dynasty (Solar), he felt sorry for him. Dharmaputra, who came there in search of Bhīma, talked with Nahuṣa, who immediately regained his original form and went to heaven. (Mahābhārata, Chapter 17 of Udyoga Parva; Chapter 179 of Vana Parva; Chapter 342 of Śānti Parva).
     9) How Agastya drank up the ocean. Indra ruthlessly killed Vṛttrāsura, who had been harassing the Gods, with the help of the Kālakeyas. The frightened Kālakeyas got into the ocean and hid themselves at the bottom. From that hideout they decided to destroy the three worlds. At night they came out on the earth and ate a good deal of Brahmins, and caused much damage to the hermitages of Vasiṣṭha and Cyavana. All the Brahmins on the earth were terribly afraid of the Kālakeyas. The gods went to Viṣṇu and prayed for protection. Viṣṇu informed them that the Kālakeyas could not be caught unless the ocean was dried up, and this task could be performed only by Agastya. So the Gods approached Agastya and told him what Viṣṇu had informed them. With pleasure Agastya accepted the job. Accompanied by the Gods and hermits he neared the swaying and surging ocean. While all were watching unwinkingly Agastya brought the great ocean into his palm and drank it up very easily and subsequently the Kālakeyas were killed. Now the Gods again approached Viṣṇu and made representation about the loss of the ocean. Viṣṇu told them that by the penance of Bhagīratha the divine Gaṅgā would fall into the earth and then the ocean will be filled. In this way the earth regained its lost ocean. (Mahābhārata, Vana Parva, Chapters 101 to 105).
     10) Agastya cursing Kubera and his companion. In the course of their sojourn in forest, the Pāṇḍavas visited several holy places and reached the proximity of the Himālayas. Leaving his brothers behind, Arjuna went up the Mahāmeru to worship Śiva. Years passed by. At last his brothers also started for the Mahāmeru in search of Arjuna and with the help of the hermits Vṛṣaparvā and Ārṣṭiṣeṇa, they reached Kuberapurī (the capital of Kubera). There Bhīma destroyed the army of Kubera and killed Maṇimān, his friend and favourite. Dharmaputra, repenting of his younger brother's iniquity bowed before Kubera and asked him with politeness, why the power of Gods gave way to the power of man. Kubera replied that it was due to the curse of Agastya and began to depict the event thus: Once my friend Maṇimān and myself were going, in a chariot, to be present at the singing and chanting just begun at Kuśavatī. At that time Agastya was standing in his hermitage on the bank of Kālindī, performing Sun worship. When Maṇimān saw this from the sky, he spat on the head of Agastya, who instantly getting wild cursed me. "Lo, Kubera, your friend Maṇimān spat on my head in your sight. So this Maṇimān and your army will meet with death at a man's hand. When they die you should not feel sorry for them. If it becomes possible for you to meet the man who killed Maṇimān you will be liberated from the curse." It is this curse that brought about the death of Maṇimān and the army. When Kubera saw Bhīma face to face his curse was revoked. (Mahābhārata, Vana Parva, Chapter 160).
     11) Agastya cursing Mārīca and Tāḍakā. The boys Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa went to the forest with Viśvāmitra for protecting sacrifice. When they entered the Tāḍakā forest Viśvāmitra told them the story of Tāḍakā thus:--
     Tāḍakā is the daughter of Suketu, a semi god of the tribe Yakṣa. Being childless for a long time Suketu was miserable and began to do penance before Brahmā, who blessed him and granted his wish and a daughter was born to him. This daughter was named Tāḍakā. Brahmā blessed her, giving her the strength of one thousand elephants. Tāḍakā grew up and became a young woman. Suketu gave her in marriage to Sunda, son of Iharjha. Tāḍakā gave birth to a son called Mārīca. When Sunda was killed, Tāḍakā got wild and ran into the hermitage of Agastya causing much havoc there. At this Agastya got angry and cursed her to become a Rākṣasī (giantess) and instantly the bodies of Tāḍakā and Mārīca were deformed. Tāḍakā could not control her anger and she demolished the hermitage of Agastya. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Bālakāṇḍa).
     12) The story of the theft of lotus. Once Bhṛgu, Vasiṣṭha and other hermits went on a pilgrimage, with Indra as their leader. On the way they reached Brahmasaras, in the holy place of Kauṣikī. Agastya had grown some lotus flowers there. The pilgrims plucked stealthily all the lotus flowers nurtured by Agastya and ate them. The furious Agastya got into the midst of the hermits in search of the culprit. None admitted the theft. Finally he caught hold of Indra, as the thief. Indra said "O, Lord, had it not been for my eagerness to hear discourses on duty from your face, I would not have stolen your lotus flowers." Saying thus Indra returned the lotus flowers. Agastya was pleased and let Indra and the hermits depart in peace. (Mahābhārata, Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 94).
     13) How Agastya burned the Asuras (demons). (This story occurs in the Mahābhārata as, having been told by the God Vāyu to Bhīṣma as a discourse on the greatness of Agastya, and Bhīṣma reiterating it to Arjuna).
     Once the Gods had to accept defeat at the hands of the Asuras (Demons) and they approached Agastya and said thus: Oh, hermit, since we have been defeated by the Asuras, our prosperity is at an end. There is none to help us but you." Hearing this Agastya became angry and began to burn the Asuras to death, by the merits of his penance. Many of them fell down on the earth and some fell into Pātāla (the nether world). The asuras who thus fell were not killed by Agastya. Thus the menace of the Asuras in heaven was warded off, and the Gods lived in peace and prosperity. (Mahābhārata, Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 155, Verses 1 to 13).
     14) Indra's conflict with Agastya. Once Agastya commenced a sacrifice of twelve years' duration. Many hermits participated in this sacrifice. No sooner had the hermit begun the sacrifice, than Indra, (the God of Thunder and Rain) stopped rain in the world. Crops could not be raised. But Agastya provided everybody who took part in the sacrifice, with sumptuous meals. The hermits wondered how Agastya could do this. Some of the hermits feared that the sacrifice would have to be stopped before the stipulated time, if the drought continued. Agastya told them not to fear, and that if Indra refused to send rain, he himself would become Indra and protect the subjects. Indra was horrified, when he heard this and he began to send rain regularly. (Mahābhārata, Āśvamedhika Parva, Chapter 92).
     15) Story of Gajendramokṣa (The redemption of an elephant). In the Bhārata a story occurs, as to how Agastya cursed King Indradyumna, and turned him to an elephant. While Indradyumna, the King of Pāṇḍya was absorbed in deep meditation on Viṣṇu, Agastya reached the palace. Being immersed in meditation the King failed to notice the arrival of the great hermit, who getting angry with the King, cursed him to become an elephant, for one thousand years. Instantly the King was deformed into a big tusker and quitting the palace it went to a big forest and lived there happily with the she-elephants there. At that time a hermit named Devala was doing penance in that forest. One day Hūhu, a gandharva (a class of semi-gods) enjoying the company of some celestial maids came to the place where Devala had put up his hermitage. The hermit saw the Gandharva and the maids playing and bathing in the pond in front of his hermitage in complete nudity. Getting angry Devala cursed Hūhu and he was deformed into a crocodile. This pond which was in the Trikūṭa Mountain was thus under the suzerainty of the crocodile. The tusker (Indradyumna) entered the pond to drink water. The crocodile caught hold of the leg of the elephant. Each tried to pull the other with equal force. This fight is said to have lasted for a thousand years. When both were tired, godly feelings began to dawn in their minds. Then, riding on an eagle Mahāviṣṇu appeared before them, cut them asunder with his Cakrāyudha (the wheel-weapon) and both were given deliverance. (Bhāgavata, 8th Skandha, Chapter 2).
     16) Agastya teaching Śrī Rāma the Āditya-hṛdaya Mantra (A hymn in praise of the Sun). When Śrī Rāma was fighting with Rāvaṇa in Laṅkā, dejection befell him, his heart being weighed down with faintness, for a little while. Rāvaṇa made the best use of this opportunity and began to advance. The gods had gathered in the sky above to witness the fight. Agastya, at that particular moment, taught Śrī Rāma the Āditya-hṛdaya Mantra, a hymn in praise of the Sun-god and when Śrī Rāma chanted that mantra, he resumed fight with Vigour and Rāvaṇa was defeated and slain. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Yuddha Kāṇḍa, Sarga 107).
     17) How the slant of the earth was rectified by seating Agastya. The matrimonial ceremony of Śrī Parameśvara and Pārvatī was held in the Himālayas. On that auspicious occasion all the living beings of the world were present, and as a result the Himālayan region sank down and the earth slanted to that side. To keep the equilibrium of the earth, Śiva sent Agastya to the south. Accordingly Agastya reached Kuttālam, where there was a temple dedicated to the worship of Viṣṇu. Agastya had besmeared his forehead with ashes and so admission to the temple was denied to him, by the devotees there who were Vaiṣṇavites. By his own power Agastya turned himself into a vaiṣṇavite and got into the temple, and immediately the image of Viṣṇu in the temple changed by itself into a Śivaliṅga (idol representing Śiva). Since then the temple at Kuttālam has remained a temple of Śiva. Agastya proceeded to the southernmost point of the earth and sat there and because of his weight the earth regained its normal position. (Skanda Purāṇa).
     18) Agastya and the Krauñca Mountain. When Agastya passed the Vindhya mountain and proceeded to the South a Rākṣasa (giant) called Krauñca hindered his way. By his power the Rākṣasa caused to fall everywhere a very heavy rain. Agastya sprinkled a few drops of water from his waterpot on Krauñca, who instantly became a mountain. Telling him that he would get deliverance from the curse when the weapon of Subrahmaṇya struck him, Agastya continued his journey to the South. (Skanda Purāṇa.).
     19) Agastya and the River Kāveri. Once Sūrapadmā, an Asura (demon) drove the Gods out from heaven. Indra came to Śiyāli a place in the district of Tanjāvūr (Tanjore) and began to do penance to please Śiva. Rain was completely stopped. Agastya had compressed the river Kāverī and held the water in his waterpot. Gaṇapati having come to know of this, came in the form of a crow and toppled the waterpot. Agastya got angry and ran after the crow, which immediately assumed the form of a boy. Agastya caught hold of him. The boy instantly revealed himself as Subrahmaṇya and granted Agastya a boon. "Your waterpot will always be full". Since then there had never been shortage of water in the Kāverī. (Skanda Purāṇa).
     20) Agastya in the palace of Bhadrāśva. Once Agastya lived in the palace of Bhadrāśva as his guest for seven days. Agastya praised Kāntimatī the queen on several occasions. The King wanted to know the reason. Agastya said: During her previous birth Kāntimatī was the handmaid of a rich man. On one occasion of dvādaśī (twelfth night after full moon) in the month of Tulā (second half of October and first half of November) the rich man had asked his handmaid to see that the lights in a certain temple did not go out and she did so, in consequence of which, during her current birth she has become your queen, bearing the name Kāntimatī. The King and the queen were much pleased at this explanation of Agastya and thenceforward they began to observe dvādaśī as a day of fasting. (Vāyu Purāṇa).
     21) Agastya cursing Urvaśī, Jayanta and Nārada. Once Agastya went to the realm of the Gods, as a guest of Indra. On that day a performance of dance by Urvaśī was held in honour of Agastya. In the midst of the dance Urvaśī's eyes fell on Jayanta and she fell in love with him; her steps went out of beat. Nārada also went wrong slightly in playing on his famous lute called Mahatī. Agastya got angry and cursed Urvaśī, Jayanta and Nārada. According to the curse Jayanta became a bud. Urvaśī was born in the earth as a woman called Mādhavī and 'Mahatī' the lute of Nārada became the lute of the people of the earth.
     22) Agastya cursing Duṣpanya. Duṣpanya was the last son of the King of Pāṭaliputra. The wicked Duṣpanya had slain a large number of babies, and the King therefore expelled him from the palace. Duṣpanya went into the forest, where he caught hold of the child of Ugraravas and killed it by putting it under water. Ugraravas cursed him and accordingly he fell into water and died and his spirit became a ghost and wandered about tormented with pain and anguish. At last the spirit approached Agastya, who called his disciple Sutīṣṇa and asked him to go and bathe in the Agnitīrtha (a bath) in the Gandhamādana mountain and bring some water from the tīrtha and sprinkle it on the spirit of Duṣpanya. Sutīṣṇa acted accordingly and immediately the spirit of Duṣpanya received divine figure and entered heaven. (Setu Māhātmya).
     23) How Agastya got golden Bangle. Once Agastya entered a forest of about a hundred yojanas wide. The forest was devoid of life. When he had walked a few more steps some Gandharvas (semi-gods) and celestial maids came there singing and dancing. From among them a noble male being came forward to the bank of a lake in the forest and ate without any hesitation, the corpse of a man that was lying there. After that he walked round Agastya and made obeisance to him. Agastya asked him why he had eaten the corpse of a man. The noble man told Agastya thus: "In tretā yuga (the third age) there lived a King named Vidarbha. I am his son and my name is Śveta. After having ruled. over my kingdom for a long time, I came to the bank of this lake and began to do penance. After that discarding my body I entered heaven. Though I attained heaven my hunger was not appeased. I asked Brahmā how, I, a dweller of heaven, got this hunger. Brahmā said that when I was King I had given nothing to anybody and so I got this hunger even after entering heaven. As a remedy Brahmā suggested that I should come here everyday and eat corpse and when I had completed ten thousand days the hermit Agastya would come here and that when I offered him a golden bangle my sin would be washed away." Saying thus Śveta offered to Agastya the golden bangle given by Brahmā and then he vanished and the corpse also disappeared. Śveta went to heaven. (Uttara Rāmāyaṇa).
     24) Other informations concerning Agastya.
     (1) Agastya had a brother called Sutīṣṇa. (Agnipurāṇa, Chapter 7).
     (2) Sutīṣṇa was Agastya's disciple too. (Setu Māhātmya).
     (3) Ilvala and Vātāpi were the sons of the giantess Ajamukhī. In the valley of a mountain Ajamukhī prayed to Durvāsas for love and thus Ilvala and Vātāpi were born from Durvāsas. These two sons demanded that Durvāsas should impart to them all his merits of penance. Getting angry Durvāsas cursed them that they would meet with death at the hands of Agastya. (Skandapurāṇa, Āsura Kāṇḍa).
     (4) Agastya had been the priest of the King Khela. (Ṛgveda, 112th Sūkta).
     (5) When Śrī Rāma returned to Ayodhyā, with Sītā from Laṅkā, hermits from various parts visited him, among whom, Dattātreya, Namuci, Pramuci, Śrī Vālmīki, Soma, Kaṇḍu, Agastya and their disciples were from the South. (Uttara Rāmāyaṇa).
     (6) Agastya gave Śrī Rāma an arrow, which, when shot at an asura (demon) would pierce his heart, pass on to the other side, fly to the sea and bathe in the sea-water and return to the quiver, it is said. (Uttara Rāmāyaṇa).
     (7) Once Agastya visited the hermitage of Āpasṭamba. He asked Agastya, who, of Brahmā, Viṣṇu and Śiva, was the Supreme deity. Agastya replied: "These three are only three different manifestations of the one supreme Being". (Brahmapurāṇa).
     (8) For the story of how Agastya cursed the sons of Maṇibhadra and transformed them to seven palms, see the word 'Saptasāla'.
     (9) There was a hermit called Sutīṣṇa, to whom Śrī Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa paid a visit when they were wandering in the forest. This Sutīṣṇa is the younger brother of Agastya. (See the word Sutīṣṇa).
     (10) Agastya cursed Śuka and deformed him into a Rākṣasa. (See the word Śuka ii.).
     25) Conclusion. It is believed that the great hermit Agastya, who had performed such wonderful deeds by the merits of his penance, is still doing penance in the Agastya Kūṭa hills. Agastya who had travelled throughout the length and breadth of Bhārata had several hermitages. In the Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Āraṇyakāṇḍa, Sarga 11, a description is given, of a beautiful hermitage of Agastya, and the peaceful atmosphere that prevailed in and around it. Agastya had presented to Śrī Rāma a bow got from Viṣṇu, when the brothers visited his hermitage. Agastya had accompanied Śrī Rāma and his followers on his return journey to Ayodhyā from Laṅkā, with Sītā after killing Rāvaṇa. There is a legend in the Tamilnād that Agastya was a member of the first two 'Saṅghas' (groups) of the "three Saṅghas", mentioned in Tamil literature. As Agastya was dwarfish he is mentioned as Kurumuni, (short hermit) in Tamil works. He has written a Tamil grammar on music, literature and drama. But this work is not available now. The Tamil Grammar 'Tolkāpyam', which is considered to be the oldest grammar, was written by Tolkāpyār, one of the twelve disciples of Agastya. Even today in certain temples in the Tamilnād, Agastya-worship is carried on. Kambar, has mentioned about Agastya in his Rāmāyaṇa. A great Tamil author Villiputturan says that the Tamil language is the beautiful maiden presented by Agastya.
     It is believed that the following works have been composed by Agastya:
     1) Agastya Gītā; in the Varāhapurāṇa, Paśupālopākhyāna.
     2) Agastya Saṃhitā; in Pañcarātra.
     3) Agastya Saṃhitā, in the Skandapurāṇa.
     4) Śiva Saṃhitā, in Bhāskara Saṃhitā.
     5) Dvaidha-nirṇaya Tantra.
*) Idhma--twigs of firewood. (Idhma=twigs of firewood) (vāha=carrier).
**) It is mentioned in the Mahābhārata, Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 100, that the person who cursed Nahuṣa and turned him into a huge serpent, was the hermit Bhṛgu, who had been hiding in the hair of Agastya.

AGASTYA KŪṬA This is the sacred mount where the sage, Agastya, sat and did penance during his sojourn in the southern parts of India. In the Kiṣkindhā Kāṇḍa of Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa we find King Sugrīva commanding that all his soldiers going in search of Sītā should pay homage to the sage Agastya.

AGASTYA PARVATA This is a mountain in South India believed to belong to the Kālañjara mountain range. Agastya Kūṭa is in this mountain.

AGASTYA SARAS This is another name for Agastya tīrtha.

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AGASTYA-ĀŚRAMA The Purāṇas make mention of several āśramas connected with sage Agastya. The Pāṇḍavas during their exile visited an āśrama of this name. This is situated near Pañcavaṭī twentyfour miles to the south-east of Nāsik. It is known as Agastya-giri now. (Śloka 20, Chapter 80; and Śloka 1, Chapter 96 of Vana Parva, M.B.).
     The Mahābhārata mentions another Agastya-Āśrama near Prayāga. Dharmaputra along with Saint Lomaśa stayed here for some time. Vālmīki describes an āśrama of this name which Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa visited during their exile in the forests. (Chapter 11, Āraṇya Kāṇḍa of the Rāmāyaṇa).

AGASTYA TĪRTHA This is one of the five tīrthas or sacred places of worship lying scattered in the southern ocean. The other four are the following: (1) The Saubhadra tīrtha (2) The Pauloma tīrtha (3) The Kārandhama tīrtha and (4) the Atipāvana tīrtha. These five were known as Pañca tīrthas and many saints used to live there. There lived in each of these tīrthas one huge and fierce crocodile and all the saints living there, afraid of these crocodiles, deserted their places one by one. (Ref: Śloka 3, Chapter 220 of Ādi Parva, M.B. For more details see under Pañca tīrtha).

AGASTYA VAṬA This is a sacred shrine in the neighbourhood of the Himālayas. Arjuna paid a visit to this place while he was living with his brothers in the forests during their period of exile. (Śloka 2, Chapter 214 of Ādi Parva, M.B.).

AGATI A city. Two sons Takṣaka and Chattraketu were born to Lakṣmaṇa (the brother of Śrī Rāma) by his wife Urmilā. The court of the eldest prince Takṣaka was situated in the city of Agati. Formerly this place was known as Kanakhala and was occupied by forest tribes. Exterminating these forest tribes, Lakṣmaṇa buil{??} city there and apportioned it to his eldest son Takṣaka. (Uttara Rāmāyaṇa).

AGHA The name of an asura. This asura was one of the followers of Kaṃsa. According to the instructions of Kaṃsa, Agha once set out to Gokula to kill Śrī Kṛṣṇa. At that time Śrī Kṛṣṇa was playing on the banks of the river Kālindī with other cowherds. Aghāsura watched the games of the children from the sky above. Then he transformed himself into a colossal serpent and lay with his mouth wide open; his open mouth looked like an immense cave. The foul smell coming from his mouth soon spread over the whole place. Śrī Kṛṣṇa and the other children did not know anything about this. In the course of their games they walked into the cave-like mouth of Agha and were soon trapped in his belly. Agha then closed his mouth and all the boys including Śrī Kṛṣṇa were now imprisoned inside his body. Some of the boys died. Realizing the situation Śrī Kṛṣṇa now enlarged his body. His body grew larger and larger until at last it burst open the body of the serpent (Agha). Thus Agha was killed. Śrī Kṛṣṇa then restored the dead boys to life by his divine looks (Kaṭākṣa). This Aghāsura was the brother of Bakāsura and Pūtanā. (Bhāgavata, Skandha 10, Chapter 12).

AGHAMARṢAṆA He was a great hermit of austerity, who had observed the duties pertaining to Vānaprastha (the third of the four stages of life--forest hermit). (M.B., Śānti Parva, Chapter 244, Stanza 16).

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AGHAMARṢAṆA SŪKTA This is a hymn in the Ṛgveda. It is said that all sins will be eliminated, if this hymn is recited three times, standing in water.


AGHĀŚVA A King hermit (Rājarṣi) named Pedu. (Ṛgveda, Maṇḍala 1, Anuvāka 17, Sūkta 116).

     1) Genealogy. Agni was descended from Viṣṇu in this order: Viṣṇu-Brahmā-Aṅgiras-Bṛhaspati-Agni.
     2) Birth. We come across several contradictory statements in the Purāṇas regarding the birth of Agni. There is some real difficulty, therefore, in tracing correctly the true genealogy of Agni. The one given above is based on statements in Bhāgavata and Mahābhārata. Aṅgiras is one of the six mind-born sons of Brahmā.* Aṅgiras married Śraddhā and got four daughters and two sons. Bṛhaspati was one of the sons and Utatthya was the other. The daughters were Sinīvālī, Kuhū, Rākā and Anumati. (There is a mention of a third son named Saṃvarta in the Bhāgavata by Eluthassan though the original quoted below does not say so)
     "śraddhā tu aṅgirasaḥ patnī catasro' sutakanyakāḥ sinīvālī kuhū rākā caturthya' anumatistathā tatputrāvaparāvāstām khyātau svārocise'ntare utatthyo bhagavān sākṣāt brahmiṣṭhaśca bṛhaspatiḥ." Bṛhaspati married Cāndramasī and got six divine sons.
     Of these Saṃyu, the eldest, married Satyā and Agni was born to Saṃyu of Satyā. (Ślokas 1 to 4, Chapter 219, Āraṇya Kāṇḍa of Malayālam Mahābhārata).
     3) Agni--One of the Aṣṭa-dik-pālakas. (Aṣṭa=eight, dik=zone, pālaka=guardian). The Devī Bhāgavata states in its eighth chapter that Agni is one of the eight guards posted at the eight different zones to protect the universe. Indra guards the east; Agni, the southeast; Yama the south; Nirṛti, the south-west; Varuṇa, the west; Vāyu, the north-west; Kubera, the North and Śiva, the north-east. The place where Agni sits on guard is known as tejovatī.
     4) Agni--One of the five elements. The universe is believed to be composed of five elements of which Agni is one. The other four are Water, Earth, Ether and Air.
     5) The story of how Agni gave a Māyā Sītā (Phantom Sītā) to Śrī Rāma. During their exile in the forests Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa were for some time living in an āśrama built on the shores of the ocean. One day Agni disguised as a Brāhmin approached them and said "O, Śrī Rāma, thou art born to kill the demon Rāvaṇa and save the world from his atrocities. Sītā is going to be a cause for that. Time is not far for you to finish this duty of yours. Rāvaṇa is soon to come and kidnap your wife, Sītā. You must, therefore, allow me to play a trick on Rāvaṇa. Entrust Sītā with me and I shall keep her safe. In her place here you can keep a Māyā Sītā. (Phantom Sītā) which will be a live replica of your real wife. In the end when you take back Sītā after killing Rāvaṇa you will be compelled to throw your wife into the fire to test her chastity. At that time I will take back the replica and give you back your real wife". Śrī Rāma was very much pleased to hear this. Agni then, by his yogic powers created a Phantom Sītā and gave her to him. Rāma kept this as a secret even from Lakṣmaṇa. In the great Rāma-Rāvaṇa battle Rāvaṇa was killed and Śrī Rāma took back Sītā to his kingdom. Then respecting public opinion and wishing to establish in public the purity of his queen King Śrī Rāma put her into the fire. At that moment Agni took back the replica and gave back the real Sītā to Śrī Rāma. Sītā thus came out from the fire unscathed. Later, on the advice of Rāma and Agni, the Phantom Sītā went to the sacred place Puṣkara and started doing tapas (penance) there. After doing tapas for a long period of three lakhs of divine years this Phantom Sītā became known as Svargalakṣmī. It was this Svargalakṣmī that later on in the Dvāpara yuga came out from the yajña kuṇḍa of King Pāñcāla as Pāñcālī and became the consort of the Pāṇḍavas. Vedavatī, daughter of Kuśadhvaja in Kṛtayuga, Sītā, daughter of Janaka in the Treta yuga, and Pāñcālī, daughter of Drupada in Dvāpara yuga are one and the same person. On account of this she is known as trihāyanī also. (Chapter 9 of Devī Bhāgavata).
     6) The story of how Agni got indigestion. In olden times there was a bold and mighty King called Śvetaki. He conducted several different types of yajña. Afflicted by the unending dense smoke in the yajña hall all the ascetics left the place and went their way. Undaunted by this, Śvetaki started another twelve-year sacrifice in which not a single sage took part. The sages rebuked him and said if he wanted to conduct a sacrifice again he could invite śūdras to help him. (Śūdras belong to the lowest caste among Hindus and are not allowed to participate in sacrifices generally.) Enraged by this insult Śvetaki went to Kailāsa and did fierce penance. Lord Śiva appeared before him and gave him Durvāsas as a priest for his yajña. For twelve years sage Durvāsas performed the yajña pouring into the mouth of Agni through the sacrificial pit unlimited materials of food. Agni was overfed and he got indigestion. He lost all appetite for food, became weak and the brilliance of his face faded. (Chapter 235, Ādi Parva, M.B.).
     7) The story of how Agni burnt the big forest, Khāṇḍava. When the indigestion continued without abate for some time Agni approached Brahmā and asked for a cure. Brahmā declared that his indigestion would be cured if Agni could burn the huge forest, Khāṇḍava, the abode of the enemies of the Devas. Agni immediately started consuming the forest. But the inhabitants of the forest soon quenched the fire. Disappointed Agni went to Brahmā again and the latter advised him to wait for some time till the advent of Nara-Nārāyaṇas to that forest. They would then help Agni to burn the forest. Agni waited for the time to come. At that time the Pāṇḍavas were living in Indraprastha with Śrī Kṛṣṇa. When the heat became unbearable there Arjuna and Kṛṣṇa came to the banks of river Yamunā. Hearing about the arrival of Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna who were none but the incarnations of Nārāyaṇa and Nara, Agni disguised as a brahmin approached them and requested them to help him to burn the Khāṇḍava forest. Agni added that any attempt of his to burn the forest was always foiled by Indra who would send a heavy downpour of rain to quench the fire because Takṣaka, an intimate friend of Indra, was living there.
     To gain his end Agni gave Arjuna an arrow-case which would never be empty, a chariot bearing a monkey flag, four white horses adorned with gold chains and also the famous Gāṇḍīva bow. To Śrī Kṛṣṇa he gave the cakrāyudha or the divine wheel-weapon. (All these military equipments were once given to Agni by Varuṇa.) When all these were given to them Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna got ready to help Agni to burn the forest. Agni started burning the forest, Indra at once sent a heavy downpour of rain and Arjuna created a canopy of arrows above the forest preventing the rains from falling on the forest. Agni carried on his work undisturbed, the forest was burnt and Agni was cured of his indigestion. (Ślokas 233 to 239, Ādi Parva, M.B.).
     8) Agni falls in love. As an inaugural procedure to the great Rājasūya which Dharmaputra performed at Indraprastha his four brothers Bhīma, Arjuna, Nakula and Sahadeva conducted a victory march to the four different sides of the kingdom. Sahadeva who turned south conquered many kings including Dantavaktra and Bhīṣmaka and reached a country called Māhiṣmatīpura. There he had to encounter a powerful king called Nīla. Before long there broke a fire in his camp. Disheartened, Sahadeva prayed to the God, Agni, for help. It was then that Sahadeva came to know about the ties between Agni and Nīla.
     King Nīla had a beautiful daughter named Sudarśanā. Once when she was talking to her father after having entered the Agni-hotra Agni fell in love with her. From that day onwards Agni became dreamy about the beautiful lips of Sudarśanā. It reached a stage when Agni would burn only if it was blown by the lips of Sudarśanā. This ended in Agni marrying Sudarśanā. After the marriage Agni lived in the palace of his father-in-law, King Nīla, as a useful ally. It was at this time that Sahadeva came to conquer Nīla. But Agni knew that for the proper conduct of the Rājasūya of Dharmaputra his father-in-law had to surrender to Sahadeva and so advised his father-in-law to do so. What appeared to be a difficult problem was thus easily solved. (Chapter 31, Sabhā Parva, M.B.).
     9) How Emperor Śibi was tested by Agni. Once Agni and Indra thought of testing how strong and deep was the sense of charity in Emperor Śibi. Indra took the shape of a hawk and Agni that of a dove and the dove flew and dropped down into the lap of the Emperor who was at that time doing a yāga. The hungry hawk came chasing its prey and finding the dove in the lap of the Emperor said: "O King, is it proper on your part to withhold my food from me, and keep it in your lap?" Hearing this Śibi replied: "This dove has sought refuge in me. It is my duty to give it protection. If it is only food you want I shall give you food." Śibi then offered many things including his kingdom to the hawk in return for the dove. But the hawk refused them all and finally agreed to accept an equal weight of flesh from the body of the Emperor. Śibi without any hesitation cut a portion of his thigh and weighed it against the dove in a scale. The dove weighed more and the Emperor started putting more and more flesh from his body to make the weight equal. But the dove always weighed more and at last the Emperor said he would weigh himself against the dove. As the weak and fleshless Emperor was about to get into the pan of the scale Agni and Indra emerged from the bodies of the dove and hawk and appeared before the Emperor. They blessed him and immediately took him to heaven. (Chapter 131, Vana Parva, M.B.).
     10) Agni and the testicles of a goat. The occasion is when sage Viśvāmitra is taking Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa to the forests to give protection to the sages against the demons. They reached the place where Ahalyā lay as a stone cursed by Gautama. Viśvāmitra told them the story: "It was here that the great sage, Gautama, lived with his beautiful consort, Ahalyā. Once Indra had an intercourse with her privately and Gautama coming to know of the misdeed cursed her and turned her into stone. By the curse of the same sage Indra lost his testicles. Greatly aggrieved by this loss Indra prayed to god Agni for help and on the advice of Agni the devas removed the deformity by placing a goat's testicles instead." (Ślokas 48 & 49, Bāla Kāṇḍa, Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa).
     11) How sage Bhṛgu cursed Agni. Sage Bhṛgu was living with his wife Pulomā in his āśrama. Pulomā became pregnant. One day when Bhṛgu wanted to go out for a bath in the river he asked Agni to keep a watch over his pregnant wife. There was a demon by name Puloma who was once in love with Pulomā. On this particular day Puloma entered the āśrama to see his former love. When he entered the āśrama Puloma saw Agni there burning with a brilliant flame in the fire-pit. Puloma said: "O God of fire, if I ask you a question you must give me an impartial reply. I was in love with this Pulomā and I had accepted her as my wife spiritually. But, then, her father gave her to Bhṛgu. Who, then, is the true owner of Pulomā?" Agni was afraid of Bhṛgu. Yet he explained the position honestly. "It is true that Pulomā has married Bhṛgu. But he has not married her according to Hindu rites." Hearing this the demon changed himself into the shape of a swine and carried away Pulomā. On the way Pulomā delivered a male babe and it fell on the ground. The boy was named Cyavana. It was this boy that became later on the famous Cyavana Maharṣi. Even at birth the boy was brilliant as the Sun to look at and Puloma, the demon, noticing the unusual brilliance of the child left the mother and child on the way and fled frightened. Pulomā returned to the āśrama carrying the child weeping profusely all the way and creating a lanchrymal river called Vadhūsaras. As soon as she entered the āśrama the angry sage asked "Who told Puloma that you are my wife?" Pulomā then told her husband all that happened there and Bhṛgu called Agni and cursed him thus: "May you be a consumer of all things on this Earth". Greatly aggrieved Agni went away and hid himself. The absence of Agni created chaos in all the three worlds; Heaven, Earth and the Nether-world. A deputation of all the afflicted people waited upon Brahmā and Brahmā modified the curse and declared that all that Agni touched would become pure. Agni was consoled and he started his work as usual.
     12) How Agni cursed frogs, birds and elephants. Many important events took place while Agni was underground cursed by Bhṛgu. It was during that time that Pārvatī cursed all the Devas and the Devas were defeated by the asuras (demons). The necessity of a warrior capable of defeating the asuras arose then. The idea of creating Lord Subrahmaṇya came up and Brahmā said that only Agni could help them in this matter since Agni was the only one who escaped from the curse of Pārvatī, being underground at the time of the curse. The Devas started a vigilant search but Agni was not to be found. Agni was then hiding inside the ocean. The ocean was getting hot and the animals living there found their life unbearable. Frogs went to the devas and told them where Agni was hiding. Enraged at this Agni cursed the frogs saying that they would never be able to find the taste of anything. Frogs went weeping to the devas who in turn blessed the frogs saying that they would acquire the ability to move about easily in any darkness. Agni changed his place of hiding and went and hid in a big banyan tree. An elephant going by that way found him out and informed the devas; knowing this Agni cursed the elephants saying that its tongue would go deep inside. But the devas blessed the elephants saying that the position of the tongue would never be a hindrance to free eating and that elephants would be able to eat anything and everything. Agni left the banyan tree and hid himself in the hollow of a Śamī tree. A little bird living in that tree gave information to the devas and the devas found him out before he got time to leave the place. Agni cursed the bird saying that its tongue would always be curved inside and the devas blessed it saying that the curvature would help it to sing beautiful songs. Since Agni was found out from Śamī tree this tree became sacred. Since this finding out of Agni after a long absence is like a re-birth of Agni the Purāṇas mention that Agni was born from the Śamī tree. The Devas then requested Agni to help them to create a son capable of conquering the demons.** (Chapter 85, Anuśāsana Parva, M.B.).
     13) Birth of Subrahmaṇya. At that time Varuṇa performed a yāga. All the dikpālakas (zone guardians of the universe) including Śiva participated in the yāga. Seeing the beautiful wives of the sages Śiva had emission. Taking the semen in his hand he put it into the fire. Agni carried it to Gaṅgā and requested her to take it for conception. Though she at first refused she took it, became pregnant and finally delivered a male child whom she threw into the forest Śaravaṇa. It was this child who became known as Kārttikeya or Subrahmaṇya later on. (Chapter 85, Anuśāsana Parva, M.B.).
     14) How Agni blessed Nala. While Nala was going to the wedding of Damayantī Indra, Agni, Varuṇa and Kāla accosted him on his way and asked him to go as a messenger of theirs and advise Damayantī to marry one of them. Nala did so but Damayantī was adamant and said she would marry none other than Nala. So all the four gods appeared as Nala in the wedding hall. Damayantī who was confused prayed that she should be shown the real Nala. The gods then changed into their original forms and blessed Nala. Agni said he would come and help him the moment he wanted him. Thus Nala became a good cook and Nala Pācakaṃ (Pācakaṃ=cooking) became famous. Even now it is a synonym for good cooking. (Chapter 57, Vana Parva, M.B)
     15) Agni and Raṃbhā. There was once a dānava called Danu. He had two sons named Raṃbha and Karaṃbha. They had no children and tormented by this they went to Pañcanada and started doing penance. Raṃbha sat in the centre of Pañcāgni (five fires) and Karaṃbha in water to do penance. Indra afraid of the severe and powerful tapas of the two took the form of a crocodile and killed Karaṃbha who was doing penance in water by dragging him down to the water. Bereaved Raṃbha started to commit suicide by jumping into the fire. God Agni appeared before him then and asked him what he wanted. Raṃbha then said that he should get a son who would be famous as a warrior in all the three worlds. Agni agreed. Raṃbha on his way back saw a voluptuous she-buffalo and married her at yakṣa kavāṭa. They lived a happy married life and one day a he-buffalo envious of their life attacked Raṃbha and killed him. Grief-stricken Raṃbha's wife jumped into the funeral pyre and committed suicide. Then from the fire arose a demon named Mahiṣāsura (Mahiṣa=Buffalo. Asura=Demon). This buffalodemon became a terror to all in the three worlds later on. (Chapter 5, Devī Bhāgavata).
     16) Difference of opinion between Agni and Aṅgiras. Bhagavān Aṅgiras did penance in his own āśrama and became more brilliant than Agni. The whole world was submerged in his brilliance. Agni felt a bit depressed at this. Agni argued that it was not proper on the part of Brahmā to give anybody else more brilliance than himself. So as a protest against this Agni disappeared from the world. Even Aṅgiras was annoyed at Agni's disappearance and so he went and consoled Agni and took him to Brahmā. Brahmā declared that henceforth the world world recognize Agni as the father and Aṅgiras as his son. Thus Agni got the first place in effulgence. This is a story told by sage Mārkaṇḍeya to Dharmaputra. (Chapter 217, Vana Parva, M.B.).
     17) Agni and Mahābali. On their way to the forest sage Viśvāmitra took Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa to Siddhāśrama. The sage explained to the princes the importance of that āśrama. He said: "Mahāviṣṇu lived in this āśrama for a number of years. It was at that time that the Emperor of the asuras (demons), Mahābali, son of Virocana, was ruling the world conquering even the devas. After having conquered all the three worlds Mahābali decided to conduct a yāga. A deputation of the Devas headed by Agni then waited upon Mahāviṣṇu and Agni said: "O Lord, Mahābali has commenced a yāga and before it is finished you should go to him and do something for the benefit of the devas". It was at this request of Agni that Mahāviṣṇu took the form of Vāmana and sent Mahābali to the nether-world. (Chapter 29, Bālakāṇḍa, Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa).
     18) Agni and Nahuṣa. Repenting for his act of killing Vṛtra Indra unknown to anybody went and hid in a lotus in the Mānasa Saras (Lake Mānasa). Perplexed by the disappearance of their leader the devas brought Nahuṣa from the Earth and made him their leader. Nahuṣa became very proud and arrogant of his new position and tried to make Indrāṇī his wife. Indrāṇī went to Bṛhaspatī for help. Bṛhaspati commanded Agni to go and find out Indra. Agni searched for him in forests, rivers and oceans. At last he went to Mānasa Saras and searched among the lotuses. There he found Indra hiding in a lotus and Bṛhaspati was duly informed. Then Bṛhaspati gave Indrāṇī some clever directions to kill Nahuṣa and Nahuṣa was killed. (See Agastya). There is a story in Śānti Parva, Chapter 28, of how Agni took for himself a quarter of the sin which Indra acquired because of his killing Vṛtra, a brahmin by birth. (Chapter 14, Udyoga Parva, M.B.).
     19) Agni Deva and Kārttavīryārjuna. After the great Kurukṣetra battle the Pāṇḍavas went again to Kurukṣetra along with Śrī Kṛṣṇa. On their way Kṛṣṇa showed them the Paraśurāmahradas and narrated to them several stories of Rāma. Reference to Agni comes when Kṛṣṇa explains the reason why Paraśurāma cut off the thousand hands of Kārttavīryārjuna. It was at the time when Kārttavīryārjuna was ruling the three worlds by his might that Agni went and asked for alms from him. Kārttavīrya gave Agni mountains and forests for his food which Agni burnt and ate. In one of the forests was the āśrama of sage Āpava and that also was burnt. Enraged at this the sage cursed Kārttavīrya saying that his thousand hands would be cut off by Paraśurāma. Though the curse was not seriously minded by the King then, it so happened that before long Kārttavīrya had to encounter Paraśurāma in a battle when the children of the King stole a sacrificial cow belonging to Jamadagni, father of Paraśurāma. In the battle all the thousand hands of Kārttavīryārjuna were cut off by Paraśurāma. (Chapter 43, Śānti Parva, M.B.).
     20) How Agni was duped. Once the wives of the Saptaṛṣis (seven Saints) attended a yāga where Agni was also present. Agni fell in love with them but knowing it to be futile to make any attempt to fulfil his desire he went to the forests dejected. Svāhādevī, daughter of Dakṣa was for a long time craving to marry Agni and she decided to take advantage of the opportunity thus offered. Disguising herself as the wife of Aṅgiras, one of the seven saints, she approached Agni and said: "O Lord, I am Śivā, wife of Aṅgiras. We were all excited when you darted cupids' arrows against us and they have now selected me to come to you for fulfilling your desire". Agni believed her and took her as his consort. (Chapters 223 to 227 of Vana Parva, M.B.).
     21) How Agni became a doctor. There was once a sage called Dattātreya who had a son called Nimi. Nimi had a son and he died after thousand years. The bereaved sage performed a Śrāddha which was attended by all devas. The feast was so sumptuous that the devas got indigestion after that. Consulting Brahmā Agni prescribed a remedy for their indigestion. He said: "whenever you take any food make me also a participant in that. If you do so you will never get indigestion". That is why a very small portion of any cooked food is first thrown into the fire before given for eating. This story is part of Bhīṣma's oration to Dharmaputra on the origin of Śrāddha (The ceremony conducted on the anniversary of the death of a person by his son). (Chapter 92, Anuśāsana Parva, M.B.).
     22) How Agni became a horse. There was once a preceptor named Āveda. He got a disciple named Uttaṅga. One day Āveda left his āśrama for a distant place leaving his disciple in charge of the management of the āśrama. The preceptor was absent for a long time and his wife started making love to Uttaṅga. The dutiful disciple strongly objected to this. When Uttaṅga completed his course of study under Āveda he enquired what he should give to his preceptor. The preceptor directed him to his wife. The wife who bore a grudge against Uttaṅga resolved to tease him and said that he should go to King Pauṣya and beg of him the earrings worn by his wife. Uttaṅga started immediately and getting the earrings was coming back when on the way Takṣaka wrested the ornament from him and went and hid in the nether-world. Uttaṅga followed Takṣaka and there Agni in the form of a horse appeared before him and asked Uttaṅga what he wanted. He replied that he wanted to subdue all the serpents in the nether-world. Agni then advised him to blow thro' the nostrils of the horse. As he did so flames burst forth from all the openings of the horse making the netherworld hot and smoky. Takṣaka was frightened and he at once gave back the earrings to Uttaṅga. Uttaṅga was again worried for he had very little time to carry the earrings to the preceptor in time. Here again Agni helped him by carrying him swiftly on his back to the āśrama. When the preceptor and his wife found that Uttaṅga had carried out their wish they blessed him. (Chapter 3, Ādi Parva, M.B.).
     23) Agni becomes a messenger. Once there arose a misunderstanding between Bṛhaspati and Saṃvarttaka, sons of Aṅgiras. Bṛhaspati went to devaloka as priest while the other remained in the world as a mad saint. At that time a King called Marutta invited Bṛhaspati to officiate as priest for a yajña of his. But Bṛhaspati refused to accept it. Nārada saw Marutta in despair and told him thus: "You go to Kāśī (Benares) and there at Puradvāra place a dead body and wait there. Saṃvarttaka, Bṛhaspati's brother will come and reprimand you. Without minding his scoldings follow him and request him to become the chief priest for your yāga. He will then ask you who advised you to do like this. Tell him that Nārada did so and if he asks where he could find Nārada do tell him that Nārada is hiding inside Agni". Hearing this Marutta went to Kāśī and did all as directed. Saṃvartta agreed to become the priest but wanted Marutta to bring some gold from Kailāsa before that. Marutta brought that also and the yajña started. Bṛhaspati when he came to know of all these developments became sorry for his refusal first and decided to become the priest of Marutta for his yāga. It was Agni who carried this message of consent to King Marutta. Thus Marutta's yajña was performed in a grand way. (Chapter 9, Aśvamedha Parva, M.B.).
     24) Agni takes back the Gāṇḍīva. At the time of Khāṇḍava dahana (burning of Khāṇḍava forest) Agni gave Arjuna the famous Gāṇḍīva bow which Varuṇa had given him. After the great Mahābhārata battle Agni took back this bow from Arjuna. The Pāṇḍavas at the fag end of their life started on a pilgrimage to the south with their consort Pāñcālī. Marching along slowly they reached the shores of Aruṇa Samudra (Aruṇa Ocean). Arjuna had with him then the Gāṇḍīva and also the arrow-case which never becomes empty. When they reached the shores of the ocean Agni blocked their way standing before them in the form of a huge mountain and said, "O Arjuna I am god Agni. It was I who gave this famous Gāṇḍīva bow to you. The bow belongs to Varuṇa. So please throw it into the ocean and proceed on your way". On hearing this Arjuna threw both the bow and the arrow-case into the ocean and continued the march. (Ślokas 33 to 43, Chapter 1, Mahāprasthānika Parva, M.B.).
     25) Additional information about Agni, the God of fire.
     1) Svāhādevī, wife of Agni, gave birth to three sons, named Dākṣiṇam, Gārhapatyam and Āhavanīyam. (Chapter 9, Devī Bhāgavata).
     2) Agni, the God of fire, got three sons by his wife Svāhādevī named Pāvaka, Pavamāna and Śuci. These three sons had all together fortyfive sons. These fortyfive grandsons, three sons and Agni himself constitute the fortynine Fires mentioned in the purāṇas (Aṅgirasaṃ).
     3) Nīla, the monkey, is born of Agni. (Sarga 41, Chapter Kiṣkindhā, Rāmāyaṇa).
     4) Dhṛṣṭadyumna, the great archer, was born of Agni. (Śloka 126, Chapter 67, Ādi Parva, M.B.).
     5) Subrahmaṇya was born as the son of Agni. (Chapter 225, Vana Parva, M.B.).
     6) Agni, the God of fire, loved all prajāpatis like his sons. (Chapter 85, Anuśāsana Parva, M.B.).
     7) The sage, Bhṛgu, was born from Agni. (Śloka 8, Chapter 5, Ādi Parva, M.B.).
     8) All Devatās are Agni himself. (Śloka 109, Chapter 85, Anuśāsana Parva, M.B.).
     9) God Agni loved God Skanda more than anybody else. (Chapter 226, Vana Parva, M.B.).
     10) At the time when Śrī Rāma after killing Rāvaṇa was putting Sītā to a purity test by throwing her into the fire, Agni witnessed that Sītā had done no wrong and was pure and chaste as before. (Śloka 28, Chapter 201, Vana Parva, M.B.).
     11) In the beginning Brahmā created the universe. There was no death then and the Earth became overcrowded. Brahmā got worried and he sent fire from his body to burn all beings. The world was on the verge of extinction when Lord Śiva intervened and requested Brahmā to withdraw Agni and create the god of Death. (Chapter 52, Droṇa Parva. M.B.).
     12) Agni is one of the Aṣṭa Vasūs which are eight in number. The others are: Āpa, Dhruva, Soma, Dharma, Anila, Pratyuṣa and Prabhāsa. (Chapter 15, Viṣṇu Purāṇa).
     13) Śuci, son of Agni, born of Svāhādevī is Baḍavāgni himself. (Chapter 20, Agni Purāṇa).
     14) The God, Agni, uses a spear as his weapon and the vehicle he uses is a goat. (Chapter 51, Agni Purāṇa).
     15) The sage, Agastya, converted the Viṣṇu idol at the Kuttālam temple into one of Śiva and when people around started an agitation Agastya sent forth flames of fire through his eyes. (Asura Kāṇḍa of Skānda Purāṇa).
     16) Agni was born to Pururavas as a son named Jātavedas. (Chapter 14, Navama Skandha of Bhāgavata).
     17) The Devas wanted help to clean their hands when oblated materials stuck to their hands and Agni created from water three sons named Ekata, Dvita and Trita for this purpose. Of these Trita fell into a well while drawing water. Seeing him fall the demons closed the well but Trita broke the top and came out. (Sūkta 52, Anuvāka 10, Maṇḍala 1 of Ṛgveda).
     18) Once the earth looked like heaven because of the innumerable celestial beings who came to earth in search of Agni. (Sūkta 65, Anuvāka 12, Maṇḍala 1 of Ṛgveda).
     19) The Sun hands over his effulgence to Agni in the evening and takes it back from him in the morning. (A fact from Śruti--Sūkta 71, Anuvāka 12, Maṇḍala 1 of Ṛgveda).
     20) For making fire for the sacrificial ceremony the sages use two Araṇi sticks (These are two pieces of wood, one upper and another lower, and fire is produced by attrition). It is believed that the sages get the strength to produce fire from it through Vyāna, one of the forms of Vāyu (air). So Ṛgveda describes Agni as the son of Vāyu. (Sūkta 112, Anuvāka 16, Maṇḍala 1).
     21) In the times of the Ṛgveda Agni was worshipped as a God. (Sūkta 1, Anuvāka 1, Maṇḍala 1, Ṛgveda).
     22) Lord Śiva entered into an elaborate and long conjugal play for creating Subrahmaṇya. Hundred years went by and still the preliminaries never ended. The universe was on the verge of a collapse and so the devas decided to send Agni to put a stop to this libidinal play of Śiva. But Agni was afraid of Śiva and therefore absconded and hid himself in the ocean. The ocean became hot and the water-animals unable to bear the increasing heat went and informed the devas of Agni's hiding place. Agni cursed them all saying that all of them would go dumb. He then went to the Mandara mountain in the shape of an owl and hid there. But the devas went there also and picked him up. Agni then by his terrible heat stimulated Śiva into action. Śiva threw his semen into Agni and Agni poured it into Gaṅgā and Gaṅgā delivered a child which later on became Subrahmaṇya. (Taraṅga 6, Lāvāṇakalaṃbaka of Kathāsaritsāgara).
     26) Conclusion. Agni stands next to Indra in importance in the Vedas. Because Agnī was indispensable for yāgas the care of Agni became very important. According to the Ṛgveda the birth of Agni is different. Born of the clouds Agni reaches the earth as lightning. Then Agni forsakes its form and becomes invisible. It was Mātariśvā who gave form to Agni and gave him to the Bhṛgu family. From that day onwards it became possible to produce fire and the Ṛgveda describes how Agni is produced by sages by the use of Araṇi sticks. The main job of Agni is to receive the oblations from devas when they conduct yāgas.
     27) Synonyms of Agni.
     "agnirvaiśvānaro' vahniḥ vītihotro dhanañjayaḥ kṛpīṭayonir jvalano jātavedāstanūnapāt barhiśśūṣmā kṛṣṇavartmā śociṣkeśaḥ uṣarbhudhaḥ āśrayāśo bṛhadbhānuḥ kṛśānuḥ pāvako'nalaḥ rohitāśvo vāyusakhaḥ śikhāvānāśuśukṣaṇiḥ hiraṇyaretaḥ hutabhuk dahano havyavāhanaḥ śaptārcirdamunāḥ śukra-ścitrabhānurvibhāvasuḥ śucirappittamaurvastu bāḍavo baḍavānalaḥ vahnerdvayorjvālakīlā-varcirhetiḥ śikhā striyām triṣu sphuliṅgognikaṇaḥ kṣantāpaḥ sajvaraḥ samau ulkāsyānnirgata jvālā bhūtir bhasita bhasmanī kṣāro rakṣā ca dāvastu davo vanahutāśaṅaḥ. (amarakośa)"
     The synonyms:
     1) Agni, Vaiśvānaraḥ, Vahniḥ, Vītihotra, Dhanañjaya, Kṛpīṭayoni, Jvalana, Jātavedas, Tanūnapāt, Barhis, Śūṣmā, Kṛṣṇavartmā, Sociṣkeśa, Uṣarbhudha, Aśrayāśa, Bṛhadbhānu, Kṛśānu, Pāvaka, Anala, Rohitāśva, Vāyusakha, Sikhāvān, Āśuśukṣaṇi, Hiraṇyaretas, Hutabhuk, Dahana, Havyavāhana, Saptārcis, Damuna, Śukra, Citrabhānu, Vibhāvasu, Śuci, Appitta.
     2) Baḍavāgni: Aurva, Bāḍava, Baḍavānala.
     3) Agnijvālā: Jvalā, Kīla, Arcis, Heti, Sikhā. (Flame)
     4) Sparks: Sphuliṅga, Agnikaṇa.
     5) Heat: Santāpa, Sajvara.
     6) Firebrand: Ulkā.
     7) Ashes: Bhūti, Bhasita, Bhasma, Kṣāra, Rakṣa.
     8) Wild-fire: Dāva, Dava, Vanahutāśana.
*) Manas=Mind. Putra=Son. Mānasa-putras are sons created from the mind of Brahmā, Śloka 10, Chapter 65, Ādi Parva, M.B.
**) Kathāsaritsāgara gives another version of why Agni went and hid himself under the ocean. When Kāma, the God of Love, was burnt to death by Śiva, Pārvatī, Śivā's wife, did not find a way to get a child for her from her husband. At last Brahmā approached Śiva and told him that the absence of Kāma was making creation difficult. Śiva then declared that thereafter Kāma would find a place in the minds of all living beings including himself. Pārvatī and Śiva immediately commenced a sexual life which went on incessantly for a hundred years without reaching the climax. The world was agitated and the universe stood on the verge of ruin. The Devas decided to send Agni to intervene But Agni was afraid of Śiva and so went and bid himself under the ocean. (Chapter 6, Lāvāṇakalambaka of Kathāsaritsāgara).

AGNIBĀHU A son of the first Manu.

AGNIDATTA See under the word Devadatta.


AGNIDHĀRA TIRTHA This is the name of a sacred place near Gautamavana. (See Śloka 146, Chapter 84, Vana Parva, M.B.).

     1. Genealogy. Descended from Viṣṇu thus: Viṣṇu-Brahmā-Marīci-Kaśyapa-Vivasvān-Vaivasvatamanu-Priyavrata-Agnīdhra.
     2. Birth. Priyavrata, son of Vaivasvatamanu, married Barhiṣmatī, daughter of Viśvakarmā. Agnīdhra was one of their ten sons. The other nine sons were: Idhmajihvā, Yajñabāhu, Mahāvīra, Hiraṇyaretas, Ghṛtaprṣṭha, Sava, Medhātithi, Vītihotra and Kavi. A daughter also was born to Priyavrata and Barhiṣmatī named Ūrjjasvatī. Śukra married her and Devayānī was their daughter.
     3) Married life. Agnīdhra married a nymph named Pūrvacitti. They had nine children: Nābhi, Kiṃpurusa, Hari, Ilāvrata, Ramyaka, Hirañcaya, Kuru, Bhadrāśva, and Ketumāla. It was from this Kuru that the Kuru Vaṃśa began.
     4) Other incidents. (1) Agnīdhra ruled over Jambudvīpa for a long time. (Devī Bhāgavata, Skandha 8).
     (2) While he was the ruler of Jambudvīpa Agnīdhra once went into a cave and did hard tapas there without eating any food. Brahmā then sent a beautiful nymph (Apsarā maiden) to him to tempt him and thwart his tapas. Agnīdhra fell a victim to the temptation. His penance was shaken by that nymph named Vipracitti. He married her. (Bhāgavata, Skandha 5, Chapter 2).

AGNIHOTRA(M) This is a sacrifice offered to Agnideva. This has two parts, nitya and Kāmya.

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AGNIKETU A demon (Rākṣasa) who was a close friend and supporter of Rāvaṇa. Rāma killed him in the course of his battle with Rāvaṇa.

AGNIKUMĀRA An epithet of Lord Subrahmaṇya.

AGNILOKA One of the devalokas situated on the summit of Mount Mahāmeru. There are a few other devalokas on the same mountain. They are: Indraloka, Yamaloka, Śivaloka or Kailāsa, Satyaloka and Vaikuṇṭha. (Devī Bhāgavata).

AGNIMĀN Name of one Agni.

AGNIMITRA The hero of Kālidāsa's play, Mālavikāgnimitra. He was a King of the Śuṅga dynasty and the son of Puṣyamitra. Kālidāsa's play deals with the marriage of Mālavikā and Agnimitra.

     1. Genealogy. He was descended from Viṣṇu in this order: Viṣṇu-Brahmā-Marīci-Kaśyapa-Śūrapadma-Agnimukha.
     2. Birth. Śūrapadma married Maya's daughter and Agnimukha was born as their son. In the battle between the devas and asuras, the latter were defeated and one of them sought shelter in Pātāla (the lower world). Kaśyapa married his daughter, Surasā. They had six children; they were: Śūrapadma, Siṃhika, Siṃhavaktra, Tārakāsura, Gomukha, and Ajāmukhī. Sūrapadma married Maya's daughter. Agnimukha was one of their four sons, the other three being Bhānugopa, Vajrabāhu and Hiraṇya. (Skanda Purāṇa, Āsurakāṇḍa). In the Skanda Purāṇa there is a vivid description of the valiant way in which Agnimukha fought in the battle between the devas and asuras.

AGNIPA Son of a Brahmin named Vedanidhi. Once five gandharva maidens named Pramodinī, Suśīlā, Susvarā, Sutārā and Candrikā fell in love with him and requested him to marry them. Being a strict Brahmacārin Agnipa was offended by this request and so he cursed them and turned them into fiends. Vedanidhi pitied them and sought the advice of sage Lomaśa as to how those unfortunate maidens could be redeemed from the curse. According to Lomaśa's advice the five maidens bathed in the holy lake of Prayāgatīrtha and regained their original forms. Then obeying the instructions of sage Lomaśa Agnipa married all these five gandharva maidens. (Chapters 128 and 129, Uttarakhaṇḍa, Padma Purāṇa).

AGNIPRAVEŚA(M) Entering fire. In the Yuddha-Kāṇḍā of the Rāmāyaṇa, Vālmīki has described Sītā's entering and standing in fire (Agnipraveśam) as a test of her purity. Though Rāma recovered Sītā from Rāvaṇa, he wanted to accept her as his wife only after her purity had been tested and proved. So he decided to test her by fire (Agniparīkṣaṇa). Sītā shed tears at the thought that her husband doubted her chastity. Lakṣmaṇa, at Rāma's bidding, made a pyre. Sītā jumped into it after praying to the gods. She remained unscorched by the fire and Rāma gladly received her once more as his wife.

AGNIPURA(M) A sacred place (Puṇya tīrtha) in Indore on the banks of the river Narmadā. Many scholars identify this with the place Maheśvaram. (Śloka 43, Chapter 15, Anuśāsana Parva, M.B.).

     1) General information. This is one of the eighteen Purāṇas ascribed to Vyāsa. It is believed that this Purāṇa was originally given orally (as advice) by Agnideva to many sages, devas and Sage Vasiṣṭha. It is a vast comprehensive work dealing with every subject of importance. To give a copy of this book to a good Brahmin on the Full Moon day in the month of Mārga Sīrṣa is supposed to be a highly virtuous and meritorious deed.
     2) Contents. This large Purāṇa consists of about 420 chapters. It deals in detail with the following subjects: The Daśāvatāras of Mahāviṣṇu; Rāmāyaṇa; Mahābhārata; rules and injunctions relating to the worship of various gods (devapūjāvidhis); installation of idols in temples (devatāpratiṣṭhā); Svapnamantras; astrology; architecture and sculpture; Āyurveda; Viṣavaidya (treatment of poisons from Snakebite etc.); the principles of the drama (Nāṭaka) and other allied arts; figures of speech and all alaṃkāras in general; and physiology of the human body. All these subjects are treated in a detailed and scientific manner.

AGNIPŪRṆA A King of the Solar dynasty (Sūryavaṃśa).
     1) Genealogy. Agnipūrṇa was descended from Viṣṇu in the following order: Brahmā-Marīci-Kaśyapa-Vivasvān-Vaivasvatamanu-Ikṣvāku-Vikukṣi-Śaśāda-Purañjaya-Kakutstha-Anenas-Pṛthulāśvan-Prasenajit-Yuvanāśvan-Māndhātā-Purukutsa-Trasadasyu-Anaraṇya-Aryaśvā-Vasumanas-Sutanvā-Traiyyāruṇa-Satyavrata-Triśaṅku-Hariścandra-Rohitāśva-Harita-Cuñcu-Sudeva-Bharuka-Bāhuka-Sagara-Asamañjas-Aṃśumān-Dilīpa-Bhagīratha-Śrutanāda-Sindhudvīpa-Ayutāyus-Ṛtuparṇa-Sarvakāma-Sudāsana-Mitrasakha-Kalmāṣapāda-Aśmaka-Mūlaka-Khaṭvāṅga-Dīrghabāhu-Raghu-Aja-Daśaratha-Śrī Rāma-Kuśa-Aditi-Niṣadha-Nabhas-Puṇḍarīka-Kṣemadhanvā-Devānīka-Ṛkṣa-Pāriyātra-Bala-Vindorala-Vajranābha-Khagaṇa-Vidhṛti-Hiraṇyanābha-Puṣya-Dhruva-Sudarśana-Agnipūrṇa. Agnipūrṇa had two descendants--Sīghra and Maru and with them the Sūryavaṃśa came to an end.

AGNISAMBHAVA A King of the Solar dynasty.
     Genealogy. Viṣṇu-Brahmā-Marīci-Kaśyapa-Vivasvān-Vaivasvatamanu-Ikṣvāku-Nimi-Janaka-Nandivārdhana-Suketu-Devarāta-Bṛhaddhṛta-Mahāvīra-Dhṛti-Ketu-Haryaśvā-Maru-Pratisvaka-Kraturatha-Devamīḍha-Vidhṛta-Mahādhṛti-Kṛtirāta-Mahāromā-Svarṇaromaprastharoma-Sīradhvaja-Kurudhvaja-Dharmadhvaja-Kṛtadhvaja-Bhānumān-Śakradyumna-Śuci-Vanadhvaja-Ūrjjaketu-Aja-Kurujit-Ariṣṭanemi-Kṛtāyus-Supārśvaka-Citraratha-Kṣemāpi-Homaratha-Satyaratha-Gurunandana-Upagupta-Agnisaṃbhava.
     There are no other references to this King of the Solar dynasty in the Purāṇas.


AGNIŚIKHA Father of Vararuci. He is also known by the name Somadatta. (Kathāsaritsāgara-Kathāpīṭha-lambaka-Taraṅga 1. See also the word GUṆAVARA).

AGNIŚIRATĪRTHA A holy place on the plains of the river, Yamunā. Arjuna's brother, Sahadeva, performed a yāga at this place. (M.B., Vana Parva, Chapter 90).

AGNIṢOMA A deity born of the union of two devas, Agnideva and Somadeva. He is one of the devas who receive the havis (oblations) poured into the sacrificial fire in a homa.

AGNIṢOMA(S) Agni and Soma. Agni had two sons by his third wife Bhānu (also called Niśā). They were Agni and Soma. These two sons were collectively called Agnisomas.

AGNIŚAUCA(M) A cloak with magical properties given to Nala by the serpent, Kārkoṭaka. After separating himself from Damayantī, Nala was wandering in the forest. Then he was bitten by the poisonous serpent, Kārkoṭaka. This deformed Nala beyond recognition. Then the serpent gave him this shawl (Agniśauca). Anybody who wore that cloak would regain his original form and colour. (Kathāsaritsāgara-Alaṅkāravatī-lambaka-Taraṅga 6).

AGNISTHALĪ (See the word PURŪRAVAS). AGNISTHAMBHA(M). A mantra that will reduce the burning power of Agni.


     1) Genealogy. Descended from Viṣṇu in this order:-Viṣṇu-Svāyambhuvamanu-Uttānapāda-Dhruva-Sṛṣṭi-Ripu-Cākṣuṣamanu-Agniṣṭu.
     2) Birth. Ten good sons were born to Manu by his wife, Nadvalā and Agniṣṭu was one of them. The other nine sons were: Ūru, Pūru, Śatadyumna, Tapasvī, Satyavāk, Kavi, Atirātra, Sudyumna and Atimanyu. (Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 18).

AGNIṢVĀTTA One of the seven Pitṛs. The other six Pitṛs are: Vairāja, Gārhapatya, Somapa, Ekaśṛṅga, Caturveda and Kāla. (M.B., Sabhā Parva, Chapter 11, Verses 44, 45 and 46).

AGNIVEŚA A Sage. He was the preceptor of Droṇa and Drupada. It is believed that he learned archery and the military arts from Sage Agastya. Droṇa had the greatest respect for this guru, Agniveśa. He was a master in the use of all weapons. There are references to this in Chapter 139, Ādi Parva of the Mahābhārata.

AGRAHA The name of an Agni, a son of the Agni named Bhānu. Bhānu married Suprajā, daughter of the sun and Agraha was one of the six children born to them. In the Cāturmāsikayajña Agraha receives eight kinds of havis (Oblations). (M.B., Vana Parva, Chapter 221).

AGRAṆI The name of an Agni. He was the fifth son of the Agni named Bhānu and his wife, Niśādevī. (M.B., Vana Parva, Chapter 221, Ślokas 15 to 22).

AGRASANDHANĪ The name of the book which Yama (the God of Death--Kāla) keeps in which all the virtuous and sinful actions of men are recorded.

AGRAYAṆĪ One of the hundred sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. He is also known by the name, Anuyāyī. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 116, Verse 11).

AHA I One of the aṣṭavasus. His father was Dharma and mother, Ratidevī. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Ślokas 17 to 20, Chapter 66).

AHA II (AHAH) A sacred pond. If one bathes in it he will go to the land of the Sun. (M.B., Vana Parva, Śloka 100, Chapter 83).

AHA III One born of the dynasty of demons (asuravaṃśa). (See under Heti, the genealogy chart of the demon dynasty).

AHARA A son born of Danu to Kaśyapa. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Śloka 25, Chapter 65).

AHALYĀ Turned into stone by the curse of her husband, Gautama. Ahalyā was a princess of the Pūru dynasty.
     1) Genealogy. Descended in order from Viṣṇu as follows: Brahmā-Atri-Candra-Budha-Purūravas-Āyus-Nahuṣa-Yayāti-Pūru-Janamejaya-Prācinvā-Pravīra-Namasyu-Vītabhaya-Śuṇḍu-Bahuvidha-Saṃyāti-Rahovādi-Raudrāśva-Matināra-Santurodha-Duṣyanta-Bharata-Bṛhatkṣetra-Hasti-Ajamīḍha-Nīla-Śānti-Śuśānti-Puruja-Arka-Bharmyaśva-Pāñcāla-Mudgala-Ahalyā.
     2) How Ahalyā got a curse and became a stone. The story of how Ahalyā was cursed by her husband, Gautama, and was turned into a stone is told in different versions in different purāṇas. The following is the version in the Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa. When Viśvāmitra was taking back Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa from the forest to the palace of Janaka they came across an āśrama on their way. Giving details about that āśrama Visvāmitra told the princes thus: "This is the āśrama where the sage, Gautama, was living with his wife, Ahalyā. Indra fell in love with the beautiful Ahalyā and while the sage was out for bathing Indra entered the āśrama in the disguise of the sage himself and took bed with her. But before Indra could get out Gautama himself came to the āśrama and enraged at what he saw, cursed them both. Indra was to lose his testicles and Ahalyā was to turn into a stone. But taking pity on her the sage declared that she would take her original form the moment Rāma of tretā yuga came to that place and touched the stone by his foot. Testicleless Indra went to devaloka and there his friends feeling sorry for him, substituted a goat's testicle and got him to normal." While Viśvāmitra was talking to the princes, Śrī Rāma's foot touched the stone and Ahalyā stood up in all beauty. Ahalyā and Gautama lived in the same āśrama again for another long period.
     In Kathāsaritsāgara this story is told in a slightly different yet more interesting way. As soon as Gautama entered the āśrama Indra turned himself into a cat. Angrily the sage questioned Ahalyā, "who was standing here when I came in?" Ahalyā replied, "Eso thiyo khu majjara" (Eṣaḥ sthitaḥ khalu mārjjāraḥ). It was a cat which was standing there. Here Ahalyā used a pun on the word 'majjara' and tried to be honest. 'Majjara' is the Prakrit form of the word 'mārjjāraḥ' which means cat. But 'majjara' has another meaning also. (ma=mine jāra=lover i.e. majjāra=my lover). So Ahalyā did not lie to her husband. (Kathāsaritsāgara, Lāvānakalambaka).
     3) How Ahalyā happened to bring up the mighty monkeys, Bāli and Sugrīva. Once Aruṇa, the charioteer of Sūrya (the Sun) went to devaloka to see the dance of the celestial maidens there. Since there was no admission to the dance for men Aruṇa disguised himself as Āruṇidevī and sought admission; seeing the beautiful form of Āruṇidevī Indra fell in love with her and that night a child was born to Indra by her. On the advice of Indra Āruṇidevī took the child to Ahalyā before daybreak and left it there to be looked after by her. It was this child which later on became the famous Bāli.
     Aruṇa went a bit late that morning to his master, the Sun. The latter wanted an explanation and Aruṇa told him what had happened. The Sun then asked Aruṇa to become Āruṇidevī again and seeing the enchanting figure the Sun also got a child of her. This child also was taken to Ahalyā and it was this child that later on became the famous Sugrīva.

AHALYĀHRADA(M) A sacred pond in the tapovana (precincts of an āśrama) of Gautama Ṛṣi. It is believed that one would go to heaven if one bathes in it.

AHARA A son born of Danu to Kaśyapa. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Śloka 25, Chapter 65).

AHICCHATRA This was the capital of the state Ahicchatra which Droṇa got from Drupada, the King of Pāñcāla.

AHICCHATRA(M) A state under the sovereignty of King Pāñcāla. On the completion of his studies under Droṇa Arjuna brought before his preceptor King Drupada as a captive in discharge of the duty he owed to him as his master. Drupada then gave the state of Ahicchatra to Droṇa and got his release. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Ślokas 73 to 76, Chapter 137).

AHIṂSĀ Non-injury. There are opinions both in favour of and against Ahiṃsā in the purāṇas. Śukrācārya extols the importance of Ahiṃsā to the asuras (demons) thus:
     "bho! devaripavaḥ satyaṃ bravīmi bhavatāṃ hitam ahiṃsā paramo dharmo hantavyā hyātatāyinaḥ dvijairbhogaratairvede darśitaṃ hiṃsanam paśoḥ jihvāsvādaparaiḥ kāma--mahiṃsaiva parā matā."
     "Oh, foes of the devas, I shall tell you the truth which is good for you. Non-injury to any living being is the most righteous thing. Do not molest even those who come to kill you. Even that act would be 'hiṃsā' (injury). It was those brahmins who were attached to worldly pleasures and addicted to overeating that enjoined in the Vedas that hiṃsā is permissible for yāgas." (Devī Bhāgavata, Skanda 4). Mārkaṇḍeya Muni (sage) says thus: "Why should I mind the innumerable killings going on unnoticed in this world full of life. People of old speak very sacredly about Ahiṃsā. But O best of brahmins, who can live in this world without injury to another life?" (M.B., Araṇya Parva, Ślokas 32 & 33, Chapter 208).

AHIRATHA A King of the Pūru dynasty. (See under Pūru vaṃśa).

AHIRBUDHNYA One of the sons of Viśvakarmā. Five sons and one daughter were born to Viśvakarmā of his wife Surabhī. They were Ajaikapāt, Ahirbudhnya, Tvaṣṭā, Rudra, Barhiṣmatī and Saṃjñā. (See under genealogy of Viśvakarmā).

AHITĀ A river of ancient Bhārata. (M.B., Bhīṣma Parva, Śloka 21, Chapter 9).

AHORĀTRA(M) (See under Kālamāna).

AHOVĪRA A sage who adhered strictly to the injunctions associated with the Vānaprastha stage of life. (M.B., Śānti Parva, Śloka 17, Chapter 144).

AI This diphthong means a female sage (yoginī) according to the Agni Purāṇa (Chapter 348 of Agni Purāṇa).

AIKṢVĀKI Wife of Suhotra who was a son of Emperor, Bhumanyu. Suhotra had three sons by Aikṣvāki. They were Ajamīḍha, Sumīḍha and Purumiḍha. (See Chapter 94 of Ādi Parva of the M.B.).

AILA I Son of Ilā; Purūravas. (See under Ilā).

AILA II A member of the court of Yamarāja. (See Śloka 16, Chapter 8, Sabhā Parva, M.B.). In Śloka 65, Chapter 115 of Anuśāsana Parva, it is said that he never ate non-vegetarian food in his life.

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AINDAVA (See paragraph 13 under the word BRAHMĀ).

AIRĀVATA I A large elephant, son of Irāvatī.
     1) Genealogy. Descended from Viṣṇu in this order:-Viṣṇu-Brahmā-Kaśyapa-Bhadramatā-Irāvatī-Airāvata. Kaśyapa married Dakṣa's daughter, Krodhavaśā who bore him ten daughters. They were: Mṛgī, Mṛgamandā, Harī, Bhadramatā, Mātaṅgī, Śārdūlī, Svetā, Surabhī, Sarasā and Kadru. Of these Bhadramatā had a daughter named Irāvatī and Airāvata was her son. Airāvata was not human in shape; he was a large elephant. (See Sarga 14, Araṇyakāṇḍa, Rāmāyaṇa).
     2) Indra's Vāhana. Indra made Airāvata his conveyance (vāhana). Indra was Kaśyapa's son by Aditi. Airāvata also was descended from Kaśyapa. So Indra took Airāvata as his vāhana.
     3) Airāvata caused the churning of the ocean of Milk. There is a story of how Airāvata was responsible for the churning of the milk-ocean (Kṣīrābdhi-mathanam). Once some maidens of devaloka presented a garland of flowers to sage Durvāsas. When Durvāsas visited Indra's court he gave that garland to Indra. Indra put it on the tusks of his vāhana, Airāvata. The fragrance of the flowers attracted a swarm of bees which became an intolerable nuisance to Airāvata. So Airāvata tore the garland off his tusks and hurled it away. When Durvāsas heard this, he took it as an insult. In his anger he cursed all the gods--the curse was that all gods should become subject to old age and the decrepitude and infirmities of old age. But though Durvāsas cursed the gods, he also prescribed a remedy. The gods could redeem themselves from the curse by drinking Amṛtam obtained from the ocean of Milk (Mahāviṣṇu lies on the serpent, Śeṣa on this ocean). The curse began to operate and the gods lost their perennial youth. The gods then befriended the Asuras and with their help they churned the ocean of Milk. They got the nectar (Amṛtam), drank it and regained their youth. (See under the word AMṚTAM).
     4) There is another story about Airāvata--A story of how he also rose out of the ocean of Milk. It is said that when the devas and asuras churned the ocean of Milk, Airāvata also came up along with the other good things. This story is narrated in the 18th Chapter of Ādi Parva of the Mahābhārata. The explanation given is that when Durvāsas cursed the gods, Airāvata was oppressed with a sense of guilt because he was responsible for the curse. So he took refuge in the ocean of Milk and there started propitiating Mahāviṣṇu. There is however no warrant for such an explanation in the purāṇas. But the explanation sounds plausible because it explains the absence of Airāvata during the interval between Durvāsas's curse and the churning of the sea. Airāvata is represented as a white elephant. It is probable that he became white after his long residence in the ocean of Milk. This lends some additional plausibility to the above explanation.
     5) Airāvata, the Lord of the elephant. In the Viṣṇu Purāṇa we are told how Airāvata was made the chief of all elephants. When the Maharṣis had crowned Pṛthu as the sovereign King, Brahmā gave new posts of honour to many of the devas. He made SOMA (Moon) the lord of the Stars and Planets, of Brahmins, Yajñas and herbs. Kubera was made the overlord of all Kings; Varuṇa was made the master of the seas and all water; Viṣṇu, the lord of the Ādityas and Pāvaka (Fire) the lord of the Vasus. Along with these Brahmā made Airāvata the lord of all elephants. (Chapter 22, Viṣṇu Purāṇa).
     6) The breaking of Airāvata's tusks. There is a story of how the tusks of Airāvata were broken narrated in the Āsurakāṇḍa of Skanda Purāṇa. Once an asura (demon) named Śūrapadma attacked devaloka. A fierce battle ensued between the gods and asuras. In the course of this battle, Jayanta, Indra's son, was hit by an arrow and at once he fell dead. Enraged by this Airāvata rushed at Śūrapadma's chariot and shattered it to pieces. Airāvata then attacked Śūrapadma who broke his tusks and hurled him down to the earth. Airāvata lay paralysed for a long time; then he got up, retired to a forest and prayed to Lord Śiva. With the grace of Śiva Airāvata regained his lost tusks and was able to return to devaloka.
     7) Other details about Airāvata. (1) There is a belief that Airāvata is one of the eight elephants guarding the eight zones of the universe. These eight elephants are called the Aṣṭadiggajas. Airāvata is supposed to guard the eastern zone. (Chapter 66, Ādi Parva, Mahābhārata).
     (2) Airāvata and three other diggajas are supposed to reside in Puṣkara Island. (Chapter 12, Bhīṣma Parva, M.B.).

AIRĀVATA II Name of a serpent born to Kaśyapa and his wife Kadru. This is mentioned in Śloka 5, Chapter 35, Ādi Parva of the Mahābhārata. Arjuna's father-in-law and Ulūpi's father, Kauravya belonged to the family of this serpent. (See Śloka 18, Chapter 213, Ādi Parva).

AIRĀVATA An asura who was killed by Śrī Kṛṣṇa. (See Chapter 38, Sabhā Parva, Mahābhārata).

AIRĀVATAGHAṬṬA Name of a place near the seashore, lying to the north of the mountain, Śṛṅgavān. (See Śloka 37, Chapter 6, Bhīṣma Parva).

AIṢĪKAM Name of a small division of a parva of the Mahābhārata. (See under Mahābhārata).

AITAREYA I A great scholar with profound knowledge of the Vedas. Being a non-brahmin he was not able to learn the Vedas from a guru. In spite of this handicap he acquired considerable scholarship and wrote a learned commentary on the Ṛgveda. This commentary ranks high among the various commentaries on the Vedas.

AITAREYA II Son of Sage, Māṇḍuki by his first wife, Itarā. Being the son of Itarā he came to be called Aitareya. As a boy he was very pious and used to chant the mantra "Namo Bhagavate Vāsudevāya" frequently. But he was a shy and silent boy and his father mistook his silence to be a sign of stupidity. Dissatisfied with him and being desirous of having learned sons, Māṇḍuki married another woman named Piṅgā and had four sons by her who all became very learned. Once Itarā called her son and told him that his father regarded him as an unworthy son and was often twitting her using insulting words for having given birth to so unworthy a son. She then told him of her resolve to sacrifice her life. Aitareya then made an enlightening discourse to her and dissuaded her from her determination to commit suicide. Some time later Lord Viṣṇu appeared before them and blessed the mother and son. On the advice of Viṣṇu Aitareya participated in the yajña conducted by Harimedhya at Koṭitīrtha and there he made a learned speech on the Vedas. Harimedhya was so pleased with him that he gave his daughter in marriage to him. (See Skanda Purāṇa, Chapters 1, 2 and 42).

AJA I A king of the Solar dynasty.
     1) Genealogy. From Viṣṇu were descended in order: Brahmā, Marīci-Kaśyapa-Vivasvān-Vaivasvata-Ikṣvāku-Vikukṣi-Saśāda-Purañjaya-Kukutstha-Anenas-Pṛthulāśvā-Prasenajit-Yuvanāśva-Mandhātā-Purukutsa-Trasadasyu-Anaraṇya-Aryaśva-Vasumanas-Sudhanvā-Traiyāruṇa-Satyavrata-Triśaṅku-Hariścandra-Rohitāśva-Harita-Cuñcu-Sudeva-Bharuka-Bāhuka-Sagara-Asamañjas-Aṃśumān-Dilīpa-Bhagīratha-Śrutanābha-Sindhudvīpa-Ayutāyus-Ṛtuparṇa-Sarvakāma-Sudāsana-Mitrasakha-Kalmāṣapāda-Aśmaka-Mūlaka-Dilīpa-Dīrghabāhu-Raghu-Aja-Aja's son Daśaratha-Daśaratha's son, Śrī Rāma.
     M.B., Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 115, Verse 75 says that Aja never used to take meat.

AJA II Among the different kinds of Ṛṣis mentioned by Yudhiṣṭhira, we find a class of Ṛṣis called Ajas. (M.B., Śānti Parva, Chapter 26). These Ajas had attained Heaven by Svādhyāya (self discipline) alone.

AJA III King Jahnu had a son named Aja. Uśika was the son of this Aja. King Uśika prayed to Indra for a son. Indra himself was born as the son of Uśika assuming the name Gādhi. Satyavatī was born as the daughter of Gādhi. She was married to Ṛcīka. Paraśurāma's father, Jamadagni was the son of Ṛcīka. (M.B., Śānti Parva, Chapter 49).

AJA IV By the grace of Śiva Surabhī was able to purify herself by penance. She then gave birth to Aja, Ekapāt, Ahirbudhnya, Tvaṣṭā and Rudra. (Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 18).

AJA V In the first Manvantara* Svāyambhuva, in the second Manvantara Svārociṣa and in the third Manvantara Uttama, were Manus. To the third Manu, Uttama, were born as sons Aja, Paraśu, Dīpta and others. (Viṣṇu Purāṇa, Part 3, Chapter 1).
     Besides the above, the term Aja has been used to mean Sūrya, Śiva, Brahmā, Viṣṇu, Śrī Kṛṣṇa and Bīja (seed).
*) One Manvantara is a period equal to 4,320,000 human years or equal to (1/4)th day of Brahmā.

AJAGAVA Ajagava is a bow made of the horns of a goat and a cow. Brahmins tormented the right hand of the King Vena. From it the brilliant Pṛthu who shone brightly like the God Agni, appeared as the son of Vena. At that time the very first Ajagava bow, divine arrows and armours dropped from the sky. (Viṣṇu Purāṇa, Part I, Chapter 13).

AJAIKAPĀT I He was one of the eleven Rudras, who were born to Sthāṇudeva, the son of Brahmā. The eleven Rudras are:--
     1. Mṛgavyādha 7. Dahana
     2. Nirṛti 8. Īśvara
     3. Ahirbudhnya 9. Kapāli
     4. Pināki 10. Bharga
     5. Sarpa 11. Sthāṇu.
     6. Ajaikapāt
     (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 66, Verse 2).*
*) The names of the Eleven Rudras given in the Viṣṇu Purāṇa, Part I, Chapter 5 are: Hara, Bahurūpa, Tryambaka, Aparājita Vṛṣākapi, Śambhu, Kapardi, Raivata, Mṛgavyādha, Śarva, Kapāli. A total number of 100 Rudras are mentioned in the Purāṇas.

AJAIKAPĀT II Among the sons of Viśvakarmā, we find one Ajaikapāt. Brahmā created Viśvakarmā. Viśvakarmā had four sons--Ajaikapāt, Ahirbudhnya, Tvaṣṭā and Rudra. (Viṣṇu Purāṇa, Part I, Chapter 15).
     This Ajaikapāt is one of those who are in-charge of preserving all the gold in this world. (M.B., Udyoga Parva, Chapter 114, Verse 4).

AJAKA An Asura.
     Birth. Kaśyapa was born the son of Marīci, son of Brahmā. Kaśyapa married Danu, one of the daughters of Dakṣa and had two sons by her. They were Ajaka and Vṛṣaparvā. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 65, Verse 24; Chapter 67, Verse 16).

AJAKĀŚVA A king of the Pūru Vaṃśa. The mighty Jahnu was born to Ajamīḍha by his wife Keśinī. Two sons, Ajakāśva and Balakāśva were born to Jahnu. Kuśika is the son of Balakāśva. Kuśika is the grandfather of Viśvāmitra. For genealogy see Pūru Vaṃśa. (Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 278).

AJAMĪḌHA I A famous king of the Pūru Vaṃśa.
     1) Genealogy. Descended from Viṣṇu in this order:-Brahmā-Atri-Candra-Budha-Purūravas-Āyus-Nahuṣa-Yayāti-Pūru-Janamejaya-Prācinvā-Manasyu-Vītabhaya-Śunḍu-Bahuvidha-Saṃyāti-Rahovādi-Bhadrāśva-Matināra-Santurodha-Duṣyanta-Bharata-Bṛhatkṣetra-Hasti-Ajamīḍha.
     2) Birth. Several dynasties like Yadu Vaṃśa, Pūru Vaṃśa etc. take their origin from Yayāti. Duṣyanta belongs to that dynasty. King Bharata was born as Duṣyanta's son by Śakuntalā. Suhotra-Suhota-Gaya-Gardda-Suketu and Bṛhatkṣetra were Bharata's sons. Bṛhatkṣetra had four children, who were: Nara, Mahāvīra, Garga and Hasti. Of them Hasti had three sons: Purumīḍha, Ajamīḍha and Dvimīḍha.
     3) Other details. Ajamīḍha had three queens--Dhūminī, Nīlī and Keśinī. Of them, Dhūminī had a son, Ṛkṣa and Nīlī's son was Duṣyanta (This was not Śakuntalā's husband, Duṣyanta) and Keśinī's sons were Jahnu, Praja and Rūpiṇa. Parameṣṭī was another name of Keśinī. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 94, Verses 30-32; Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 2).

AJAMĪḌHA II We come across another Ajamīḍha also in the Lunar Dynasty. He married Sudevā, daughter of Vikaṇṭha a King of the Lunar Dynasty. This Ajamīḍha had 2400 children by his four wives, Kaikeyī, Gāndhārī, Viśālā and Ṛkṣā. Of them Saṃvaraṇa married Tapatī, the daughter of Vivasvān. See Tapatī Saṃvaraṇa. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 95, Verses 35-37).

AJĀMILA Ajāmila's story is given in the Bhāgavata as an example to illustrate that even the most wicked person can attain Viṣṇupāda (Salvation).
     Ajāmila was a Brahmin who was once sent by his father to the jungle to fetch samit (leaves and twigs to make the sacrificial fire). Ajāmila met there a beautiful Śūdra woman. Forgetting everything, the Brahmin made her his wife and children were born to them. When that Brahmin, who was the very embodiment of all vices, reached the age of eightyseven, the time came for him to die. Yamadūtas (Agents of Yama--the god of death) had arrived. The frightened Ajāmila shouted loudly the name of his eldest son, 'Nārāyaṇa'. Hearing the repeated call of his name 'Nārāyaṇa', Mahāviṣṇu appeared there and dismissed the agents of Yama. From that day Ajāmila became a devotee of Viṣṇu and did penance on the bank of the Ganges and after some years attained salvation. (Bhāgavata, Aṣṭama Skandha, Chapter 1).

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AJAMUKHA (AJAVAKTRA) He was one of the soldiers in Skanda's army. (M.B., Śalya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 75). In the battle between Skanda and the Asuras, Ajamukha killed the Asura, Madhu. (Skanda Purāṇa, Yuddha Kāṇḍa).

     1. Genealogy. Descended from Viṣṇu thus: Brahmā-Marīci-Kaśyapa-Ajāmukhī.
     2) Birth Long ago in the battle between Devas and Asuras one of the routed Asuras had fled to Pātāla (Hell). Surasā was his daughter. Brahmā's grandson, Kaśyapa married Surasā. She gave birth to six children--Śūrapadmā, Siṃhikā, Siṃhavaktra, Tārakāsura, Ajāmukhī, and Gomukha. The Asura woman Ajāmukhī is one of them.
     3) Chief events. (1) Marriage with Durvāsas. Once Śūrapadmā called his two brothers, Siṃhavaktra and Tārakāsura and ordered them to set up two cities, one to the north and the other to the south, of Mahāmeru. In obedience to his elder brother, Tārakāsura started with one half of the army and set up a city to the south of Mahāmeru. That city was named Māyāpura. Siṃhavaktra lived in the city on the northern side of Mahāmeru. Their sister Ajāmukhī went about enticing men to satisfy her lustful passion. Once, in the course of her wanderings, she met Durvāsas in the Himālayan valley. They fell in love and even married. The two Asuras, Ilvala and Vātāpi were born from their union. They insisted on sharing their father's achievements between them. Durvāsas cursed them that they would die at the hands of Agastya. (Skanda Purāṇa, Asura Kāṇḍa).
     (2) The cutting off of Ajāmukhī's hands. While wandering with her lustful passion, Ajāmukhī once went to the Śiva temple at Kāśi. There she happened to meet Indra's wife, Śacīdevī. In order to give her to her brother, Śūrapadmā, Ajāmukhī caught hold of Śacīdevī. Śacīdevī screamed aloud. Suddenly Śiva appeared there with His sword. Even then Ajāmukhī refused to release Śacīdevī. Śiva rescued Indrāṇī (Śacīdevī) by cutting off Ajāmukhī's hands. Hearing this, Śūrapadmā sent his army and imprisoned the Devas. The imprisoend Brahmā at the instance of Śūrapadmā, restored Ajamukhī's hands. Śūrapadmā's son, Bhānugopa fought against the remaining Devas and defeated them. (Skanda Purāṇa, Asura Kāṇḍa).


AJANĀBHA A mountain. A reference to this is seen in the M.B., Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 165, Verse 32. Another name, Ajanābha Varṣa for the territory ruled over by Ajanābha, is also found in Bhāgavata, Fifth Skandha, Chapter 1.

AJARA Tapantaka, the minister of King Vatsa, told him the story of a man named Ajara to illustrate the law that all people will have to suffer the consequences of their actions in a previous birth. The story is given below:--
     Once upon a time, there lived a King named Vinayaśīla in Vilāsapura, in the city of Śrīkaṇṭhanagarī. After some years, the King was affected by wrinkles of old age. A physician named Taruṇacandra came to the palace to cure the King of his wrinkles. "The King should remain alone in the interior of the earth for full eight months. He has to use a medicine while remaining there. It should not even be seen by anyone else. I myself am to administer the medicine"--This was the physician's prescription. The King agreed. Accordingly the King and the physician spent six months in the interior of the earth. After that the physician, after a search, found a man who exactly resembled the King and brought him to the interior of the earth. After two more months, the physician murdered the King and came out with the new man. The people welcomed him with honour as the King who was cured of his wrinkles. This man was Ajara. After some time, the physician approached Ajara for his reward. Ajara said: "It is by my Karmaphala (consequence of my actions in my previous birth) that I have become King. In my previous birth I renounced my body after doing penance. According to the boon which God gave me on that occasion, I have become King in my present birth". The physician returned empty-handed. (Kathāsaritsāgara, Ratnaprabhālaṃbaka, 6th Taraṅga).

AJAVINDU He was a King, born in the dynasty of the Suvīras. (M.B., Udyoga Parva, Chapter 74, Verse 14).

AJEYA He was a King in ancient Bhārata. Ajeya's name is found among the names of the Kings mentioned by Sañjaya to Dhṛtarāṣṭra. All these Kings were mighty and generous rulers who were the recipients of divine arrows. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 1, Verse 234).

AJĪGARTA (ṚCĪKA). He was a greedy Brahmin. (See

     King Hariścandra who was distressed by having no children, propitiated god Varuṇa
Varuṇa blessed him saying that a son would be born to him. But the condition was that the child should be sacrificed to Varuṇa. When the child was born, Hariścandra did not like to sacrifice the boy. The sage Viśvāmitra suggested that instead of sacrificing his own son it would be enough if he bought another boy and sacrificed him. Accordingly, Hariścandra sent his minister to find out and purchase a Brahmin boy for the sacrifice. At that time there lived in Ayodhyā a greedy Brahmin named Ajīgarta. He had three sons. In the course of his search, the minister came across this needy Brahmin and asked him whether he was willing to sell one of his three sons. He continued: "Why should you be in this wretched state of poverty and misery? Sell one of your sons and you will get 100 cows as the price". The minister's words and the price offered for the son made a deep impression on the Brahmin's mind. He thought: "It is impossible for me to earn 100 cows. Even if it were possible how long would it take? If I sell him I shall get hundred cows at once. What a lucky chance! The loss of a son is nothing." So thinking, he sold his son Śunaśśepha. (For the rest of the story, see the word "Śunaśśepha". Devī Bhāgavata, Skandhas 7, 8).

AJINA 1) Genealogy From Viṣṇu, Brahmā, Marīci, Kaśyapa, Vaivasvata, Uttānapāda, Dhruva, Śṛṣṭi, Ripu, Cākṣuṣa, Manu, Uru, Aṃga, Vena, Pṛthu, Antardhāna, Havirdhāna and Ajina.
     2) Birth. Pṛthu had two sons, Antardhāna and Vādi. Antardhāna had a son, Havirdhāna, by Śikhaṇḍinī. Dhiṣaṇā, who was born in the Agnikula became Havirdhāna's wife. Six sons were born to them, Prācīnabarhis, Śukra, Gaya, Kṛṣṇa, Vraja and Ajina. (Viṣṇu Purāṇa, Part I, Chapter 14).

AJIŚAKA (See the word (ŚAKAVARṢA).

AJODARA There was an individual called Ajodara in Skanda's army. (M.B., Śalya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 60).

AKAMPANA (A mighty warrior among the demons).
     1) Genealogy. Descended from Viṣṇu in the following order: Viṣṇu-Brahmā-Heti-Vidyukeśa-Sukeśa Sumāli-Akampana.
     2) Other details. Sumāli married Ketumatī and got fourteen children. They were 1) Prahasta 2) Akampana 3) Vikaṭa 4) Kālakāmukha 5) Dhūmrāksa 6) Daṇḍa 7) Supārśvā 8) Sāṃhrāda 9) Prākvāta 10) Bhāsakarṇa 11) Vekā 12) Puṣpotkaṭā 13) Kaikasī and 14) Kumbhīnadī. Of these the last four are daughters. Prahasta was one of the ministers of Rāvaṇa. The thirteenth child Kaikasī was married to Viśravas, son of Pulastya. Viśravas got three sons and a daughter. They were Rāvaṇa, Kumbhakarṇa and Vibhīṣaṇa and Śūrpaṇakhā. It was Akampana who informed Rāvaṇa that Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa had killed his three allies, Khara, Dūṣaṇa and Triśiras (Araṇya Kāṇḍa, Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa).
     3) Death. Akampana fought a fierce battle with Hanūmān and in the end Hanūmān plucked a big tree and hit Akampana on the head with it and killed him. (Sarga 56, Yuddha Kāṇḍa of Rāmāyaṇa)

AKAMPANA II He was a king who lived in the Kṛtayuga. He had a son named Hari who was a fierce fighter. He was killed in a battle and the King became much depressed. Nārada consoled him with other stories and Vyāsa told this story to Dharmaputra when he found the latter greatly dejected and gloomy after the great battle was over. (Chapter 52, Droṇa Parva of M.B. also makes mention of Akampana).

AKARKKARA A serpent, son of Kadru.
     1) Genealogy. Descended from Viṣṇu in this order: Brahmā-Marīci-Kaśyapa-Akarkkara.
     2) Birth. Kaśyapa married the eight daughters of Dakṣa named Aditi, Diti, Danu, Kālikā, Tāmrā, Krodhavaśā, Manu and Analā. Krodhavaśā got ten sons. One of them is Kadru. Ananta and Akarkkara were born of Kadru. (Śloka 16, Chapter 35, Ādi Parva, M.B.).

AKRODHA A King of the Pūru dynasty. He was born to King 'Ayutanāyi' and his Queen, Kāmā. Kāmā, mother of Akrodha, was the daughter of Pṛthuśravā. (Śloka 21, Chapter 95, Ādi Parva, M.B.).

AKṚTAŚRAMA He is one of the few sannyāsins who have gone to heaven after completing the fourth āśrama of life namely, Sannyāsa. The Kaurava-Pāṇḍava battle was over. As the eldest, Dharmaputra performed obsequies to all those of his kith and kin dead in the war. He was then met by many sages including Vyāsa and Nārada who comforted him in his bereavement. When Dharmaputra later met Bhīṣma the latter among many other stories told him the story of Akṛtaśrama also. (Śloka 17, Chapter 244, Śānti Parva, M.B.).

     1) General information. Akṛtavraṇa was a great sage of erudition and was a disciple of Paraśurāma. He is extolled in the Purāṇas and it is said that Sūta who recited first the story of Mahābhārata to an assembly of sages in the forest of Naimiśa was a disciple of Akṛtavraṇa. (Skandha 12 of Bhāgavata).
     2) How he became a disciple of Paraśurāma. Para urāma was returning after obtaining arrows from Lord Śiva after pleasing him by fierce penance. He was walking briskly through the dense forests anxious to be at the side of his preceptors to get their blessings. As he passed a great cave he heard a moan and on getting to the site of the sound found a brahmin boy being attacked by a tiger. The tiger immediately fell dead by an arrow from Paraśurāma. Lo! the tiger turned into a gandharva freed now from a curse because of which he was for years living as a tiger. The gandharva bowed down respectfully and thanked the sage for giving him relief and left the place. The brahmin boy fell down at the feet of Paraśurāma and said, "Great Lord, because of you I have now become Akṛtavraṇa meaning one who has not received any wound. (Akṛta=not having secured. Vraṇa=wound). I shall, therefore, be your disciple forever hereafter". From that day onwards he never left Paraśurāma but followed him as his disciple.
     3) Other details. (1) In the story of Mahābhārata we find Akṛtavraṇa in several different contexts appearing on behalf of Paraśurāma. It was Akṛtavraṇa who told Dharmaputra the life and exploits of Paraśurāma during the exile of the Pāṇḍavas in the forests. (Chapters 115 to 117, Vana Parva, M.B.).
     (2) In Chapter 83 of Udyoga Parva we read about Akṛtavraṇa meeting Śrī Kṛṣṇa while the latter was going to Hastināpura.
     (3) In Chapter 173 of Udyoga Parva we read about Akṛtavraṇa detailing the history of the Kaurava dynasty to Duryodhana.
     (4) Akṛtavraṇa has played a very important role in the story of Ambā, daughter of the King of Kāśī. Ambā along with her two sisters, Ambikā and Ambālikā, were brought down to Hastināpura by Bhīṣma for his brother Vicitravīrya to marry. But on knowing that Ambā had mentally chosen Sālva as her husband, Bhīṣma allowed her to go back to Sālva. But on her return to Sālva he refused to accept her and she came back to Hastināpura. Bhīṣma then requested Vicitravīrya to accept her as his wife which, unfortunately, Vicitravīrya also refused to do. Ambā then turned to Bhīṣma and besought him to marry her which, much to his regret, he could not do because of his vow of celibacy. Thus forsaken by all, all her sweetness turned into bitter hatred towards Bhīṣma and she remained alive thereafter only to kill Bhīṣma. But even the foremost of warriors were not willing to antagonise Bhīṣma and so her appeal to help was not heeded by any. It was then that Hotravāha her grandfather on the maternal side met her and directed her to Paraśurāma. When she went to Paraśurāma it was Akṛtavraṇa who received her and on hearing her sorrowful tale encouraged her to seek vengeance on Bhīṣma. Again it was he who persuaded Paraśurāma to champion her cause and go for a fight against Bhīṣma. During the fight Akṛtavraṇa acted as charioteer to Paraśurāma. (Śloka 9, Chapter 179, Udyoga Parva, M.B.).
     (5) Akṛtavraṇa was one of the many sages who were lying on a bed of arrows during the great Kurukṣetra battle. (Śloka 8, Chapter 26, Anuśāsana Parva, M.B.).

     1) Genealogy. Descended from Viṣṇu in the following order: Brahmā-Atri-Candra-Budha-Purūravas-Āyus-Nahuṣa-Yayāti-Yadu (Chapter XII of Agni Purāṇa). Descending from Yadu in order were Sahasrajit-Śatajit-Hehaya-Dharma-Kunti-Bhadrasena-Dhanaka-Kṛtavīrya Kārttavīryārjuna-Madhu-Vṛṣṇi (Chapter XXIII of Navama Skandha, Bhāgavata). The Vṛṣṇi dynasty begins and from Vṛṣṇi in order descended Yudhājit-Śini-Satyaka-Sātyaki-Jaya-Kuṇi-Anamitra-Pṛśni-Śvaphalka-Akrūra. (Chapter XXIV of Navama Skandha, Bhāgavata).
     2) Birth. Śvaphalka of the Vṛṣṇi dynasty married Nandinī, daughter of the King of Kāśī and Akrūra was born to them. Akrūra was an uncle of Śrī Kṛṣṇa but is respected more as a worshipper of Kṛṣṇa.
     3) Other details. (1) He became famous as a commander of the Yādava army. (Chapter 220 of Ādi Parva, M.B.).
     (2) Akrūra was also present for the Śvayaṃvara (wedding) of Pāñcālī. (Śloka 18, Chapter 185 of Ādi Parva, M.B.).
     (3) At the time of Arjuna's eloping with Subhadrā, a grand festival was going on in the Raivata mountain and Akrūra was partaking in the same. (Śloka 10, Chapter 218, Ādi Parva, M.B.).
     (4) Akrūra accompanied Kṛṣṇa with the dowry intended for Subhadrā. (Śloka 29, Chapter 220, Ādi Parva, M.B.).
     (5) Akrūra came to the country called Upaplavya for attending the marriage of Abhimanyu. (Śloka 22, Chapter 72, Virāṭa Parva, M.B.).
     (6) Akrūra and Āhuka always quarrelled with each other both alleging that the other sided with the opposite camp of Kṛṣṇa. (Ślokas 9 to 11, Chapter 81, Śānti Parva, M.B.).
     (7) Kaṃsa planning to kill Balabhadrarāma and Śrī Kṛṣṇa conducted a festival called Cāpapūjā (worship of the bow). It was Akrūra whom Kaṃsa sent to bring Balabhadra and Kṛṣṇa for the festival. Akrūra understood the plot, informed Kṛṣṇa about it and also advised Kṛṣṇa to kill Kaṃsa. (Daśama Skandha, Bhāgavata).
     (8) Akrūra fought against Jarāsandha on the side of Kṛṣṇa. (Daśama Skandha).
     (9) On another occasion Kṛṣṇa, Balabhadra and Uddhava sent Akrūra to Hastināpura to get tidings about Kuntī and the Pāṇḍavas. Akrūra met his sister Kuntī and talked to her for a long time and also met Dhṛtarāṣṭra and talked to him after which he returned to Dvārakā. (Daśama Skandha).
     (10) Akrūra went to Hastināpura as a messenger from Śrī Kṛṣṇa. (Refer sub-para 3 of para 13 under Kṛṣṇa).
     4) Domestic life. Akrūra married Sutanū, daughter of Āhuka and got two sons named Devaka and Upadevaka. (Navama Skandha).
     5) Syamantaka and Akrūra. Refer para 2 under the word Kṛtavarmā.

AKṢA I (Akṣakumāra).
     1) Genealogy. Descended in order from Viṣṇu as follows: Brahmā-Pulastya-Viśravas-Rāvaṇa-Akṣa. (Uttararāmāyaṇa).
     2) Birth. Three sons were born to Rāvaṇa, King of the demons, by his wife Mandodarī. They were Meghanāda, Atikāya and Akṣakumāra. Akṣakumāra was a redoubtable hero and a fierce fighter but was killed by Hanūmān in Laṅkā. (Sarga 47, Sundara Kāṇḍa, Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa).

AKṢA II We find another warrior of this name among the soldiers who came to help Skanda in the Kaurava-Pāṇḍava battle. (Śloka 58, Chapter 45, Śalya Parva, M.B.).

AKṢAHṚDAYA A sacred chant or mantra. When Nala was roaming about in the forests after his separation from Damayantī he happened to save the cobra, Kārkoṭaka, from a wild fire. But in return the snake bit him and made him as black as clouds. He then advised Nala to go to the palace of King Ṛtuparṇa where the cobra said, Nala would be taught the secret mantra of Akṣahṛdaya by the King.
     One who knows this sacred chant can find out all secrets of a game of dice and can count within no time the number of leaves, fruits and flowers on a tree. Nala went to Rṭuparṇa and stayed with him. While living there a brahmin named Sudeva came to Ṛtuparṇa and informed him that Damayantī was going to marry again. Ṛtuparṇa immediately started for Vidarbha taking Nala as his charioteer. The chariot driven by Nala flew like a wind and on the way when Ṛtuparṇa's handkerchief fell down and he requested Nala to stop the chariot. Nala informed him that by the time the request was made they had travelled already one yojana. As they proceeded they saw a huge tree full of leaves and fruits. Ṛtuparṇa at a glance told Nala that the tree contained five crores of leaves and two thousand nine hunḍred and five fruits. Nala was surprised. Then they understood that Nala was able to drive the chariot so quickly because of his knowledge of the sacred chant Aśvahṛdaya and that Ṛtuparṇa was able to count the leaves and fruits because of his knowledge of the chant Akṣahṛdaya. They taught each other the sacred mantras. Because of this Akṣahṛdaya Nala was able to win the game of dice the second time and regain his kingdom. (Chapter 72, Vana Parva).

AKṢAMĀLĀ (ARUNDHATĪ). See under Arundhatī.

AKṢAPRAPATANA A particular place in the country of Ānartta. At this place Śrī Kṛsṇa killed two demons named Gopati and Tālaketu. (Śloka 29, Chapter 38, Sabhā Parva, M.B.).

AKṢARAPURUṢA When all was set for the Kurukṣetra battle Arjuna showed signs of weakness and hesitated to proceed for a fight. Śrī Kṛṣṇa then through the famous Gītā enunciated a philosophy of life during the course of which he speaks about the two puruṣas, Kṣara and Aksara. All that we see in this world and enjoy are Kṣara and the power behind all of them is Akṣara. God is one who transcends the aspects Kṣara and Akṣara and stands as the root cause of all life. (Ślokas 16 to 19, Chapter 39, Bhīṣma Parva, M.B.)

AKṢASŪTRĀ She was the wife of the sage Āpastamba. She was a very chaste woman. (See under Āpastamba).

AKṢAUHIṆĪ A big division of an army. It is described in the Verses 19 to 26 in the 2nd Chapter of Ādi Parva of the Malayalam Mahābhārata. It says thus: One chariot, one elephant, three horses and five soldiers constitute what is termed a Patti. Three such pattis make one Senāmukha and three such senāmukhas make one Gulma. Three gulmas make one Gaṇa and three such gaṇas make one Vāhinī. Three such vāhinīs make one Pṛtanā. An Akṣauhiṇī contains 21870 chariots, an equal number of elephants, 65160 horses and 109350 soldiers.

AKṢAYAPĀTRA This is a copper vessel given to Dharmaputra by Sūrya (Sun). To destroy the Pāṇḍavas, Duryodhana kept them in a palace made of lac. They escaped from there and passing through dense forests crossed the river Ganges and reached the Kingdom of Pāñcāla where they married the King's daughter, Kṛṣṇā (Pāñcālī). On their way they killed two demons called Hidimba and Baka. When they were living happily at Indraprastha the jealous Duryodhana defeated them in a game of dice by foul play and sent them for a period of twelve years to the forests. The Pāṇḍavas found it impossible to feed the innumerable subjects who faithfully followed them to the forest. Dharmaputra then prayed to the God, Sūrya and he appeared before him and gave him this Akṣaya Pātra (Akṣaya=never getting empty, Pātra=pot). Everyday this pot never got empty till the meals of Pāñcālī were over. (Chapter 3, Vana Parva, M.B.). See also under Duryodhana, Para 12.

AKṢAYAVAṬA A sacred lake. When the Pāṇḍavas during their exile went to Pulastyāśrama sage Pulastya gave a description of all the sacred lakes in India. He says, "After reaching Mārkaṇḍeya lake you should visit the meeting place of the rivers Gaṅgā and Gomatī. Then when you reach Gayā you will find there a lake called Akṣayavaṭa. If you bathe in that lake you will get salvation". In the Navama Skandha of Devī Bhāgavata you find the following about Akṣayavaṭa: "Puṣpabhadrā is one of the famous sacred rivers in India. This river starts from the Himālayas with the name Śarāvatī and flowing for 500 yojanas (One yojanam is equal to about 8 miles) on the left side of river Gomatī reaches the western ocean. There is an āśrama called Akṣayavaṭa on the shores of this beautiful river which always carries crystal clear water. The āśrama got that name because of a big banyan tree standing near it. Kapila, the great sage, did penance sitting here for a long time. Lord Śiva, Bhadrakālī and Skanda used to come and sit underneath this banyan tree.

AKṢĪṆA He was the son of Viśvāmitra. (Śloka 50, Chapter 14, Anuśāsana Parva. For more details see under Viśvāmitra).

     1) General information. There is a lake in the Himālayas called Indradyumna. Akūpāra is a tortoise living in it. There is also a statement that this is the Ādi-Kūrma (second of the ten incarnations of God). A description of Akūpāra is found in Chapter 199 of Vana Parva in Mahābhārata.
     2) Cirañjīvī (One who has no death). When the Pāṇḍavas were in exile in the forests sage Mārkaṇḍeya tells many stories to Dharmaputra to console him in his sad plight. The Pāṇḍavas asked Mārkaṇḍeya whether he knew of anybody living before him. Then the sage said, "In times of old Indradyumna an ascetic King (Rājarṣi) fell down from heaven when he fell short of his accumulated 'Puṇya'. Sorrowfully he came to me and asked me whether I knew him. I replied in the negative adding that perhaps Prāvīrakarṇa an owl living on the top of the Himālayas might know him since he was older than me. At once Indradyumna became a horse and taking me on its back approached the owl living in the Himālayas. The owl also could not remember Indradyumna but directed him to a stork named Nāḍījaṃgha who was older than the owl. The Ascetic king took me then to the Indradyumna lake where the stork lived. The stork also could not find the identity of Indradyumna. Perhaps he said that a tortoise of name Akūpāra living in that same lake might know him. We then approached the tortoise and enquired whether he knew Indradyumna. The tortoise sat in meditation for some time and then weeping profusely and shaking like a leaf stood bowing respectfully and said, "How can I remain without knowing him? There are several monuments of the useful work done by him here. This very lake is of his making. This came into existence by the march of the cows he gave away to the people". The moment the tortoise finished speaking a chariot appeared from heaven to take the King away. The King after leaving me and the owl in their proper places ascended to heaven in the chariot.

ALAGHU A son born to Vasiṣṭha by Ūrjjā. Rāja (Rajas) Gātra, Urdhvabāhu, Savana, Śukra and Sutapas, who were great hermits, were brothers of Alaghu, who has another name 'Alagha'. (Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 20).

ALAKĀ The city of Kubera.

ALAKANANDĀ River Gaṅgā of devaloka. The river gaṅgā of the earth when it flows through devaloka is called Alakanandā and is called Vaitaraṇī when it flows through Pitṛloka (nether world). Kṛṣṇadvaipāyana (Vyāsa) declares that Deva Gaṅgā with crystal pure water flowing in devaloka under the name Alakanandā and Vaitaraṇī of the nether world, a terror to sinners, are the same as the Gaṅgā of the earth. (Ślokas 21 and 22, Chapter 170, Bhāṣā Bhārata, A.P.).
     Starting from Viṣṇupāda Alakanandā flows through Devayāna which blazes with the splendour of a crore of beautiful many-storeyed buildings. Flowing from there to Candramaṇḍala (moon) and flooding it completely flows down to Brahmaloka. From there it divides into four rivulets and flows to the four different sides with the names Sītā, Cakṣus, Alakanandā and Bhadrā. Of these Sītā falls on the thickly wooded mountain tops of Mahāmeru and flowing from there through Gandhamādana by the side of Bhadrāśvavarṣa falls down in the eastern ocean. Cakṣus falls on the top of Mālyavān mountain and flowing through Ketumāla falls down in the western ocean. The most sacred of the group, Alakanandā, falls on the mountain of Hemakūṭa and from there flows through Bhāratavarṣa and falls down in the southern ocean. The fourth, Bhadrā, falling on the top of the Mountain, Sṛṅgavān flows to the northern ocean. Of these the most sacred is Alakanandā which flows through Bhāratavarṣa and it is believed that even those who think of taking a bath in that will acquire the benefit of performing yāgas like Aśvamedha and Rājasūya. (Eighth Skandha of Śrī Mahādevībhāgavata).

ALAMBALA A giant who used to eat human flesh. This cannibal was the son of Jaṭāsura. This asura (Alambala) fought on the side of the Kauravas in the Kurukṣetra battle because Bhīmasena had killed his father, Jaṭāsura. In the battle, Ghaṭotkaca cut off the head of this mighty warrior and magician and threw his head into the war-chariot of Duryodhana. (M.B., Droṇa Parva, Chapter 149).

ALAMBATĪRTHA A holy place where there was a sacred bath. Garuḍa, when he went to devaloka (the realm of the gods) to bring Amṛtam (ambrosia) took rest in this holy place. (See under the word Garuḍa. Also M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 39, Stanza 39).

ALAMBUṢA I Son of the giant Ṛṣyaśṛṅga. He had fought on the side of the Kauravas. (M.B., Udyoga Parva, Chapter 167, Stanza 33). There was a combat between Alambuṣa and Ghaṭotkaca, on the first day of the battle of Kurukṣetra.
     "Alambuṣa shot ninety sharpened pointed arrows at the son of Bhīmasena (Ghaṭotkaca), cut his body in several places. Though he was full of wounds, he fought all the more fiercely". (Bhāṣā Bhārata, Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 45, Stanzas 43, 44).
     Alambuṣa had engaged Abhimanyu, Sātyaki, Ghaṭotkaca, Kuntibhoja and Bhīmasena all mighty men of arms, in single combat, in the Kaurava battle. It is seen that he has got another name, Sālakaṭaṃka. He was killed by Ghaṭotkaca in the battle. (M.B. Droṇa Parva, Chapter 109, Stanzas 22 to 33).

ALAMBUṢA II Another king on the side of the Kauravas. Sātyaki killed this king. (Mahābhārata, Droṇa Parva, Chapter 140, Stanza 13).

ALAMBUṢA III A king of the Rākṣasas. It is seen that this Alambuṣa was defeated and driven away from the battle-field by Arjuna. (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 167, Stanzas 37 to 47).

ALAMBUṢA IV A giant, the son of Jaṭāsura. Ghaṭotkaca killed this giant in the battle.

ALAMBUṢĀ A celestial woman born to Kaśyapa by his wife Pradhā.
     1) Genealogy. Begins from Viṣṇu in the following order: Brahmā-Kaśyapa-Alambuṣā.
     2) How she enticed the hermit Dadhīca. In days of yore there was an ascetic named Dadhīca. He began doing tapas on the bank of the river Sarasvatī. Indra was in consternation. Indra sent this celestial maid Alambuṣā to entice the hermit. When the ascetic got down to the river, Alambuṣā approached him with enticing actions and expressions. When the hermit saw her he became passionate and he had seminal flow. The sperm fell into the river. The river became pregnant and delivered a child in due course. He was called Sārasvata.
     Alambuṣā brought the child before Dadhīca, who blessed the child and said that there would be a drought in the country continuously for twelve years and that at that juncture Sārasvata would recite passages from the Scripture to the Brahmins who had forgotten them. The much pleased Sarasvatī and Sārasvata went back.
     At that time Indra lost his Vajrāyudha (weapon of thunderbolt) somewhere. The Asuras (enemies of Gods) made an onslaught on the gods and their realm. Indra knew that with a weapon made by the bone of Dadhīca the Asuras could be destroyed. Indra asked the Gods to bring the bone. They came down to the earth and requested Dadhīca to give them a bone. Dadhīca giving his bone died and attained heaven. With his bones Indra made a good deal of weapons such as the Vajrāyudha, wheel weapons, maces and sticks and with them Indra slew all the Daityas (Asuras).
     After this there was a great famine in the country. As there was no rain, crops failed and lands became dry and the Brahmins left the country. Sārasvata alone remained with his mother. After twelve years the famine and starvation came to an end. By then the Brahmins had forgotten the hymns and mantras of the Vedas. They approached the boy Sārasvata and renewed their memory. (Mahābhārata, Śalya Parva, Chapter 51).
     3) Punarjanma (Rebirth). Long ago Indra went to Brahmā. There was one Vasu called Vidhūma also with Indra. When these two were standing near Brahmā, Alambuṣā also came there to pay homage to Brahmā. The garments she had on were displaced by wind. Vidhūma saw the dazzling beauty of her body and was overpowered by libido. Alambuṣā who understood this, was filled with passion for him. Brahmā who saw the changes in them looked at Indra with displeasure. Indra knowing the mind of Brahmā cursed them: "Both of you who have lost meekness shall become human beings and then your desire will be fulfilled". Owing to the curse Vidhūma was born as Sahasrānīka, the illustrious King of Candra vaṃśa (Lunar dynasty) and Alambuṣā took birth as Mṛgāvatī, the daughter of King Kṛtavarmā and his wife Kalāvatī. (Kathāsaritsāgara, Kathāmukhalambaka, Taraṅga 1).
     4) The curse of Tilottamā. Sahasrānīka the incarnation of Vidhūma and Mṛgāvatī the incarnation of Alambuṣā fell in love with each other on the earth also. Before the wedding took place Devendra once invited Sahasrānīka to heaven. He lived there for a time as the guest of the Gods. After having defeated the Asuras it was time for him to return. Indra sent Tilottamā to keep company. The charioteer was driving. Sahasrānīka immersed in the thought of Mṛgāvatī was sitting silent. Tilottamā said something which the King did not hear. Tilottamā cursed him that he would be separated for fourteen years from the object about which he was thinking. He was not even aware of the curse.
     5) The period of separation. The King returned to Kauśāmbi his capital city. Without much delay the wedding ceremony also was conducted. She became pregnant. One day she told her lover-husband that she had a desire to dip in a blood pond. The King made a pond and filled it with a solution of Lākṣā (wax, when dissolved in water, the water will look like blood) and such other substances. Mṛgāvatī was dipping and splashing in it when an eagle taking her to be a piece of flesh took her away. At the loss of his wife Sahasrānīka lost his senses and fell down unconscious. Immediately Mātali, Indra's charioteer, came down from the realm of Gods and brought the King back to consciousness, and then informing him of the curse of Tilottamā he returned. Without paying any heed to the consolatory words of his ministers or other inmates of the palace the King went on lamenting and moaning, "ha, my love Mṛgāvatī! Where are you now?" and waited for the end of the period of the curse, execrating Tilottamā. Casting Mṛgāvatī on the Mountain of the Rising Sun the great bird flew away. The horror-stricken queen, thinking of her present condition cried aloud. A very large mountain snake began to draw near to swallow her. A divine person saved her from that situation and vanished. The unprotected Mṛgāvatī decided to commit suicide. It was a forest which abounded in lions, tigers, bears and such other ferocious animals. But none of them came near her; over and above the exertion of carrying, she had to bear the difficulties of her forlorn condition, and she grew weary and worn and became unconscious. Then a hermit boy came there and questioned her who was now lean and ill-dressed, about her condition and consoling her guided her to the hermitage of the great hermit Jamadagni. When she saw the hermit who was as radiant as the Sun, she bowed low before him. "My daughter! Don't fear. You will get a heroic son here who will continue your family. You will be reunited to your husband." Said the great and noble hermit, who could foresee the future. Somewhat pacified Mṛgāvatī lived in that hermitage waiting for reunion with her husband. After some days she gave birth to a son who had all the symptoms of greatness. At the birth of the child Mṛgāvatī heard an unknown voice saying, "This boy would become the great and renowned King Udayana. His son would get the leadership of the Vidyādharas (the musicians of the Gods)". At this the queen was immensely pleased. The boy Udayana grew up in the hermitage, an incarnation of all good qualities. The hermit to whom the past, the present and the future were not obscure, performed the necessary rites and rituals becoming a Kṣatriya boy (Ruling caste) and taught him everything including the Dhanurveda (the Science of Archery). As a token of her intense love for the son, she put a bangle with the name of Sahasrānīka inscribed on the arm of Udayana. One day when Udayana was tramping the forest, he saw a snake-charmer catching a snake. Seeing the beauty of the snake he asked the snake-charmer to let the snake free. But the snake-charmer replied, "Oh Prince, this is my daily bread. I earn my livelihood by exhibiting snakes. My previous snake was dead and it was with the help of a good deal of herbs and spells and incantations that I caught this one".
     When he heard this Udayana felt pity for him and gave the bangle to the snake-charmer and let the snake free. When the snake-charmer had gone with the bangle, the snake beaming with joy said to Udayana: "I am Vasunemi, the elder brother of Vāsuki. I am grateful to you for giving me freedom. I give you this lute producing exquisite notes of music, betels and some tricks to prepare never fading garlands and paste to make marks on the forehead. Receive them as my presents". Udayana accepted the presents with gladness and returned more luminous than before to the hermitage of Jamadagni. The snake-charmer took the bangle, given by Udayana to the bazar for sale. The police caught him and took him before the King, because they saw the name of the King inscribed on the bangle. The King asked him how he got the bangle and the snake-charmer told the King the story from the catching of the snake till he got the bangle. "This is the bangle that I put on the arm of my wife. The boy who gave this bangle to this snake-charmer must be my son." The King was thinking with sadness, when the King heard a voice from above say, "O King! the period of the curse is over. Your wife and son are in the Mountain of the Rising Sun". At these words the King felt extreme joy. Somehow or other he spent the rest of the day. Early the next morning the King followed by his army, went to the Mountain of the Rising Sun to bring back his wife and son. They took the snakecharmer to show them the way.
     In due course the King and his train reached the holy hermitage of the eminent hermit Jamadagni. The place was always vibrant with sounds of the repeating and recitation of the Holy scriptures and covered with smoke mingled with the fragrance of burning herbs and other oblations burned in the sacrificial fire. The various wild animals which are born enemies of each other got on amicably there. The hermit who was an incarnation of the higher aspirations greeted the King who was the protector of the ascetics, with the hospitality becoming his status. The King who saw Mṛgāvatī with their son was overcome with gladness. Their reunion caused a shower of Ambrosia (Amṛta). The King stood before the hermit with folded arms and bowed head for permission to depart. To the King the hermit Jamadagni said: "Oh, King, you are welcome to this hermitage. To those such as you who are of the 'Rajoguṇapradhāna' caste (Ruling race) the peaceful atmosphere of our hermitage may not be appealing to the heart. But a holy hermitage is more respectable than the palace of an Emperor. There is no place for unhappiness here. You might have known that the reason for your separation is a curse. When you were returning from heaven with Tilottamā, you were so much engrossed in the thought of Mṛgāvatī that you did not pay any heed to the conversation of Tilottamā. She was displeased with your behaviour and cursed you. In future, if ever you happen to get into a position which will cause you mental trouble you can be assured of the presence of this Jamadagni." The King said, "I am extremely grateful to your Eminence for this great boon. I am fully aware of the fact that the presence of the holy hermits who have under their control the eightfold prosperities, is always a harbinger of peace and prosperity. I am very sorry to say that the exigency of my presence at the capital due to the pressure of work in connection with the ruling of the country compels me to cut short my visit to this holy hermitage. I shall be looking forward with pleasure to occasions which will enable me to pay visits to this Holy abode."
     Much pleased at the speech of the King the hermit said to Mṛgāvatī: "My daughter! Not only myself, but all the inmates of this hermitage are highly pleased at having got you in our midst for so long. We are sorry to part from you. Now look! the animals of the hermitage are standing round you and shedding tears. Still we are consoled at your reunion with your husband. Naturally you are of a very good character and your life in this hermitage has given you a nice training and so there is no need for any more advice from me at this time."
     Saying this he drew Udayana to his side, kissed him on his head and said to the King again: "This son is a decoration to your dynasty. This handsome boy has been taught everything becoming a royal prince. Let him be a costly gem to you".
     Thus blessing the boy the hermit led him to the King. The joy at her r{??}nion with husband, her shyness at being near him, her sorrow at having to depart from the hermitage and the surging feeling in her mind--all these made her dumb and so being unable to say anything she expressed her love and regard for the hermit whom she loved as her father, by some motions of her body and took leave of him with her son. The blessed King and his train, looking at the men, beasts and birds which accompanied them for a while, took leave of them and proceeded to the capital city. On reaching there the King anointed his son Udayana as King. Sahasrānika then went to the Himālayas to practise ascesis with his wife. (Kathāsaritsāgara, Kathāmukhalambaka, Taraṅga 2).
     (b) Enticing Tṛnabindu. A story is seen in the Bhāgavata of how Alambuṣā enticed the King Tṛṇabindu. He married Alambuṣā and a daughter named Iḍaviḍā (Ilabilā) was born to them. This Ilabilā was married to Viśravas, to whom a son named Kubera (the Lord of wealth) was born By Alambuṣā Tṛṇabindu had three sons called Viśāla, Śūnyabandhu and Dhūmraketu.
    "tam bhejelambuṣā devī bhajanīyaguṇālayaṃ varāpsarāyāste, putrāḥ kanyā ceḍabiḍābhavat tasyāmutpādayāmāsa viśravā dhanadaṃ sutaṃ prādāya vidyām paramāmṛṣiryogeśvarāt pituḥ viśālaḥ śūnyabandhuśca dhūmraketuścatatsutāḥ viśālo vaṃśakṛdrājā vaiśālīṃ nirmame purīm.
     "He who is the seat of all laudable qualities (Tṛṇabindu) was honoured by Alambuṣā (as husband). Iḍaviḍā their daughter was given in marriage to Visravas and to them was born Dhanada (Kubera). His father who was a great hermit taught him everything required. Three sons Viśāla, Śunyabandhu and Dhūmraketu, were born to them. Viśāla who was the founder of the Dynasty, built a city called Vaiśāli." (Bhāgavatam, Navama Skandham, Chapter 2, Stanzas 31-33).
     Alambuṣā took part in the birthday celebration of Arjuna.* (Mahābhārata, Ādi Parva, Chapter 65, Stanza 49) (See Footnote)
*) Alambuṣā was the mother of the Celestial maid Kalāvatī. See the word Ṭhinṭhā Karāla.

ALAṄKĀRAGRANTHA (A book on rhetorics and figures of speech). See the word Pattu.

ALAṄKĀRAVATĪ Wife of King Naravāhanadatta. It is seen in the Kathāsaritsāgara where a Vidyādhara woman tells the story of Alaṅkāravatī to the King.
     Once a vidyādhara named Alaṅkāraśīla ruled over a city called Śrī Sundarapura in the Himālayas. His wife was called Kāñcanaprabhā. A son was born to them. They named him Dharmaśīla because Devī Kātyāyanī told them in a dream that the son would become Dharmapara (who performs duties well). To the prince, knowledge in every branch of studies was imparted and then he was anointed heir to the throne. He executed regal functions to perfection and ruled his subjects better than his father. Kāñcanaprabhā, wife of Alaṅkāraśīla, gave birth to a daughter. At the time of her birth a heavenly voice said that she would become the wife of Naravāhanadatta the emperor of the Vidyādharas. They named her Alaṅkāravatī. She grew into a very beautiful maiden. She learned arts and sciences from her father. She went on a pilgrimage to the Śiva temples far and wide. One day she heard a celestial voice: "Go to the Svayambhu temple in Kaśmīra and worship there and you will get as your husband Naravāhanadatta." Finally Naravāhanadatta the emperor of Vidyādharas married her. (Kathāsaritsāgara, Lambaka 9, Taraṅga 1).

ALOLUPA A son of Dhṛtarāṣṭra.

ALPAKĀLA(M) A short time. (Alpa=short and Kāla =time). In the Bhāgavata the following definition is given of alpakāla: "Take two tender leaves of a lotus and place one on the other. Let a strong man take a sharp needle and thrust it hard at the leaves. The time taken for the needle to pierce one leaf and reach the other is alpakāla". [Bhāgavata (Malayalam version), Skandha 3].

ALARKA(M) I The name of an insect. It was in the form of this insect that Indra went and bore a hole on the leg of Karṇa while Paraśurāma was sleeping on his lap. The blood that flowed from Karṇa's foot wetted the body of the preceptor.

ALARKA II A king of the states of Kāśī and Karūṣa. He was a very honest man. Forsaking all riches and his kingdom he accepted Dharmamārga. (Śloka 64, Chapter 115, Anuśāsana Parva, M.B.). He was a member of the council of yama. He attained salvation by yoga and meditation. (18th Śloka, Chapter 8, Sabhā Parva, M.B.).
     Once Alarka decided to overcome the five senses. To control them he sent arrows at the mind, nose, tongue, ear, eye, skin and intelligence. But the senses never surrendered to them. Then Alarka by sheer dhyāna and yoga brought them under control. (M.B., Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 30).
     Alarka once told a blind brahmin boy to ask for any boon from him. The boy demanded the eyes of Alarka. To keep his promise Alarka scooped out his eyes and gave them to the blind boy. (Rāmāyaṇa, Ayodhyā Kāṇḍa, Sarga 12, Śloka 43).

ALĀTĀKṢĪ A woman in the service of Skanda. (M.B., Śalya Parva, Chapter 43, Stanza 8).

ALĀYUDHA A giant. He was the brother of Bakāsura. He fought on the side of the Kauravas. (M.B., Droṇa Parva, Chapter 95, Stanza 46 and Chapter 176, Stanza 6).
     Alāyudha combated with Bhīmasena and Ghaṭotkaca and was killed by Ghaṭotkaca.

AMADHYA A synonym of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. (M.B., Śānti Parva, Chapter 342, Verse 90).

AMĀHAṬHA A serpent. It was burnt up in the fire at the Sarpa satra of Janamejaya. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 57, Verse 16).

AMANTHU A king of the family of Priyavrata.
     Genealogy: From Viṣṇu descended in this order: Brahmā-Svāyambhuva Manu-Priyavrata-Agīndhra-Nābhi-Ṛṣabha-Bharata-Sumati-Devatājit-Devadyumna-Parameṣṭi-Pratiha-Pratihartā-Bhūmā-Sīta-Prastoka-Vibhu-Pṛthuṣeṇa-Nakta-Gaya-Citraratha-Samrāṭ-Marīci-Vindumān-Madhu-Vīravrata-Amanthu. Vīravrata had two sons, Manthu and Amanthu.

AMARACANDRA A Sanskrit poet. It is believed that he lived in the 13th Cent. A.D. Bāla Bhārata was his work. Amaracandra was a Jaina priest. It is said that he was a courtier of Vīsaladeva, the son of King Vīradhavala who ruled over Gujarat from 1243 to 1262.

AMARAGUPTA He was the minister of King Vikramasiṃha who ruled over Avanti in olden times. (Kathāsaritsāgara, Madana Mañcuka lambaka, First Taraṅga).

AMARAHRADA A place of holy bath. One who takes his bath here will attain Svarga. (M.B., Vana Parva, Chapter 83, Verse 106).

AMARAKAṆṬAKA A mountain. It was on this mountain that some parts of Tripura, which was burnt by Śiva fell. From that time it became a holy place. In Padma Purāṇa, Ādi Khaṇḍa, Chapter 15, we see the following passage about the benefits obtained by visiting this holy place. "One who goes to Amarakaṇṭaka mountain will enjoy the fourteen worlds for thirtyseven thousand crores of years. Afterwards he will be born on earth as King and reign as supreme emperor. A visit to Amarakaṇṭaka has ten times the value of an Aśvamedha. If one has Śiva's darśana there, one will attain Svarga. At the time of eclipse, all kinds of holy things converge towards Amarakaṇṭaka. Those who take their bath in Jvāleśvara in Amarakaṇṭaka will enter Svarga. The dead will have no rebirth. Those who renounce their lives at Jvāleśvara will live in Rudraloka till the time of great Deluge. In the valley of Amarakaṇṭaka and in the Tirtha live Devas known as Amaras and numerous Ṛṣis. Amarakaṇṭaka Kṣetra has a circumference of one yojana. (about eight miles).

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AMARAPARVATA An ancient place in Bhārata. Nakula had conquered this place. (M.B., Sabhā Parva, Chapter 32, Verse 11).

AMARĀVATĪ It is the city of Indra, the King of the Devas. Its location is described in Devī Bhāgavata as follows: "Brahmā's world extends over 10,000 yojanas on the Mahāmeru mountain. There are eight cities-each 2,500 square yojanas in extent--of the Aṣṭadikpālakas in eight parts of this Brahmapurī. Thus there are nine cities on the top of the Mahā Meru. They are the following:--
     1. In the centre is Brahmā's city, Manovatī.
     2. To the east of Manovatī, Indra's city, Amarāvatī.
     3. In the south-east corner, Agni's city, Tejovatī.
     4. On the southern side, Yama's city, Saṃyamanī.
     5. In the south-west corner, Nirrti's city, Kṛṣṇāñjanā.
     6. In the west, Varuṇa's city, Śraddhāvatī.
     7. In the north-west corner, Vāyu's city, Gandhavatī.
     8. In the north, Kubera's city Mahodaya.
     9. In the north-east corner, Śiva's city, Yaśovatī. (Devī Bhāgavata, Aṣṭama Skandha).


AMĀVĀSĪ In Amarakośa we read about Amāvāsī: "Amāvāsyā tvamāvasyā darśaḥ sūryendusaṃgamaḥ". Amāvāsī means New Moon. "Amā" means "Saha". So Amāvāsī is the Union of Sun and Moon in the same rāśi.
     Once Bhṛgu Mahaṛsi cursed Agni. At that time Agni explained the importance of Amāvāsī. The oblations which are offered as homa into the fire become the food of the Devas and Pitṛs. Substances offered as homa on Purṇamāsī become food of the Devas and those offered on Amāvāsī become food of the Pitṛs. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 7).

AMĀVASU I Son of Purūravas by Urvaśī. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 75, Verse 24).
     Genealogy. From Viṣṇu, Brahmā-Atri-Candra-Budha-Purūravas-Amāvasu.

AMĀVASU II One of the Pitṛs. Once Acchodā was fascinated by the physical charm of this Amāvasu and made advances of love to him. Amāvasu repelled her advances. On account of this impropriety of Acchodā, who was a spiritual daughter of the Pitṛs, she was degraded and in her next birth was born as Kālī or Satyavatī. (Padma Purāṇa, Sṛṣṭi Khaṇḍa).

AMBĀ Daughter of a King of Kāśī.
     1) Ambā and Vicitravīrya. Ambā is an ill-starred character in the story of the Mahābhārata. She had two younger sisters named Ambikā and Ambālikā. Bhīṣma, who had taken a vow to remain a bachelor for life, had once taken Ambā, Ambikā and Ambālikā, the three daughters of the King of Kāśī, to Hastināpura. The circumstances in which this happened, are descried in Devī Bhāgavata, Prathama Skandha as follows: Śantanu, a King of the Candra Vaṃśa, had two wives, Gaṅgā and Satyavatī. Bhīṣma was the son of Gaṅgā and Citrāṅgada and Vicitravīrya were the sons of Satyavatī. Soon after Bhīṣma's birth, Gaṅgā vanished. After a long period of reign, Śantanu also died. Satyavatī and the three sons were left behind in the palace. According to a vow he had taken long ago, Bhīṣma, instead of succeeding to his father's throne, left it to his brother Citrāṅgada. Once Citrāṅgada went for hunting in the forest. There he came across a Gandharva named Citrāṅgada. The Gandharva did not like another man with his own name to be living in this world. So he killed the king. After that Vicitravīrya became king. Bhīṣma had to take up the task of arranging a suitable marriage for Vicitravīrya.
     2) The Svayaṃvara. It was at this time that Bhīṣma came to know that the King of Kāśī was arranging the Svayaṃvara of his three daughters, Ambā, Ambikā and Ambālikā. Bhīṣma went there and in the presence of all the kings who had assembled there, took the three princesses with him to Hastināpura. There he made all preparations for the marriage. But as the time for the ceremony approached, the eldest and most beautiful of the princesses, Ambā went to Bhīṣma and said: "I had already made up my mind long ago to marry Sālva, the King. Besides, we are deeply in love with each other. Therefore, please consider whether it is proper on the part of a great man like you to force me into another marriage."
     On hearing this, Bhīṣma allowed her to do as she liked. Ambā then went to King Sālva and made an appeal to him to accept her as his wife since they were mutually in love.
     3) Sālva's rejection. To her words Sālva replied: "What you have said about our mutual love is true. But it is not right for a man to accept a woman who has been accepted by another. I saw Bhīṣma taking you by hand and helping you into his chariot. Therefore go at once to Bhīṣma himself and ask him to accept you." Stunned by his words, she turned away, to go to the forest to do penance.
     4) Revenge on Bhīṣma. In the Mahābhārata, Udyoga Parva, Chapter 17, we find that Ambā had cherished a secret desire to wreak vengeance on Bhīṣma. She went to the Āśrama of Śaikhāvatya Muni in the forest and stayed there for the night. Her wish to do penance was approved by the Muni. On the next day, Ambā's maternal grandfather, Hotravāhana (Sṛñjaya) came that way. Hotravāhana came to know of all her misfortunes. He advised her to inform Paraśurāma of all her grievances. Just at that moment Akṛtavraṇa, a follower of Paraśurāma happened to come there. Hotravāhana introduced Ambā to Akṛtavraṇa. Both Akṛtavraṇa and Sṛñjaya explained all her affairs to Paraśurāma. Paraśurāma undertook to persuade Bhīṣma to accept Ambā (as his wife). But Paraśurāma's proposal was turned down by Bhīṣma. A terrible duel took place between them at Kurukṣetra. When the fight reached a critical stage, Nārada and the gods induced Paraśurāma to withdraw from the duel. Thus the fight ended with equal victory to both. Finding that it was not possible to achieve her object through Paraśurāma's mediation, Ambā renounced food, sleep etc. and went to the Yamunā valley to do penance for six years. (M.B., Udyoga Parva, Chapter 188). After that for one year she went on a fast, lying under the water in the river Yamunā. Again for another year she did penance, standing on the tip of the toes and eating only dry leaves. Next, she reduced the sky and earth to flames by doing penance. The goddess Gaṅgā appeared to her and when she understood her plight, she told Ambā that it was not possible to kill Bhīṣma. In her agony and despair, without even drinking water, she wandered about here and there. The goddess Gangā cursed her to become a river in the Vatsa country. As a result of the curse, a part of her was turned into the river known as Ambā.
     5) Śiva's Boon. The remaining part of her engaged itself in penance. Śiva appeared to her and told her that in the next birth she would attain masculinity. He added that she would be born in the Drupada dynasty as a great archer under the name of Citrayodhi and kill Bhīṣma. Pleased with this prophecy, she took a vow that she would kill Bhīṣma and making a pyre, burnt herself to death.
     6) Rebirth. King Drupada's queen had been in great distress for a long time because she had no children. Drupada propitiated Śiva by worshipping him for an issue. Śiva blessed him and said that a girl would be born to him, but she would be transformed into a boy. In due course, the queen gave birth to a girl, but it was announced that it was a boy. Therefore the child had to be brought up, dressed like a boy. The child became famous under the name of Śikhaṇḍī. When Śikhaṇḍī attained youth, Drupada decided to look for a wife for him (her?). Still he was greatly perplexed as to how to find a wife for Śikhaṇḍī who was already a youthful virgin! But his wife assured Drupada that Sikhaṇḍī would become a man, according to Śiva's blessing. So, Drupada made a proposal for Śikhaṇḍī's marriage with the daughter of the King of Daśārṇa.
     7) Śikhaṇḍī's Marriage. Hiraṇyavarṇa, the King of Daśārṇa, gave his daughter in marriage to Śikhaṇḍī. The couple arrived at Kāmbalyapura. By this time the wife came to know that the "husband" was a woman. She disclosed the secret to her Ladies-in-waiting. They in turn communicated it to the king. Enraged at this, Hiraṇyavarṇa sent a messenger to King Drupada to ascertain the truth of the matter. He even began to make preparations for waging a war against Drupada, King of Pañcāla. Drupada and his queen were in a fix. At this stage the distressed Śikhaṇḍī proceeded to the forest, determined to commit suicide. People were afraid of entering that forest because a Yakṣa named Sthūṇakarṇa lived there. Śikhaṇḍī went to the premises of the Yakṣa and performed certain rites for a number of days. The Yakṣa appeared to her. Śikhaṇḍī explained the whole matter to him. They entered into a contract. According to it, they exchanged their sexes--Śikhaṇḍī receiving the male sex of the Yakṣa and the Yakṣa receiving the female sex of Śikhaṇḍī. Śikhaṇḍī returned home as a man. Drupada repeated with greater force his old plea that his child was a man. Hiraṇyavarṇa made a thorough examination of Śikhaṇḍī and convinced himself of the truth. Many years after, Hiraṇyavarṇa died.
     8) Kubera's Arrival. At that time, in the course of his world tour Kubera arrived at the residence of Sthūṇakarṇa. The Yakṣa who was in female form, did not come out to receive Kubera. In his anger, Kubera pronounced a curse that the female sex of Sthūṇakarṇa and the male sex of Śikhaṇḍī would continue for ever. The Yakṣa prayed for the lifting of the curse. Kubera released him from the curse by saying that after the death of Śikhaṇḍī, the Yakṣa would be restored to his own male sex.
     According to the previous agreement, Śikhaṇḍī went to Sthūṇakarṇa's place after the death of Hiraṇyavarṇa. But coming to know of all that had happened, he returned home. Thus Śikhaṇḍī became a man permanently. Śikhaṇḍī had received his training in arms under Droṇācārya. In the great Kaurava-Pāṇḍava battle, he became a charioteer.
     9) Śikhaṇḍī's Revenge. The Mahābhārata, Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 108, describes Bhīṣma's encounter with Śikhaṇḍī during the Kaurava-Pāṇḍava battle. The Pāṇḍavas started the day's battle by keeping Śikhaṇḍī in the vanguard. Bhīma, Arjuna, Abhimanyu and other warriors were giving him support. It was Bhīṣma who led the Kaurava forces. Arrows began to fly from both sides. It was the tenth day of the battle and Śikhaṇḍī shot three arrows aimed at Bhīṣma's breast. Bhīṣma with a smile of contempt said to Śikhaṇḍī, "Śikhaṇḍī! Brahmā created you as a woman. You may do as you like". Hearing this taunt, Śikhaṇḍī became more infuriated. Arjuna inspired him with greater courage. After that, keeping Śikhaṇḍī in front, Arjuna began to fight with Bhīṣma. Śikhaṇḍī also showered his arrows on him. Ten of these arrows of Śikhaṇḍī hit Bhīṣma's breast. Bhīṣma disregarded even those arrows. At last he said: "I cannot kill the Pāṇḍavas because they are invulnerable (avadhyāḥ). I cannot kill Śikhaṇḍī because he is really a woman and not man. Though I am also invulnerable and cannot be killed in battle, yet today I have to die; the time has come for me to die." Meanwhile Śikhaṇḍī and Arjuna were discharging a continuous and heavy shower of arrows at Bhīṣma. At last Bhīṣma fell down. (M.B., Udyoga Parva, Chapter 173).

AMBĀJANMA It is a place of sacred bath where the sage Nārada usually resides. Those who die here will attain salvation (Mokṣa) by Nārada's blessing, according to M.B., Vana Parva, Chapter 83, Verse 81.

AMBĀLIKĀ (1) The youngest of the three daughters of the King of Kāśī--Ambā, Ambikā and Ambālikā. Vicitravīrya, son of Śantanu married Ambikā and Ambālikā. The mother of this princess was Kausalyā.
     2) Pāṇḍu's Mother. Vicitravīrya died before children were born to his wives. To avoid the extinction of the family, Satyavatī, mother of Vicitravīrya summoned Vyāsa, her other son and asked him to beget a son for Ambikā. Vyāsa obeyed his mother half-heartedly. Ambikā did not like the dark-complexioned, crudely attired Vyāsa. Still owing to the Mother's pressure, she passively submitted to the act. As a result of their union was born Dhṛtarāṣṭra, who was blind from his birth. The grief-stricken mother called Vyāsa again and asked him to have union with Ambālikā this time. As Ambālikā's face was pale at the time of their union, a child with pale complexion was born to her. He was named Pāṇḍu. Having thus failed in both attempts, Satyavatī asked Ambikā to go to Vyāsa again. At night Ambikā secretly disguised her waiting-maid and sent her in her own place, to Vyāsa. The waiting-maid experienced exquisite pleasure in Vyāsa's company and as a result a most intelligent son was born to her. It was he who became the renowned Vidura. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 106).

AMBARĪṢA I A King of the Ikṣvāku dynasty.
     1) Genealogy and Birth. From Viṣṇu was born in the following order: Brahmā-Marīci-Kaśyapa.-Vivasvān-Vaivasvatamanu-Ikṣvāku-Vikukṣi-Śaśāda-Purañjaya-Kukutstha-Anenas-Pṛthulāśva-Prasenajit-Yuvanāśva-Māndhātā-Ambarīṣa. Māndhātā had three sons: Ambarīṣa, Mucukunda and Purukutsa and fifty daughters. The Muni (Sage) Saubhari married the daughters.
     2) Ambarīṣa's Yāga (sacrifice). In Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa there is a story of Devendra's theft of the sacrificial cow from Ambarīṣa's yāgaśālā. Devendra could not bear the thought of King Ambarīṣa winning worldrenown and glory by performing yāgas. Therefore Indra stole the sacrificial cow and took it away. The Upādhyāya (Chief Priest) was alarmed at the disappearance of the cow and expressed his opinion to the King that it would be enough to sacrifice a human being instead of the cow. The King searched for the cow in all countries, cities and forests. At last he reached the peak of Bhṛgutuṅga where the sage Ṛcīka lived with his wife and children. The King explained to the sage the whole story. He requested him to sell one of his sons in exchange for 100,000 cows. Ṛcīka had three sons. The eldest was his father's favourite and the youngest was the mother's pet. In the end, Ṛcīka sold the second son, Śunaśśepha in return for 100,000 cows.
     On his return journey with Śunaśśepha the king rested for a while at Puṣkara Tīrtha. There Śunaśśepha happened to meet his uncle Viśvāmitra and complained to him about his sad plight. Śunaśśepha's wish was that the king's yāga should be performed and at the same time his own life-span should be extended. Viśvāmitra promised to save Śunaśśepha. He called Madhucchandas and his other sons and said to them: "One of you must take the place of Ambarīṣa's sacrificial cow and save the life of Śunaśśepha. God will bless you."
     But none of the sons of Viśvāmitra was prepared to become the sacrificial cow. Viśvāmitra uttered a curse on his sons that they would have to spend a thousand years on earth, eating dog-flesh. Then he turned to Śunaśśepha and told him that if he prayed to the gods at the time of Ambarīṣa's yajña, they would save him.
     So Śunaśśepha went to Ambarīṣa's yāgaśālā. As ordered by the assembled guests, Ambarīṣa bound Śunaśśepha and had him dressed in blood-red robes, ready for the sacrifice. Śunaśśepha began to praise and pray to the gods. Soon Indra appeared and blessed him with longevity. He also rewarded Ambarīṣa for his yāga. Thus Śunaśśepha was saved.* (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa Bāla Kāṇḍa, Sarga 61).
     3) Ambarīṣa and Durvāsas. In Bhāgavata we see a story which describes how the Sudarśana Cakra which emerged from Ambarīṣa's forehead chased Durvāsas in all the three worlds. Ambarīṣa was a devout worshipper of Viṣṇu. From the very beginning of his reign, peace and prosperity spread all over the country. Mahāviṣṇu who was pleased with the deep piety and devotion of Ambarīṣa appeared to him and bestowed on him the control of his (Viṣṇu's) Sudarśana Cakra. After that Ambarīṣa started the observance of Ekādaśī vrata. The rigour of the observance alarmed even Indra. He decided to obstruct the observance somehow or other. At that time, Durvāsas arrived in devaloka. Indra instigated Durvāsas to spoil the Ekādaśī observance of Ambarīṣa.
     Durvāsas went to Ambarīṣa's palace. There the King received him with due respect and sent him to the river Kālindī for his bath and morning rites. Durvāsas went for his bath and deliberately stayed away till the conclusion of Ambarīṣa's Ekādaśī observance. At the end of the observance, after feeding the gods with his offerings, Ambarīṣa kept the remaining portion for Durvāsas. After his bath etc., Durvāsas returned, but he was furious when he was offered the leavings of the food of the gods and refused to take any food. In his anger he advanced towards Ambarīṣa. A terrible monster Kṛtyā emanated from the Maharṣi and was about to destroy Ambarīṣa. Ambarīṣa at once called upon Sudarśana Cakra, which appeared instantly and after cutting the throat of Kṛtyā, turned against Durvāsas. Terrified by it, Durvāsas began to flee for life. The Cakra pursued him at his heels. Durvāsas went to Indra and sought refuge with him. But the Cakra followed him there. Indra pleaded helplessness. Then the Maharṣi went to Brahmā and sued for his help. There also the Cakra pursued him. Brahmā sent him to Śiva. Śiva was also unable to give him shelter. Sudarśana continued to chase him. Durvāsas then sought shelter with Mahāviṣṇu. Viṣṇu told him plainly that there was no alternative but to go and sue for mercy to Ambarīṣa himself and advised him to do so. At last Durvāsas returned to Ambarīṣa and begged his pardon. Ambarīṣa saved him from Sudarśana Cakra and described to him the glory resulting from the observance of Ekādaśī vrata. (Bhāgavata, Navama Skandha).
     4) Other Details (1) Ambarīṣa performed a yāga in the Yamunā valley. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 1, Verse 277; Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 6; Vana Parva, Chapter 129, Verse 2).
     (2) Maharṣi Durvāsas recalled Ambarīṣa's power. (M.B., Vana Parva, Chapter 263, Verse 33).
     (3) The Sage Vyāsa once told Dharmaputra that Ambarīṣa was one of the 16 great kings who lived in ancient times. The 16 reputed Kings were: Marutta, Suhotra, Paurava, Śibi, Śrī Rāma, Bhagīratha, Dilīpa, Māndhātā, Yayāti, Ambarīṣa, Śaśabindu, Gaya, Rantideva, Bharata, Pṛthu and Paraśurāma. (M.B., Droṇa Parva, Chapter 64).
     (4) Ambarīṣa fought single-handed against thousands of Kings. (M.B., Droṇa Parva, Chapter 64).
     (5) He performed one hundred yāgas. (M.B., Droṇa Parva, Chapter 64).
     (6) Ambarīṣa once questioned Indra about his (Ambarīṣa's) army Chief Sudeva becoming more mighty than himself. (M.B., Śānti Parva, Chapter 98, Verses 6-11).
     (7) Ambarīṣa gave 110 crores of cows to the Brahmins. (M.B., Śānti Parva, Chapter 234, Verse 23).
     (8) Ambarīṣa was also among the Munis who committed theft of Agastya's lotuses. (M.B., Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 94, Verse 24).
     (9) Besides giving cows to Brahmins, Ambarīṣa gave them the country also. (M.B., Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 137, Verse 8).
*) The story of Śunaśśepha may be seen with slight variations in the Devī Bhāgavata and other Purāṇas. In those versions, Śunaśśepha has been described as the sacrificial cow at Hariścandra's yāga, and moreover, Ajīgarta is referred to as the father of Śunaśśepha. (Brahmāṇḍa Purāṇa, Chapter 58 gives the same story as in Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa).

AMBARĪṢA II When Balabhadrarāma entered the lower world (Pātāla) after death, among the Nāgas who welcomed him, there was one called "Ambarīṣa". (M.B., Mausala Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 16).

AMBAṢṬHA I King Śrutāyu, who belonged to the party of the Kauravas was the ruler of Ambaṣṭha land and so he was called Ambaṣṭha. (M.B., Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 96, Verses 39-40). He was killed in the fight with Arjuna. (M.B., Droṇa Parva, Chapter 93, Verses 60-69).

AMBAṢṬHA II There was a hero called Ambaṣṭha among the warriors on the side of the Pāṇḍavas. (M.B., Droṇa Parva, Chapter 25, Verse 50). He fought against King Cedi who was on the side of the Kauravas and in the fight King Cedi fell.

AMBAṢṬHA III See the word "VARṆA".

AMBAṢṬHAM A region in ancient India. It is believed that it was to the north of Sindha (M.B., Sabhā Parva, Chapter 37, Verse 7).

AMBHORUHA A son of Sage Viśvāmitra. (M.B., Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 59).

AMBIKĀ I Elder sister of Ambālikā. (See AMBĀLIKĀ).

AMBIKĀ II Another name of Pārvatī. (Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 12).

AMBUMATĪ A river. (M.B., Vana Parva, Chapter 83, Verse 56).

AMBUVĀHINĪ A river. (M.B., Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 27). Praising this river at dawn and dusk will bring divine grace. (M.B., Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 165, Verse 20).

AMBUVĪCA One of the Kings of Magadha. He had a minister named Mahākarṇi. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 203, Verses 17-19).

AṂHU An Asura in the period of the Ṛgveda. This Asura had been doing much harm to the hermits. Purukutsa was the hermit whom he tormented most. Indra vanquished this Asura and destroyed seven of his cities. (Ṛgveda, Maṇḍala 1, Anuvāka 11, Sūkta 63, Khaṇḍa 7).

AMITADHVAJA A Rākṣasa. (M.B., Śānti Parva, Chapter 227, Verse 50).

AMITAUJĀ A mighty Kṣatriya King of the Pāñcāla kingdom. He was born from the element of a Rākṣasa named Ketumān. Before the Pāṇḍavas went to war, they had sent an invitation to him. He was one of the distinguished royal allies of the Pāṇḍavas. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 67, Verse 12; Udyoga Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 12; Udyoga Parva, Chapter 71, Verse 11).

AMITRAJIT A King. In his country there were innumerable Śiva temples. Nārada Muni who was delighted by this sight, went to the Palace and said to Amitrajit: "In the city of Campakāvatī there is a Gandharva virgin named Malayagandhinī. She has been abducted by Kaṅkālaketu, a Rākṣasa. She has promised to marry the person who will rescue her from him. Therefore please save her from the Rākṣasa." As suggested by Nārada Amitrajit killed Kaṅkālaketu in battle and recovered Malayagandhinī and married her. Vīra was their son. (Skanda Purāṇa).

AMOGHA I A Yakṣa who accompanied Śiva when the latter once went on a journey to Bhadravaṭa. (M.B., Vana Parva, Chapter 231, Verse 35).

AMOGHA II This name has been used as a synonym of Skanda. (M.B., Vana Parva, Chapter 232, Verse 5).

AMOGHA III A synonym of Śiva. (M.B., Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 17, Verse 114).

AMOGHA IV A synonym of Viṣṇu. (M.B., Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 149, Verse 25).

AMOGHA(M) An Agni which originated from Bṛhaspati's family. (M.B., Vana Parva, Chapter 222, Verse 24).

AMOGHĀ Śantanu Maharṣi's wife. Once Brahmā visited Śantanu Maharṣi's Āśrama. As the Maharṣi was not at home, it was Amoghā who received the guest with due reverence. Fascinated by the irresistible charm of Amoghā, Brahmā had an involuntary emission of seminal fluid. He felt ashamed of his own weakness and left the Āśrama immediately. The Maharṣi who returned to the Āśrama soon after, came to know from his wife whose semen it was. He asked Amoghā to accept Brahma Deva's precious semen and not to let it be wasted. Being a devoted wife, she accepted it, but unable to bear the divine pregnancy, she deposited it in the water lying in the valley of the Yugandhara mountain. From that time, it became a place of holy bath, known as Lohita. It was by bathing in this holy water that Paraśurāma washed away his sin of annihilating the Kṣatriyas. (Padma Purāṇa, Sṛṣṭi Khaṇḍa, 55).

AMPIṬṬA A name for barbers. 'Ampiṭṭa' is derived from the Sanskrit word "Ambiṣṭhaḥ". The word Ambiṣṭhaḥ means Physician. In olden days barbers were physicians also. Going about from house to house, they could easily practise both these professions. Since barbers practised physic also they were called Ambiṣṭhas. Ampiṭṭa is a corrupted form of Ambiṣṭha. (Dravidian Philology).
     Barbers sometimes style themselves as "Pandits". It is on the basis of this that we have today, "All Kerala Pandit Sabha" and other similar names. There is a legend on the basis of which this community has assumed the title of "Pandit".
     Long ago when Śrī Buddha was about to go to the forest for performing Tapas, thousands of people flocked together to have his darśana. Buddha wished to continue his journey after shaving his head. Buddha asked loudly whether anyone in the crowd was prepared to shave his head. Only a single man came forward cheerfully to do that work. Buddha turned to him and said: "My dear friend, you are the only Pandit in this crowd. You have the wisdom to understand that there is nothing disgraceful in shaving one's head."
     He shaved Buddha's head. From that day his descendants came to be known as "Pandits".

AMṚTĀ Daughter of a King of Magadha. She was the wife of Anaśva and mother of Parīkṣit. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 95, Verse 41).


AMṚTAM A delicious and precious food obtained from the ocean of Milk when the Devas and Asuras churned it. In Chapter 152 of Agni Purāṇa, the word "Mṛtam" is defined as wealth received by begging and "Amṛtam" as wealth received without begging, and "Prāmṛtam" as another kind of wealth obtained without begging.
     1) Cause of Kṣīrābdhi-mathanam. (Churning of the Sea of Milk)--Once when Maharṣi Durvāsas was travelling through a forest, he met the Apsarā woman, Menakā, with a garland of Kalpaka flowers in her hand. The fragrance of the flowers filled the whole forest. Durvāsas approached Menakā and requested her to give the garland to him. The Vidyādharī (Apsarā woman) prostrated before the Maharṣi with reverence and presented the garland to him. Wearing that garland on his hair, Durvāsas went to devaloka.
     There he saw Indra riding on his elephant, Airāvata, accompanied by his retinue of Devas. The Maharṣi took the rare garland from his head and presented it to Indra, the King of Devas. Indra received the garland and placed it on Airāvata's head. The elephant was attracted by the fragrance of the garland and took it in its trunk, examined it by smelling it and then threw it on the ground.
     Durvāsas, who became angry at the way in which his garland was slighted by Indra said to him: "Since you have treated my garland with disrespect, the glory and prosperity of devaloka will perish!" On hearing the curse, Indra alighted from the elephant, frightened. He begged pardon of the Maharṣi. The furious Muni continued: "I am not soft-hearted; nor am I of a forgiving nature. Other Munis may forgive. Remember, I am Durvāsas. You have become so haughty because other Munis like Vasiṣṭha and Gautama have been flattering you too much." Having said this Durvāsas went his way. Indra returned to Amarāvatī.
     From that day the glory of devaloka began to decline. The three worlds became dull. Even the plants and shrubs began to wither. The performance of yāgas came to an end. The Devas began to be affected by the infirmities of old age. Taking advantage of this situation, the Asuras started preparations for opposing the Devas. Under the oppression of the Asuras, the Devas groaned in distress. Led by Agni Deva they sought refuge under Brahmā. Brahmā led them to Mahāviṣṇu. They all joined in praising Viṣṇu who appeared and told them like this: "O Gods! I shall enhance your glory. Do as I tell you. Along with the Asuras bring all kinds of medicinal herbs and deposit them in the ocean of Milk. Obtain Amṛtam from it by churning it with Mahāmeru as the churning staff and Vāsuki as the rope. The Amṛtam (Amṛta) which will be produced by churning the Milk sea, will make you strong and deathless. I shall see that the Asuras will share in your troubles but not in enjoying Amṛtam."
     2) Churning of the Milk Sea. After Viṣṇu had vanished, the Devas made a treaty with the Asuras and began to work for getting Amṛtam. All of them joined together in bringing various kinds of medicinal herbs and after putting them in the Milk sea which was as clear as the cloudless sky, began to churn it, using Manthara Mountain as the churning staff and snake Vāsuki as the rope. The party of Devas was posted at the tail-end of Vāsuki while the Asuras took their stand at the head. The Asuras became enervated by the fiery breath coming out of Vāsuki's mouth. The clouds which were blown by that breath invigorated the Devas.
     Mahāviṣṇu transformed himself into a tortoise, and sitting in the middle of the Milk Sea served as the foundation for the Manthara Mountain, the churning staff. Assuming another form, invisible both to Devas and Asuras, Mahāviṣṇu pressed down the Manthara Mountain from above.
     While churning the Milk Sea like this, the first object that rose to the surface was Kāmadhenu. Both Devas and Asuras were strongly attracted towards Kāmadhenu While all were standing spellbound, Vāruṇīdevī with her enchanting dreamy eyes next appeared on the surface. Pārijātam was the third to appear. Fourth, a group of Apsarā women of marvellous beauty floated up. The Moon appeared as the fifth. Śiva received the Moon. The venom which came out of the Milk Sea as the sixth item, was absorbed by Nāgas. After that arose Bhagavān Dhanvantari, dressed in pure white robes and carrying a Kamaṇḍalu in his hand filled with Amṛtam. All were delighted at this sight. Next Mahālakṣmī made her appearance in all her glory with a lotus in her hand and seated in an open lotus flower. Gandharvas sang celestial songs in her presence; Apsarā women danced. For her bath, the Gaṅgā river arrived there with her tributaries. The Milk Sea itself took on physical form and offered her a garland of everfresh lotus flowers. Brahmā bedecked her with ornaments. After that Lakṣmīdevī, fully adorned in all her magnificent jewels, in the presence of all Devas, joined the bosom of Mahāviṣṇu. The Asuras were displeased at it. They snatched the pot of Amṛtam from Dhanvantari and fled away.
     3) How Amṛtam was recovered. With the loss of Amṛtam, the Devas were in a fix. They began to consider how the pot of Amṛtam could be recovered. Accordingly Mahāviṣṇu transformed himself into a celestial virgin, Mohinī, of extraordinary beauty. She approached the Asuras as a shy girl. The Asuras were enchanted by her surpassing beauty. They asked her, "Who are you?" Looking down on the ground, Mohinī replied: "I am the little sister of Dhanvantari. By the time I came out of the Milk Sea, the Devas and Asuras had already gone. Being lonely I am going about in search of a suitable mate."
     On hearing her words, the Asuras began to make friends with her one by one, determined not to waste this opportunity. They told her that she should distribute Amṛtam to all of them and in the end she should marry one of them. Mohinī agreed, but added: "All of you should close your eyes. I shall serve Amṛtam to all. He who opens his eyes last, must serve Amṛtam to me and he will marry me".
     All of them accepted this condition. They sat in front of Mohinī with closed eyes. In a moment Mohinī left the place with the pot of Amṛtam and went to devaloka.
     4) Rāhu's neck is cut. When the Asuras opened their eyes, Mohinī was not to be seen. Finding that they were betrayed, they were in great perplexity. All of them pursued Mohinī to devaloka. Devas had put the Sun and Moon gods on guard duty at the gates of devaloka. At the instance of the Asuras, Rāhu in disguise entered the divine assembly chamber. The Sun and Moon gods detected him and Viṣṇu with his weapon, Sudarśana Cakra cut open his neck. Swearing that he would wreak vengeance on the Sun and Moon Rāhu returned. In the 8th Skandha of Bhāgavata it is said that even now from time to time Rāhu swallows the Sun and Moon, but they escape through the open gash in his neck and this is known as solar eclipse and lunar eclipse.
     5) Defeat of the Asuras. Indra and all other gods took Amṛtam. The enraged Asuras attacked the gods, who had gained strength and vigour by taking Amṛtam. The Asuras were driven away in all directions. All the three worlds began to enjoy glory and prosperity again.
     6) Kalakūṭa. The story of how the deadly poison, Kālakūṭa arose at the churning of the ocean of Milk, is given in M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 18, Verses 42-45, as follows: After many precious things had come up Kālakūṭa poison with fumes and flames, appeared on the surface of the ocean. Its strong smell caused a stupor in all the three worlds. Fearing that the world will perish, Brahmā requested Śiva to swallow that poison. Śiva gulped it down, but stopped it in his throat. From that day he became "Nīlakaṇṭha".
     7) The story of Airāvata. Indra's tusker Airāvata was responsible for the churning of the ocean of Milk. But in the Mahābhārata, Ādi Parva, Chapter 18, Verse 42 it is said that a white elephant with four tusks arose during the churning of the ocean of Milk and that Devendra caught and tamed it. This is an obvious contradiction. Besides, in Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Araṇyakāṇḍa, 14th Sarga, the wounded Jaṭāyu describing his family history to Śrī Rāma, gives the following account about the origin of Airāvata:
     Kaśyapa, one of the Prajāpatis, married the eight daughters of Dakṣa. One of them named Krodhavaśā had ten daughters by Kaśyapa. They were: Mṛgī, Mrgamadā, Hari, Bhadramadā, Mātaṅgī, Śārdūli, Śvetā, Surabhi, Surasā and Kadru. Of them Bhadramadā gave birth to a daughter, Irāvati. The tusker Airāvata is Irāvatī's son.
     An explanation for this discrepancy may be seen in Viṣṇu Purāṇa, 3rd Section, Chapter 1. Now six Manvantaras have passed (See 'MANVANTARA'). This is the seventh Manvantara. Each Manvantara has a new Indra. According to this, different Indras have their own Airāvatas. This is the only explanation for this apparent contradiction.
     8) Amṛtam and Garuḍa. There is another story about Amṛtam which says that Garuḍa once went to devaloka and brought Amṛtam from there to be given to the Nāgas, but Devendra came down and took it back. This story is given in Mahābhārata from Chapter 27 onwards. Vinatā, a wife of Kaśyapa gave birth to Garuḍa and Kadru and her sister gave birth to the Nāgas. Once there was a dispute between Vinatā and Kadru. Vinatā said that the hairs on the tail of Uccaiśravas, Devendra's horse, were white but Kadru asserted that they were black. To settle the dispute they made a bet. The condition was that the loser must become the servant maid of the winner. As instructed by Kadru, some of the Nāgas went in advance and hung down from the tail of Uccaiśśravas, thus giving the false appearance of a tail with black hairs. By this trick Vinatā lost the bet and had to become Kadru's servant maid. As a result of it, the task of looking after Kadru's children became Garuḍa's duty. Kadru told him that if he fetched Amṛtam from devaloka and gave it to the Nāgas, she was prepared to release him from the bondage. So Garuḍa flew up to devaloka, fought with the gods and defeated them. He returned with the pot of Amṛtam and gave it to the Nāgas. The Nāgas went to take their bath after placing the pot on darbha grass spread on the floor. Just then Devendra swooped down and carried away the pot of Amṛtam to devaloka. When the Nāgas returned after their purifying bath, the pot was not to be seen. In their greed they began to lick the darbha grass on which the pot was placed. The sharp edge of the grass cut their tongues into two. This is why the Nāgas (snakes) came to have forked tongues.
     Amṛtam which has been thus recovered after many such adventures, is still preserved carefully in devaloka. [(1) M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 17. (2) M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 27, verse 16. (3) M.B., Ādī Parva, Chapter 30, Verse 2. (4) Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Araṇya Kāṇḍa, 35th Sarga. (5) Viṣṇu Purāṇa, Section 1, Chapter 9. (6) Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 152. (7) Bhāgavata, 8th Skandha. (8) Uttara Rāmāyaṇa.]

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AṂŚA A sage of the family of Marīci.
     1) Genealogy. He was descended from Viṣṇu through Brahmā, Marīci and Kaśyapa.
     2) Birth. Marīci was one of the six sons, all ṛṣis, of Brahmā. These six sons, born parthogenetically of Brahmā, were: Marīci, Aṅgiras, Atri, Pulastya, Pulaha and Kratu. Marīci had a son named Kaśyapa. Kaśyapa married the thirteen daughters of Dakṣa. The eldest of them, Aditi, gave birth to twelve sons Dhātā, Aryaman, Mitra, Śakra, Varuṇa, Aṃśa, Bhaga, Vivasvān, Pūṣan, Savitā, Tvaṣṭā and Viṣṇu. Aṃśa is one of these twelve sons who have been called the twelve Ādityas. (See Chapter 65 of Ādi Parva of the Mahābhārata).
     3) Events. The Mahābhārata says (Śloka 66, Chapter 123) that Aṃśa was present at the time of Arjuna's birth when several devas had come there to see the infant. In Śloka 34, Chapter 45 of Śalya Parva it is said that Aṃśa was present on the occasion of the Abhiṣeka of Skandadeva. Aṃśa is said to have presented to Skandadeva five good warriors: Parigha, Vaṭa, Bhīma, Dahana and Dahati.

AṂŚAPĀYA Name of a priest (Ṛtvik) qualified to officiate at a sacrifice. This priest officiated at the sacrifice (yajña) performed by Brahmā at Puṣkarakṣetra. (See Chapter 34 of Padma Purāṇa).

AṂŚĀVATĀRA The incarnation of God on earth is called avatāra. When the incarnation is only partial, that is, when only some of the divine elements incarnate, it is called aṃśāvatāra (Aṃśa=part). Chapters 54 to 64 of Ādi Parva of the Mahābhārata give us a list of the gods who have incarnated partially. The following list of devas and their aṃśāvatāras is based upon the account given in the fourth Skandha of Śrī Mahādevī Bhāgavata.
     Name of the god     Name of the aṃśāvatāra
     1. Kaśyapa      Vasudeva
     2. Ādiśeṣa     Balabhadra
     3. Nārāyaṇarṣi     Śrī Kṛṣṇa
     4. Yamadharma     Yudhiṣṭhira
     5. Aśvinīdevas     Nakula and Sahadeva
     6. Dharma     Vidura
     7. Śiva     Aśvatthāmā
     8. Gandharvarāja     Devaka
     9. Aṣṭavasu     Bhīṣma
     10. Marudgaṇa     Kṛpa; Kṛtavarmā
     11. Aditi     Devakī
     12. Nararṣi     Arjuna
     13. Vāyu     Bhīmasena
     14. Sūrya     Karṇa
     15. Bṛhaspati     Droṇa
     16. Varuṇa     Śantanu
     17. Marut     Virāṭa
     18. Haṃsa     Dhṛtarāṣṭra
     19. Dvāpara     Śakuni
     20. Pāvaka     Dhṛṣṭadyumna
     21. Kali     Duryodhana
     22. Rākṣasa     Śikhaṇḍī
     23. Varuṇa     Drupada
     24. Viśvedevas     Sons of Pāñcālī
     25. Dhṛti     Mādrī
     26. Vipracitti     Jarāsandha
     27. Hayagrīva     Keśi
     28. Bāṣkala     Bhagadatta
     29. Lamba     Pralamba
     30. Sanatkumāra     Pradyumna
     31. Lakṣmī     Pāñcālī
     32. Siddhi     Kuntī
     33. Mati     Gāndhārī
     34. Jaya     Hiraṇyākṣa
     35. Vijaya     Hiraṇyakaśipu
     36. Hiraṇyākṣa     Rāvaṇa
     37. Hiraṇyakaśipu     Kumbhakarṇa
     38. Rāvaṇa     Śiśupāla
     39. Kumbhakarṇa     Daṇḍavaktra
     40. Prahlāda     Śalya
     41. Kālanemi     Kaṃsa
     42. Anuhlāda     Dhṛṣṭaketu
     43. Khara     Dhenuka.
     (For more details see under the word, AVATĀRA).

AṂŚUDHANAPATTANA Name of an ancient town in North India. Bharata passed through this town while going to Ayodhyā from Kekaya after Daśaratha's death. Vālmīki has described this town in the Rāmāyaṇa in this context.

AṂŚUMĀN Name of a King belonging to the Solar dynasty (Sūrya Vaṃśa).
     1) Genealogy. Aṃśumān was descended from Viṣṇu through Brahmā-Marīci-Kaśyapa-Vivasvān-Vaivasvatamanu-Ikṣvāku-Vikukṣi-Śaśāda-Purañjaya-Kakutstha-Anenas-Pṛthulāśva-Prasenajit-Yuvanāśva-Māndhātā-Purukutsa-Trasadasyu-Anaraṇya-Aryaśvan-Vasumanas-Sudhanvā-Traiyyāruṇa-Satyavrata-Triśaṅku-Hariścandra-Rohitāśva-Harita-Cuñcu-Sudeva-Bharuka-Bāhuka-Sagara-Asamañjas-Aṃśumān.
     2) Birth. Sagara, a king of the Sūrya vaṃśa, (mentioned above) had two wives, Sumati (Vaidarbhī) and Keśinī (Saibā) by name. Keśinī gave birth to a son named Asamañjas. Aṃśumān was the son of Asamañjas and the father of the famous Bhagīratha. (See under the title, BHAGĪRATHA).
     3) Some other details. Aṃśumān was one of the Kings who attended the Svayaṃvara of Pāñcālī. (Vide Śloka 11, Chapter 185 of Ādi Parva of the Mahābhārata).

AṂŚUMĀN II There is a reference to one Aṃśumān in the course of the description of the Viśvedevas.

AṂŚUMĀN III King of Bhoja who was killed by Droṇa in the war at Kurukṣetra (Vide Śloka 14, Chapter 6 of Karṇa Parva).

AṂŚUMATĪ The daughter of the Gandharva King named Dramila. Her story is narrated in the Śiva Purāṇa to illustrate the benefits of performing the Pradoṣa-Vrata. Sūta expatiates on the importance and advantages of Pradoṣa-Vrata to a number of sages in Naiṃiśāraṇya. King Satyaratha was a scrupulous observer of Pradoṣa-Vrata. Unfortunately he defaulted in his observance of the Vrata owing to unavoidable circumstances and, after his death, was born again as the King of Vidarbha. He was killed in a battle by the King of Sālva and his wife, pregnant at that time, fled to a forest. She gave birth to a son on the bank of a river. Then, when she stepped into the river to drink some water, she was carried away by a crocodile. Presently a Brahmin woman named Uṣā happened to pass that way with her son named Śucivrata. Seeing a newborn infant there, that Brahmin woman took him, gave him the name, Dharmagupta and brought him up as her own son. According to the advice of a pious Brahmin named Śāṇḍilya, both Śucivrata and Dharmagupta started performing Pradoṣa-Vrata. Lord Śiva was pleased with them and gave them much wealth. Dharmagupta happened to meet Aṃśumatī, daughter of the Gandharva King, Dramila, one day in a forest and they fell in love with each other. Dramila came to know of their love and so gave his daughter in marriage to Dharmagupta. As a result of the wealth and power which he had acquired by observing strictly Pradoṣa-Vrata Dharmagupta was able to return to Vidarbha, defeat King Sālva and regain his kingdom from him.

AMŪRTARAYAS He was a renowned King of ancient Bhārata and the father of King Gaya. Amūrtarayas received a sword from Pūru. (M.B., Śānti Parva, Chapter 166, Verse 75).

ANĀDĪPAKA (See Pañcatantra).

ANĀDHṚṢṬI I A King of the Pūru dynasty.
     1) Genealogy. Descended from Viṣṇu thus: Viṣṇu-Brahmā-Atri-Candra-Budha-Purūravas-Āyus-Nahuṣa-Yayāti-Pūru-Janamejaya-Prācinvan-Namasyu-Vītabhaya-Śuṇḍu-Bahuvidha-Saṃyāti-Rahovādī-Raudrāśvan-Anādhṛṣṭi.
     Anādhṛṣṭi is a son born to Raudrāśva by Miśrakeśī, an Apsar woman. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 94, Verses 8-12). Anādhṛṣṭi has two synonyms, Ṛceyu and Anvagbhānu.

ANĀDHṚṢṬI II Verse 58, Chapter 14 of Sabhā Parva mentions seven great Yādavas. One Anādhṛṣṭi is named amongst the seven. This Anādhṛṣṭi was present at the marriage of Abhimanyu at Ipaplavanagara. (M.B., Virāṭa Parva, Chapter 72, Verse 22). There was one Anādhṛṣṭi also amongst the warriors who encompassed Arjuna and Kṛṣṇa at the battle-field of Kurukṣetra. (M.B., Udyoga Parva, Chapter 151, Verse 67). He was the son of King Vṛddhakṣema. Hence he was called Vārddhakṣemi also.

ANĀDHṚṢYA One of the Kauravas. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 67, Verse 105).


ANAGHA I Son of Vasiṣṭha. He had seven sons, by his wife Ūrjā. They were: Rajas, Gotra, Ūrdhvabāhu, Savana, Anagha, Sutapas and Śukra. Holy characters, they became the saptarṣis of the age of the third Manu. (Manvantara).

ANAGHA II was a Gandharva. He participated in the birthday celebrations of Arjuna. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 122, Verse 55).

ANAGHA III A king called Anagha is referred to in Verse 22, Chapter 8 of M.B.

ANAGHA IV Skanda has a synonym, Anagha as well. (M.B., Vana Parva, Chapter 232, Verse 5).

ANAGHA V A bird named Anagha is mentioned among the children of Garuḍa. (M.B., Udyoga Parva, Chapter 101, Verse 12).

ANAGHA VI Used as a synonym of Śiva. (M.B., Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 17, Verse 38).

ANAGHA VII A synonym of Viṣṇu. (M.B., Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 149, Verse 29).

ANAGHAM A place in ancient India. (M.B., Sabhā Parva, Chapter 30, Verse 9).

ANAGNI(S) They are Pitṛs. Pitṛs like Agniṣvāttas, Barhiṣads, Anagnis, Sāgnis were offsprings of Brahmā. Two damsels, Menā and Dhāriṇī were born to them of Svadhā. (Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 20).

ANALĀ I A daughter of Dakṣa. Some of the other daughters are Aditi, Diti, Danu, Kālikā, Tāmrā, Krodhavaśā, Manu and Analā. These daughters were married to Kaśyapa, son of Marīci. Trees, creepers etc. owe their origin to Analā. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Araṇya kāṇḍa, Canto 14).

ANALĀ II Another Analā is referred to in Verse 71, Chapter 66 of Ādi Parva, in M.B. This Analā was the wife of Kaśyapa and a great granddaughter of Krodhavaśā, the daughter of Dakṣa. Krodhavaśā begot Śvetā, and she Surabhī; Rohiṇī was the daughter of Surabhī and Analā was Rohiṇī's daughter.

ANALĀ III Daughter of Mālyavān born of Sundarī. She was married to Viśvāvasu. Kumbhīnasī was her daughter. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Uttarakāṇḍa).

ANĀLAMBA A sacred pool. A bath in the pool is as efficacious as the Puruṣamedha yajña. (M.B., Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 25, Verse 32).

ANAMITRA I A king of the Solar dynasty. The Ātmapurāṇa refers to him as the son of Nighna.

ANAMITRA II Anamitra, son of Dhṛṣṭa is referred to as a king of the Yādavas in Ātmapurāṇa.

ANAMITRA III One Anamitra, son of Vṛṣṇi is referred to in Matsyapurāṇa. He was the father of Śini.

ANAMITRA IV A son born to King Kroṣṭā and his wife Mādrī.

ANAMITRA Father of Cākṣuṣa, the Manu of the 6th Manvantara and son of sage Anamitra. (See Ānanda).

ANĀNATA A sage. (Ṛgveda, Maṇḍala 4, Sūkta 175).

ANAṄGA I Son of Kardamaprajāpati, and a king reputed for his love of the people and unparallelled integrity. He had a son called Atibala. (M.B., Śānti Parva, Chapter 59, Verse 91).

ANAṄGA II (See Kāmadeva).

ANAṄGA A river in ancient India. (M.B., Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 35).

     1) Genealogy. Mahāviṣṇu begot Brahmā and he the Prajāpatis and Ananta (Ādiśeṣa) is one of the Prajāpatis. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Araṇyakāṇḍa, Canto 14, Verse 7). Ananta is also referred to as the son of Kaśyapa, one of the Prajāpatis born of Kadrū. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 105, Verse 41). Also Balabhadrarāma, elder brother of Śrī Kṛṣṇa was a partial incarnation of Ananta.
     2) Differences with mother. Vinatā and Kadrū were two wives of Kaśyapa prajāpati. Garuḍa was born as Vinatā's son and numerous serpents like Ananta, Vāsuki, Takṣaka, Kārkkoṭaka were sons of Kadrū. Once a controversy developed between Vinatā and Kadrū, the latter saying that there were a few black hairs on the tail of Airāvata and the former denying it. It was agreed that she who proved wrong in the argument would become the slave of the other. To prove herself to be right Kadrū, the same night, asked her sons to go and stay suspended in the hairs of Airāvata's tail. Some of the sons agreed to do so, while her other (prominent) sons like Ananta expressed their disincli nation to do such an unethical act. Kadrū cursed these disobedient children of hers to die at the serpent yajña of Janamejaya, whereupon Ananta and his supporters departed in sorrow. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 65).
     3) Ananta's new engagement. Departing thus from his mother Ananta visited sacred centres like Gandhamādana, Badarī and practised austerities. And, Brahma appeared before Ananta and asked him not to worry, but to go to the nether world and support the world on his hoods. Brahmā also told him that Garuḍa would render him all help in the new task. Blessed thus by Brahmā, Ananta gladly took up the new job. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 36, Verse 24).
     4) Ananta has another abode in the palace of Varuṇa in the west. (M.B., Udyoga Parva, Chapter 110, Verse 18).
     5) Ananta's prowess. About Ananta's prowess Viṣṇu Purāṇa has the following to say: At the bottom of Pātāla there is a base (Tāmasic) form of Viṣṇu called Ādiśeṣa. Even the Dānavas and the Daityas are not able to describe the attributes of that form. The Siddhas call this Ādiśeṣa Ananta who is worshipped by Devas and ṛṣis. Ananta has 1000 heads and the Svastika mark which is clearly visible is his ornament. The 1000 gems in his head illuminate all regions, and he renders the Asuras powerless for the good of all the worlds. Ādiśeṣa whose eyes ever rotate due to the overflow of his prowess, and who wears blue apparel and garlands of white gems shines forth like another Mount Kailāsa beautified with garlands of clouds and by the flow of the Gaṅgā. Śrī Devī and Vāruṇī Devī serve Ananta who holds in one hand a lāṃgala and in the other a mace (mūsala). As the deluge (end of a yuga Kalpānta) approaches Rudra emanates from the faces of Ananta and consumes the three worlds. Ādiśeṣa dwells in the nether world wearing the whole earth as a crown. Even the Devas cannot gauge his nature, shape, prowess etc. When he yawns the earth and waters shake and shiver. The Gandharvas, Nāgas, Cāraṇas etc. fail to understand the real extent of his attributes, and that is why this strange being is called Ananta (endless). It was by worshipping Ananta and by his grace that sage Garga was able to master the sciences of astronomy and causation (nimitta). (Viṣṇu Purāṇa, Part 2, Chapter 5).
     6) The land of Ananta. Pātāla is Ananta's world, and at its bottom there is a spot called Ananta. That spot is 30000 yojanas in extent, and here lives Ananta. He is known as Saṅkarṣaṇa also. He bears the whole nether world as though it were a mustard seed. And, when he thinks of destroying the entire world the Rudra called Saṅkarṣaṇa will appear with other Rudras and weapons like tridents (Triśūla). Other serpents bow at the feet of Ananta, who is supremely beautiful with divine lustre. (Devī Bhāgavata, Skandha 8).

ANANTA II A synonym of the Sun God. (M.B., Vana Parva, Chapter 3, Verse 24).

ANANTA III A synonym of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. (M.B., Udyoga Parva, Chapter 70, Verse 14).

ANANTA IV One of the military captains of Skanda. (M.B., Śalya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 57).

ANANTA V A synonym of Viṣṇu. (M.B., Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 149, Verse 83).

ANANTA VI A synonym of Śiva. (M.B., Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 17, Verse 135).

ANANTĀ Wife of Janamejaya, son of King Pūru.

ANANTA The abode of Ananta in the nether regions. (Devī Bhāgavata, Canto 8). (There are certain indications that Ananta refers to Trivandrum, Capital city of the Kerala State. Explanations of words like Svarga, Bhūmi, Pātāla, Ananta, Deva, Asura, throw much light on this inference).

ANANTAVIJAYAM The conch of Dharmaputra. It was blown during the great war. (M.B., Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 25, Verse 15).

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ANAPĀYACOLA A King of the Cola country, 10631112. The Tamil poet Sekhilar who composed the twelfth song of the great Śaiva religious book called Tirumurayil was a minister of this King.

ANARAKATĪRTHA A sacred pool. Brahmā, along with Viṣṇu and others bathe daily in this sacred pool. Therefore, it is said that the sins of all those who bathe in the pool will be washed off.

ANARAṆYA (ANĀRAṆYA). A King of the Ikṣvāku dynasty. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 1, Verse 236). For genealogy, see IKṢVĀKU. Anaraṇya was a vegetarian. (M.B., Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 115, Verse 59). Rāvaṇa once attacked his country whom he challenged to a duel. In the duel Anaraṇya died. Before dying he cursed Rāvaṇa that he would be killed by Rāma, son of King Daśaratha. (Brahmāṇḍa Purāṇa, Chapter 45).


ANARKA(M) A king born in King Kaipla's dynasty. (Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 278).

ANASA (ASAṂGA). A brother of Akrūra. (Bhāgavata, Daśama Skandha).

ANASŪYĀ Wife of Sage Atri, son of Brahmā. (Viṣṇu Purāṇa, Part 1, Chapter 10).
     1) Genealogy. From Mahāviṣṇu were born in order Brahmā, Svāyambhuva Manu, Devahūti, Anasūyā. To Svāyambhuva, son of Brahmā, was born by his wife Śatarūpā five children: Uttānapāda, Priyavrata, Āhuti. Devahūti and Prasūti and Devahūti was married to Kardama, son of Brahmā. They begot two daughters, Kalā and Anasūyā. Marīci married Kalā and Atri married Anasūyā. (Bhāgavata, Skandha 1, Chapter 4).
     2) The Tapaśśakti of Anasūyā. Once upon a time, rains having failed for ten years the whole world sweated in agony and river Gaṅgā got dried up. Famine stalked the world. In this dire contingency it was the tapaśśakti of Anasūyā that made trees bear fruits and Gaṅgā to flow again. Also, she converted ten days into nights on the request of the Devas.
     During their forest life Rāma and Sītā reached the hermitage of sage Atri, and the sage and Anasūyā treated the guests sumptuously. The above story about the tapaśśakti of Anasūyā was told then by Atri. The story helped to increase Rāma's respect for Anasūyā. Anasūyā gave Sītā all proper advice. She taught Sītā that absolute service to husband is the greatest tapas ordained to women. Anasūyā gave to Sītā a very sacred garland and a sublime gem. And, after that Rāma and Sītā left the hermitage. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Ayodhyākāṇḍa, Cantos 117 and 118.).
     3) Sons of Anasūyā. She had three sons: Dattātreya, Durvāsas and Candra. (Viṣṇu Purāṇa, Part 1, Chapter 10). (The reason for Mahāviṣṇu being born as Dattātreya, Śiva as Durvāsas and Brahmā as Candra to Anasūyā is given under Atri).

ANAUPAMYĀ Wife of Bāṇāsura. Once she developed an amorous interest in Nārada, which led to some domestic quarrels. (Padma Purāṇa, Ādikāṇḍa, Chapter 14).

ANAVADYĀ Wife of Kaśyapa, this Apsarā woman participated in the birthday celebrations of Arjuna. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 122, Verse 62).

AṆḌA* Sūta, the disciple of Vyāsa said to the Munis at the Naimiśāraṇya about the creation of the Universe: In the beginning in the heavy universal darkness, the first seed of life (aṇḍa) appeared. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 1, Verse 28).
*) AṆḌA. The primal seed (Aṇḍa=egg or seed) from which everything was born.

AṆḌAKAṬĀHA The entire universe consisting of the fourteen worlds, which are: Bhūloka, Bhuvarloka, Svarloka, Maharloka, Janarloka, Tapoloka, Satyaloka, Pātāla, Rasātala, Mahātala, Talātala, Sutala, Vitala, Atala.

ANDHA I An offspring of Kaśyapa by his wife Kadrū. (M.B., Udyoga Parva, Chapter 103, Verse 16).

ANDHA II There is a story in M.B., about a huntsman, Vaṭaka killing one Andha, an evil being. Andha whose form and shape were that of an animal, by doing tapas, became recipient of a boon for destroying everything. Brahmā rendered him blind lest the world perish, and that animal began to be known as Andha. When Andha began his programme of complete destruction many people rushed up to Viśvāmitra in his abode in the forest. Andha followed them. But, Viśvāmitra, in the interests of self-protection pointed out the refugees to Andha. As punishment for this sin Viśvāmitra had once to go to hell. This story was related by Kṛṣṇa to Arjuna during the great war at Kurukṣetra, and the reason for telling the story was this: During the fight Arjuna hesitated to aim arrows against Karṇa. Enraged by this attitude of Arjuna Dharmaputra asked him to hand over his famous bow, Gāṇḍīva to Śrī Kṛṣṇa. Feeling insulted at this demand Arjuna, all on a sudden, drew his sword to do away with Dharmaputra. Śrī Kṛṣṇa, prevented Arjuna from attacking his noble brother, and in this context related the above story to prove the truth that sins committed even unwittingly will lead one, as in the case of Viśvāmitra to hell. (M.B., Karṇa Parva, Chapter 69).

ANDHA III Upamanyu, the excellent disciple of Dhaumya, consumed the leaves of a tree which made him blind. (See Ayodhadhaumya) (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 3).

ANDHAKA I There was a very renowned king called Andhaka in the Yadu dynasty. All kings belonging to this dynasty used to be called Andhakas.

ANDHAKA II Verse 12, Chapter 4 of M.B., Udyoga Parva refers to another King called Andhaka. The Pāṇḍavas had sent to him a messenger soliciting military help.

     1) Birth. This Asura was the foster son of Hiraṇyākṣa. Śiva was really his father. While once Śiva was immersed in yoga his daughter closed his eyes playfully with her hands, and lo! a darkness rose and enveloped the whole place. From that darkness, with a sound as that of thunderbolt, appeared a Rākṣasa. He got the name Andhaka as he was born from darkness. At that time Hiraṇyākṣa was doing tapas for a son. Śiva appeared before him and bestowing on him Andhaka as a foster son said as follows: "If he (Andhaka) earns the hatred of the world or desires even the mother of the three worlds or kills brahmins I will myself burn him to ashes". After saying this Śiva disappeared. (Vāmana Purāṇa, Chapter 63).
     2) Andhaka desires Pārvatī with lust. One day overcome by erotic passion Andhaka said to his henchmen as follows: "He is my true friend who brings Śiva's consort, Pārvatī to me. Yes, he is my brother, nay, father even." Hearing these ravings of Andhaka, Prahlāda went to him and convinced him that Pārvatī, in fact was his mother. But Andhaka was not quietened. Then Prahlāda explained to him the gravity of the sin of desiring other people's wives. Even this had no effect on Andhaka. He sent Śambarāsura to Śiva to ask for and bring Pārvatī to him. Śiva sent word to Andhaka that if the latter would defeat him in the game of dice Pārvatī would be sent to him. Andhaka got enraged and rushed to mount Mandara and began a fight with Śiva.
     3) Death. Defeated in the encounter, Andhaka craved for Śiva's pardon. He admitted that Pārvatī was his mother. He also prayed for Śiva's blessings for removal of his Asurahood. Śiva granted him the prayers. The sins and Asurahood of Andhaka were thus ended. Śiva made him the head of the Asuras, named Bhṛṅgi. (Vāmana Purāṇa, Chapter 63 etc.).

ANDHAKA(M) A sacred pool. A dip in this pool will bring all the benefits of a Puruṣamedha yajña. (M.B., Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 25, Verses 32, 33).

ANDHAKĀRAKA(M) A place in the island of Krauñca. (M.B., Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 12, Verse 18).

ANDHAKARAM A mountain in the island of Krauñca. (M.B., Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 12, Verse 22).

ANDHAKŪPA(M) In the Devī Bhāgavata Mahāviṣṇu describes 28 hells to Nārada, and Andhakūpam is one of them. (see Naraka). Andhakūpa is reserved for those who kill either Brahmins or devotees of God or Sannyāsins (holy people). This hell abounds in cruel beasts like the bear and leopard, evil birds like the eagle, reptiles like the snake and scorpion and dirty insects like bugs and mosquitos. The sinner will have to put up with all these sufferings in hell till the period of his punishment expires. (Devī Bhāgavata, Aṣṭama Skandha).

ANDHATĀMISRA One of the 28 hells. (See Naraka). This hell is destined for wives who cheat their husbands and consume food and for husbands who cheat their wives and eat food. Agents of Yama get hold of such sinners and push them into the Andhatāmisra. As the cords of the agents with which they bind the sinners get tighter around their bodies they faint and fall down owing to unbearable pain. When they regain consciousness and try to run away and escape, the Agents of Yama again bind them with the cord. (Devī Bhāgavata, Aṣṭama Skandha).

ANDHRA (ĀNDHRA). This is the Andhra Pradesh in modern India. It has to be surmised that this place was very famous during the period of the composition of the Mahābhārata. (M.B., Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 49).

ANDHRA Warriors from Andhra were called Andhras. (M.B., Droṇa Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 8).

ANDHRAKA I Verse 24, Chapter 4 of Sabhā Parva, describes this king of Andhra Deśa as having sat in the assembly hall of the palace constructed by Maya at Indraprastha for the Pāṇḍavas. He was also present at the Rājasūya Yajña performed by Yudhiṣṭhira. (M.B., Sabhā Parva, Chapter 34, Verse 11).

ANDHRAKA II The warriors of Andhra Deśa were called Andhrakas also. (M.B., Karṇa Parva, Chapter 20, Verses 10 and 11). In the Bhārata war the King of Pāṇḍya defeated those warriors. Kṛṣṇa incited Arjuna to kill the Andhras and the Pulindas. (M.B., Karṇa Parva, Chapter 73, Verses 19 to 21).

ANDHRAKA III Andhrakas are classed with Mlecchas (lowest caste of people) in Verse 42, Chapter 207 of Śānti Parva.

ANENAS I A king of the Lunar dynasty (Candra Vaṃśa).
     1) Genealogy. Descended from Viṣṇu in the following order: Brahmā-Atri-Candra-Budha-Purūravas-Āyus-Anenas.
     2) Birth. Purūravas had by his wife Urvaśī six sons named Āyus, Śrutāyus, Satyāyus, Raya, Vijaya and Jaya. Of them, Āyus, the eldest, had five sons named Nahuṣa, Kṣatravṛddha, Rāji, Rambha and Anenas. Nahuṣa had a son named Yayāti to whom were born the sons Pūru, Yadu and others. The two dynasties of Yadu and Pūru (Yaduvaṃśa and Pūruvaṃśa) originate from them. To Anenas, brother of Nahuṣa, a son named Śuddha was born. Śuddha begot Śuci who begot Trikakup and a son named Śāntarayas was born to Trikakup.

ANENAS II A Mahārāja of the Ikṣvāku dynasty.
     Genealogy. From Viṣṇu descended thus: Kaśyapa-Vaivasvata Manu-Ikṣvāku-Śaśāda-Kakutstha-Anenas.

AṄGA A King belonging to the Candra vaṃśa. (Lunar dynasty).
     1) Genealogy. Descended from Viṣṇu in the following order: Brahmā-Atri-Candra-Budha-Purūravas-Āyus-Nahuṣa-Yayāti-Anudruhyu-Sabhānara-Kālanara-Sṛñjaya-Titikṣa-Kuśadhṛta-Homa-Sutapas-Bali-Aṅga.
     2) Birth. Aṅga, Kaliṅga, Suhma, Kaṇḍra, Vaṅga, Adrupa and Anaśābhu are the seven sons born to Bali, the son of Sutapas, by his wife Suteṣṇā, and the King Aṅga is one of them. There is a story about the birth of these sons.
     Once there lived a hermit named Utatthya. He was the elder brother of Bṛhaspati. One day when Mamatā, Utatthya's wife, was pregnant, Bṛhaspati approached her with carnal desires. In spite of her efforts to dissuade her brother-in-law from his attempts she could not prevail upon him. He forced her and satisfied his desire. The child in her womb protested and kicked the sperm of Bṛhaspati out into the floor. Bṛhaspati got angry and cursed the child in the womb: "May you fall in perpetual darkness". So the child was born blind and remained blind throughout his life. Hence he got the name 'Dīrghatamas'. Dīrghatamas married Pradveṣi. A son named Gautama was born to them. The duty of supporting Dīrghatamas fell upon the wife and the son, who put him on a raft and pushed him astray into the River Ganges. King Bali, who was bathing in the river saw this. He rescued the hermit and took him to the palace and pleasing him by hospitality, requested him to beget children in his wife Suteṣṇā, who detesting the idea sent a Śūdrā woman Dhātreyī in her stead and eleven children were born to them. By and by Dīrghatamas came to know of the deceit played by Suteṣṇā on him and he became very angry. But the King pacified him and pleased him again and Dīrghatamas begot five sons by Suteṣṇā. They were Aṅga, Vaṅga, Kaliṅga, Pauṇḍra and Suhma. Dīrghatamas blessed them that they would become very famous. Aṅga, Vaṅga, Kaliṅga, Pauṇḍra and Suhma were the five kingdoms ruled by Aṅga, Vaṅga, Kaliṅga, Pauṇḍra and Suhma respectively. These five are the famous Kings of the Bāli family. (Mahābhārata, Ādi Parva, Chapter 104).
     3) How Aṅga got children. Once Aṅga performed a horse sacrifice. But the gods did not appear to receive oblations. Holy seers said that the Gods refused to accept the oblations offered by the King because he was childless. So he performed the sacrifice called Putrakāmeṣṭi (Sacrifice to get a son) and from the sacrificial fire arose a divine person with a golden flask of pudding, which he offered to the King and his queen. The King and the queen Sunīthā ate the pudding, as a result of which a son was born to them. He was named Vena. This son was wicked. Because of his wickedness the King became so miserable that he left his kingdom and went on a pilgrimage. Since there was no other means the people enthroned Vena, who tortured his subjects beyond limit. (Bhāgavata, 4th Skandha, Chapters Band 14).

AṄGADA I A son of Bāli.
     1) Genealogy. Descended from Viṣṇu in the following order: Brahmā-Kaśyapa-Indra-Bāli-Aṅgada.
     2) Birth. Aṅgada was the son of Bāli (the son of Indra) born of his wife Tārā. (Mahābhārata, Vana Parva, Chapter 82, Stanza 28).
     a) Aṅgada was a member of the group of monkeys sent by Sugrīva to find out Sītā. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Araṇyakāṇḍa).
     b) He was the foremost among the group of monkeys who entered Madhuvana and ate the berries in the garden, on their return after the search for Sītā.
     c) Aṅgada was sent to the court of Rāvaṇa as a messenger by Śrī Rāma. (Rāmāyaṇa, Yuddhakāṇḍa).
     d) In the battle between Rāma and Rāvaṇa Aṅgada combated with Indrajit. (Rāmāyaṇa, Yuddhakāṇḍa).
     e) After his combat with Indrajit, Aṅgada and his followers led an attack on the army of Rāvaṇa. (Rāmāyaṇa, Yuddhakāṇḍa).
     f) After the battle, Śrī Rāma anointed Aṅgada as the heir-apparent to the Kingdom of Kiṣkindhā. The necklace which Bāli had given on his death to Sugrīva, was returned to Aṅgada. (Uttara Rāmāyaṇa).
     g) Śrī Rāma returned to Ayodhyā after his forest life and celebrated a horse sacrifice. The sacrificial horse was caught and detained by King Suratha. Coming to know of this Śatrughna sent Aṅgada to deal with Suratha, who said that the horse was detained with the intention of meeting with Śrī Rāma personally. Aṅgada returned and told Śatrughna what Suratha had said to him. (Padma Purāṇa, Pātāla Khaṇḍa).

AṄGADA II There was a prince called Aṅgada among the mighty men-of-arms on the side of the Kauravas. He got into action on the battle-field on the twelfth day of the battle. (M.B., Droṇa Parva, Chapter 25, Stanza 38).

AṄGADA III Śrutakīrti the wedded wife of Śatrughna, brother of Śrī Rāma, had two sons called Aṅgada and Chandraketu. (Uttara Rāmāyaṇa).

AṄGADA IV In the Bhāgavata we see another Aṅgada who was the son of Gada, the brother of Kṛṣṇa by his wife, Bṛhatī.

AṄGAKARMA Actions on the stage are of two kinds. One is to express by the major organs of the body. The other is to express by the minor organs of the body. Head etc. are major organs and eyebrow etc. are minor organs. Actions expressed by major organs are called Aṅgakarma and those by minor organs are called Pratyaṅga Karma. (Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 341).

AṄGĀLAMMA She is the wife of Vīrabhadra, a servant of Śiva. She has a rope in her left hand, with which she hauls up the spirits of the dead.

AṄGA(M) The kingdom ruled by King Aṅga. Other details:
     1) The Dynasty. The first King of the Aṅga dynasty was Aṅga the son of Bali. Anagābhu, Draviratha, Dharmaratha, Romapāda (Lomapāda), Caturaṅga, Pṛthulākṣa, Bṛhadratha, Bṛhanmanas, Jayadratha, Vijaya, Dṛḍhavrata, Satyakarmā, Atiratha, Karṇa, Vṛṣasena and others were kings of this dynasty. Karṇa was the adopted son of Atiratha. During the period of the Mahābhārata, Kings of the Atiratha family were under the sway of the Candra vaṃśa (Lunar dynasty) kings such as Dhṛtarāṣṭra and Pāṇḍu. (For further informations see the word Atiratha).
     2) How Karṇa became the king of Aṅga. A contest in archery and the wielding of other weapons was going on in Hastināpura, the competitors being the Kauravas and the Pāṇḍavas. The status of Karṇa, who appeared on the side of the Kauravas, was questioned by the Pāṇḍavas on the occasion and Duryodhana, who always stood on his dignity, anointed Karṇa as the King of Aṅga, on the spot. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 136).
     3) Drought in the kingdom of Aṅga. Lomapāda (Romapāda) the king of Aṅga once deceived a hermit Brahmin. So all the Brahmins quitted the country and thereafter there was no rainfall in the country for several years. The sages of the country began to think on the means of bringing about rain. One day they approached the King and told him that the only way to get rain was to bring the great hermit Ṛṣyaśṛṅga to the country.
     Once Kaśyapa happened to see Urvaśī and he had seminal flow. The sperm fell in a river. A deer swallowed it along with the water it drank. It gave birth to a human child with horns on the head. This child was called Ṛṣyaśṛṅga. It was brought up by a hermit called Vibhāṇḍaka in his hut. Ṛṣyaśṛṅga had never seen women and by virtue of this, there occurred rainfall wherever he went. The King Lomapāda sent some courtesans to the forest to attract Ṛṣyaśṛṅga, who following them arrived at the court of Lomapāda the King of Aṅga and the King gave Ṛṣyaśṛṅga, as a gift, his daughter Śāntā. Thus the country got rain. This Lomapāda was a friend of Daśaratha. (Mahābhārata, Araṇya Parva, Chapters 110 to 113).
     4) How the Kingdom got the name Aṅga. One opinion is that the Kingdom got its name from the King Aṅga who ruled over it. Another opinion is that the king got his name from the country he ruled. However there is a story revealing how the country came to be called Aṅga.
     In the realm of God, preliminary steps were being taken for making Śrī Parameśvara wed Pārvatī. According to the instructions of Devendra, Kāmadeva (the Lord of Love--Cupid) was trying to break the meditation of Śiva and when Śiva opened his third eye, fire emitted from it and Anaṅga (Kāmadeva) was burned to ashes. It was in the country of Aṅga that the ashes of the 'aṅga' (Body) of Kāmadeva fell and from that day onwards the country came to be called Aṅga and Kāmadeva, 'Anaṅga' (without body). (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Bālakāṇḍa, Sarga 26).
     5) Other informations.
     (1) It is mentioned in the Hindi Dictionary, 'Śabda Sāgara' that the kingdom of Aṅga embracing Bhagatpur and Muṃger in Bihar had its capital at Campāpurī and that the country had often stretched from Vaidyanāthanāma to Bhuvaneśvar.
     (2) Arjuna had visited the Kingdom of Aṅga also during his pilgrimage. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 219, Stanza 9).
     (3) The King of Aṅga was present at the sacrifice of Rājasūya (Royal consecration) celebrated by Dharmaputra, when the Pāṇḍavas were living at Indraprastha. (M.B., Sabhā Parva, Chapter 52, Stanza 16).
     (4) On one occasion Śrī Kṛṣṇa defeated the Aṅgas in a battle. (M.B., Droṇa Parva, Chapter 11, Stanza 15).
     (5) Paraśurāma had defeated the Aṅgas once. (M.B., Droṇa Parva, Chapter 7, Stanza 12).
     (6) In the battle of Kurukṣetra between the Pāṇḍavas and the Kauravas, on the sixteenth day of the battle, the heroes of Aṅga made an onslaught on Arjuna. (M.B., Karṇa Parva, Chapter 17, Stanza 12).
     (7) The Aṅgas attacked the armies of Dhṛṣṭadyumna and the King of Pāñcāla. (M.B., Karṇa Parva, Chapter 22, Stanza 2).
     (8) A low caste man from Aṅga attacked Bhīma, who killed the man and his elephant. (Mahābhārata, Droṇa Parva, Chapter 26, Stanzas 14 to 17).

     General Information. (1) This was a country in ancient Bhārata. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 9, Stanza 50).
     (2) Viśvāmitra had taken to the forest from Ayodhyā Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa to protect the hermits and their yāgas. On the way they entered the Tāṭaka forest. Viśvāmitra told the boys in answer to their questions thus: "In olden days this place was a countryside known as Aṅgamalaja or Malada or Karūṣa. There is a reason for calling the country by that name. Indra killed Vṛtra and thereby incurred the sin of Brahmahatyā and so he came away to this country and lived here for a while. The Gods found him out here. They poured water on the head of the unclean Indra and the dirt, hunger, excreta and Karūṣa having been separated from his body fell on the soil of this place and was mingled with it. Indra's body became pure. As excreta, Karūṣa etc. were mingled with the soil of this country, it came to be called Aṅgamalaja, Malada or Karūṣa from that day onwards. One part of the country was called Malada and the other part Karūṣa. Indra, having been purified by washing in water returned to heaven with the gods. After that this country became uninhabited for a long time. The horrible Tāṭaka lives in this forest now". (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Bālakāṇḍa, Sarga 24).

AṄGAPRADAKṢIṆĀ Rolling behind a chariot round the temple as a vow.

AṄGĀRA A king of ancient India. He was defeated by Māndhātā in a battle. (Mahābhārata, Śānti Parva, Chapter 29, Stanza 88).

AṄGARĀJAVAṂŚA (THE DYNASTY OF AṄGA KINGS). Descended from Viṣṇu in the following order: Brahmā-Atri-Candra-Budha-Purūravas-Āyus-Nahuṣa-Yayāti. Yadu, Turvasu, Druhyu and Anudruhyu were the four sons of Yayāti. The Aṅga dynasty starts from Turvasu, one of the four. The following are the descendants of Turvasu. Varga was the son of Turvasu, Gobhānu, the son of Varga, Traiśāni the son of Gobhānu, Karandhama, the son of Traiśāni, Marutta, the son of Karandhama, Duṣyanta, the son of Marutta, Varūtha, the son of Duṣyanta, Gāṇḍira the son of Varūtha, and Gāndāra the son of Gāṇḍira. The five powerful peoples, the Gāndhāras, the Colas, the Keralas, the Pāṇḍyas and the Kolas have descended from Gāndhāra.
     Two sons, Druhyu and Babhrusetu were born to Gāndhāra. Babhrusetu begot Purovasu; Purovasu begot Gāndhārī. From Gāndhārī Gharma was born, from Gharma Ghṛta was born, from Ghṛta Viduṣa was born, and from Viduṣa Pracetas was born. Pracetas got a hundred children of whom the prominent were Anidra, Sabhānara, Cākṣuṣa and Parameṣu. To Sabhānara was born Kālānala and Sṛñjaya to Kālānala, Purañjaya to Sṛñjaya and Janamejaya to Purañjaya. Mahāsāla was the son of Janamejaya; Mahāmanas the son of Mahāsāla, and Uśinara the son of Mahāmanas. To Uśīnara were born Nṛga, Nara, Kṛmi, Suvrata and Śibi by his wives Nṛgā, Narā, Kṛmi, Daśā and Dṛṣadvatī respectively. To Śibi were born four sons called Pṛthudarbha, Vīraka, Kaikaya and Bhadraka. Four separate kingdoms arose in the names of them. Uśīnara had another son called Titikṣu. From Titikṣu was born Ruṣadratha; from Ruṣadratha was born Paila, from Paila was born Sutapas and from Sutapas was born the great hermit Bāli. From Bāli, Aṅga, Vaṅga, Kaliṅga, Puṇḍra, Bāleya and Bālayogi were born. To Aṅga was born Dadhivāhana. The King Draviratha was the son of Dadhivāhana, Dharmaratha the son of Draviratha, Citraratha the son of Dharmarātha, and Satyaratha was the son of Citraratha. To Satyaratha was born Lomapāda; to Lomapāda was born Caturaṅga; to Caturaṅga was born Pṛthulākṣa, to Pṛthulākṣa was born Campa; to Campa was born Haryaṅga, to Haryaṅga was born Bhadraratha, to Bhadraratha was born Bṛhatkarmā, to Bṛhatkarmā was born Bṛhadbhānu, to Bṛhadbhānu was born Bṛhadātmā, to Bṛhadātmā was born Jayadratha, to Jayadratha was born Bṛhadratha and to Bṛhadratha was born Viśvajit. After that Karṇa became the King of Aṅga. The son of Karṇa was Vṛṣasena and the son of Vṛsasena was Pṛthusena. These are the kings of the Aṅga dynasty. (Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 277.)

AṄGĀRAKA I An Asura who took the form of a pig. The story of how this Asura was killed by his daughter Aṅgāravatī, is given below.
     Long ago there was an emperor named Mahendravarmā in Ujjayinī. His son Mahāsena did penance for a long time to get a wife and a sword. At last Devī appeared and granted the boon: "My son! take this extraordinary sword. So long as you have this sword, your enemies will not prevail against you. Aṅgāravatī, the renowned beauty of the three worlds, who is the daughter of the Asura Aṅgāraka, will become your wife in due course. As you do horrible deeds, you will be called Caṇḍamahāsena". He was given the sword and a tusker called Naḍāgiri. One day Mahāsena went to the forest for hunting. He saw a very large pig. The King used his arrows. But they did little harm to the pig. Moreover it turned the chariot of the King over to one side and ran to a cave. The King followed it with fury. On the way he sat on the bank of a lake with wonder, for a lady of exquisite beauty was walking along the mossy turf in the midst of some maids. Slowly she approached the King and talked with him. The young lady had entirely captured the heart of the King, who told her everything. She began to weep. "Who are you? Why do you weep?" The King asked her. She replied with a deep sigh. "The pig you saw, is my father Aṅgārakāsura. His body is as hard as diamond and not vulnerable to any sort of weapon. These maids have been caught by him from various royal houses and brought here for my help. My name is Aṅgāravatī. My father was changed to a giant by a curse. Now he is asleep discarding the form of pig. When he wakes up, filled with hunger and thirst, he will do you harm. My tears flowed out in the form of heated life-breaths, when I thought of these things."
     The King said, "Go and sit by him and cry when he wakes up. He will ask the reason. Then tell him that you had been crying, when you thought how forlorn you would be without a mate, in case your father was killed by somebody". Aṅgāravatī did as she was told. Hearing her words Aṅgāraka said, "My daughter! No body can kill me. My body is made of diamond. There is only one vulnerable point in my body which is on my left forearm and it is always covered with my bow."
     The king hid himself closely and heard everything. He fought with the Asura and hitting at the vuinerable point killed him. The king married Aṅgāravatī and took her to his palace. Two sons were born to him. They were called Gopālaka and Pālaka. By the grace of Indra a daughter also was born to him by her and she was Vāsavadattā, the wife of the famous Udayana. (Kathāsaritsāgara, Kathāmukhalambaka, Taraṅga 3).

AṄGĀRAKA II A prince named Aṅgāraka is seen to have been the descendant of Jayadratha, the King of Sauvīra. (Mahābhārata, Vana Parva, Chapter 265, Stanza 10).

AṄGĀRAKA III A planet named Maṅgala which is a satellite of Brahmā is seen to have been called by the name Aṅgāraka also. (Mahābhārata, Sabhā Parva, Chapter 11, Stanza 29).

AṄGĀRAKA IV We see one Aṅgāraka among the one hundred and eight sons of the Sun. (Mahābhārata, Vana Parva, Chapter 3, Stanza 10).

     1) Genealogy. Descended in the following order from Viṣṇu. Brahmā-Marīci-Kaśyapa-Aṅgārakā.
     2) Birth. In the battle between the Gods and the Asuras, most of the Asuras were killed and one Asura fled from the clutches of death to Pātāla (the nether world). Surasā was the daughter of that Asura. Kaśyapa married Surasā. To them were born the two daughters, Aṅgārakā (Siṃhikā) and Ajāmukhī, and four sons, called Śūrapadma, Siṃhavaktra, Tārakāsura and Gomukha. Thus Siṃhikā is the sister of Tārakāsura. (Skanḍa Purāṇa, Asura Kāṇḍa).
     Other details. This giantess Aṅgārakā had a clash once, with Hanūmān. Sugrīva had sent a large number of monkeys under the leadership of Hanumān to search for Sītā. He gave Hanūmān certain instructions regarding the route he had to follow. Sugrīva said, "There is a giantess in the middle of that Southern Sea. Her name is Aṅgāra. She pulls the shadow towards her and feeds on the object of the shadow."
     From this it is clear that she was a giantess who lived in the sea between Laṅkā and South India. She knew the art of bringing to her side, anybody who passed over the sea, by pulling at his shadow. When Hanūmān jumped to Laṅkā from the mountain of Mahendra the giantess attacked Hanūmān. It is seen that the name Siṃhikā also is used for Aṅgārakā. Hanūmān who was subjected to the excessive attraction of Siṃhikā, felt a great storm raging round him. Finally he found her out, a monster with such an uncouth face and a mouth as wide as the hole of Pātāla (the nether world). There was a terrible fight between Hanūmān and the monster, in which Siṃhikā, fell on the ground beaten. After the fight Hanūmān resumed his journey. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Sundarakāṇḍa, Sarga 1, Stanzas 178 to 186).

AṄGĀRA(M) A countryside in ancient India. (Mahābhārata, Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 9, Stanza 60).

AṄGĀRAPARṆA (Citraratha) See the word CITRARATHA I.


AṄGAVĀHA A king of immense fame, belonging to the dynasty of Vṛṣṇi. Aṅgavāha attended, with Balabhadrarāma, the sacrifice of Rājasūya (Royal consecration) celebrated by Yudhiṣṭhira. (Mahābhārata, Sabhā Parva, Chapter 34, Stanza 16).

     1) Birth. He is a hermit born from the mind of Brahmā. Six mind-born sons (Mānasa-Putras) were born to Brahmā, known as Marīci, Aṅgiras, Atri, Pulastya, Pulaha, and Kratu. All the six of them became great hermits. (Mahābhārata, Ādi Parva, Chapter 65, Stanza 10).*
     2) Important events.
     (1) The failure of Aṅgiras. There was a King named Citraketu in the kingdom of Śūrasena. Once Aṅgiras reached his palace when the King was in a miserable state as he was childless. The King informed Aṅgiras of his sorrow. He pacified the King and said that a son would be born to him. He and his wife Kṛtadyutī were filled with joy. The other wives of the King did not like this. They feared that when a son was born to Kṛtadyutī the King might overlook them. To the king a son was born of Kṛtadyutī and the other wives poisoned the child and killed him. While the parents were weeping over the dead child Aṅgiras and Nārada arrived there and wiped their tears. Aṅgiras agreed to bring the child back to life. He instantly called the spirit of the dead child to him and asked it to become the son of Citraketu. The spirit replied that it had a large number of parents in several previous births and that it was not possible for it to become the son of Citraketu, and then it vanished. Aṅgiras and Nārada went on their way. Citraketu became a devotee of Viṣṇu and by the curse of Pārvatī, was born again as Vṛtrāsura. (Bhāgavata, Skandha 6, Chapter 14).
     (2) How Aṅgiras cursed Sudarśana and transmuted him to a serpent. While Sudarśana, a vidyādhara (a class of semigods) was travelling lustfully with a group of beautiful girls he came across Aṅgiras and some other hermits. He teased Aṅgiras calling him 'durbhāga' (unlucky) and Aṅgiras cursed him and changed him to a big serpent and he was promised liberation from the curse, when, during the dvāpara yuga (one of the four ages) Mahāviṣṇu would incarnate as Śrī Kṛṣṇa and would tread upon him and then he would regain his former form. From that day onwards Sudarśana lived on the banks of the river Kālindī in the form of a serpent. It was the time when Śrī Kṛṣṇa was having his game of love with the Gopa women. On one night one serpent bit Nanda the foster father of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. The cowherds or gopas hit at the snake with burned wood. But it was of no use. Śrī Kṛṣṇa came there and thrashed the serpent, which instantly took the form of Sudarśana Vidyādhara and praising Śrī Kṛṣṇa entered heaven. (Bhāgavata, Skandha 10, Chapter 34).
     (3) Aṅgiras a Prajāpati. Brahmā had created sixteen prajāpatis, for effecting the creation of the universe. Aṅgiras is one of them. Their names are given below:
     1) Kardama 9) Pulastya
     2) Vikrīta 10) Aṅgiras
     3) Śeṣa 11) Pracetas
     4) Saṃśraya 12) Pulaha
     5) Sthāṇu 13) Dakṣa
     6) Marīci 14) Vivasvān
     7) Atri 15) Ariṣṭanemi
     8) Kratu 16) Kaśyapa (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Araṇyakāṇḍa, Sarga 14).
     (4) The wives and children of Aṅgiras. Aṅgiras had several wives such as Śubhā, Smṛti, Śraddhā, Devasenā and Vasudhā. The names of the sons of Aṅgiras are given below:
     1) Bṛhatkīrti 5) Bṛhadmantra
     2) Bṛhatjyoti 6) Bṛhadbhāsa
     3) Bṛhadbrahmā 7) Bṛhaspati.
     4) Bṛhadmanā
     The names of the eight daughters of Aṅgiras are given below:
     1) Bhānumatī 5) Haviṣmatī
     2) Rāgā 6) Māhiṣmatī
     3) Sinīvālī 7) Mahāmatī
     4) Arciṣmatī 8) Kuhū.
     Besides these sons and daughters, other sons such as Sudhanvā and Kārttikeya were born to Aṅgiras by his other wives. (Mahābhārata, Vana Parva, five chapters from 218).
     (5) The clash between Aṅgiras and Prahlāda. Duśśāsana stripped Pāñcālī of her clothes in the Palace hall, in the presence of the Pāṇḍavas who had been defeated in the game of dice. Before this Pāñcālī had asked Duryodhana one question, "Have you won yourself or myself?" One husband was not authorised to stake his wife Pāñcālī who was the wife of five husbands. Moreover according to the Śāstras (sciences) the deeds executed by a King, who was miserable due to hunting, drinking, playing dice and hankering after a woman, were not legally binding. Hence how could the Kauravas own Pāñcālī?" Vidura said that the witnesses in the hall had to give an impartial answer to this question, and that the punishment of falsehood would come upon the doer himself. As an instance he gave the following old story: Virocana was the son of Prahlāda; Sudhanvā the son of Aṅgiras and Virocana fell in love with the same woman once. There arose a contention between these two as to who was greater. They staked their lives on the issue. Then both of them together approached Prahlāda and requested him to give a decision as to which of them was the elder. Thinking that Prahlāda might side with Virocana his son, Sudhanvā said to him, "Sir, you should not utter words of falsehood, nor should you abstain from speaking the truth. If you do so your head will be cut into a hundred pieces by Indra with his Vajrāyudha (the weapon of thunderbolt)". Hesitating to take a decision, because of the words of Sudhanvā, Prahlāda went to Kaśyapa to clear his doubts, and asked: "Lord, do you know which are the future worlds destined for those who utter words of falsehood or abstain from giving out the truth?" Kaśyapa said, "On him, who abstains from speaking truth knowingly a thousand cords of death will fall. He who tells falsehood will have to perform many a deed of duty to attain heaven."
     Having heard the words of Kaśyapa, Prahlāda said to Virocana, "Virocana, Sudhanvā is greater than you. Aṅgiras is greater than me. Likewise the mother of Sudhanvā is nobler than your mother. So according to your bet you owe your life to Sudhanvā." Pleased at the righteousness of Prahlāda, Sudhanvā gave Virocana a boon to live a hundred years more. (Mahābhārata, Sabhā Parva, Chapter 63).
     (6) How Aṅgiras became the first son of Agni (Fire God). Once Aṅgiras was blazing out as a furious being. All the worlds were illuminated by that flame-fire. As Aṅgiras was performing the functions of Agni (fire), peoples of the worlds discarded Agni, who being sad at the derision shown towards him by the worlds went to a forest and hid himself there. The living beings were in trouble owing to lack of fire. When he became aware of this Aṅgiras went to the forest and pacified Agni. From that day onwards Aṅgiras agreed to become the first son of Agni, who resumed his duties as usual. (Mahābhārata, Vana Parva, Chapter 217).
     (7) How Aṅgiras got the name Atharvāṅgiras. After the slaughter of Vṛtrāsura, Indra went to the lake known as Amṛtasaras and hid himself there in a lotus flower. At this time the Gods anointed Nahuṣa as Indra. Agastya cursed him and turned him to a serpent and sent him to the earth. When Indra returned to heaven many persons gathered there to greet him. Aṅgiras also was one among them who did obeisance to Indra. He paid his homage by reciting the hymns of Atharvaveda. Indra who was greatly pleased at this, said to Aṅgiras, "Hereafter you shall be known as Atharvāṅgiras". Aṅgiras who got this boon from Indra, returned with gratitude. (Mahābhārata, Udyoga Parva, Chapter 18, Stanzas 5 to 7).
     (8) Aṅgiras and Droṇa. In the battle of Kurukṣetra, between the Pāṇḍavas and the Kauravas the great teacher, Droṇa began to release his divine darts towards his enemies in all directions. Immediately Aṅgiras with many other hermits came to Droṇa and told him, "You have burned to death innumerable men with your Brahmāstra (The most powerful of all missiles). Your end is very near. So put your weapons down and stop your fight." Droṇa seems to have paid no heed at all to the advice of the hermits. He did not stop fighting too.
     (9) The sermon of Aṅgiras on the merits of Tīrthas or holy places (Baths). Dharmaputra once asked Bhīṣma about the importance of holy ghāṭs or tīrthas (Baths). Bhīṣma told Dharmaputra, what Aṅgiras had once told Gautama about the merits obtained by going on pilgrimage to holy tīrthas or Baths. Aṅgiras had described the holy nature and character of holy Baths in Bhārata such as Puṣkara, Prabhāsa, Naimiśa, Sāgarodaka, Indramārga, Devika, Svarṇabindu, Hiraṇyabindu, Indratoya, and such other numerous tīrthas. (Mahābhārata, Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 25, Stanzas 7-71).
     3) Other details:
     (1) Dakṣa gave his two daughters in marriage to Aṅgiras. (Devī Bhāgavata, Skandha 7).
     (2) Aṅgiras once saved the Sun. (Mahābhārata, Vana Parva, Chapter 92, Stanza 6).
     (3) While the Pāṇḍavas were in exile in forest, Aṅgiras had been chanting and meditating in Alakanandā in the region of the mount Gandhamādana. (Mahābhārata, Araṇya Parva, Chapter 142, Stanza 6).
     (4) When the hermits had stolen the lotus flowers of Agastya, Aṅgiras gave some hints about the culprits. (Mahābhārata, Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 94, Stanza 20: See Agastya).
     (5) Aṅgiras once gave a discourse on fasting and the merits of fasting. (Mahābhārata, Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 106, Stanzas 11 to 16).
     (6) Aṅgiras on another occasion delivered lectures on the secrets of duties. (Mahābhārata, Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 127, Stanza 8).
     (7) Once Aṅgiras drank the water in the ocean to the last drop. (Mahābhārata, Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 153, Stanza 3).
     (8) When his thirst was not quenched, even though he had drunk the entire water available in the world, he created new springs of water again and drank them dry. (Mahābhārata, Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 153, Stanza 3).
     (9) Once Agni failed to show respect to Aṅgiras, who cursed Agni and thenceforward smoke came out from fire. (Mahābhārata, Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 153, Stanza 8).
     (10) Aṅgiras conducted many of the important sacrifices of King Avikṣit. (Mahābhārata, Aśvamedhika Parva, Chapter 4, Stanza 22).
     (11) Indra once gave Aṅgiras a boon. (Mahābhārata, Udyoga Parva, Chapter 18, Stanzas 5 to 7).
     (12) Aṅgiras blessed Dhruva who had been doing penance. (Viṣṇu Purāṇa, Aṃśa 1, Chapter 11).
     (13) The daughters named Sinīvālī, Kuhū, Rākā, Anumati were born to Aṅgiras by his wife Smṛti. (Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 20).
     (14) Aṅgiras is the first of the Agni devas (Fire-Gods) and a hermit. He had a son called Hiraṇya-Stūpa, who also was a hermit (Ṛgveda, Maṇḍala 1, Anuvāka 7, Sūkta 31).
     (15) The Hermit Aṅgiras began to invoke the Gods to get a son equal to Indra. Then Indra, thinking that nobody should be born as his equal, took birth as the son of Aṅgiras. He was called Savya. (Ṛgveda, Maṇḍala 1, Anuvāka 10, Sūkta 51).
     (16) Indra sent Saramā, the bitch of the Gods, to find out the place where the cows had been hidden; Indra acted according to the advice of Aṅgiras. At first the bitch did not consent to go. But when Devendra promised to feed her young one with milk she agreed. Saramā found out the place where the cows were hidden and informed Indra of it. (Ṛgveda, Maṇḍala 1, Anuvāka 11, Sūkta 62).
     (17) Ṛbhus are the sons of Sudhanvā. (Son of Aṅgiras). The hermit Kutsa also is descended from Aṅgiras. (Ṛgveda, Maṇḍala 1, Anuvāka 16, Sūkta 10)
     (18) Aṅgiras was the son of Brahmā in the Svāyambhuva Manvantara (See Manvantara), but in the Vaivasvata Manvantara he was born from Agni.
     (19) Once Vāyu (the Wind-God) had to run away from Aṅgiras and hide himself as he had caused some displeasure to Aṅgiras. On another occasion Aṅgiras taught philosophy and sacred doctrines to the hermit Śaunaka. (Muṇḍakopaniṣad).
*) There is another story about the birth of Aṅgiras. At a sacrifice celebrated by Rudra, seminal flow occurred to Brahmā who happened to see some celestial maids and was overpowered by passionate feelings. Brahmā put the sperm in the fire. From that fire appeared Aṅgiras along with Marīci, Bhṛgu and others. This deva (the shining one--the God) was called Aṅgiras because his origin was from Aṅgāra or Cinder.

AṄGIRAS II In the family of Marīci, son of Brahmā, another King of the name of Aṅgiras is seen.
     Genealogy. Descended from Viṣṇu in the following order: Brahmā, Marīci, Kaśyapa, Vaivasvata Manu, Uttānapāda, Dhruva, Śiṣṭi, Ripu, Cākṣuṣa Manu, Ūru, Aṅgiras. (About this Aṅgiras, no other information is available in the Purāṇas. Viṣṇu Purāṇa, Aṃśa 1, Chapter 13; Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 18).

AṄGIROBHAVA A hermit named Kakṣīvān. (Ṛgveda, Maṇḍala 1, Anuvāka 17, Sūkta 120).

ANĪKAVIDĀRAṆA A brother of Jayadratha, a King of the kingdom of Sindhu. Arjuna killed him. (M.B., Vana Parva, Chapter 265, Verse 12).

ANIKETA A Yakṣa, one of the attendants of Kubera. (M.B., Sabhā Parva, Chapter 10, Verse 18). He was a king of the Aṅga dynasty. (Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 277).

ANĪKINĪ A division of the army. (See under AKṢAUHIṆĪ).

ANILA I One of the Aṣṭa (8) Vasus. His father was Dharma and mother Śvāsā. Anila married Śivā and had two sons, Manojava and Avijñāti. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 66, Verses 17-25).

ANILA II Garuḍa had a son called Anila. (M.B., Udyoga Parva, Chapter 101, Verse 9).

ANILA III A word used as a synonym of Śiva. (M.B., Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 149, Verse 100).

ANILA IV A word used as a synonym of Viṣṇu. (M.B., Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 149, Verse 38).

ANILA V A Kṣatriya King. His father, Vṛṣādarbhi presented him as Dakṣiṇā to the Saptarṣis (7 sages) at a yajña performed by him (father). The King expired soon after this. There was then a famine in the country. The Saptarṣis, tortured by hunger and thirst got ready to prepare food with the corpse of the King. But the corpse retained its form and they could not cook food with it. (M.B., Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 96)

ANĪLA A famous serpent. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 35, Verse 7).

     1) General. How he got the name Aṇimāṇḍavya. Once there was a famous Brahmin named Māṇḍavya. He did Tapas (penance) for many years standing silent in front of his Āśrama, under a tree, raising his hands in prayer. At that time some thieves happened to pass by that place, with stolen property belonging to the King. Finding that the King's men were pursuing them, the thieves fled away after leaving their stolen property in Māṇḍavya's Āśrama. The King's men seized Māṇḍavya with the king's property. Even prolonged and repeated questionings did not bring out a single word from Māṇḍavya. At last the thieves were caught. Mistaking him as one of the thieves, the King's men produced Māṇḍavya also along with the thieves before the King. The thieves were all condemned to death. The royal executioners took all of them to the place of execution and stuck them up at the tip of a trident (Śūla). The thieves died, but even after a long time Māṇḍavya did not die. In Mahābhārata, Anuśāsana Parva, Verses 4651, it is said that at this stage Śiva appeared and blessed him with longevity and then vanished. Several Munis in the shape of birds came near Māṇḍavya who was lying on the trident and made enquiries about him. The King came to know of all these stories. Full of repentance, he went and begged pardon of Māṇḍavya. The attempt to pull out the trident from Māṇḍavya's body failed. At last it was removed by cutting it off. Since the tip (Aṇi) of the trident was left behind in his body he was thereafter known as "Aṇi Māṇḍavya". (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 107).
     2) Curse on Dharma. After going about in the world for many years with the tip of the trident in his body, Aṇi Māṇḍavya once asked Dharma: "Oh! Lord, why is it that an innocent man like me is afflicted with the trident?". Dharma answered: "In your boyhood you once caught small birds and pierced them with a grass reed. It is a result of that sin that you have been pierced with the trident." Māṇḍavya replied: "The Śāstras ordain that there shall be no punishment for sins committed till the age of twelve. Therefore the punishment inflicted on me is wrong. As the murder of a Brahmin is a greater sin than any other murder, may you be born as a man in the 'Śūdra Caste'."
     By the above curse of Māṇḍavya, Dharma was born a son of a Śūdra woman. It was this child who later on became the renowned Vidura of the Mahābhārata. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 107).
     3) The story of how the Sun did not rise. When Aṇi Māṇḍavya lay on the tip of the trident another event happened. Atri Muni's son Ugraśravas was the husband of Śīlavatī. No other woman had so far surpassed Śīlavatī in her fidelity to her husband. Once Ugraśravas happened to fall ill. He expressed his desire to visit a prostitute's house. As he was too weak he could not walk. The devoted wife Śīlavatī carried him on her own shoulders and took him to the prostitute's house. They were passing near the piace where Aṇi Māṇḍavya was lying on the trident. Coming to know of the matter, Māṇḍavya pronounced a curse that Ugraśravas should die before sunrise. Śīlavatī shuddered on hearing this. Fearing that she would be widowed by the death of Ugraśravas, she, in her turn, pronounced a curse that the Sun should not rise again.
     Next day the sun did not rise. All activities came to a standstill. At last the gods approached Atri Muni. They induced Anasūyā, Atri's wife to persuade Śīlavatī to withdraw her curse. Then the sun rose again and Ugraśravas died. (Brahmāṇḍa Purāṇa, Chapter 42).
     4) Other details. When the Pāṇḍavas were living in Hastināpura, Śrī Kṛṣṇa once paid a visit to them. On his way he met with certain munis. Among them was Aṇi Māṇḍavya also. (M.B., Udyoga Parva, Chapter 83).
     5) Once the King of Videha told Māṇḍavya that the world is transient and advised him to strive for spiritual peace. Aṇi Māṇḍavya who was pleased with the King's advice attained mokṣa (salvation) at once. (M.B., Śānti Parva, Chapter 276, Verses 3-14).

ANIMIṢA Verse 10, Chapter 101 of Udyoga Parva refers to one Animiṣa, son of Garuḍa. Also the word is used as a synonym of Śiva (M.B., Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 17, Verse 14) and of Viṣṇu. (M.B., Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 149, Verse 36).

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ANIRUDDHA Grandson of Śrī Kṛṣṇa.
     1) Genealogy. From Viṣṇu was born in this order: Brahmā, Atri, Candra, Budha, Purūravas, Āyus, Nahuṣa, Yayāti, Yadu, Sahasrajit, Śatajit, Hehaya, Dharma, Kunti, Bhadrasena, Kṛtavīrya, Kārttavīryārjuna, Jayadhvaja, Tālajaṃgha, Vītihotra, Ananta, Durjaya, Yudhājit, Śini, Satyaka, Sātyaki, Jaya, Kuṇi, Anamitra, Pṛśni, Citraratha, Viḍūratha, Śūra, Śini, Bhoja, Hṛdīka, Śūrasena, Vasudeva, Śrī Kṛṣṇa, Pradyumna, Aniruddha.
     2) Birth. Śrī Kṛṣṇa had 16008 wives. Out of the 16008 from Rukmiṇī was born Pradyumna and from Pradyumna, Aniruddha.
     3) Kidnapped by Uṣā. One of the stories about this handsome prince refers to his being kidnapped by Uṣā daughter of Bāṇāsura. Bāṇāsura, chief among the 100 sons of emperor Mahābali had 1000 hands. Śiva pleased by the sacrificial devotion of Bāṇāsura granted, as requested by him, the boon that he himself (Śiva) and Pārvatī would guard the fort of the Asura, of course with some reluctance. Now, none had the prowess to attack this valiant Asura. Overflowing with conceit at this he challenged Śiva to a fight. Śiva foretold that the flagstaff of Bāṇa would one day be broken and then a powerful antagonist would defeat him. Bāṇa impatiently awaited the threatened day.
     One day Uṣā happened to witness the scene of Śiva and Pārvatī engaged in love-making. Excited by the sight Uṣā too desired to enact such a scene with a lover, and she intimated her desire to Pārvatī. Pārvatī told her that Uṣā would, within three days, see in a dream a handsome prince with whom she might make love. Accordingly, dressed herself in all glory with choicest ornaments Uṣā awaited the happy day. On the third day a handsome prince appeared before her in her dream. Waking up, she began crying. Seeing Uṣā crying Citralekhā, her companion, and daughter of her father's minister, assured her (Uṣā) that whoever might be the prince who appeared in her dream shall be brought down with the power of Mantra. Citralekhā drew the pictures of all princes known to her and showed them to Uṣā. The pictures represented all handsome men from Devas to men. 'No, this is not my prince charming' was Uṣā's reply. Then Citralekhā drew the picture of Śrī Kṛṣṇa of Pradyumna, and then of Aniruddha. When Uṣā saw Aniruddha's picture she stretched her hands to embrace that. It was this prince who had appeared before her in the dream.
     Next night Citralekhā, by the power of her Mantra, brought into Uṣā's room from Dvārakā Aniruddha, who was then in his sleep. While Uṣā and Aniruddha were thus together in the room her father, Bāṇa, got scent of it and took Aniruddha into custody.
     The disappearance of Aniruddha led to much commotion in Dvārakā. Then Nārada reached Dvārakā and gave details about the Aniruddha incident. Śrī Kṛṣṇa and Pradyumna, in all rage, hurried to Bāṇa's palace and encircled his palace with a strong army. Then did Bāṇa's flagstaff break into two and fell down. The fierce fight that ensued ended in the defeat of Bāṇa. Aniruddha married Uṣā and the elated couple started for Dvārakā. Vajra was the son of Aniruddha. (Bhāgavata, Daśama Skandha, Chapters 61, 62 and 63).
     4) More information. (1) It was at the feet of Arjuna that Aniruddha mastered the Dhanurveda (Science of warfare). (M.B., Sabhā Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 36).
     (2) Aniruddha is also conceived in the forms of Viṣṇu and Brahmā. (M.B., Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 65, Verses 69 and 70).
     (3) Brahmā was born from the abdominal centre of Aniruddha when the latter had taken the form of Viṣṇu. (M.B., Śānti Parva, Chapter 341, Verses 15-17).
     (4) The word Aniruddha is also used as a synonym of Viṣṇu. (M.B., Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 149, Verse 33).

ANIRUDDHA II The Mahābhārata refers to another Aniruddha who belonged to the Vṛṣṇi dynasty. Both the Aniruddhas were present at the wedding of Pāñcālī. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 185, Verses 17-20).

ANIRUDDHA III The Mahābhārata mentions yet another King Aniruddha. He did not eat flesh. (M.B., Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 115, Verse 15).

AÑJALIKĀŚRAMA This is a sacred place. One who lives at this Tīrtha for some time, gets the benefit of visiting the sacred tīrtha at Kanyākumārī ten times. (M.B., Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 25, Verse 52).

AÑJALIKĀVEDHA(M) This is an art by which an elephant could be made to stand submissively. Bhīmasena had mastered this art. (M.B., Droṇa Parva, Chapter 26, Verse 23).

AÑJANĀ 1) Mother of Hanūmān--Wife of Kesarī, the noble monkey and daughter of Kuñjara, the monkey leader. She was the mother of Hanūmān. Once while Śiva and Pārvatī were gamboling in the guise of monkeys, rambling through the woods, Pārvatī became pregnant, That pregnancy was given to Vāyu. At that time Añjanā was doing penance for an issue. Vāyu transferred the pregnancy he had received from Pārvatī to Añjanā. Thus Añjanā gave birth to Hanūmān. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Kiṣkindhā Kāṇḍa, Sarga 66).
     Añjanā gave birth to Hanūmān in the woods in a valley on the southern side of Mahāmeru. She was frightened at the sight of the child shining like the sun. Hanūmān began to cry for mother's milk. Añjanā said to Hanūmān: "Monkeys are fond of red ripe fruits. Therefore eat whatever you find in red colour." Saying this Añjanā transformed herself into a goddess and went to Heaven.
     2) Pūrvajanma (Previous Birth). In her previous birth Añjanā was a goddess named Puñjikastala (Mānagarva). As a result of a curse, this goddess was born as a she-monkey in the Himālaya region. With the birth of Hanūmān, the curse was lifted. (Uttara Rāmāyaṇa). For more details see "Puñjikastala".

AÑJANA This is an elephant belonging to the Asuras. His origin is in the family of Supratīka. The other three elephants born in this family are: Airāvata, Vāmana and Kumuda. (This Airāvata was not the Airāvata of Devendra). There are references to Rākṣasas coming to the battle-field on the back of elephants. There is another mention of Añjana the elephant standing in the battle-field. (M.B., Udyoga Parva, Chapter 99, Verse 15; Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 64, Verse 57; Droṇa Parva, Chapter 112, Verse 32).

AÑJANA(M) This is the name of a mountain. (M.B., Sabhā Parva, Chapter 98, Verse 15).

AÑJANA PARVAN He was the son of Ghaṭotkaca and grandson of Bhīmasena. For genealogy, see BHĪMASENA. (M.B., Udyoga Parva, Chapter 194, Verse 20). Aśvatthāmā, the son of Droṇa, killed Añjanaparvā. (M.B., Droṇa Parva, Chapter 196, Verse 89).

ANṚTA Son born to Hiṃsā by Adharma. (Viṣṇu Purāṇa)

ANṚTAṂ (ASATYA) Hiṃsā, the wife of Adharma, gave birth to daughters, Anṛta and Nikṛti, and from them were born Bhaya, Naraka, Māyā and Vedanā. And, Māyā begot Mṛtyu, the killer of all living beings. From Vedanā was born sorrow. And from Mṛtyu were born disease (vyādhi), Jarā (wrinkles), Śoka (grief), Tṛṣṇā (desire) and Krodha (anger). (Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 20).

ANTACĀRA(M) A place in ancient India. (M.B., Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 68).

ANTAKA I Once the Devas, under the auspices of emperor Pṛthu, turned goddess earth into a cow and milked her. The result was twelve yamas, and Antaka was one of the twelve. (See Pṛthu). (M.B., Droṇa Parva, Chapter 69, Verse 26).

ANTAKA II The Ṛgveda makes mention of one Rājarṣi, Antaka. (Ṛgveda, Maṇḍala 1, Anuvāka 16, Sūkta 112).


ANTARDHĀMĀ Son of King Aṃśa of the Manu dynasty. He had a son called Havirdhāmā. (M.B., Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 147, Verse 23). And for genealogy see Manuvaṃśa.

ANTARDHĀNA A King, the son of Pṛthu. (For genealogy see Pṛthu). (Viṣṇu Purāṇa, Part 1, Chapter 11).

ANTARDHĀNA(M) A weapon of Kubera. (M.B., Vana Parva, Chapter 41, Verse 38).

ANTARDHI A son of emperor Pṛthu. (Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 18). For genealogy see Pṛthu.

ANTARGIRI A place in between the Himālaya ranges. (M.B., Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 49). Arjuna conquered this place. (M.B., Sabhā Parva, Chapter 27, Verse 3).

ANTARĪKṢA I One of the seven sons of Murāsura, the other six being Tāmra, Śravaṇa, Vasu, Vibhāvasu, Nabhasvān and Aruṇa. After the death of their father they quarrelled with Śrī Kṛṣṇa and were killed by him. (Bhāgavata, Daśama Skandha, Chapter 59, Verse 19).

ANTARĪKṢA II A Rājā named Antarīkṣa is mentioned in the Bhāgavata.
     Genealogy. Viṣṇu, Brahmā, Svāyambhuva, Priyavrata, Agnīdhra, Nābhi, Ṛṣabha, Antarīkṣa. Svāyambhuva Manu had two sons, Uttānapāda and Priyavrata. Dhruva was the son of Uttānapāda. Priyavrata married Barhiṣmatī, and they had eleven children including Agnīdhra. Agnīdhra married Pūrvacitti, a Deva woman, and they became parents to nine sons, viz. Nābhi, Kimpuruṣa, Hari, Ilāvṛta, Ramyaka, Hiraṇmaya, Kuru, Bhadrāśva and Ketumāla. Nābhi wedded Merudevī, and to them were born 100 sons. The eldest son was Bharata, after whom this country (India) is named, i.e., Bhārata. Bhārata had 9 younger brothers, namely Kuśāvarta, Ilāvarta, Brahmāvarta, Malaya, Ketu, Bhadrasena, Indraspṛk, Vidarbha and Kīkaṭa.*
     These brothers had nine younger brothers who were all highly evolved yogīs. They were Kavi, Hari, Antarīkṣa, Prabuddha, Pippalāyana, Āvirhotra, Dramiḍa, Camasa and Karabhājana. (Bhāgavata, Pañcama Skandha, Chapters 1-4).
*) Rāmānuja's Bhāgavata (Malayalam) mentions one Āryāvarta also as Bharata's younger brother. But the name does not occur in the original. (See Bhāgavata, Chapter 4, Verse 10.)

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ANTARVĀSA A place in ancient India. (M.B., Sabhā Parva, Chapter 59, Verse 17).


ANU The Prince named Aṇu was the son-in-law of Śuka Brahmarṣi, son of Vyāsa. Śuka Brahmarṣi married the beautiful Pīvarī, the daughter of the Pitṛs. Śukadeva and Pīvarī had four sons: Kṛṣṇa, Gauraprabha, Bhūri and Devaśruta and a daughter named Kīrti. Kīrti was married to Prince Aṇu the son of Digbhrāja. (Devī Bhāgavata, Prathama Skandha).

ANUCAKRA One of the two attendants deputed by Tvaṣṭā (a Prajāpati) to help Skanda in war, the other being Cakra. (M.B., Śalya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 40).

ANŪCĀNĀ A nymph. This Devastrī, along with other nymphs came down on earth at the time of the birth, of Arjuna and danced. (Ādi Parva, Chapter 122, Verse 61).

ANUDĀTTA One of the five sons created by Pañcajanya for the Pitṛs. (M.B., Vana Parva, Chapter 220, Verse 10).

ANUDĀTTA(M) The fire (Agni) called Pāñcajanya created the elements named Anudāttas. Pāñcajanya generated these elements from his two hands with the help of his spiritual strength (tapaśśakti). (M.B., Vana Parva, Chapter 220, Verse 10).

ANŪDARA One of the hundred sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. (See Kauravas).

ANUDRUHYU Son of Yayāti.
     1) Genealogy. Descended from Viṣṇu thus: Brahmā, Atri, Candra, Budha, Purūravas, Āyus, Nahuṣa, Yayāti, Anudruhyu.
     2) Birth. Yayāti had two sons, Yadu and Turvasu, by Devayānī, and three sons, Druhyu, Anudruhyu and Pūru by Śarmiṣṭhā. (Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 12).

ANUDYŪTAPARVA An inner parva of Sabhā Parva. In this parva is told the story of the game of dice played between Duryodhana and Dharmaputra.

ANUGĪTĀPARVA A sub-section of Aśvamedha Parva. (See M.B.).

ANUGOPTĀ A Viśvadeva. (M.B., Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 91, Verse 37).

AṆUHA A King in ancient India. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 1, Verse 232).

ANUHLĀDA Brother of Prahlāda.
     1) Genealogy. Descended from Viṣṇu thus: Viṣṇu, Brahmā, Kaśyapa Hiraṇyakaśipu, Anuhlāda.
     2) Birth. Kaśyapa married Diti, daughter of Daṣka. Diti was a younger sister of Aditi. The sons of Aditi became devas and the sons of Diti became asuras. Diti gave birth to two sons named Hiraṇyākṣa and Hiraṇyakaṣipu and a daughter Siṃhikā. Siṃhikā was given in marriage to Vipracitti. They had two sons, Rāhu and Ketu. Five sons were born to Hiraṇyākṣa and four sons were born to Hiraṇyakaśipu. These four sons were: Anuhlāda, Hlāda, Prahlāda and Saṃhlāda. (Viṣṇu Purāṇa, Aṃśa 1, Chapter 15 and Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 19).

ANUKARMĀ A Viśvadeva. (M.B., Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 91, Verse 39).

ANUKRAMAṆIKĀ PARVA The Mahābhārata is divided into 18 parvans. The first of them is called Ādi Parva and the first of its many sub-divisions is named Anukramaṇikā Parva. And, in this parva (Chapter) Ugraśravas (Sūtanandana) son of Lomaharṣaṇa begins telling the Bhārata story at the yajña (of 12 years' duration) held by Kulapati Śaunaka at the forest of Naimiśa. Vyāsa composing the Mahābhārata, the creation of the world, the greatness of the Mahābhārata, Vyāsa teaching his disciples the Mahābhārata--all this comes in this narration. (See Mahābhārata).

ANUMATI Daughter of Aṅgiras, son of Brahmā. Aṅgiras had two wives, Smṛti and Khyāti, and four daughters, Anumati, Rākā, Kuhū and Sinīvālī by Smṛti, and three sons, Ucatthya, Bṛhaspati, Saṃvarta by Khyāti. (Viṣṇu Purāṇa, Part 1, Chapter 10).

ANUMLOCA An apsaras. (Harivaṃśa 326).

ANŪPAKA A warrior from Anūpa(m).

ANŪPA(M) A famous place in ancient India. Some scholars hold the view that Anūpa is near river Narmadā. (Sabhā Parva, Chapter 51, Verse 24).

ANŪPATI A synonym of Kārttavīrya. (Vana Parva, Chapter 116, Verse 19).

ANUPĀVṚTTA A place in ancient India. (M.B., Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 48).

ANUŚĀSANA PARVA One of the Parvans of the Mahābhārata. (See Bhārata).

ANUṢṆĀ A river in ancient India. (M.B., Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 24).

ANUŚRUTAŚRAVAS Son of Somāli (Viṣṇu Purāṇa).

ANUṢṬUP One of the seven horses of the Sun God, the other six being, Gāyatrī, Bṛhatī, Uṣṇik, Jagatī, Triṣṭup and Paṅkti. (Viṣṇu Purāṇa, Part II, Chapter 8).

ANUVINDA I One of the 100 sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. There is a story in the Mahābhārata about his being imprisoned along with Duryodhana. Knowing that the Pāṇḍavas were living in the forest in all comfort and happiness Duryodhana and others went in proccession to them. Anuvinda also was in the procession. While Duryodhana and party were staying in a tent in the forest, a Gandharva named Citrasena appeared on the scene and imprisoned them. Anuvinda too was imprisoned. (See Citrasena). (M.B., Vana Parva, Chapter 242, Verse 8). He was killed in war by Bhīmasena. (M.B., Droṇa Parva, Chapter 127, Verse 66).

ANUVINDA II The purāṇas refer to one Anuvinda, a prince of Avanti. (1) He had a brother called Vinda. (2) He was defeated by Sahadeva who set forth to subjugate the kings of the south just before the Rājasūya yajña of Dharmaputra. (M.B., Sabhā Parva, Chapter 31, Verse 10). (3) An Akṣauhiṇī (division of army) was despatched by Anuvinda to help Duryodhana. (M.B., Udyoga Parva, Chapter 19, Verses 24, 25). (4) On the first day of the war Vinda and Anuvinda fought duels with Kuntibhoja. (M.B., Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 45, Verses 72-75). (5) Irāvān, son of Arjuna defeated both Vinda and Anuvinda in the battle. (M.B., Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 83, Verse, 18-22). (6) They fought with Bhīma, Arjuna and the king of Virāṭa. (M.B., Droṇa Parva, Chapter 25, Verses 20). (7) Anuvinda was killed by Arjuna. (M.B., Droṇa parva, Chapter 399, Verses 27-29). (8) Vinda and Anuvinda had a sister called Mitravindā. The three of them were the children of Rājādhidevī, sister of Śrī Kṛṣṇa's father. Śrī Kṛṣṇa married Mitravindā, which her brother did not like. This was their reason for quitting the Pāṇḍava camp and fighting on the side of the Kauravas. (Bhāgavata, Daśama Skandha, Chapter 58, Verses 30, 31).

ANUVINDA III The Mahābhārata refers to another prince Anuvinda also. He was the son of a Kekayarāja. He also fought against the Pāṇḍavas and was killed by Sātyaki. (M.B., Karṇa Parva, Chapter 13, Verse 21).

ANUVINDA A wife of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. (Padma Purāṇa).

ANUYĀYI One of the 100 sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. He is called Agrayāyī also; he was killed in battle by Bhīmasena. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 67, Verse 102; Chapter 116, Verse 11 and Droṇa Parva, Chapter 157, Verses 17-20).

ANVAGBHĀNU A King of the Pūru dynasty. (For genealogy see Pūru dynasty). Pūru had three sons, Īśvara, Raudrāśva and Pravīra. He had also another son Manasyu by Śūrasenī, another wife. Anvagbhānu is the son born to Manasyu and his apsarā wife, Mitrakeśī. Anvagbhānu is known as Ṛceyu and Anādhṛṣṭi also. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 94, Verses 8-12).

APĀLĀ A daughter of the great sage, Atri. Suffering from leprosy and hence forsaken by her husband Apālā stayed with her father and started tapas to please Indra. One day, on her way home from the river, Apālā tasted the Soma which was meant to be offered to Indra and hearing the sound produced then Devendra appeared before Apālā. She gave the Soma to Indra, who was so pleased with her that he cured her of her leprosy. (Ṛgveda, 8-91).

APĀNTARATAMAS 1) General. A Maharṣi (Great Sage). He was born out of the sound 'bhu' uttered by Mahāviṣṇu. The sage is also known as Sārasvata and Apāntaratamas. Because he was absolutely free from inner darkness or ignorance he was called Apāntaratamas. The sage, who was cognizant of the past, the present and the future divided and systematized the Vedas as ordered by Viṣṇu.
     2) Vyāsa was Apāntaratamas reborn. Mahāviṣṇu ordained that in the Dvāpara age he be born as the son of Parāśara and once again divide and systematize the Vedas, and so was he born as Vyāsa. (Śrī Śaṅkara's Muṇḍakopaniṣad and Brahmasūtra Bhāṣya).

APĀNTARATAMĀ (Sārasvata). This is another name of Apāntaratamas. (See Apāntaratamas).

APARABRAHMA (See Parabrahma).

APARĀJITA I One of the serpents born to Kaśyapa of Kadru. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 35, Verse 13).

APARĀJITA II A King born out of a part of one of the eight Asuras, who were known the Kālakeyas. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 67, Verse 49). The Pāṇḍavas had invited this King before they went to war. (M.B., Udyoga Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 21).

APARĀJITA III A son of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 67, Verse 101). Bhīmasena killed him. (M.B., Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 21, Verse 22).

APARĀJITA IV A King of the Kuruvaṃśa. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 94, Verse 54).

APARĀJITA V One of the eleven Rudras, the other ten being Hara, Bahurūpa, Tryambaka, Vṛṣākapi, Śambhu, Kapardī, Raivata, Mṛgavyādha, Sarpa and Kapāli. (Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 18).

APARĀJITA VI Used as a synonym of Mahāviṣṇu. (M.B., Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 149, Verse 89).

APARAKĀŚĪ A place in ancient India. (M.B., Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 42).

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APARAKUNTI A place in ancient India. (M.B., Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 43).

APARAMLECCHA(M) A place in ancient India. (M.B., Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 65).

APARANANDĀ A river. Arjuna once crossed it. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 214, Verses 6 and 7). Aparanandā is counted among the prominent holy rivers. (M.B., Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 165, Verse 28).

APARĀNTA I A city on the west coast of ancient South India. (M.B., Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 67).

APARĀNTA II Another name of the Śūrpāraka temple. (M.B., Śānti Parva, Chapter 49, Verse 67).

APARASEKA(M) A place in ancient India. (M.B., Sabhā Parva, Chapter 31, Verse 9).

APARAVALLAVA(M) A place in ancient India. (M.B., Sabhā Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 62).

APARĀVIDYĀ Knowledge is of two categories or types. Viz.
     1) Parāvidyā. That science or knowledge, which helps us to know or realise Him (Brahma) who is without either beginning or end, who could neither be seen with the eyes nor perceived by any of the senses.
     (2) Aparāvidyā. This includes knowledge of the four Vedas Ṛg, Yajus, Sāma and Atharva, the six Vedāṅgas (sub-divisions of the Vedas) Śikṣā, Kalpa, Nirukta, Chandas, Vyākaraṇa, Apidhāna, Mīmāṃsā, Dharmaśāstra and the purāṇas, as also, Nyāya Śāstra (Logic), Vaidya Śāstra (medicine) Gandharva Śāstra, Dhanurveda and Artha Śāstra (economics).

APODADHAUMYA (See Ayodhadhaumya).

APPAYYADĪKṢITA A reputed Rhetorician in Sanskrit, who thrived in the 16th Century A.D. He wrote two treatises on rhetoric, the Kuvalayānanda and Citramīmāṃsā. The former is an interpretation of chapter 5 of Jayadeva's Candrāloka and is very popularin South India.

APRĀCI A hell. (See Naraka). (Viṣṇu Purāṇa, Part 2, Chapter 6)

APRATIṢṬHA(M) A hell. (See Naraka).

APSARAS* An Apsaras is a nymph (devastrī). These apsarā women were born at the churning of the ocean of Milk. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Bālakāṇḍa, Chapter 45, Verse 32 and Viṣṇu Purāṇa, Part I, Chapter 9 and Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 3). There are thousands of Apsaras. (Details given against the names of Apsaras).
*) Ariṣṭhā, a wife of Kaśyapa, delivered thirteen Apsaras. They were: Alambuṣā, Miśrakeśī, Vidyutparṇā, Tilottamā, Rakṣitā, Rambhā, Manoramā, Keśinī, Subāhu, Surajā, Suratā and Supriyā. Ariṣṭhā gave birth also to four Gandharvas, Hāhā, Hūhū, Atibāhu and Tumburu as mentioned in the following verse.
     "ariṣṭāsūta subhagādevī devarṣitaḥ purā alambuṣā miśrakeśī vidyutparṇā tilottamā aruṇā rakṣitā caiva rambhā tadvat manoramā keśinī ca subāhuśca vikhyatau ca hahāhuhū tumburuśceti catvāraḥ smṛtāḥ gandharvasattamāḥ."

APSUHOMYA A great sage (Maharṣi) who adorned the assembly of Yudhiṣṭhira. (M.B., Sabhā Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 12).

ARĀ (ARAJAS) Daughter of Śukra maharṣi. Ikṣvāku begot three sons, Daṇḍa, Vikukṣi and Nimi. After his father's death Daṇḍa became king of the country between the Vindhya and the Himālayas. In the course of a hunting expedition once Daṇḍa saw and was immediately attracted by the charms of Arā, daughter of Śukra maharṣi. He committed rape on her and she told her father about the attack by Daṇḍa. The Maharṣi asked his daughter to do tapas, and further told her that he would burn Daṇḍa's kingdom by a rain of fire. Arā did tapas, and at the behest of the Maharṣi Indra destroyed Daṇḍa's kingdom by a downpour of a rain of fire. Afterwards this place became a terrible forest where neither birds nor animals lived, and came to be known as Daṇḍakāraṇya. (Uttara Rāmāyaṇa).

ARAKKILLAM (Palace of wax). Both the Kaurava and the Pāṇḍava princes lived in Hastināpura. The Pāṇḍavas became experts in archery, and their exemplary character and conduct made them, so to say, the apple of their eyes to the people. This evoked great jealousy in Duryodhana who made up his mind to completely ruin the Pāṇḍavas somehow or other. Duryodhana, with Dhṛtarāṣṭra's consent, built a new palace at Vāraṇāvata. Though many others did not know that the palace was made of wax the Pāṇḍavas, from secret information knew the fact. But, they only pretended ignorance. Duryodhana and his minister Purocana, saw to it that the Pāṇḍavas shifted their residence to the waxen palace. Duryodhana had planned to set fire to the palace and burn to death the Pāṇḍavas. But, the shrewd Vidura through his messenger Kanaka gave notice of the conspiracy to the Pāṇḍavas just in time. One night Purocana set fire to the waxen palace, but the Pāṇḍavas escaped by a secret passage, which the architect of the palace had made while constructing it, and about which the Pāṇḍavas had previous knowledge. The same night a huntsman, with his five children, was also staying in the palace. As they were unconscious with heavy dosage of liquor they could not escape the fire. Those six people, and accidentally Purocana too were burnt to death. People, who gathered at the spot, thus saw seven corpses, and the news was broadcast that the Pāṇḍavas, including their wife Pāñcālī and their mother had been burnt to death. This incident took place one year after the Pāṇḍavas had shifted their residence to the waxen palace. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapters 141-151).

ARĀLI One of the sons who were Brahmavādins, of. Viśvāmitra. (M.B., Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 58).

ARANTUKA A guard posted at a boundary line of Kuurkṣetra. (M.B., Vana Parva, Chapter 83, Verse 52).

ARANTUKA A sacred spot in ancient India, in river Sarasvatī. A bath there is as beneficial as performing the Agniṣṭoma yajña. (M.B., Śalya Parva, Chapter 53, Verse 24).

ARAṆYA A King of the Ikṣvāku dynasty. (See Ikṣvāku dynasty).

ARAṆYA PARVA A sub Parva in the Mahābhārata. (See Mahābhārata).

ARAṬṬA(M) A place in ancient India. After Droṇa was killed in the great war, Kṛtavarmā ran away with the warriors of Araṭṭa. (M.B., Droṇa Parva, Chapter 193, Verse 13).

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ARAYANNAM The swan (Haṃsa).
     1) General. A bird (Haṃsa) in Devaloka. The prefix 'ara' denotes royalty, sublimity, greatness etc. Many purāṇas describe Arayannam as a bird of the Devas. Mānasasaras at the heights of the Himālayas is the permanent abode of these divine birds. They do not like the rainy season. So they come down to the earth when rain begins at the Mānasasaras, and go back to the Saras, when rain begins on the earth. This phenomenon explains Ceruśśeri's (Malayalam poet) statement in his Kṛṣṇagāthā that 'when rain set in haṃsas -Arayannams--began flying away'.
     2) Origin. Kaśyapa, the son of Brahmā, married the eight daughters of Dakṣa, Tāmrā being one of them. Tāmrā bore five daughters Krauñcī, Bhāsī, Śyenī, Dhṛtarāṣṭrī and Śukī. Śyenī gave birth to the kite, Dhṛtarāṣṭrī, the Haṃsa and the Kokā and Śukī the Śukas (doves). Kokā or the Cakravākī bird is the sister of Haṃsa. This is how the Arayanna and the Cakravāka got Devatva (divinity). (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Araṇyakāṇḍa, Canto 14).
     3) Bhīṣma and the Arayanna. Śiśupāla, before his death, blabbered a lot of unbecoming things about Bhīṣma, who was partial to his (Śiśupāla's) enemies. And, he related the story of an Arayanna to elaborate the stand taken by the aged Bhīṣma. An aged Haṃsa (Arayanna) which once dwelt on the sea-coast preached to all the other birds much about ethical actions. The birds felt great respeet for the Arayanna. They flew across the sea in search of prey after entrusting their eggs to the Arayanna. The old Arayanna grew fat on those eggs. There was one intelligent bird among the lot, and when it looked for the eggs they were not to be found. That bird informed its colleagues about the treacherous conduct of the Arayanna. The birds organised themselves and attacked the Arayanna to death. Oh! Bhīṣma, the same will be your end also. (M.B., Sabhā Parva, Chapter 41, Verses 30-41).
     4) Nala and Arayanna. While Nala, the prince of the Niṣadha kingdom was resting in a garden he saw an Arayanna in a tank there. Out of curious pleasure Nala caught it, but seeing its mental tremor he let it free. Out of gratitude for this generous act, the Arayanna played the role of the messenger for Nala to get as his wife Damayantī, the very beautiful daughter of the King of Vidarbha.
     5) How the Arayanna (Haṃsa) got the white colour. Once king Marutta was conducting the Māheśvara Satra (a yāga) and Devas like Indra came down to receive their share of the Havis (oblations in the sacrificial fire). And, this was the time when Rāvaṇa with his attendants was on his triumphal tour. Hearing that the Devas were at the Āśrama of Marutta, Rāvaṇa also went there, and Indra and the other Devas, trembling with fear, assumed different disguises and hid themselves away. Indra assumed the guise of the peacock, Yama of the crow, Kubera of the chameleon and Varuṇa of the Arayanna. Thus beguiled Rāvaṇa went his own way. The Devas, who thus escaped blessed the family of those birds whose forms they assumed. Indra shaped the blue feathers of the peacock with mixed colours and eyes like his own. Moreover, he blessed them that they would never be affected with any disease, and that they would dance with their feathers spread when rain set in. Yamadharma blessed the crows that they would get the offerings made on earth by men to their departed ancestors. And Bhagavān Varuṇa told the Rāja-Haṃsas: "I escaped the clutches of Rāvaṇa by assuming your shape and form. Therefore, be thee, who are now black and white, in future as purely white as milk". Kubera blessed the Chameleon with capacity to change colour as and how it pleased, and also for its cheeks to appear golden in colour to the onlookers. After thus blessing the birds the Devas disappeared. (Uttara Rāmāyaṇa).

ARBUDA An Asura. Indra killed this Asura. (Ṛgveda, Maṇḍala 1, Anuvāka 10, Sūkta 51).

ARBUDA I A nāga (serpent) living in mountains. (Sabhā Parva, Chapter 21, Stanza 9).

ARBUDA II The mountain Ābu. (Mahābhārata, Vana Parva, Chapter 82, Stanza 55).

ARCANĀNAS A muni born in the Ātreyagotra of the dynasty of Atri. He desired to marry Rathavīti. But her father had decided to give her in marriage only to a Maharṣi, and, therefore Arcanānas became a Maharṣi with the help of the Marutta and wedded Rathavīti. Maharṣi Śyāvāśva was their son.

ARCIṢMATĪ The fourth daughter of Maharṣi Aṅgiras. (M.B., Vana Parva, Chapter 216, Verse 6).

ARCIS Pṛthu and the Arcis were born from the arms of Vena. (Bhāgavata, 4th Skandha, Chapter 15). Pṛthn did tapas in forest and gave up his physical body in fire and attained Vaikuṇṭha (the abode of Viṣṇu) with the Arcis. (Bhāgavata, 4th Skandha). For details see Pṛthu.

ARCIṢMAT A sect of Pitṛs. (M.B., Śānti Parva, Chapter 236, Verse 15).

ARDHADEVAS (SEMI-GODS). In temples hermits, ancestors, serpents, celestial maids and such others also are worshipped. Among these there are Vasus, Nāgas, Asuras, Paiśācas, Vetālas and many other classes. These are the semi-gods. (See Page 27 of Nāmvanaṅgum Daivaṅgal).

ARDHAKĪLATĪRTHA A holy ghāṭ or bath built by the hermit Darbhi. (Mahābhārata, Vana Parva, Chapter 83, Stanza 153).

ARDHASĀDHAKA A minister of King Daśaratha. He had eight ministers.
     "The great king had eight ministers who were pure and famous and experts in dealing with matters of their concern: Jayanta, Dhṛṣṭi, Vijaya, Siddha, Ardhasādhaka, Aśoka, Mantrapāla and Sumantra were they". (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Bālakāṇḍa, Sarga 7, Stanzas 2 and 3: Vallathol Translation).

ARGHĀBHIHAṆAPARVA A parva in the Mahābhārata. (See M.B.).

ARIHA A King of the lunar dynasty. He was a son born to Arvācīna (a king of the Pūru dynasty) and Maryādā, a princess of Vidarbha. Ariha had a son, Mahābhauma, born of his wife, a princess of Aṅga. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 19, Verses 18-19).

ARIMEJAYA A Rājā of the Pūru dynasty. (See Pūru dynasty). (Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 278).

ARIṢṬĀ Wife of Kaśyapa. The Gandharvas were born of her. (Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 19, M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 67, Verse 83).

ARIṢṬA (ARIṢṬAKA). An asura, a servant of Kaṃsa. Once, at the instance of Kaṃsa he went to Gokula disguised as an ox to kill Śrī Kṛṣṇa. The ox instilled terror in people by tearing to pieces hills and mountaisn with its horns and bellowing like hell. But Śrī Kṛṣṇa faced the beast, and rained blows on him and it was thrown hundred yojanas away and it died. At the time of death it regained its fromer from as Asura. (Bhāgavata, Daśama, Skandha, Chapter 37).


ARIṢṬANEMI I One of the six sons of Vinatā.
     1) Genealogy. Viṣṇu, Brahmā, Kaśyapa and Ariṣṭanemi. Kaśyapa married Dhṛtarāṣṭrī, daughter of Dakṣa. Śukī was their daughter, Śukī had a daughter Natā and she a daughter, Vinatā. Ariṣṭanemi, Tārkṣya, Aruṇa, Garuḍa, Para, Āruṇi and Śrī Vāruṇi were the children of Vinatā. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 65, Verse 40).
     2) Tapaśśakti of Ariṣṭanemi. Ariṣṭanemi with his son was once performing tapas in the forest. The son was immersed in meditation clad in the skin of a deer thus looking like a deer. Parapurañjaya, the King of Hehaya who happened at the time to be hunting in the forest discharged his arrow against the son of Ariṣṭanemi taking him for a deer. When the king found out the real fact he felt extremely sorry, and he craved pardon of the boy's father for unwittingly killing his son. Then Ariṣṭanemi pointing out his son who was standing alive asked the King, "Is this the boy whom you killed?" The King was naturally wonder-struck. But Ariṣṭanemi told the King that there was nothing to wonder at in the case as nobody would be able to kill them because their Tapaśśakti was so great. The King felt so happy at this, and returned to his palace after prostrating at the feet of the sage. (M.B., Araṇya Parva, Chapter 184).
     3) Some other details. (1) Sumati, wife of King Sagara of the Solar dynasty, was the daughter of Ariṣṭanemi. (Rāmāyaṇa, Bālakāṇḍa, Canto 38, Verse 4). (2) Kaśyapa had the synonym Ariṣṭanemi also. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Kiṣkindhākāṇḍa, Canto 66, Verse 4; Devī Bhāgavata, Saptama Skandha). (3) Ariṣṭanemi's wives delivered sixteen children. (Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 19). (4) Ariṣṭanemi has spoken a lot about the greatness of Brahmins. (M.B., Araṇya Parva, Chapter 184, Verses 17-22). (5) Ariṣṭanemi once gave much spiritual advice to King Sagara of the Sūrya Vaṃśa. (M.B., Śānti Parva, Chapter 288, Verses 5-46).

ARIṢṬANEMI II Mahābhārata, Śānti Parva, Chapter 208, Verse 8 refers to one Ariṣṭanemi, the second son of Kaśyapa.

ARIṢṬANEMI III A Rājā called Ariṣṭanemi occupied a place in the council of Yama. (M.B., Sabhā Parva, Chapter 8, Verse 9).

ARIṢṬANEMI IV A false name assumed by Sahadeva while the Pāṇḍavas lived incognito in the Virāṭa kingdom. (M.B., Virāṭa Parva, Chapter 10, Verse 5).

ARIṢṬANEMI V A synonym of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. (M.B., Udyoga Parva, Chapter 71, Verse 5).

ARIṢṬANEMI VI A King. Realising the transient nature of worldly life, he gave up his kingdom and went to and did tapas at Mount Gandhamādana. Indra who was very much pleased at this sent a messenger with a vimāna (aeroplane) to conduct the King to Svarga (heaven). When he was told that there was in Svarga also the states of being high or low, and fall happened when the effect of good actions decreased, the King gave up his desire for Svarga and sent back Indra's messenger. Then Indra sent the King with a messenger to the Āśrama of Vālmīki so that he might gain spiritual knowledge. Vālmīki consoled the King with the advice that the telling, hearing and pondering over the story of the Rāmāyaṇa alone would be enough to get eternal salvation. (Yogavāsiṣṭham).

ARJUNA The third of the Pāṇḍavas.
     1) Genealogy. Descended from Viṣṇu thus: Brahmā, Atri, Candra, Budha, Purūravas, Āyus, Nahuṣa, Yayāti, Pūru, Janamejaya, Pracinvān, Pravīra, Namasyu, Vītabhaya, Śuṇḍu, Bahuvidha, Saṃyāti, Rahovādi, Raudrāśvan, Matināra, Santurodha, Duṣyanta, Bharata, Suhotra, Suhotā, Gala, Gardda, Suketu, Bṛhatkṣetra, Hasti, Ajamīḍha, Ṛkṣa, Saṃvaraṇa, Kuru, Jahnu, Suratha, Viḍūratha, Sārvabhauma, Jayatsena, Ravyaya, Bhāvuka, Cakroddhata, Devātithi, Ṛkṣa, Bhīma, Pratīca, Śantanu, Vyāsa, Pāṇḍu, Arjuna.
     2) Previous birth. Arjuna and Śrī Kṛṣṇa are often referred to as Naranārāyaṇas (Nara and Nārāyaṇa). In their previous life they were two Ṛṣis called Nara and Nārāyaṇa, and from that time onwards they lived as inseparable companions and sons of the same parents. They entered Mahāsamādhi at Badaryāśrama in the Himālayas. Of the two Nārāyaṇarṣi was a partial incarnation of Viṣṇu. About the Nararṣi the Devī Bhāgavata has the following to say: "Dharma had his origin in the heart of Brahmā, and he earned great reputation for truthfulness and adherence to Vedic dharma. He married the daughters of Dakṣa. Dharma had four sons, Hari, Kṛṣṇa, Nara and Nārāyaṇa. Of the four sons Hari and Kṛṣṇa became great yogīs, and Nara and Nārāyaṇa, great tapasvins. Nara and Nārāyaṇa did tapas, worshipping Brahmā for 1000 years at the holy Badaryāśrama in the plains of the Himālayas. Nara was born in the next birth as Arjuna. (Devī Bhāgavata, 4th Skandha). See Nara.
     3) Birth. To Vicitravīrya son of Śantanu was born Dhṛtarāṣṭra by Ambikā, and Pāṇḍu by Ambālikā. Pāṇḍu had two wives, Kuntī and Mādrī. The curse of a Muni made physical contacts with his wives impossible for Pāṇḍu. (See Pāṇḍu). Kuntī, before her marriage had attended on Maharṣi Durvāsas who pleased with her service made a gift of five mantras to her. The effect of the mantras was that Kuntī would become mother of a son from him about whom she was thinking while she repeated the mantra. As soon as she got the mantras she retired to a solitary place and thinking of the Sun-God repeated the first mantra. At once Sūryadeva appeared and Karṇa was born to her by him. After assuring her that the incident would not affect her chastity Sūrya disappeared. Kuntī abandoned the child to float in the river Gaṅgā, and stayed with Pāṇḍu keeping the other four mantras to herself. Since Pāṇḍu could not contact the body of his wives, with his permission Kuntī began practising the other four mantras one by one. By three mantras she got three sons, Dharmaputra from Kāla, Arjuna from Indra and Bhīmasena from the wind God (Vāyu). The remaining one mantra Kuntī gave to Mādrī. She repeated it thinking of the Aśvinī Devas, and two sons, Nakula and Sahadeva were born to her. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 63 onwards).
     4) Festival of birth. At the birth of Arjuna Kuntī heard a heavenly voice declare as follows: "Oh! Kuntī! your son will be equal to Śiva in prowess and unconquerable just as Indra is. After defeating all the Kings he will perform the Aśvamedha thrice. He will please Śiva and get the great weapon called Pāśupata from him. On the orders of Indra he will kill Nivātakavacas. Hearing the above prophecy the Devas played ecstatic music and flowers were showered from the sky. The Saptarṣis, Prajāpatis and other sages arrayed themselves in the sky. Thus, all animate and inanimate objects celebrated the birth of Arjuna.
     5) Naming. Sages from the top of the Śataśṛṅga mountain came together to perform the christening ceremony of Arjuna. While enumerating the various names of Arjuna, it is said in the Virāṭa Parva that Kṛṣṇa was the name Pāṇḍu gave to his son. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 123, Verse 20).
     6) Childhood. The Pāṇḍavas spent their childhood at Hastināpura with the Kauravas. Then Arjuna studied the art and science of using weapons, dance, music etc. along with the other boys. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 129, Verse 1). Kaśyapa, the high priest of Vasudeva did for Arjuna the usual Saṃskāras like Upanayana (wearing of the holy thread) etc. Arjuna was taught the first lessons in Dhanurveda (Science of archery) by Rājarṣi Śuka. Afterwards, Kṛpācārya became the preceptor of the Pāṇḍavas in Dhanurveda, and it was then that Droṇācārya came. There is a particular story about Droṇācārya becoming the guru. (See Droṇa).
     7) Special favour of Droṇa. Arjuna showed very great interest in the science of the use of weapons. Droṇa, the master, wanted to teach Aśvatthāmā, his son, certain special things, and he began sending all his disciples to fetch water. Aśvatthāmā used to be the first to return with the water, and before the others returned Droṇa began teaching Aśvatthāmā the special lessons. Arjuna came to understand this programme and he began returning with water along with Aśvatthāmā. Then the guru began teaching the special things to both Aśvatthāmā and Arjuna. Droṇa instructed the cook not to serve Arjuna food in the darkness. While Arjuna was once taking his food, wind blew out the burning lamp, and Arjuna alone continued eating. Because of constant practice Arjuna was quite sure about the position of the hand and the mouth in the process of eating, and Arjuna surmised from this that archery also could be practised in darkness. He began practising them. The guru came to know of it, and witnessing Arjuna's performance praised Arjuna as a unique archer. (Bhārata, Ādi Parva, Chapter 132).
     8) Ekalavya's finger was cut. Ekalavya, son of Hiraṇyadhanus, King of the Niṣādas (a tribe of hunters, forestmen) approached Droṇa to learn the science of the use of weapons. Droṇa, the Brahmin, refused the prayer of this prince of the forest tribe. Ekalavya, after prostrating at the feet of Droṇa returned to the woods, made an image of Droṇa with earth and meditating upon it as guru began practising the use of weapons.
     The Kauravas and the Pāṇḍavas went hunting in the forest. Seeing there Ekalavya with his matted hair and clad in deer skin the hunting dogs began barking at him. Ekalavya shot into the mouth of the dog seven arrows at one and the same moment. With the arrows thrust in the mouth the dogs ran back to the Pāṇḍavas, and they found out the culprit, Ekalavya, who claimed himself to be a disciple of Droṇa. Grief-stricken at this claim Arjuna hurried up to Droṇa and said: "You had pronounced me to be your foremost disciple without an equal. But, today Ekalavya, another disciple of yours has relegated me to the second place". Thereupon Droṇa went and saw Ekalavya in the forest. Ekalavya, in all devotion stood up and saluted the guru. And the guru said as follows: "Oh! Ekalavya if thou art my disciple give me the dakṣiṇā (fee) due to the guru, and I desire to get the thumb of your right hand as my fee". At once Ekalavya cut his thumb and gave it to Droṇa. Henceforth Arjuna became Droṇa's unequalled disciple. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 132).
     9) Arjuna got Brahmaśirāstra. When once Droṇa and his disciples were bathing in the river Gaṅgā, a whale caught hold of the leg of the guru. The combined efforts of the disciples failed to extricate the leg from the grip of the whale. Ultimately Arjuna shot an arrow and released the guru's leg. Greatly pleased at this Droṇa imparted to Arjuna knowledge about Brahmaśirāstra, and Arjuna was enjoined not to use the astra against men, but to use it only when confronting higher beings than men. [Bhārata (Malayalam), Ādi Parva, Chapter 133].
     10) Competition in arms. When the training of the princes was almost over Dhṛtarāṣṭra decided to have a rehearsal of their attainments, and the scene for it also was set. The princes with bows and arrows appeared on the scene. Yudhiṣṭhira and others first exhibited their skill in shooting arrows in the order of their seniority. Every scene was explained to Dhṛtarāṣṭra by Vidura and to Gāndhārī by Sañjaya. Duryodhana and Bhīma clashed with each other. Aśvatthāmā pacified them and kept them apart. And, then Arjuna and Karṇa appeared on the scene, and the onlookers declared them to be equal in skill in archery. When their shooting exhibition was over, Karṇa who got angry again rushed to the stage. Arjuna also got ready. Arjuna challenged Karṇa's eligibility on the ground that he was low-born and not a Kṣatriya. At once Duryodhana proclaimed him as the King of Aṅga. Though this pacified the scene, this competition in archery served much to make the Kauravas and the Pāṇḍavas the bitterest of enemies. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapters, 136, 137).
     11) Arjuna's gurudakṣiṇā (Offering of fee to the preceptor). At the starting of training the princes Droṇa told them: "I have one thing in mind, and you must do it for me when you have completed the course of training. All the disciples except Arjuna kept silent at this, but Arjuna promised to fulfil the guru's wish at the proper time
     The training was over, and it was time for gurudakṣiṇā. Droṇa asked to be brought bound before him Drupada, King of Pāñcāla. (For Droṇa's enmity towards Drupada see Drupada). Thereupon the Pāṇḍavas marched to Pāñcāla, and in a fierce battle Arjuna defeated Drupada. Though Bhīma tried to kill Drupada Arjuna did not permit it, but took him bound to Droṇa. This ended Droṇa's hatred towards Drupada, who now gifted half his kingdom to Droṇa. Droṇa was very much pleased with Arjuna for the above act, and advised him to fight even him (Droṇa) if the latter opposed him (Arjuna). To this Arjuna replied 'Yes'. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 139, Verse 14). With this promise to fight even the guru in case the guru attacked him Arjuna became the most reputed archer in Bhārata.
     12) Jealousy of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. After the gurudakṣiṇā Arjuna marched against the neighoouring kingdom. He defeated very easily in war the King of Yavana and the Kings Sauvīra, Vipula and Sumitra. These victories of Arjuna made the Kauravas very anxious; Dhṛtarāṣṭra brooded over it. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 138, Verses 20-23).
     13) Escape from the waxen palace. Duryodhana made up his mind to destroy the Pāṇḍavas somehow or other. He got the Pāṇḍavas to shift their residence to a palace made of wax at Vāraṇāvata, and one year after this the palace was set fire to. The Pāṇḍavas escaped death by fire through a tunnel and entered the forest, the next day. (See Arakkillam).
     14) Arjuna on the banks of river Ga gā. The Pāṇḍavas walked much through the terrible forest, and after midnight reached the banks of the Gaṅgā. At that time Aṃgāraparṇa (Citraratha), the Gandharva was enjoying his time in the river with some Apsarā women. The presence of men at the scene, the Gandharva did not relish. Arjuna and the Gandharva crossed in words, which led to a duel. In the duel the Gandharva was defeated. As the wife of the Gandharva prayed with tears in her eyes Arjuna spared him his life. The grateful Gandharva told the Pāṇḍavas many interesting stories. He also made a present of divine horses and imparted to them the esoteric knowledge called Cākṣuṣīvidyā. The Gandharva finally told the Pāṇḍavas that they were attacked because they came without Agni and Āhuti in their front. He also explained this fact that Arjuna could subjugate him on account of his (Arjuna's) genuine celibacy. (See Citraratha).
     15) Pāñcālisvayaṃvara. Citraratha, during his talks with the āṇḍavas had pointed out to them the need to have a priest to lead and guide them in all matters, and accordingly they visited Dhaumyāśrama and installed the Maharṣi (Dhaumya) as their priest.
     And, meantime seeing thousands of people on their way to attend the Svayaṃvara (marriage by open choice of husband by the girl) of Kṛṣṇā (Pāñcālī) daughter of the King of āñcāla, the Pāṇḍavas also followed the crowd. Veda Vyāsa, whom the Pāṇḍavas met on their way blessed them. King Drupada wished to give his daughter Kṛṣṇā in marriage to Arjuna. The news that the ṇḍa as were burned to death in the palace of wax grieved Drupada. Yet he had made arrangements for a trial of strength by Heroes at the Svayaṃvara. A tremendous bow was got ready and installed on the ground, and a machine constructed which was kept suspended in the air. The target was placed inside the machine. And then Drupada spoke thus: "My daughter shall be married to him who will bend the bow and with the first arrow hit the target placed inside the machine". (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 155, Verse 11). Great warriors like Duryodhana, Karṇa, Śiśupāla, Śiṃśumāra took their seats in the marriage hall. All the kings failed even to lift the bow up. Ultimately Arjuna lifted the bow and hit the target very easily. Pāñcālī put the wedding garland on Arjuna's neck. When the Pāṇḍavas returned to their mother with Pāñcālī in the evening the mother from inside her room said: "What you have got today, my sons, you enjoy among yourselves." Kuntī said this under the impression that what her sons had got was some Bhikṣā. At any rate, in obedience to the above injunction of the mother Pāñcālī became wife to the five Pāṇḍavas. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapters 190, 191).
     16) Arjuna at Indraprastha. The svayaṃvara of Pāñcālī broadcast news about the whereabouts of the Pāṇḍavas. Dhṛtarāṣṭra brought them back to Indraprastha, and installed them in a new palace built at the place called Khāṇḍavaprastha. (Indraprastha). Dharmaputra ruled a part of the country with Indraprastha as capital. Nārada went there once and advised the Pāṇḍavas to guard themselves against mutual quarrels as the five of them claimed one and the same woman as wife. Thenceforth it was set forth that Pāñcālī would live with each husband in turn for one year. It was also settled that during a particular year if any other husband than the one whose turn it was to live with Pāñcālī saw her the intruder was to go on a pilgrimage for one year.
     Once a brahmin came to the palace complaining that his cows were stolen by thieves, and Arjuna promised to help him. Arjuna did so without remembering that all his weapons were stored in Dharmaputra's palace. That year Pāñcālī was living with Dharmaputra. Forgetting the fact Arjuna went to Dharmaputra's palace, got his weapons and helped the brahmin. For thus breaking the rule Arjuna left his palace on a pilgrimage for one year.
     17A) Arjuna married Ulūpikā and Citrāṅgadā. Arjuna with his bow and arrows went into the forest. Many brahmins followed him. Arjuna reached the banks of Gaṅgā and entered the waters for a bath. Here Arjuna was attracted by Ulūpikā, daughter of the Nāga King and he married her. A son was born to them called Irāvān. After visiting places like Agastyavaṭam, Vasiṣṭhagiri Arjuna reached Manalur. He married Citrāṅgadā, daughter of Citrāṅgada, King of Manalur. After a stay of three months there he went southwards. Citrāṅgadā gave birth to a son named Babhruvāhana.
     17B) The mark on Arjuna's flag is Hanūmān, and the following story is attached to it. Arjuna, once during a tour of the country was much surprised to see the Dam constructed by Śrī Rāma from Rāmeśvara to Laṅkā. He also felt that it was not at all proper on the part of Śrī Rāma to have sought the help of monkeys to construct the dam. Śrī Rāma could have made a dam with arrows. Arjuna put this question to a great scholar (Pandit) who was sitting nearby reading the Rāmāyaṇa. Neither the Pandit nor the other brahmins gathered there could give a convincing answer to Arjuna's doubts. Then a monkey child went up to Arjuna and told him with pride that a dam made of arrows would have broken when the monkeys walked on it. Arjuna said then, "no, no, no monkey will be able to break the dam built with Rāma's arrows; which monkey will break a dam of arrows made even by me?" And, a debate began about the subject. The monkey and Arjuna agreed to a bet that if a monkey broke the dam made by Arjuna he would end his life by jumping into fire, and if the monkey could not break the dam it would for ever be Arjuna's slave. Arjuna constructed a dam with arrows. And, as soon as the monkey set foot on it it was broken. Arjuna tried again. Though now it caused some efforts on the part of the monkey the dam broke this time also. Arjuna was thus left with no alternative but to die by jumping into fire and a fire was accordingly lit. Before Arjuna jumped into the fire a brahmin boy, who was bathing in the river ran upto Arjuna and told him that his attempt at self annihilation was not justified as the bet was made without an arbiter. When Arjuna who was wedded so much to truth brushed aside this argument and got ready to end his life the boy said: "If you are so very insistent about it you (Arjuna and the monkey) compete once again with me as arbiter. This suggestion of the boy was accepted. The monkey child tried its best to break the dam, but it failed. It developed its body to the size of a mountain and jumped on the dam. Even then it did not break. Then he ran up to the boy who was acting as arbiter and prostrated at his feet crying 'Rāmacandra'. At the same moment Arjuna also prostrated before the boy crying 'Śrī Kṛṣṇa, slave to devotees'. The boy asked both of them to get up, and after admonishing them for their conceit gave them good advice. He also asked the monkey child to keep his word by remaining as the emblem of Arjuna's flag.
     (The monkey boy was actually Hanūmān and the brahmin boy Śrī Kṛṣṇa).
     17C) Arjuna married Subhadrā. Arjuna went to the holy place called Saubhadratīrtha and redeemed the woman named Vargā from the curse she was labouring under. (See Vargā). Arjuna continued his journey and reached Gokarṇa and Prabhāsa tīrtha, where he met Gada, brother of Śrī kṛṣṇa. Gada described to Arjuna the great beauty of his sister, Subhadrā. Arjuna went to Dvārakā and paid his respects to Śrī Kṛṣṇa. A few days later the yādavas celebrated a great festival at mount Raivataka. Arjuna went there disguised as a Sannyāsin and forcibly took away Subhadrā with him with the permission of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. Though the yādavas got ready for a fight they were ultimately pacified, and Subhadrā was married to Arjuna. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter, 218-224).
     17D) Brahmin boy saved. When once Arjuna was in Dvārakā with Śrī Kṛṣṇa a brahmin appeared on the scene lamenting that his child died as soon as it was born. Nobody paid any heed to this, and then Arjuna rose up and assured protection to the next child to be born to the brahmin and asked him to return home in peace. Arjuna also vowed that he would end his life by jumping into fire if he failed to protect the next child of the brahmin.
     As the time for the delivery of his wife approached the brahmin took Arjuna home. Arjuna made the house secure by making an enclosure with his arrows. Yet the child died; not only that, at the time of birth itself its body disappeared. And, the brahmin heaped insults on Arjuna, who looked very foolish. Rendered thus an object of ridicule Arjuna began to make a fire for him to jump into. At this Śrī Kṛṣṇa appeared before Arjuna and prevented him from jumping into fire. And then both Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna went to Viṣṇuloka and submitted the case of the brahmin to him. Viṣṇu told them: "Oh! Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna, it was I who took away the brahmin boys for the pleasure of seeing you both here. You may immediately return with the brahmin boys. And, Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna returned with the boys to the brahmin, who now felt very happy. (Bhāgavata, Daśama Skandha, Chapter 89).
     17E) Burning of Khāṇḍava forest. While Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna were spending their days on the banks of river Yamunā in the summer season Agni Bhagavān (the fire-god) requested them to give the Khāṇḍava forest as food to him. (See Khāṇḍavadāha). Arjuna agreed to oblige Agni Bhagavān, who presented to Arjuna the bow called Gāṇḍīva, a white horse and many other powerful arrows. When Agni began burning the forest, Indra sent a heavy shower of rain. By creating a tent with arrows Arjuna saved the forest from the rain. Arjuna killed Takṣaka's wife, cursed the N ga called Aśvasena and saved Maya, the architect of the Asuras who was put up in the forest. Indra was pleased and gifted many divine arrows to Arjuna. Maya gave the famous conch, Devadattam to Arjuna. By now the one year of the pilgrimage of Arjuna was over and he returned to Indraprastha. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapters 233-239).
     17P) Fight between Arjuna and Śrī Kṛṣṇa. (See Gālava, para 4).
     18) Again to the forest. Maya, who escaped death in Khāṇḍava forest, in his great gratitude, went to Indraprastha, and with the permission of Dharmaputra built for the Pāṇḍavas an exceptionally beautiful palace. And then the Pāṇḍavas made the conquest of all the earth, and after killing enemy kings like Jarāsandha, the Kimpuruṣas, the Hādakas, Śiśupāla, Kurundha and Bhagadatta returned to Idraprastha and performed the Rājasūya yajña. The Kauravas who got jealous at this went on a visit to Indraprastha. When they entered the palace built by Maya they were put into many a ludicrous situation. (See Sabhāpraveśa). Insulted and humiliated they returned to Hastināpura and challenged the Pāṇḍavas to a game of dice, and in the game the Pāṇḍavas lost not only their kingdom and other riches, but Pāñcālī as well. Duśśāsana dragged Pāñcālī and stripped her of her clothes in the royal assembly and thus mercilessly insulted her. According to the terms and condition agreed to with reference to the game of dice, the Pāṇḍavas had to lead forest life for twelve years and live for one year incognito. The Pāṇḍavas again started for the forest. (M.B., Sabhā Parva).
     19) Pāṇḍavas in Kāmyaka forest. A number of brahmins also accompanied the Pāṇḍavas to the forest. The noble brahmin, Śaunaka consoled the aggrieved Dharmaputra in the Dvaitavana. Dharmaputra felt worried that he could not feed the brahmins who accompanied him into the forest. Pāñcālī prayed to the Sun-God, and he gave the Akṣayapātra to her. (See Akṣyapātra). And, after this the Pāṇḍavas, along with the brahmins, entered the Kāmyaka forest. (M.B., Araṇya Parva, Chapter 36).
     20) Arjuna secured divine arrows. Dharmaputra asked Arjuna to do tapas in the Himālayas and thus secure divine arrows. Accordingly Arjuna went south and saw Indra in the Indrakīla mountain. Indra gave him boons. There Arjuna killed Mūkāsura. And, then Arjuna went to Mount Kailāsa and prayerfully concentrated his mind on Śiva. Śiva appeared in the guise of a forest dweller. (See Pāśupatāstra). After that he got the Daṇḍāstra from Yama, Pāśāstra from Varuṇa and Antardhānāstra from Kubera. (M.B., Vana Parva, Chapters 37-41).
     21) Arjuna in Indraloka. Indra, who was so very pleased that Arjuna got so many divine arrows deputed his charioteer, Mātali, to bring Arjuna to Devaloka, and at Devaloka he learned more about archery and music. The Apsarā women forgot themselves when they saw the exceptionally handsome Arjuna. Urvaśī, mad with love, sent her messenger Citrasena to Indra. Being told about Urvaśī's love Arjuna closed both his ears with hands, and reminded the messenger of Urvaśī's maternal position with reference to him. Urvaśī cursed and turned Arjuna into an eunuch. Indra consoled Arjuna by assuring him that Urvaśī's curse will turn out to be of great benefit to him. Afterwards Arjuna stayed in Devaloka for a few days with Citrasena, and during the period he killed Nivātakavaca and Kālakeya.
     Arjuna became a friend of Maharṣi Lomaśa, who had gone to Devaloka to see Indra. Promising Arjuna that he would protect Dharmaputra Lomaśa returned to the earth. Arjuna left the Kāmyaka forest and returned to his brothers after an absence for five years. He met the brothers at Mount Gandhamādana. (M.B., Vana Parva, Chapters 42-47).
     22) Procession. At last a witty and humorous brahmin went to Dhṛtarāṣṭra and dilated upon the hardships being suffered by the Pāṇḍavas, and Duryodhana and others were extremely pleased and happy to hear it. Yet, they shed crocodile tears. But, Duryodhana was in a mighty hurry to see with his own eyes the pitiable plight of the Pāṇḍavas. On the pretext of going out for hunting Duryodhana and others with the permission of Dhṛtarāṣṭra, started for the forest with a number of attendants. 8,000 chariots, 30,000 elephants, thousands of infantry soldiers, 9,000 horses, merchants, ornaments, courtesans and thousands of hunters formed this procession into the forest. Just like roaring winds during the rainy season the procession caused thunderous noise. Duryodhana approached the pool in the Dvaita forest and waited at a distance. (M.B., Araṇya Parva, Chapter 239, Verses 25-29).
     Duryodhana and attendants put up tents in the forest. The Gandharvas obstructed Duryodhana, and he and the Gandharva called Citrasena clashed with each other. Duryodhana was made a prisoner. Arjuna came on the scene and released him. And, thus humiliated Duryodhana returned to Hastināpura with the attendants. (M.B., Āraṇya Parva, Chapters 239-253).
     23) Arjuna lost consciousness. While once Pāñcālī was alone King Jayadratha forcibly took her away. Within seconds the Pāṇḍavas confronted Jayadratha and regained Pāñcālī. Jayadratha and his men were killed. The Pāṇḍavas, who were very weary and tired walking in the forest felt extremely thirsty. Nakula, at the instance of Dharmaputra climbed a tree and looked around and sighted a pool of clear water. When Nakula went to the pool and began to draw water a voice from above was heard saying as follows: "Do not be so very daring. This is my ancestral wealth. If you answer my questions you may not only drink the water but also take some with you". Without paying any heed to this warning Nakula drank water from the pool, and lo! he fell down unconscious immediately. Sahadeva who went to the pool in search of Nakula and drank water from the pool also met with the same fate as Nakula. Arjuna and Bhīma also had the same fate at the pool. Lastly Dharmaputra went to the pool and understanding what happened to his brothers requested permission to drink water. At once a Yakṣa appeared and brought the brothers of Dharmaputra back to consciousness. In fact, the Yakṣa was none other than Yamadharmadeva. (For questions and answers of the Yakṣa see Dharmaputra.) (M.B., Araṇya Parva, Chapters 312-315).
     24) Life incognito. Now the twelve years of forest life being over the Pāṇḍavas decided to spend the one year of life incognito in the Virāṭa palace. Arjuna disguised himself and deposited his clothes and weapons in the hollow of a Śami tree in the forest. And the Pāṇḍavas in various disguises reached the Virāṭa palace. They assumed false names: Dharmaputra as Kaṅka, Bhīma as Valāla, Arjuna as Bṛhannala, Nakula as Granthika and Sahadeva as Ariṣṭanemi and Draupadī as Mālinī.
     When the life incognito of the Pāṇḍavas for one year was about to expire a rumour reached the Kauravas that the Pāṇḍavas were at the Virāṭa capital, and the Kauravas thought that the Pāṇḍavas will appear on the scene if a war was fought against King Virāṭa. The Kauravas, with this object in view, lifted the cows of Virāṭa and that led to war. Uttara, the prince of Virāṭa boasted that he would fight provided he had a good charioteer. Bṛhannala (Arjuna) agreed to act as such and they started for the warfield. At the sight of the massive army of the Kauravas Uttara got frightened and tried to run away from the field. But Bṛhannala tightly bound Uttara to the chariot, drove it very fast to the forest, took back from the hollow of the Śami tree his weapons and returned to the battle-field. The Kauravas were absolutely defeated in the war and they took to their heels. They understood that the very clever and terrible warrior in disguise was Arjuna himself. But, by the time the period of the Pāṇḍavas life incognito was over. The king of Virāṭa, greatly pleased over this victory in war gave his daughter, Uttarā in marriage to Abhiṃanyu, son of Arjuna. (M.B., Virāṭa Parva).
     25) Preparations for war. After the forest life and life incognito the Pāṇḍavas returned. The Kauravas refused to give them half the Kingdom. Śrī Kṛṣṇa, on behalf of the Pāṇḍavas, implored that half the kingdom or five districts or five houses or at least one house be given to them. But the Kauravas took the stand that not even an iota of land would be given to the Pāṇḍavas. And, war was perforce decided upon. Duryodhana went to Kṛṣṇa at Dvārakā to request for support in war. Kṛṣṇa, who favoured the Pāṇḍavas lay in false sleep as he did not want to fight against them. Duryodhana sat at the head of Kṛṣṇa. Arjuna, who came after some time sat at the feet of Kṛṣṇa and remained there standing. Awakening from sleep, it was Arjuna whom Kṛṣṇa saw first. After the greetings were over with Arjuna, Kṛṣṇa saw Duryodhana also. Between Kṛṣṇa without any arms and the armed forces of Kṛṣṇa, Arjuna chose Kṛṣṇa and Duryodhana his armed forces to help each side in the impending war. (Udyoga Parva).
     26) War. Both the Parties were encamped in Kurukṣetra ready for war. Śrī Kṛṣṇa acted as Charioteer to Arjuna. He stopped the chariot in between the opposing armies. Arjuna felt deep anguish to find his own people arrayed on the opposite side for war. Reluctant to kill relations, elders, friends and preceptors Arjuna laid down his arms in the chariot. Then did Kṛṣṇa instruct him in Karmayoga (the philosophy of action). That instruction and advice of Kṛṣṇa is the world-famous Bhagavad Gītā. The Gītā cleared off Arjuna's illusions and he praised the Lord, Śrī Kṛṣṇa, who revealed his all comprehensive form (Viśvarūpa) to Arjuna.
     On the first day of the war Arjuna fought a duel with Bhīṣma, and the second day he fought the Kaurava forces with exceptional prowess. And then Arjuna prevented Kṛṣṇa from killing Bhīṣma. But, the Kaurava army faced defeat that day. On the third day Arjuna defeated Bhīṣma, Aśvatthāmā, Trigartta, Bhagadatta and others. Thereupon a really fierce fight began. The war lasted for 18 days. The important incidents during the 18 days can be summarised as follows:-(1) Fierce fight between Arjuna and Bhīṣma. (2) Fight between Arjuna and Aśvatthāmā. (3) Arjuna destroyed the Kaurava army. (4) Irāvān, son of Arjuna, was killed. (5) Arjuna fought against Droṇa and Suśarmā. (6) Took the vow to kill Bhīṣma. (7) Śikhaṇḍī prompted to kill Bhīṣma. (8) On the appearance of Śikhaṇḍi the Kaurava army, took fright and fled in great disarray. (9) Arjuna fought a duel with Duśśāsana. (10) Duel with Bhagadatta. (11) Duel again with Bhīṣma. (12) Bhīṣma fainted and fell on the ground. (14) With Śikhaṇḍī in the front made an attack on Bhīṣma. (15) Arjuna discharged three arrows to serve as pillow to Bhīṣma who, dislodged from the chariot, was lying on a bed of arrows. (16) Cool water sprinkled on the face of Bhīṣma with the aid of divine arrows. (17) Fought against Droṇa and defeated his forces. (18) Satyajit deputed to remain with Dharmaputra to help him. (19) Sudhanvā killed. (20) Again fought with Bhagadatta. (21) Supratīka, the elephant of Bhagadatta killed. (22) And after that, Bhagadatta also killed. (23) Vṛṣaka and Acala killed by Arjuna. (24) Śakuni defeated. (25) Arjuna killed the three brothers of Karṇa and confronted Karṇa. (26) Abhimanyu, son of Arjuna, killed. (27) Hearing about the death of Abhimanyu, Arjuna fell down unconscious. (28) Awakened, Arjuna vowed to kill Jayadratha. (29) Arjuna performed Śiva Pūjā. (30) Arjuna dreamt that night to have paid homage to Śiva along with Kṛṣṇa and that Śiva gave him divine arrows like Pāśupata. (31) Marched forth routing the elephant regiment of Durmarṣaṇa. (32) Routed Duśśāsana in fight. (33) Again fought Droṇa, Kṛtavarmā, Śrutāyudha, Sudakṣiṇa, King of Kāmboja. (34) Sudakṣiṇa killed in fight. (35) Śrutāyu, Acyutāyu, Niyutāyu, Ambaṣṭha and the Mlecchas' army killed. (36) Vinda and Anuvinda killed. (37) Warfield converted into a house of arrows, on account of the great collection of arrows. (38) Arjuna defeated Duryodhana. (39) Fought the nine great warriors on the Kaurava side. (40) Arjuna cut off the right hand of Bhūriśravas at the instance of Kṛṣṇa. (41) Cut off the head of Jayadratha with arrows. The head and the arrows were thrown on the lap of Jayadratha's father. (42) Alambuṣa, King of Rākṣasas killed. (43) Daṇḍadhāra killed with his elephant. (44) Arjuna killed the six brothers of Suśarmā, viz., Satyasena, Candrasena, Mitrasena, Śrutañjaya, Sauśruti and Mitradharmā (45) Difference of opinion arose between Dharmaputra and Arjuna about the failure to kill Karṇa, and in the heat of excitement Arjuna called his elder brother 'thou'. (46) Immediately repenting Arjuna drew sword to kill himself. But, regained mental peace by begging pardon of the brother. (47) Killed Vṛṣasena, son of Karṇa, (48) Karṇa brought down Kṛṣṇa's crown by his arrow resembling the face of the serpent. Enraged at this Arjuna killed Karṇa. (49) Killed Satyakarmā, Satyeṣṭha and others. (50) After bowing to Vyāsa, Arjuna withdrew arrow. (M.B., Bhīṣma, Droṇa, Karṇa, Śalya and Sauptika Parvas).
     27) After the war. In the great war the Kaurava army, to the very last man, was annihilated. The Pāṇḍavas assembled together. Thoughts about the future came up. Śrī Kṛṣṇa consoled the sorrowing Dharmaputra. As desired by Vyāsa, Kṛṣṇa, Dharmaputra and others returned to Hastināpura and took up the reins of governing the country, and the idea of performing an Aśvamedha Yāga was seriously mooted. A King named Marutta agreed to give money needed for the yajña. Arjuna defeated all enemy kings. (M.B., Śānti Parva).
     28) Death and rebirth of Arjuna. On his way back after digvijaya Arjuna was killed by the arrows of his son, Babhruvāhana. Immediately did Ulūpī, Arjuna's wife bring back to life her husband by Mṛtasañjīvanī mantra. Then Arjuna questioned Ulūpī about the reason for his son killing him, and also as to how she happened to be present at the time. Ulūpī described the story of a curse in answer to Arjuna's querry. (M.B., Aśvamedha Parva, Chapter 79).
     29) The story of the curse. Ulūpī said: You shall not get angry. Yes, all is for the best. In war you killed Bhīṣma by unrighteous means, viz. with the help of Śikhaṇḍī. On his death, the Aṣṭavasus and Gaṅgā Devī cursed you with hell. I told about this curse to my father, who begged the Vasus for redemption, and they said that you would be redeemed from the curse when your son, Babhruvāhana, killed you. Accordingly he has been brought here to kill you.
     The above story pleased Arjuna. (Aśvamedha Parva, Chapter 81).
     30) Aśvamedham. Arjuna again defeated Meghasandhi, the King of Magadha, Śakuniputra and others and returned to Hastināpura, where the Aśvamedha yajña was performed. The Yādava dynasty was extinguished before long. Arjuna did all the rites due to them on death. He grieved over the departure of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. (Bhāgavata, Skandha 11, Chapter 31). And then he went to Indraprastha with the consorts of Kṛṣṇa. On the way dacoits overcame Arjuna and snatched away some of the females. Arjuna felt very sad. Then Vyāsa appeared and told him that he would be strong and powerful only in the presence of Kṛṣṇa. (Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 15).
     31) Pāṇḍavas' journey to the other world. Now, it was time for the Pāṇḍavas to journey to the other world. It was at this juncture that the Yādava dynasty ended and Śrī Kṛṣṇa was killed, and some of Kṛṣṇa's consorts were abducted. Arjuna could not save them, and they jumped into the river and died. Arjuna, who lost all his power began the great journey with his brothers. On their way Agnideva advised him to deposit reputed bow, Gāṇḍīva in the sea, and Arjuna did so. (Mahāprasthāna Parva, Chapter 1, Verses 1-42). The Pāṇḍavas continued their journey, Yudhiṣṭhira leading them. They reached the Himālayas, and there Pāñcālī expired. To Bhīma's querry as to why Pāñcālī expired first, Yudhiṣṭhira replied that it was due to her having been more partial to Arjuna. The others continued their journey and then Sahadeva died. Yudhiṣṭhira explained that Sahadeva died second due to his arrogance and conceit. And, the others continued going forward. An emaciated dog was already with the Pāṇḍavas during their journey. Nakula was the third to die, and Yudhiṣṭhira attributed it to his (Nakula) extreme conceit about his beauty. And, Arjuna's death next, Yudhiṣṭhira said, was due to his having not kept his vow, once made, to kill the whole lot of enemies in a day. After proceeding a short distance further Bhīma also fell dead, and Yudhiṣṭhira thought to himself that it was due to Bhīma's voracious eating. And, then Devendra came in his chariot of gold and welcomed Yudhiṣṭhira to Svarga. But, he refused the offer saying that he would not do go alone, leaving his brothers behind. When Indra assured him that his brothers were already there, in Svarga, Yudhiṣṭhira got into the chariot and reached Svarga, and he was elated to find his brothers there happy with Pāñcālī. (Mahāprasthāna Parva and Svargārohaṇa).
     32) The meanings of the word, Arjuna.
     (1) White. "śuklaśubhraśuciśveta-viśadaśvetapāṇḍavāḥ avadātassito gauro valakṣo dhavalo'rjunaḥ hariṇaḥ pāṇḍuraḥ. (amarakośa) (2) the plant called vīrataru. nadīsarjo vīratarurindradṛuḥ kakubhor'rjunaḥ. (do) (3) grass. śaṣpam bālatṛṇaṃ ghāso yavasam tṛṇaṃarjunam. (do) (4) indra." (Ṛgveda, Chapter 1, Anuvāka 7, Sūkta 112).
     33) Synonyms used in the Mahābhārata of Arjuna. Aindri, Bhārata, Bhīmānuja, Bhīmasenānuja, Bībhatsu, Bṛhannala, Śākhāmṛgadhvaja, Śakraja, Śakranandana, Śakrasūnu, Śakrātmaja, Śakrasuta, Śvetāśva, Śvetahaya, Śvetavāha, Devendratanaya, Dhanañjaya, Gāṇḍīvabhṛt, Gāṇḍīvadhanvā, Gāṇḍīvadhārī, Gāṇḍīvī, Guḍākeśa, Indrarūpa, Indrasuta, Indrātmaja, Indrāvaraja, Jaya, Jiṣṇu, Kapidhvaja, Kapiketana, Kapipravara, Kapivaradhvaja, Kaunteya, Kaurava, Kauravaśreṣṭha, Kauravya, Kirīṭamāli, Kauraveya, Kirīṭabhṛt, Kirīṭavān, Kirīṭī, Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇasārathi, Kuntīputra, Mahendrasūnu, Mahendrātmaja, Nara, Pākaśāsani, Pāṇḍava, Pāṇḍaveya, Pāṇḍunandana, Pārtha, Paurava, Phālguna, Prabhañjanasutānuja, Savyasācī, Tāpatya, Tridaśeśvarātmaja, Vānaradhvaja, Vānaraketana, Vānaraketu, Vānaravaryaketana, Vāsavaja, Vāsavanandana, Vāsavātmaja, Vāsavi, Vijaya.
     34) Origin of certain words. Towards the close of his life incognito, Arjuna went to the Śami tree to take out Gāṇḍīva kept in its hollow. Uttarā also was with Arjuna. Then Arjuna revealed himself to Uttarā, and also elaborated the meaning of his various names as follows:--
     I shall tell you my ten names. Arjuna, Phālguna, Jiṣṇu, Kirīṭi, Śvetavāhana, Bhībhatsu, Vijaya, Kṛṣṇa, Savyasācī and Dhanañjaya....I am called Dhanañjaya, because even after having conquered all the lands and amassed wealth I stand in the centre of righteousness ....I am called Vijaya because in fights with haughty opponents I always succeed.....I am called Śvetavāhana because white horses are harnessed in war to my chariot decked with golden ornaments....I am called Phālguna because I was born in the month of Phālguna and under the star, Phālguna...I am kirīṭī because during my fight with the Daityas I put on my head crown glowing as Sun...I am called Bībhatsu by men and Devas because I never resort to revolting means during war...Devas and men call me Savyasācī because both my hands are adept in using the bow, Gāṇḍīva....I am Arjuna because, in the world people are rare who possess such fair colour as I do, and moreover I do only white (just and ethical) acts....I am called Jiṣṇu, because I am unassailable and unconquerable, and I subjugate and conquer, and also because I am the son of Indra...My father gave me the tenth name of Kṛṣṇa because I was very attractive (Kṛṣṇa=attractive). [Mahābhārata (Malayalam)].
     35) Wives of Arjuna.
     (1) Pāñcālī (2) Ulūpī (3) Citrāṅgadā (4) Subhadrā.
     36) Sons of Arjuna. Śṛtakirīṭi, Irāvān, Babhruvāhana, Abhimanyu.

ARJUNA II A son of Emperor, Nimi. One Arjuna, son of emperor Nimi, got philosophical advice from a Muni named Asita (Brahmāṇḍapurāṇa, Chapter 47).

ARJUNA III (See Kārttavīryārjuna).

ARJUNA IV A member of Yama's assembly. The other members are: Kapotaroma, Tṛṇaka, Sahadeva, Viśva, Sāśva, Kṛśāśva, Śaśabindu and Mahīśvara. (M.B., Sabhā Parva, Chapter 8, Verse 17).

ARJUNĀBHIGAMANAPARVA A sub Parva in Mahābhārata. (See Mahābhārata).

ARJUNAKA A hunter. Dharmaputra was called to his side by Bhīṣma his body torn by arrows in fight and he felt very sad and sorry to see Bhīṣma in that state. To console Dharmaputra Bhīṣma related a story and this hunter was one of the characters in the story. The story may be summarised as follows:--
     Once, the son of an old Brahmin woman Gautamī, died on account of snake-bite. A hunter caught and brought before Gautamī the snake. His object was to kill it immediately. But the serpent proved its innocence by pleading that it bit the boy impelled and prompted by Death. At once death (mṛtyu) appeared on the scene and explained that it was prompted by the God of Death. And, it was the child who was responsible for the cause of death, and Gautamī was the cause for the birth of the child. Ultimately Gautamī herself assumed responsibility for the sin. Bhīṣma consoled Dharmaputra by telling that as in the case of Gautamī in the story, the cause for every effect was the chain of Karma. (M.B., Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 1).

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ARJUNAVANAVĀSAPARVA A sub parva in Mahābhārata. (See Mahābhārata).

ARKKA I A synonym of the Sun. (See SŪRYA).

ARKKA II A king of olden days. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 1, Verse 236).

ARKKA III The royal sage Ṛṣīka was Arkka, the Asura, reborn. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 67, Verses 32, 33).

ARKKAPARṆA Kaśyapa's son by his wife Munī. He was a Devagandharva. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 65, Verse 43).

ARTHAM From the forehead of Mahāviṣṇu a golden lotus grew up from which Śrī Devī was born. Dharmārthas (Dharma=righteousness and artha=wealth) also were born from Śrī. "From the forehead of Viṣṇu, sprung up a golden lotus and His wise spouse Śrī arose there from and oh, Pāṇḍava, righteousness and wealth came into being from Śrī". (Bhāṣābhārata, Śānti Parva, Chapter 59, Stanzas 130 & 131).

ARUJAM A sect among the Rākṣasas. (M.B., Vana Parva, Chapter 285, Verse 2).

ARULMOLITHEVAR The Śaiva text of the south is called Tirumura, and it contains twelve songs. The first seven of those songs were composed by Tirujñānasambandha, Tirunavukkarśar and Sundaramūrti. The twelfth song is called Periyapurāṇa composed by Arulmolithevar. He is also called Sekhilar. Tevar was prime minister (A.D. 1063-1112) of Cola. (Some great lives).

     1) Birth. Son of Kaśyapa by Vinatā. Kaśyapa, son of Brahmā, married Vinatā and Kadrū, and being so much pleased by their services he gave them boons. Kadrū got the boon to have 1000 nāga (serpent) sons, and Vinatā to have two sons more powerful and vital than the sons of Kadrū. After this Kaśyapa went into the forest again for Tapas. After a period, Kadrū gave birth to 1000 eggs and Vinatā to two. Both the mothers kept their eggs in pots so that they were in the right temperature. After 500 years the pot broke up and Kadrū had her 1000 sons. Vinatā felt pained at this and opened one of her pots. A child only half-developed emerged from the egg and he was Aruṇa. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 16, Verses 5-7). After another 500 years the other egg of Vinatā hatched itself and a glowing son emerged. He was Garuḍa.
     2) Genealogy. While Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa wandered in the forest searching for Sītā they saw the wounded and disabled Jaṭāyu. Jaṭāyu described his genealogy as follows: "Kaśyapa, son of Brahmā, married the daughters of Dakṣa. Of the two wives, Vinatā delivered two sons, Garuḍa and Aruṇa. Sampāti was Aruṇa's elder son and he (Jaṭāyu) the younger. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Araṇyakāṇḍa, Canto 14). Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 19 also refers to Garuḍa and Aruṇa as the sons of Vinatā.
     3) Aruṇa curses his mother. The fact of Vinatā forcing open one of her eggs prematurely and Aruṇa emerging out of it with only a half-developed body has been mentioned above. Aruṇa got angry at the haste of his mother and cursed her to live as slave of Kadrū for 500 years, and then Garuḍa would redeem her from slavery. He also asked her to wait for 500 years so that the birth of another physically deficient son like himself might be avoided. After pronouncing this curse Aruṇa rose to the sky. This curse was the reason for Vinatā's becoming a slave of Kadrū. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 16, Verses 18-23).
     4) Aruṇa became charioteer of Sun. The Sun and the Moon betrayed to the Devas Rāhu, who waited at the entrance of Devaloka to snatch off the Nectar (Amṛtam) got at the churning of the sea of milk (Kṣīrābdhi). Thenceforth Rāhu does often swallow the Sun and the Moon. That phenomenon is called the eclipse (of the Sun or Moon. Sūrya-grahaṇa and Candra-grahaṇa). Enraged by these frequent attacks of Rāhu, the Sun-God began once to burn like anything. Murmuring that everyone would cooperate when there was something to be achieved, but would go on their own way when the object was achieved, the Sun-God began burning so virulently as to destroy all living forms, and the Devas were frightened by this and took refuge in Brahmā. Brahmā called Aruṇa and asked him to stand as charioteer in front of the Sun-God everyday so that the Sun's intensity might be reduced. From that day onwards Aruṇa has been functioning as the charioteer of the Sun. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 24, Verses 15-20).
     5) Birth of sons. Śyenī, wife of Aruṇa delivered two sons, Sampāti and Jaṭāyu. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 68, Verse 71).
     6) Aruṇa assumed female form. Śīlāvatī, the chaste woman, once did naked Tapas to redeem her husband, Ugratapas from the consequences of a curse. The object of her tapas was to prevent the next dawn (Sunrise). Owing to the intensity of her tapas the Sun ceased to rise, and this gave his charioteer Aruṇa some rest. Then it was that Aruṇa came to know of a programme of naked dance by the women in Devaloka. Women alone were admitted to the dance hall. Aruṇa, therefore, assumed female form and sat among the Deva women, and the beautiful 'female' kindled erotic sentiments in Indra and he enjoyed a night with 'her'. Also, a son was born to them. And, before the day dawned Aruṇa, at the instance of Indra entrusted the child to Ahalyādevī and returned to join duty as the Sun-God's charioteer. (Aruṇa, while he acted as Indra's wife was called Āruṇīdevī). Aruṇa was a bit late to report for duty, and when questioned by Sun he detailed the happenings during the last night. This evoked the desire in the Sun to see Aruṇa in female form. Aruṇa did so, and the Sun enjoyed her. This also resulted in the birth of a son, who too was, at the instance of the Sun, entrusted to Ahalyādevī. Ahalyādevī brought both the children with tender love, which Gautama muni, her husband did not like. He cursed them and turned them into monkeys. After some time Indra went to Ahalyā to see his child and he was told the story of Gautama's curse. Indra searched out both the monkeys. In view of the elder one having a long tail he was called Bāli (Vāli) and the neck of the second one being very beautiful, he was named Sugrīva. At that time, Ṛkṣarāja, the monkey King of Kiṣkindhā was very unhappy because he had no sons. He came to know of Bāli and Sugrīva, and requested Indra to give both the monkeys to him as sons. Indra gladly obliged him. Indra blessed Bāli to the effect that half the strength of anybody who attacked him would be added to his own natural power. Indra then sent him and Sugrīva to Kiṣkindhā.
     7) Synonyms. Sūrasūta, Anūru, Aruṇa, Kāśyapi, Garudāgraja.

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ARUṆA II A king of the solar dynasty, and father of Triśaṅku. (Devī Bhāgavata, Saptama Skandha).

ARUṆA III A sage in ancient India. A community of Ṛṣis was denoted by this name. Those Ṛṣis were called Aruṇas. The Ajas, Pṛśnis, Sikatas, Ketus and Aruṇas-they attained Svarga by self study. (M.B., Śānti Parva, Chapter 26, Verse 7).

ARUṆA IV A serpent. Karkkoṭaka, Vāsuki, Takṣaka, Pṛthuśravas, Aruṇa, Kuñjara, Mitra, Śaṃkha, Kumuda, Puṇḍarīka, and the chief of serpents, Dhṛtarāṣṭra. (M.B., Mausala Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 15).

ARUṆA V A Ṛṣi. Taittarīya Āraṇyaka refers to him as born from the flesh of Brahmā at the time of creation.

ARUṆA VI A Dānava (Asura) born in the dynasty of Vipracitti. He did tapas for long years repeating the Gāyatrī mantra, and got from Brahmā the boon not to die in war. Becoming very arrogant on account of this boon he left Pātāla (nether region) for the earth and deputed a messenger to challenge Indra for war. At that time a heavenly voice called out that as long as Aruṇa did not give up the Gāyatrī he could not be worsted in war. Then the Devas sent Bṛhaspati to Aruṇa to make him give up Gāyatrī. Aruṇa questioned Bṛhaspati as to why he of the enemy camp had come to him (Aruṇa). Bṛhaspati replied: "You and I are not different; both of us are worshippers of Gāyatrī Devī. Being told so Aruṇa gave up worship of Gāyatrī Devī, and she felt offended at this and sent thousands of beetles against him. Thus, without fighting Aruṇa and his army were extinguished. (Devī Bhāgavata).

ARUṆA VII A son of Narakāsura. When Narakāsura was killed Aruṇa along with his six brothers fought against Śrī Kṛṣṇa and was killed.

ARUṆĀ I An Apsarā woman born of Pradhā, wife of Kaśyapa. Pradhā and Kaśyapa had the following children. Alambuṣā, Miśrakeśī, Vidyutparṇā, Tilottamā, Rakṣitā, Rambhā and Manoramā. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 65, Verses 50, 51).

ARUṆĀ II A tributary of the river Sarasvatī. (M.B., Vana Parva, Chapter 83, Verse 15).

ARUṆASAṂGAMAM The place where Aruṇā falls into Sarasvatī. (M.B., Śalya Parva, Chapter 43, Verses 30-45).

ARUNDHATĪ I Wife of Sage Vasiṣṭha.
     (1) Birth. She was born as the daughter of Karddama Prajāpati and Devahūti. (See Vasiṣṭha).
     (2) Other information. (1) Once Arundhatī got suspicious about the character of Vasiṣṭha and as a result of misunderstanding her chaste husband her beauty suffered a set-back. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 232, Verses 27-29).
     (2) Arundhatī shone forth in Brahmā's assembly with other Devīs like, Pṛthvī, Hṛī, Svāhākīrtī, Surā and Śacī. (M.B., Sabhā Parva, Chapter 11, Verse 41).
     (3) She outshone all other chaste women in devotion to her husband. She owed her great power to her chastity and service of her husband. (M.B., Araṇya Parva, Chapter 225, Verse 15).
     (4) The seven great Ṛṣis once offered her an honourable seat. (M.B., Vana Parva, Chapter 226, Verse 8).
     (5) There is a story in the Mahābhārata of how Śiva once blessed Arundhatī. While the seven great Ṛṣis were staying at the Himālayas it did not rain consecutively for twelve years, and the Munis suffered much without either roots or fruits to eat. Then Arundhatī began a rigorous tapas, and Śiva appeared before her disguised as a brahmin. Since, due to the failure of rains, Arundhatī had no food with her. She cooked food with some cheap roots and served the guest with it, and with that it rained profusely all over the land. Śiva then assumed his own form and blessed Arundhatī, and from that day onwards it became a sacred spot. (M.B., Śalya Parva, Chapter 48, Verses 38-54).
     (6) Arundhatī once pointed out to Vṛṣdarbhi the evils of receiving remuneration (fee). (M.B., Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 10, Verse 45).
     (7) On another occasion she spoke about the secret principles of ethics among others. (M.B., Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 130, Verses 3-11).
     (8) Once all the Devas eulogized Arundhatī and Brahmā blessed her. (M.B., Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 130, Verses 12 and 13).
     (9) Arundhatī and Vasiṣṭha did tapas at the sacred Sarasvatī tīrtha and entered into Samādhi. (M.B., Vana Parva, Chapter 130, Verse 17).

ARUNDHATĪ II A wife of Kāla (God of death). Arundhatī, Vasu, Yamī, Lambā, Bhānu, Marutvatī, Saṃkalpā, Muhurtā, Sādhyā and Viśvā are the ten wives of Kāla. (Viṣṇu Purāṇa, Part 1, Chapter 15).

ARUNDHATĪVAṬAM A holy place. If one takes one's bath during three days in the Sāmudraka tīrtha nearby and also starves one will get the results of Aśvamedha yāga. (M.B., Vana Parva, Chapter 84, Verse 41).

ARUṆĪ Name given to Aruṇa when he attended Indra's assembly disguised as female. (See Aruṇa).

ARUṆODĀ A river flowing through the island of Plakṣa, one of the seven islands of ancient times. The wind around ten yojanas of Plakṣa is very fragrant because it carries the divine fragrance being emitted always from the bodies of Pārvatī and her attendants, who drink water from river Aruṇodā. (Devī Bhāgavata, Aṣṭama Skandha).

ARŪPĀ One of Dakṣa's daughters. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 65, Verse 46).

ARUPATTIMŪVAR (The sixty-three's). In ancient times there were sixty-three devotees of Siva in the south. They were called Nāyanāras and they have composed many famous sacred songs. Prominent among them were Tirujñānasambandha, Tirunāvukkaraśa and Sundaramūrti

ARVA The son of Ripuṃjaya. (Viṣṇu Purāṇa).

ARVĀVASU An ancient Ascetic who had been a luminary in the Durbar hall of King Yudhiṣṭhira. There is a story in the Mahābhārata showing the merits of penance of Arvāvasu. This story was told by the hermit Lomaśa to the Pāṇḍavas, when they arrived at the holy bath Madhugilasamaṅga, during their exile in the forest. "Long ago two ascetics Raibhya and Bharadvāja had built their hermitages and lived here. A son named Yavakrīta was born to Bharadvāja. To Raibhya, two sons called Arvāvasu and Parāvasu were born. Raibhya and his sons were learned men. Bharadvāja and Yavakrīta became ascetics. Yavakrīta started doing penance with a view to get the boon of learning coming to him automatically without getting it directly from Brahmins. When his penance became severe Indra appeared and told him that the boon he asked for was an impossibility and tried to dissuade him from his attempt. Yavakrīta was not willing to give up penance. Later Indra came in the guise of a Brahmin to the Banks of the Ganges and began to build a dam with sand particles. Yavakrīta said that it was an impossible task. Indra said that the desire of Yavakrīta also was as impossible as that. Still Yavakrīta did not show any intention of drawing back. Finally Indra granted him the boon.
     Yavakrīta returned to the hermitage. Full of arrogance he hankered after the daughter-in-law of Raibhya. Raibhya plucked a tuft of hair from his head and put it as oblation in fire and created a giant who killed Yavakrīta. Bharadvāja felt sad and cursed Raibhya that he would be killed by his son. Then with Yavakrīta he jumped into the fire and died.
     At that time Bṛhaddyumna, a Brahmin performed a sacrifice. He invited Arvāvasu and Parāvasu as helpers. As Parāvasu was going along the forest he saw his father covered with the hide of a deer and shot at him thinking him to be a deer. He stealthily informed the matter to Arvāvasu. Arvāvasu went to the forest completed the funeral rites of his father and returned. Parāvasu spread the rumour everywhere that Arvāvasu had murdered his father. In the innocence of Arvāvasu, nobody believed. Everyone avoided him. He became sad and forlorn and went to the forest and did penance to the Sun. The Sun appeared before him and blessed him. He returned and brought Yavakrīta, Bharadvāja and Raibhya to life again.
     All these occurrences happened in this bath called Madhubilasaṃgama. (Mahābhārata, Araṇya Parva, Chapters 135, 136, 137, 138).
     The report of a conversation between this hermit, and Śrī Kṛṣṇa who had been on his way to Hastināpura, is given in the Mahābhārata, Śānti Parva, Chapter 336, Stanza 7. Arvāvasu also is counted among the hermits who possessed the Brightness of Brahmā like Rudra.
     "Hermit Vasiṣṭha! Now I shall give their names in order. Yavakrīta, Raibhya, Arvāvasu, Parāvasu, Kakṣīvān, Aurṣija, Bala, Aṅgiras, Ṛṣimedha, Tithisuta, Kaṇva, these are the Bright hermits, having the brightness of Brahmā, lauded by the world and as bright as Rudra, Fire and Vasu". (M.B., Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 150, Stanzas 30, 31 & 32).
     Arvāvasu did penance to the Sun for getting children. The Sun-God came down from his way in the sky and gave him through Aruṇa directions mentioned in the Kalpa (one of the six Śāstras or Sciences) regarding Saptamī rituals. Arvāvasu observed them strictly and as a result he got children and wealth. This story is given in Bhaviṣya Purāṇa, Brahma Parva).

ARYAMĀ One of the twelve Ādityas born to Kaśyapa and Aditi. (Ādityas = sons of Aditi). The twelve Ādityas are, Dhātā, Aryamā, Mitra, Śakra, Varuṇa, Aṃśa, Bhaga Vivasvān, Pūṣā, Savitā, Tvaṣṭā and Viṣṇu. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 65, Stanza 15). Aṃśa is sometimes called AṂŚU.

ARYAŚVA A King of the Sūrya vaṃśa (Solar dynasty). See the word VAṂŚĀVALĪ (Genealogy).

ASAMAÑJASA (ASAMAÑJA). A King of the Solar dynasty born to Sagara. For genealogy see under SAGARA.
     1) Birth. There is a story about his birth in the Rāmāyaṇa. Once there was a king called Sagara in Ayodhyā. He married two women named Keśinī and Sumati. For a long time they had no sons and so they went to the Himālayas and started penance there in the mount of Bhṛguprasravaṇa. After a hundred years Bhṛgumaharṣi appeared before them and pleased them thus: "Your elder wife Keśinī will give birth to a son who will continue your dynasty and your second wife will give birth to sixty thousand children". After a few years Keśinī gave birth to Asamañjas and Sumati to a big ball of flesh. That ball broke and sixty thousand babes came out from it. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Bālakāṇḍa, Sarga 83).
     2) Character of Asamañjas. He was a very cruel man always tormenting people. He used to throw little children into the Sarayū river and stand on the banks of the river enjoying the sight of the children dying drowning. People hated him. His father, therefore, drove him out of his palace. To this bad man was born Aṃśumān, a King who became the favourite of the people. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Bālakāṇḍa, Sarga 38).


AŚANI A holy hermit. While Śrī Kṛṣṇa was going to Hastināpura this hermit met him on the way. (M.B., Udyoga Parva, Chapter 83).

ASIDDHĀRTHA A minister of Daśaratha. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Śloka 3, Sarga 7, Bālakāṇḍa).

ASIKNI I A river flowing through the Punjab in India. This is called Candrabhāgā and also Cīnāb (Cīnā). The Ṛgveda also mentions about this. (M.B., Bhīṣma Parva).

ASIKNI II A wife of Dakṣa. Dakṣaprajāpati, son of Brahmā, commenced creation with his own mind. When he found that it was not conducive to the propagation of the species he pondered over the subject once more and decided to effect it by the sexual union of the male and the female. He, therefore, married Asikni daughter of Vīraṇaprajāpati. There is a version in the seventh Skandha of Devī Bhāgavata that Vīraṇī was born of the left thumb of Brahmā.* Then the virile Dakṣaprajāpati begot by Asikni five thousand Haryaśvas with a view to propagating his species and the Haryaśvas also evinced great desire to increase their number. Knowing this devarṣi Nārada of enchanting words approached them and said "Oh, Haryaśvas, I understand you, energetic young men, are going to continue creation. Phew! You are children who have not cared to understand the ins and outs or ups and downs of this earth and then how do you think you can create people? You are all endowed with the power to move about on all sides without any obstruction and you are only fools if you do not attempt so find out the limits of this earth". Hearing this they started on a tour to different sides of the earth to find out its boundaries. Just like worms fallen into the ocean the Haryaśvas have never returned so far.
     When he found that the Haryaśvas were lost the mighty Dakṣa begot in the daughter of Vīraṇī a thousand sons called Śabalāśvas. They were also desirous of propagation but were also persuaded by the words of Nārada to follow the footsteps of their elder brothers. They discussed it among themselves and said "The words of the Maharṣi are right. We must also follow the course taken by our brothers. It is wise to commence creation after knowing the size of the earth." They also went to different sides and never returned just like rivers falling into the ocean. The loss of the Śabalāśvas infuriated Dakṣa and he cursed Nārada.
     Again to commence creation Dakṣa got of Asikni sixty girls. Of these ten he gave to Dharmadeva, thirteen to Kaśyapa, twentyseven to Soma and four to Ariṣṭanemi. Two were given to Bahuputra, two to Aṅgiras and two to the scholar Kṛśāśva. Dharmadeva's wives were Arundhatī, Vasu, Yamī, Lambā, Bhānu, Marutvatī, Saṅkalpā, Muhūrtā, Sādhyā and Viśvā. Of Viśvā were born Viśvedevas. Sādhya delivered the Sādhyas, Maruṭva, the Marutvans and Vasu, Vasus. Bhānus were born of Bhānu. From Muhūrta came Muhūrtābhimānis and from Lambā, Ghoṣa and from Yamī, Nāgavīthī. (Chapter 15, Anuśāsana Parva, 1; Viṣṇu Purāṇa and Skandha 6, Bhāgavata).
*) It was Mahāviṣṇu who gave Dakṣa his wife, Asikni, when Dakṣa was doing penance in Vindhya. (Ṣaṣṭa Skandha, Bhāgavata).

ASIKṚṢṆA Son of Aśvamedhas, a King of the Lunar dynasty. (Bhāgavata, 9th Skandha).

ASILOMA Prime Minister of Mahiṣāśva. (Devī Bhāgavata, 5th Skandha).

ASIPATRAVANA One of the notorious twentyeight hells. If you destroy forests without purpose you will go to this hell. (Chapter 6, Anuśāsana Parva 2, Viṣṇu Purāṇa). The Devī Bhāgavata describes Asipatravana like this: "Those who forsake their own natural duty and go in for that of others are thrown into this hell; they die by the orderlies of Yama, the King of Death. There they will be whipped by a whip made of thorny herbs and as they run about with pain they will be followed and whipped. Crashing against the big stones there they will fall fainting and the moment they wake up from the faint they will be stabbed again. This will be repeated. (Aṣṭama Skandha, Devī Bhāgavata).

ASITĀ A celestial maiden. She had taken part in the birthday celebrations of Arjuna. (Śloka 63, Chapter 122, Ādi Parva, M.B.).

ASITA I One of the Ṛṭviks of the Sarpasatra of Janamejaya.
     Some details. (1) The prominent Ṛtviks were Bhārgava, Kautsa, Jaimini, Sārṅgarava, Piṅgala, Vyāsa, Uddālaka Pramattaka, Śvetaketu, Asita, Devala, Nārada, Parvata, Ātreya, Kuṇḍajāra, Kālaghāṭs, Vātsya, Kohala, Devaśarmā, Maudgalya, Samasaurabha. (Chapter 53, Ādi Parva, M.B.)
     (2) Asita, Devala, Vaiśampāyana, Sumantu and Jaimini were disciples of Vyāsa. (Prathama Skandha, Devī Bhāgavata).
     (3) Asita, the sage, got by the blessing of Śiva a son named Devala. (Brahmavaivarta Purāṇa).
     (4) Once Asita muni explained to King Janaka the philosophy of rebirth. (Brahmāṇḍa Purāṇa, Chapter 47).

     Main details. (1) He is one of those who spread the story of Mahābhārata to the public. Vyāsa wrote the Mahābhārata into a lakh of books and first taught the great epic to his son, the sage Śuka. He later expounded it to many other disciples. Nārada spread the story among the devas, Devala among the Pitṛs, Śuka among Gandharvas and Yakṣas and Vaiśampāyana among men. (Ślokas 107 & 108, Chapter 1, Ādi Parva, M.B.).
     (2) He was present at the Sarpasatra of Janamejaya. (Śloka 8, Chapter 53, Ādi Parva, M.B.).
     (3) He attended the coronation of Yudhiṣṭhira along with Nārada and Vyāsa. (Śloka 10, Chapter 53, Sabhā Parva, M.B.). See under Devala for more information.

ASITADHANVĀ A king of Vedic times. Sāṃkhyāyana Sūtra states that the Veda of Asuravidyā was written by this King.

ASITADHVAJA Son of Kaśyapa and Vinatā. He was present at a birthday celebration of Arjuna. (Śloka 72, Chapter 122, Ādi Parva, M.B.).

ASITAKĀŚYAPA (DEVALA) For details see under JAIGĪṢAVYA and Devala..

ASITAPARVATA A mountain situated on the banks of the river, Narmadā, in the country of Ānarta. (Śloka 11, Chapter 89, Vana Parva, M.B.).

AŚMAKA I Son born to Vasiṣṭha by the wife of Kalmāṣapāda the King of Ayodhyā. (See Ikṣvāku vaṃśa) while the King Kalmāṣapāda was walking through the forest hunting he saw Śakti the son of Vasiṣṭha. As Śakti did not care to give room for the King, Kalmāṣapāda wounded Śakti, who cursed the King and changed him to a Rākṣasa (giant). The giant immediately killed Śakti. After many years Vasiṣṭha blessed the King and changed the form of the giant and gave him back his former shape. The King was delighted at having recovered his former shape. He took Vasiṣṭha to his palace. Madayantī the wife of the King with his permission went to Vasiṣṭha and got with child. Vasiṣṭha returned to the forest. Even after the lapse of a long period she did not give birth to the child. Madayantī who was miserable at this, took an 'aśman' (a small cylindrical piece of the granite used to crush things placed on a flat square piece of granite) and crushed her stomach with it and she delivered a son. As he was born by using 'Aśma' he was named Aśmaka. This King had built a city called Paudhanyā. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 176).

AŚMAKA II Aśmaka (m) is a place between the rivers Godāvarī and Māhiṣmatī. Aśmaka was a king of this land. He fought against the Kauravas on the Pāṇḍava side. (Karṇa Parva).

AŚMAKA III A sage. (M.B., Śānti Parva, Chapter 47, Śloka 5).

AŚMAKADĀYĀDA Son of the King Aśmaka. He was a soldier of the Kaurava army. He was killed in the battle by Abhimanyu. (Ślokas 22 and 23, Chapter 37, Droṇa Parva, M.B.).

AŚMAKĪ Wife of Prācinvā. Kaśyapa was born to Marīci, son of Brahmā. To Kaśyapa was born of his wife Aditi, daughter of Dakṣa, Vivasvān. Descending in order from Vivasvān were born Manu, Ilā, Purūravas, Āyus, Nahuṣa, Yayāti. Yayāti had two wives, Devayānī and Śarmiṣṭhā. The first was the daughter of Śukra and the second the daughter of Vṛṣaparvā. To Devayānī were born two sons, Yadu and Turvasu and to Śarmiṣṭhā were born three sons, Druhyu, Anudruhyu and Pūru. From Yadu came the dynasty of Yādavas and from Pūru came the dynasty of Pauravas. Kausalyā was the wife of Pūru and her son was Janamejaya. Pūru conducted three Aśvamedhas and secured the title of Viśvajita (conqueror of the world) and then accepted the ascetic life and went to the forests. Janamejaya married Anantā alias Mādhavī and got a son named Prācinvā. Because he conquered all the land extending to the eastern horizon he got the name Prācinvā. Prācinvā married a yādava girl of name Aśmakī and got a son named Saṃyāti. (Ślokas 6 to 13, Chapter 95, Ādi Parva, M.B.).

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AŚMANAGARA A city of the nether world. The Uttara Rāmāyaṇa states that Rāvaṇa entered this city when he was going home in the Puṣpaka Vimāna (the aeroplane of ancient times) stolen from Kubera.

AŚMAPṚṢṬA(M) The sacred pond near Gayā known as Pretaśilā. It is believed that if you perform obsequies here even the sin of killing a brahmin would fade away.

AŚMĀ An ancient sage.

AŚMOPĀKHYĀNAM This is called Aśmagītā also. After the great Kurukṣetra battle Vyāsa spoke to Dharmaputra to console him and the philosophy he then expounded is called Aśmopākhyānam. Once King Janaka asked the great scholar Aśman on the changes that occur in Man as wealth comes and goes. Aśman then gave the King the same philosophy which Vyāsa gave to Dharmaputra and Aśman's oration to King Janaka came to be known as Aśmagītā. (Chapter 28, Śānti Parva, M.B.).

AŚOKA I The charioteer of Bhīmasena. When Bhīmasena was fighting a battle with Śrutāyu the King of Kaliṅga, this charioteer brought the chariot to him. (M.B., Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 54, Stanzas 70 and 71).

AŚOKA II A minister of King Daśaratha. Daśaratha had eight ministers. They were Jayanta, Dhṛṣṭi, Vijaya, Asiddhārtha, Arthasādhaka, Aśoka, Mantrapāla and Sumantra. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Bālakāṇḍa, Sarga 7).

AŚOKA III A King of the family of the famous Asura Aśva. This king had been ruling over Kaliṅga. (Ādi Parva, Chapter 67, Stanza 14).

AŚOKADATTA Once the Vidyādhara (a class of semi gods) named Aśokavega was going through the sky, when the hermit maids of Gālavāśrama (the hermitage of Gālava) were bathing in the Ganges. He hankered after them. So the hermits cursed him and changed him to a man. The name of Aśokavega in his human birth was Aśokadatta. The story of Aśokadatta in the "Kathāsaritsāgara" is as follows:
     Long ago there lived a Brahmin named Govindasvāmī, near the river Kālindī. He had two sons, Aśokadatta and Vijayadatta. They were good men like their father. Once there occurred a great famine in the country. Scarcity prevailed everywhere. Govindasvāmī told his wife, "I cannot bear to see the difficulties of our people. So let us give everything we have for famine relief and then go to Kāśī and live there." His good-natured wife agreed to it and giving everything for the relief work, Govindasvāmī with his wife and children started for Kāśī. On the way he met a hermit sage who had renounced the world. He had his whole body besmeared with ashes. With his tuft of hair and garment made of the barks of trees, he seemed to be Śiva. Govindasvāmī bowed before him, and asked about the future of his children. The Yogī (hermit) said, "the future of your two sons is good. But this Vijayadatta will go away from you. Reunion will become possible by the goodness of Aśokadatta." Govindasvāmī felt glad and sad at the same time. Leaving the hermit they proceeded to Kāśī. They neared Kāśī. There was a temple on the way. They stayed there and conducted worship in the temple and took shelter for the night under a tree outside the temple. Other travellers also were there. Being tired of walking all went to sleep. Vijayadatta the second son of Govindasvāmī caught cold. So he woke up in the night. When he began to shiver, because of cold, he called his father and said, "Father, it appears that I have caught cold and I am shivering. I would grow better if I could get some fire. So please get some twigs and make a fire. I don't think, I may complete this night otherwise". They saw a fire close by. It was in a burial-ground. Govindasvāmī took Vijayadatta to that place where a dead body was burning.
     Vijayadatta sat near the fire and warmed himself. In the meanwhile he was talking to his father. He said, "Father, what is that round thing seen in the middle of the fire?" "That is the head of a dead body burning" said his father who was standing close by. He took a burning faggot and hit at the head. The head broke into pieces and some viscous stuff from the head fell into his mouth. There occurred a sudden change in Vijayadatta. He became a fearful giant with huge tusks and hair standing erect on the head. Somehow or other he got a sword also. That giant took the burning head from fire and drank up all the viscous liquid in it. With his tongue which looked like blazing fire he licked the bones. Then he threw away the skull. Then he approached his father with open mouth to swallow him. "You! giant, Don't kill your father, come here!" a voice shouted to him from the burial-ground. Thus Vijaya became a giant and disappeared. "Oh dear! my child! my son! Vijayadatta!", cried his father and came away from the burial-place, and went to the shelter of the tree and told his wife, son and others everything that had happened. Stricken with grief they all fell on the ground. All those who came to worship in the temple gathered round them and tried to console them. Among them was a merchant named Samudradatta, a native of Kāśī. He consoled Govindasvāmī and his family and took them to his house in Kāśī. He showed hospitality and gave them a separate place to live in. Noble men are kind to those who are in distress. The great hermit had said that their son would come back in due course. Hoping that such a time would come soon Govindasvāmī and his family dragged on their time. At the request of that wealthy merchant they stayed there on. Aśokadatta got his education there. When he grew up to a youth, he got physical training. He became such an expert in wrestling and other modes of fighting that nobody on earth could overcome him. During a festival there was a contest in wrestling. A renowned wrestler had come from the south to take part in the contest. In the contest which took place in the presence of Pratāpamukuṭa, the King of Kāśī, the wrestler challenged every wrestler in the country and had overthrown each one of them. Having heard from the merchant Samudradatta, the King sent for Aśokadatta and put him against the wrestler from the south. A very serious fight began between the two. They grappled each other with firm and resolute grips. The audience was struck with wonder at the variety of the modes of grappling and twisting and turning they exhibited. Applause came from everywhere. The fight lasted for a very long time. Finally Aśokadatta threw the other to the ground, and got much presents from the King. Gradually he became a favourite of the King, and consequently became wealthy. One day the King went to a temple of Śiva, a little away from the capital to observe fast on the fourteenth night of the Moon and while returning he passed by a burial-ground and heard a voice saying, "Oh Lord! The judge had ordered me to be hanged, for a charge of murder, merely out of personal grudge and without any proof, and this is the third day since I was put on this scaffold. My life has not yet departed from the body. My tongue is dried of thirst. Have the kindness to give me a little water."
     "Punished without proof! It will appear only so to him who is punished". Thinking thus the King asked Aśokadatta to give the man some water. "Who will go to a burial-ground in the night? I myself shall take water to him". Saying so Aśokadatta took water and went to the burial-ground and the King went to the palace. The world was in darkness. With here and there a spark of fire and light of fire-flies and lightning mingled with the shouting of ghosts and the roaring of the demons and occasional cries of birds and animals the burial-ground was a dreadful place, where Aśokadatta came and asked, "Who asked the King for water?" He heard a voice saying "Myself" and he went to the place of the voice and saw a man lying on a scaffold. An extremely beautiful woman also was lying under the scaffold crying, and getting ready to jump into the burning fire since she could not bear the separation of her husband on the new moon day. She had plenty of golden ornaments on her body. Aśokadatta asked her, "Madam! who are you, why are you crying here?" She replied, "I, an unfortunate woman, am the wife of the man on the scaffold. My intention is to burn myself along with his body. I am waiting for his life to depart. Because of my sin he is not dying. This is the third day since he is lying like this. He will be asking for water now and then. So I have brought some water. But his face being high I cannot reach it and I am seeing him burning with thirst, and am swallowing the grief." Aśokadatta said, "See! The King has sent this water for him. Now climb on my back and you yourself give him this water."
     The woman instantly took the water and got on the back of Aśokadatta who had stooped down for her to climb on his back. After a while he felt drops of blood falling on his back and looking up he saw her cutting flesh from the body of the man on the scaffold and eating it. He got wild with anger and catching hold of her legs he was about to strike her on the ground, when she shook her legs free and ran away and disappeared. Because she dragged away her legs with force one bangle came off from her leg and was left with Aśokadatta. Her behaviour aroused in him at first compassion, detestation in the middle stage and fear in the final stage, and when she had disappeared from his sight he looked at the bangle she had left behind with astonishment. When he reached home it was dawn. After his morning ablution he went to the palace. "Did you give him water yesternight?" asked the King and he replied "Yes", and placed the bangle before the King. "Where did you get this from?" the King asked and in reply he said everything that had happened in the night. The King thought that Aśokadatta was an extraordinary man and calling his queen showed her the ornament and told her everything. She was filled with joy and wonder. She praised Aśokadatta a good deal. The King said, "Dear queen! This Aśokadatta is a young man of greatness, learning, bravery, truth and of good birth. He is handsome too. If he would become the husband of our daughter what a good thing it will be? I have a desire to give him our daughter Madanalekhā".
     The queen also said that the thought was pleasing to her. "This youth is the most suitable person to be her husband. Some days ago Madanalekhā had seen him in Madhu garden and from that day a change is visible in her. All laughing and playing is gone from her, and she spends time in loneliness and thinking. I knew this from her maids. Because of my thought about her I did not sleep last night and only just closed my eyes in the dawn. Then it seemed to me that a divine woman appeared and said to me, "My daughter, Don't give your daughter Madanalekhā to anybody else. She had been the wife of Aśokadatta in previous birth". I woke up immediately. Believing in the dream I consoled our daughter. I am glad that now you also think so. Let the Jasmine creeper entwine round the Mango tree."
     When the King heard these things from his queen, without wasting more time he gave his daughter Madanalekhā in marriage to Aśokadatta. They suited each other so much that not only their relatives, but the others also were delighted. Brahmā is well experienced in joining suitable things together. As they were all getting on well one day the queen said to the King, "My lord! this Bangle being single doesn't shine well. We must have another bangle made in the same shape and design."
     The King immediately had some goldsmiths brought before him. He showed them the bangle and asked them to make one of the same pattern. They turned it on all sides and looked at it and said, "Please your highness! This is not man-made. It is not possible for us to make one of this kind. Precious stones like these are not available in this earth. So the only possible way is to search for its mate in the place where this was found. On hearing these words the King and the queen were crestfallen. Seeing this Aśokadatta said that he would bring the mate of the bangle. Fearing danger the King tried to dissuade him. But Aśokadatta was not prepared to change his decision. He took the bangle and went to the burial-ground that night. To get the bangle he had to meet the same woman who had left the bangle. He began to think of a means to find her out. He procured a corpse took it on his shoulder and walked about calling out "Do you want flesh?" He heard a voice say "Bring it here", and he walked in that direction. He saw a beautiful woman who appeared to be the mistress, sitting in the midst of so many servant maids on a tree. He called out "Take the flesh". She asked "How much will it cost?" Aśokadatta said, "There is a bangle with me. If you, will give me another bangle like this you shall have the whole body". Hearing the words of Aśokadatta the beautiful woman laughed and said, "That is my bangle. I have its mate with me also. I am the same woman you saw when you came to give water to the man on the scaffold. Now the situation is changed. So you do not recognize me. Tonight is the fourteenth lunar night too. It was good that you thought of coming to night. Otherwise you would not have seen me. Now see; let the flesh be there. If you will consent to do what I say I shall give you the other bangle also." Aśokadatta promised to do what she required. Then she began, "There is a city in the Himālayas known as Trighaṇḍa. There lived a giant in that city. His name was Lambajihva. I bearing the name vidyucchikhā, am his wife. Only one daughter was born to me. Then my husband was killed in a fight with his overlord Kapālasphoṭa, who being kind did not do us any harm; and I live in my house now. My daughter is now a young woman. I was roaming about thinking of a way to find out a man of might and bravery as husband for my daughter. Then I saw you going this way with the King. The moment I saw you I knew you to be the man I was searching for and I decided to give you my daughter in marriage. What you heard as the words of the man on the scaffold was a trick played by me. You brought water to the scaffold and nobody needed water then. With the knowledge I have in Sorcery and witchcraft I put you into a little confusion. I gave you that bangle to bring you again to me and it has served the purpose today. Let us go to my house. It is my earnest wish that you should be the husband of my daughter. And I shall satisfy your immediate need also."
     The brave Aśokadatta agreed to the request of the giantess. She, with her power, took him to their city through the sky. Aśokadatta saw the golden city and wondered if it was the sun taking rest after its tedious journey. There he saw the daughter of the giantess and thought her to be the incarnation of his adventurous spirit. She was beautiful in every part of her body. She was called Vidyutprabhā. He married her and lived with them for a while. Then he said to his mother-in-law "Mother! now give me the bangle. I must go to Kāśī. I have promised the King to get the mate of this bangle." Vidyucchikhā gave her son-in-law her bangle and a golden lotus flower which he accepted with great joy. As before he came with the giantess to the burial-ground through the sky. Then she said "I shall be here on every fourteenth lunar night on the root of this tree in the burial-ground. If you want to see me come on that day." "I shall do so", so saying Aśokadatta came away and went to his parents. They were stricken with grief at the departure and exile of their remaining son. They were overcome by joy at the return of their son. Not waiting long he went to the King, his father-in-law, who embraced him with joy. Aśokadatta gave him the two bangles. He presented the golden lotus flower also. The King and the queen were amazed at the daring spirit of Aśokadatta who told them in detail everything that had happened to him. The fame of Aśokadatta grew higher and higher. The King and the queen thought it a blessing that they got so adventurous a son-in-law. Next day the King got a casket made of silver and placed the golden lotus at the mouth of the casket and placed it on the step of his own temple for everyone to see. The white casket and the red lotus were very charming to look at and they glistened as the fame of the King and of Aśokadatta. One day the King looked at it with pleasure and said "If we could get one more lotus like this, we could make another casket and place it on the left side of this". As soon as he heard it Aśokadatta said "If the King orders it shall be brought". But the King said "Ho' you need not go anymore on erranda like this. This is not such an urgent need". After a few days the fourteenth lunar night came. Leaving his wife the princess sleeping in the bed he left the palace and reached the burial-ground. He saw his motherin-law the giantess and went with her to the city of the giant and lived there happily for a while with his wife Vidyutprabhā. When he was about to return he requested Vidyucchikhā to give him one more golden lotus. She said that there was no more lotus with her and that they grew in the lake of the giant King Kapālasphoṭa. Aśokadatta requested her to show him that lake. At first Vidyucchikhā dissuaded him from this attempt. But he was stubborn. So she took him to a place away from the lake and showed it to him. The lake was full of golden lotus flowers. It was a pleasing sight. Aśokadatta immediately got down into the lake and began to pluck the flowers. The guards came and opposed him. He killed a few of them. The others went to their master and informed about the theft. Kapālasphoṭa with his weapons came shouting and roaring and saw his elder brother Aśokadatta. He was overpowered by joy and wonder. Throwing away his weapons, with love and devotion towards his elder brother he bowed before him. "My brother! I am Vijayadatta your younger brother. By the will of God I lived as a giant so long. You might have heard this from father. Because we have met now by good luck I remembered that I was a Brahmin. My giantness is gone. On that day something obscured my mind. That is why I became a giant". When he heard the words of his younger brother Aśokadatta embraced him. Both shed tears of joy. At that time Prajñapti Kauśika the teacher of the Vidyādharas came to them and said, "You are Vidyādharas. All this happened due to a curse. Now you and your people are liberated from the curse. So learn the duties and functions of your class and with your people take your proper place in the society." Having taught them everything they required he disappeared. Thus the Vidyādhara brothers, having plucked golden lotus reached the peak of the Himālayas through the sky. Aśokadatta went to Vidyutprabhā who also having been liberated from curse became a Vidyādhara girl. With that beautiful girl the two brothers continued their journey and reached Kāśī where they bowed before their parents. That reunion appeared to be a dream or something nearing madness to their parents. They could not believe their eyes. Aśokadatta and Vijayadatta each saying his name bowed before them. Their parents lifted them up and embraced them and kissed them on the head, and cried for joy. They did not know what to do or what to say. Their minds were incapable of thinking. Everybody heard this and was amazed at it. The King was also filled with joy. He came there and took them to the palace. Aśokadatta gave all the lotus flowers to the King, who was happy and joyful at the achievement of more than he had hoped for. Everybody appreciated them. Govindasvāmī, in the presence of the King asked Vijayadatta to tell his story from the moment he turned a giant in the burial-place; "We are very curious to hear it" he said. Vijayadatta began to say "Father, you have seen how because of my mischief, I had broken that skull and some viscous liquid fell into my mouth and I changed to a giant. After that the other giants gave me the name Kapālasphoṭa. They invited me into their midst. We lived together. After a few days they took me to the presence of the King of the giants. As soon as he saw me he was pleased with me and appointed me as the commander-in-chief of the army. He who was overconfident in his power went to war with the Gandharvas and was killed in the fight. From that day onwards all the giants came under my control. Then I met with my brother who came to pluck the golden lotus flowers from my lake. With this all the previous conditions of my life had vanished. My brother will say the rest of the story. When Vijayadatta had finished saying Aśokadatta continued the story.
     Long ago when we were Vidyādharas both of us were going through the sky and we saw the hermit maids of the hermitage of Gālava, bathing in the Ganges. We wished to get those girls. The hermits who saw this with their divine eyes cursed that we would take birth as men and in that birth we would be separated in a wonderful way and both of us would unite again in a place where man could not reach and we would be liberated from the curse and learn everything from the teacher, and would become the old Vidyādharas with our people. And according to this curse we took birth as men and separation was effected. You all have heard it. Today I went to the lake of the King of the giants, with the help of my mother-in-law the giantess for plucking the golden lotus flowers and recovered my brother, this Vijayadatta. There we learned everything from our teacher Prajñapti Kauśika and became Vidyādharas and have arrived here as fast as we could." Thus he informed them everything that had occurred. Afterwards by the learning he received from his teacher he changed his parents and the daughter of the King into Vidyādharas and then bidding adieu to the King Aśokadatta, with his two wives, parents and brother went to the emperor of the Vidyādharas through the sky. When they reached there Aśokadatta and Vijayadatta changed their names into Aśokavega and Vijayavega. According to the orders of the emperor those Vidyādhara youths went to the mountain of Govindakūṭa with their people as it was their abode, and lived with happiness and joy. King Pratāpamukuṭa with wonder took one of the golden lotus flowers and placed it in the temple and with the rest he made oblations to god and considered his family to have made wonderful achievements. (Kathāsaritsāgara, Caturdārikālamba, Taraṅga 2).

AŚOKASUNDARĪ See the word Nahuṣa.

AŚOKATĪRTHA A holy place near the temple of Śūrpāraka. (Mahābhārata, Vana Parva, Chapter 88, Stanza 13).

AŚOKAVANIKĀ A famous park in Laṅkā. It was in this park that Rāvaṇa kept Sītā having stolen her from Śrī Rāma. It is described in Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Sundarakāṇḍa, Sarga 14 and Araṇyakāṇḍa, Sarga 56 and in Mahābhārata also:--
     "Thinking of her husband alone, clad in the garments of a hermit woman, eating only roots and fruits, in prayer and fast, in sorrow and sadness, she of the wide eyes lived in the Aśoka park which seemed as a hermitage." (Bhāṣā Bhārata, Araṇya Parva Chapter 280, Stanzas 42 and 43).

AṢṬABANDHA A kind of plaster used for fixing idols in temples. The following eight things are mixed and ground consecutively for fortyone days and made ready to be put in the cavity around the idol when it is fixed there finally, (1) conch-powder (2) powdered myrobalam (3) resin (4) Kolipparal (a kind of rock) (5) river sand (6) powder of emblic myrobalam (7) lac and (8) cotton.

AṢṬABHĀRYĀ(S) The eight wives of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. (1) Rukmiṇī (2) Jāmbavatī (3) Satyabhāmā (4) Kālindī (5) Mitravindā (6) Satyā (7) Bhadrā and (8) Lak ṣaṇā.

AṢṬABUDDHIGUṆA(S) Eight qualities of the intellect. Śuśrūṣā, Śravaṇa, Grahaṇa, Dhāraṇa, Ūha, Apoha, Arthavijñāna, and Tattvajñāna.

AṢṬACŪRṆA A mixture of eight powders. The eight things are: Cukku (dry ginger), Mulaku (chilli) Tippali (long pepper) Ayamodaka (celery seed) Jīraka (baraway seed) Kariṃjīraka (black caraway seed) Intuppu (sodium chloride) and Kāyam (asafoetida).

AṢṬĀDAŚAPURĀṆA(S) The eighteen purāṇas. See under Purāṇa.

AṢṬADHARMAMĀRGA(S) Eight ways of attaining mokṣa: Yāga, Vedābhyāsa, Dāna, Tapas, Satya, Kṣamā, Dayā, lack of desire.

AṢṬADHĀTU(S) Eight minerals: gold, silver, copper, tin, zinc, black lead, iron and mercury.

AṢṬADIGGAJAS and AṢṬADIKKARIṆĪS. There are eight male and eight female elephants standing guard over the eight zones. They are:
     Zone     Male     Female
     East     Airāvata     Abhramu
     South-east     Puṇḍarīka     Kapilā
     South     Vāmana     Piṅgalā
     South-west     Kumuda     Anupamā
     West     Añjana     Tāmrakarṇī
     North-west     Puṣpadanta     Śubhradantī
     North     Sārvabhauma     Aṅganā
     North-east     Supratīka     Añjanāvatī
     (Amarakośa) Besides these, there are four diggajas (elephants of the universe) who bear the earth standing below in the nether world. It is stated that the sons of Sagara who went into the nether land in search of the lost horse of his father saw these elephants. As they went to the east they saw the huge elephant Virūpākṣa, holding the earth on its head. It is said an earthquake occurs when for a change it shakes its head. Going to the left of it they saw the elephant Mahāpadmasama holding the earth on its head on the south. Going again to the left of it they saw Saumanasa holding the earth on its head on the west and going to the left of it on the north they saw Bhadra holding the earth on its head. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Bālakāṇḍa, Sarga 40).

AṢṬADIK(S) (Eight zones). East, South-east, South, South-west, West, North-west, North and North-east.

AṢṬADIKPĀLAKA(S) The Devī Bhāgavata states like this about the eight zones and their guardians. Situated in the eight different zones of the Brahmaloka are eight big cities of the eight guardians of these zones each covering an area of 2500 yojanas. All these are on the top of Mahāmeru and Brahmā sits in the centre in his city called Manovatī. Around his city are the others as follows:
     (1) On the east is Amarāvatī, city of Indra.
     (2) On South-east is Tejovatī, city of Agni.
     (3) On the South is Saṃyamanī, city of Yama.
     (4) On the South-west is Kṛṣṇāñjanā, city of Nirṛti.
     (5) On the West is Śraddhāvatī, city of Varuṇa.
     (6) On the North-west is Gandhavatī, city of Vāyu.
     (7) On the North is Mahodaya, city of Kubera.
     (8) On the North-east is Yaśovatī, city of Śiva. (Aṣṭama Skandha, Devī Bhāgavata).

AṢṬADRAVYA(S) Eight substances of great medicinal value. (1) Arayāl, (Aśvattha--Fig tree) (2) Atti (Udumbara--Keg tree) (3) Plāśu (Palāśa--Downy branch butea) (4) Perāl (Vaṭa-Banyan tree) (5) Camata (6) Ellu (Ṣesame) (7) Vāyasa (Kṛṣṇāguru cedar tree (8) Ghee.

AṢṬADŪTAGUṆA(S) The eight qualities of a good messenger. (1) He should not stand perplexed when he is being given the message to carry. (2) He must be smart and enthusiastic. (3) He must have compassion for those in distress. (4) He must run his errand quickly. (5) He must be mild. (6) He should not be duped by the cunning words of others. (7) He must be healthy. (8) He must be able to talk convincingly.

AṢṬAGANDHA Akil (Eaglewood), Candana (Sandal), Guggulu (Indian Bdellium), Māñci (Jaṭāmaṃsī-Spikenard) Kuṅkuma(saffron), Koṭṭa (Kuṣṭṭa-bostus root), Rāmacca (Uśiram-Sweet rush), Iruveli (Vālaka). (Āyurveda)

AṢṬAGUṆA(S) (1) Bhūtadayā, Kṣamā, Anasūyā, Gaurava, Anāyāsa, Maṅgala, Akārpaṇya and Aspṛhā. (2) Buddhibala, Kulaśuddhi, Śama, Learning, Parākrama, Mitabhāṣaṇa, Dāna and Kṛtajñatā. (3) Absence of Jealousy, Ṛjutva, Śucitva, Santoṣa, Bhāṣaṇabhaṅgi, Śama, Satya, Sthairya.

AṢṬAJIHVA One of the soldiers of Skanda Deva. (Śloka 62, Chapter 45, Śalya Parva, M.B.).

AṢṬAKA See under Āṣṭika.

AṢṬAKA I A King of the Pūru dyansty.
     Genealogy. Descended in order from Viṣṇu as follows: Brahmā-Atri-Candra-Budha-Purūravas-Āyus-Nahuṣa-Yayāti-Pūru-Janamejaya-Prācinvā-Pravīra-Namasyu-Vītabhaya-Śuṇḍu-Bahuvidha-Saṃyāti-Rahovādi-Raudrāśva-Matināra-Santurodha-Duṣyanta-Bharata-Suhotra-Bṛhatputra-Ajamīḍha-Aṣṭaka. (This Aṣṭaka was the brother of Śunaśśepha).

AṢṬAKA II A Rājarṣi born to Viśvāmitra of Mādhavī, wife of Yayāti. (Śloka 18, Chapter 119, Udyoga Parva, M.B.). See under Gālava.
     1) How Aṣṭaka went to heaven. This story was told to the Pāṇḍavas by the sage Mārkaṇḍeya.
     "Aṣṭaka, son of Viśvāmitra, performed an Aśvamedha Yāga. All the kings took part in this. Pratardana, Vasumanas and Auśīnara Śibi, and all the brothers of Aṣṭaka attended the function. After the yāga Aṣṭaka took his three brothers for an air travel and on the way met the great sage Nārada. Nārada was also taken in and as they continued their flight, Aṣṭaka asked Nārada who should step down from the aeroplane if only four were allowed to go to heaven. "Aṣṭaka", replied Nārada and explained the reason also. Once when Nārada stayed at the āśrama of Aṣṭaka the former found many varieties of cows there and asked Aṣṭaka whose they were. Then in self praise Aṣṭaka had said that all those were cows which he had given away as gifts. Aṣṭaka then asked who should get down if only three were allowed to go to heaven. 'Pratardana', said Nārada and explained the reason. Once when Pratardana was taking Nārada in the former's chariot four brahmins one behind the other approached him and begged for a horse each. When Pratardana asked for some time the brahmins were not prepared to wait and so he gave all but one of his four horses and asked the fourth to wait. As he was also found to be persistent he gave the one drawing his chariot also and dragged the chariot himself but abusing the brahmins all the way. It was that abuse that gave him the slur. Then Aṣṭaka asked Nārada who should get down if only two were permitted to enter heaven. 'Vasumanas', said Nārada and explained the reason. Nārada went to the house of Vasumanas three times and each time the latter spoke highly of his chariot. Nārada also joined in praising his flower-chariot and the brahmins present there also followed suit. Pleased at this Vasumanas became proud of his possession and his vainglorious talks made him unfit. Then Aṣṭaka asked if only one were allowed to go to heaven who should go. 'Śibi', said Nārada immediately. Even Nārada would be only next to Śibi and Nārada explained the reason thus. Once a brahmin went to Śibi for food. Śibi asked him what food he relished most and the brahmin said that he would like to have the fresh flesh of Śibi's only son, Bṛhadgarbha. Without even the slightest hesitation Śibi killed his son and cooked his flesh and when the food was ready he went out to invite the brahmin. But on going out the King saw the brahmin setting fire to his palace, treasury, armoury, stables, harem and elephant-sheds. Without even a quiver on his face, the king respectfully took the brahmin inside and gave him food. The brahmin was amazed at the patience of the King and sitting before his food for some time told the King that he would be satisfied if the King himself ate that food. Respecting the request the King was about to eat the flesh of his own son when the brahmin who was none other than Brahmā in disguise praised him for his devotion and gave him back his son adorned with sweet smelling flowers and disappeared blessing them. When his ministers questioned him about this Śibi said, "I do not give for a name or fame. Neither do I give for wealth and happiness. I do it because it is the only way to be rid of sins". (Chapter 168, Araṇya Parva, M.B.).
     2) Other details. (1) Aṣṭaka was a Rājarṣi. (Śloka 5, Chapter 86, Ādi Parva, M.B.).
     (2) Aṣṭaka gave away all the puṇya (goodness) he earned to Yayāti. See under Yayāti. (Ślokas 13 & 14, Chapter 122, Udyoga Parva, M.B.).

AṢṬAKALĀSYA This is a gesture in the Kathakali dance. In the play 'Kalyāṇasaugandhika' the character of Hanūmāna and in the play 'Kālakeyavadha' the character of Arjuna do enact this. Increasing step by step the gesture takes eight forms in combination before it is finished accompanied by background drumming and music. (Kathakali).

AṢṬAKAPĀLAM Purodāśa prepared out of eight Kapālas. (Śloka 24, Chapter 221, Śānti Parva, M.B.).

AṢṬAKARAṆA(S) Manas (mind), Buddhi (intelligence), Citta (thought), Ahaṃkāra (egotism), Saṃkalpa in the mind (imagination), determination, pride from egotism and Avadhāraṇa in Citta.

AṢṬAKAṢṬA(S) Kāma (lust), Krodha (anger), Lobha (greed), Moha (delusion), Mada (arrogance), Mātsarya (rivalry), Dambha (pride) and Asūyā (jealousy).

AṢṬAKOPAVYASANA(S) (1) Paiśunya (2) Sāhasa (3) Droha (5) Īrṣyā (5) Asūyā (6) Arthadūṣana (7) Vāgdaṇḍa and (8) Pāruṣya.

AṢṬAKUMBHA(S) Sūryabhedā, Ujjāyī, Sīlkkārī, Śītalī, Bhastikā, Bhrāmarī, Mūrcchā and Plāvinī. All these have to be practised by students of Yoga. (Mokṣapradīpam).

AṢṬALOHA(S) Eight metals.
     1. Suvarṇam     Gold.
     2. Rajatam     Silver.
     3. Tāmram     Copper.
     4. Sīsakam     Lead.
     5. Kāntikam     Mercury.
     6. Vaṃśam     Vañgam--Tiu.
     7. Lauham     Iron.
     8. Tikṣṇalauham     Steel.

AṢṬAMĀṄGALA Brahmins, bow, Fire, gold, ghee, Sun, water and King.

AṢṬAMĀṄGALYA (1) Kurava (2) Darpaṇa (3) Dīpa (4) Kalaśa (5) Vastra (6) Akṣatam (7) Aṅganā (8) Svarṇa

AṢṬAMANOGUṆA(S) (1) Paratva (2) Aparatva (3) Saṃkhyā (4) Parimāṇa (5) Pṛthakta (6) Saṃ-yoga (7) Vibhāga (8) Vega.

AṢṬAMANTRĪ(S) The eight ministers of the kings of Ikṣvāku dynasty are: (1) Jayanta (2) Drṣṭi (3) Vijaya (4) Siddhārtha (5) Arthasādhaka (6) Aśoka (7) Mantrapāla (8) Sumantra.

AṢṬAMĀRGAS Samyagdṛṣṭi, Samyaksaṅkalpa, Samyagvāk, Samyakkarma, Samyagājīva, Samyagvyāyāma, Samyaksmṛti and Samyaksamādhi. The Buddha Sannyāsins have to live according to these eight directives of life.

AṢṬĀMBĀ(S) See the sixth Khaṇḍika under Devī.

AṢṬAMĪ The third skandha of Devī Bhāgavata states that the goddess, Bhadrakālī, came into life on an Aṣṭamī day to block up the yāga of Dakṣa. That is why the day is considered to be holy and important.

AṢṬAMŪRTI(S) Earth, Water, Air, Fire, Ether, Hotā, Sun and Moon.

AṢṬANĀGA(S) Eight snakes. Vāsuki; Takṣa, Karkoṭaka, Śaṃkha, Gulika, Padma, Mahāpadma and Ananta.

AṢṬĀṄGAHṚDAYA The medical science which deals in eight separate division the treatment of the human body. (1) Śārīra (2) Bāla (3) Graha (4) Ūrddhvāṅga (5) Śalya (6) Daṃṣṭra (7) Jara and (8) Vṛṣa. Bāla--Body which has not attained maturity; Graha-External elements which damage the health of infants; Śalya--extraneous substance lodged in the body; Vṛṣa-The seminal fluid. (Directions of treatment).

AṢṬĀṄGAYOGA(S) Yama, Niyama, Āsana, Prāṇāyāma, Pratyāhāra, Dhyāna, Dhāraṇā and Samādhi.
     1) Yama. That which prevents the yogīs from doing prohibited things. Ahiṃsā, Satya, Asteya, Brahmacarya and Aparigraha are yamas.
     2) Niyama. Actions leading to Mokṣa. They are:
     (1) ŚAUCA--Cleanliness of the mind--cleaning it of such bad qualities like jealousy. (2) TAPAS--indifference (Samatvabhāva) to the pairs of opposites like pleasure and pain, heat and cold etc. (3) Svādhyāya -pursuit of the science of salvation chanting of OM. (4) SANTOṢA--remaining happy and contented. (5) ĪŚVARA-PRAṆIDHĀNA--surrendering all actions to God.
     3) Āsana. Postures of sitting firmly and comfortably. Of the many āsanas the very prominent ones are: Svastikāsana, Vīrāsana, Padmāsana, Siddhāsana, Vastrāsana, Vyāghracarmāsana, Valkalāsana, Kuśāsana, Kṛṣṇāsana, Viṣṭarāsana, Mayūrāsana and Kūrmāsana. Of these Siddhāsana is considered to be the best of the lot. This āsana strengthens the 72,000 nerves of the human system and all the yogīs prefer this to any other. "Kimanyaiḥ bahubhiḥ pīṭhaiḥ pīṭhe Siddhāsane sati" (of what use are the others when there is Siddhāsana).
     4) Prāṇāyāma. Control of Prāṇa (Prāṇa is the life giving breath and āyāma is the checking of it). Select an airy place and be seated in an ordinary āsana facing north or east after taking your early morning bath. Sit erect with your breast slightly pushed forward and your head slightly drawn back. Then complete one Prāṇāyāma doing Pūraka, Kumbhaka and Recaka. The Rudrayāmala states thus about Prāṇāyāma.
     "dakṣāṅguṣṭhena dakṣaṃ ca. ghrāṇaṃ saṃpīḍya mantravit īḍayā pūrayedvāyuṃ mātrā ṣoḍaśabhiḥ kramāt aṅguṣṭhānāmikābhyāñca dhṛtvā nāsādvayaṃ tataḥ tatastu kampayedvāyuṃ pūrakāṇāṃ caturgaṇaiḥ anāmayā tathā vāmanāsāṃ dhṛtvā tu dakṣine dvātriṃśadbhistu mātrābhir vāyurecanamācaret."
     Closing the right nostril by the thumb of the right hand and inhaling air inside through the left nostril taking 16 seconds is called Pūraka. Closing the nostrils by the thumb and ring-finger and keeping the breath for 64 seconds is called Kumbhaka. Closing the left nostril well and then exhaling through the right nostril taking 32 seconds is called Recaka. Pūrakas should be done through the same nostril through which you have done Recaka. (You must do at least ten Prāṇāyāmas at a time).
     5) Pratyāhāra. Withdrawing the mind from worldly objects and sensuous pleasures.
     6) Dhyāna. Keeping your mind fixed on the tip of your nose. Meditation.
     7) Dhāraṇa. Steadily thinking of things you should know. Concentration.
     8) Samādhi. The union of mind with God. This is a blissful superconscious state in which one perceives the identity of the individualised soul and cosmic spirit. (Yogābhyāsa).

AṢṬAPRAMĀṆAS Eight means of getting correct knowledge. Pratyakṣa, Anumāna, Upamāna, Śabda (Agama), Arthāpatti, Anupalabdhi (Abhāva) Sambhava, Aitihya.

AṢṬARĀGĀDIS Rāga, Dveṣa, Kāma, Krodha, Lobha, Moha, Mada and Mātsarya (Rāga--Desire for sensuous pleasures. Dveṣa--Desire to seek vengeance on those who have offended you. Kāma--Desire for worldly possessions. Krodha--Anger, Lobha--Miserliness. Moha--Delusion. Mada--Pride. Mātsarya--Jealousy.

AṢṬATĀRAṆĪ Eight names of Tāraṇīdevī. They are: Tārā, Ugrā, Mahogrā, Vajrā, Kālī, Sarasvatī, Kāmeśvarī and Cāmuṇḍā.

     1) Birth. The sage Uddālaka had a disciple named Khagodara (Kahodara) and a daughter named Sujāṭā. Appreciating the devotion and good conduct of his disciple, Uddālaka gave his daughter Sujātā in marriage to him. Sujātā became pregnant. When once Khagodara was reciting from the Vedas the babe in the womb of Sujātā said, "I have learnt the mantra you are chanting but the way you chant it is wrong". (The vibrations of sound created by the utterance of each word is important). Khagodara was angry and he cursed his babe in the womb thus "Since your mind seems to be crooked let your body also be of that type, with curves all over". When Sujātā delivered the child it had eight bends and light curves and so the boy was named Aṣṭāvakra, meaning one with eight bends. (Chapter 132, Vana Parva, M.B.).
     2) Father died before he was born. When Sujātā was pregnant they suffered much from poverty and at the insistence of Sujātā, Khagodara went to the King Janaka, to beg for some money. Janaka was performing a yāga then and so Khagodara had to wait. When at last he went to the royal assembly he was asked to enter into a polemical contest with Vāndīna, the court scholar and having been defeated by him was asked to drown himself.
     Uddālaka got a son named Śvetaketu and Sujātā delivered Aṣṭāvakra. Both the boys grew in the āśrama on great intimacy and Sujātā withheld the news of the death of her husband from the boys. (Chapter 132, Vana Parva, M.B.).
     3) How Khagodara was got back. One day the two boys went to bathe in the river and during a controversial talk Śvetaketu said that Aṣṭāvakra had no father. This teased him much and Aṣṭāvakra went to his mother and gathered all the facts about his father. He went, then, straight to the royal assembly of King Janaka. He was not allowed inside. The gate keeper said that he was only a boy and only learned men could go inside the sacrificial hall. Aṣṭāvakra contended that neither size nor age was any indication of one's knowledge or worth and got himself admitted into the hall. There he entered into a polemical contest with the same court scholar, Vāndīna, who had killed his father. Vāndīna was defeated and was thrown into the same river in which his father had drowned himself. The moment Vāndīna fell into the river Khagodara rose up from there and the father and son along with Śvetaketu returned to the āśrama. Khagodara then took his son for a bath and when it was over Aṣṭāvakra became a bright boy without crooks. (Chapter 133, Vana Parva, M.B.)
     4) Marriage. Aṣṭāvakra wanted to marry Suprabhā, the daughter of a sage named Vadānya. When Vadānya was approached for this the Sage decided to test the love which Aṣṭāvakra had towards his daughter and said: "I am going to test you. You go to the north to the Himālayas. Pay homage to Śiva and Pārvatī and go further north. There you will find a very beautiful damsel. You talk to her and return and when you come back I shall give you my daughter."
     Accepting this challenge Aṣṭāvakra went north. When he went to the Himālayas Kubera entertained him. He remained there for a year enjoying the dances of celestial maidens and then, after worshipping Śiva and Pārvatī went further north. There he came across seven very attractive women. At the command of Aṣṭāvakra the eldest of the lot, Uttarā, remained with him; all the rest left the place immediately she started making love with him and requested him to marry her. But Aṣṭāvakra did not yield and told her about his promise to Vadānya. Pleased at this reply Uttarā revealed that she was the queen of the north in disguise and was testing him. She then blessed Aṣṭāvakra who fulfilling his mission successfully, returned and married the girl he wanted. (Chapter 19, Anuśāsana Parva, M.B.).
     5) Another version of how the body became crooked. There is another story also about Aṣṭāvakra. Once there lived a sage named Asita. He did great penance to please Śiva to bless him with a child. Śiva blessed him and he got a son named Devala. Rambhā, the queen of devaloka, fell in love with him but Devala did not yield to her wishes. Then Rambhā cursed him and made him into one with eight crooks. Thus Devala came to be called Aṣṭāvakra. He then did penance for six thousand years and Bhagavān Kṛṣṇa accompanied by Rādhā appeared before him. Rādhā was shocked by the ugliness of the sage and did not relish his sight. But Kṛṣṇa asking her to remain quiet went and embraced him. At once Aṣṭāvakra lost all his crooks and became a beautiful man. At that time a chariot descended from heaven and all of them went to heaven in it. (Brahmavaivartta Purāṇa).
     6) Other information. (1) Aṣṭāvakra was also present among the ṛṣis who partook in the coronation ceremony conducted after Rāma's return to Ayodhyā from Laṅkā. (Uttararāmāyaṇa).
     (2) Aṣṭāvakra cursed those. celestial maidens who rebuked him for his ugliness and they were born on earth as the wives of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. When after the death of Kṛṣṇa they were being taken by Arjuna to the north they were forcibly taken by some of the shepherds. (Chapter 15, Agni Purāṇa).

AṢṬĀVAKRATĪRTHA If one observes complete fasting for twelve days doing tarpaṇa in this sacred pond it is said that he gets the benefit of doing of Naramedhayajña. (Śloka 41, Chapter 25, Anuśāsana Parva, M.B.).

AṢṬĀVAKTRA See under Aṣṭāvakra.

AṢṬAVARGA(S) Meda, Mahāmeda, Kākoli, Kṣīrakākoli, Jīvaka, Iṭavaka, Ṛddhi, Vṛddhi (These are used in infusions for treating rheumatism).

     1) Origin. Gaṇadevatās are called Aṣṭavasus. They were born to Dharmadeva of his wife Vasu, daughter of Dakṣa. They are: Dhara, Dhruva, Soma, Ahar, Anila, Anala, Pratyūṣa and Prabhāsa. (Ślokas 17 and 18, Chapter 66, Ādi Parva, M.B.). There is a version in certain purāṇas that the Aṣṭavasus are the sons of Kaśyapa.
     Different purāṇas give different names to these Aṣṭavasus. According to Viṣṇu Purāṇa they are: Āpa, Dhruva, Soma, Dharma, Anila, Anala, Pratyūṣa and Prabhāsa. (Chapter 15 of Aṃśam 1). In Bhāgavata they are Droṇa, Prāṇa, Dhruva, Arka, Agni, Doṣa,
     Vasu and Vibhāvasu. In Harivaṃśa they are: Akha, Dhara, Dhruva, Soma, Anila, Anala, Pratyūṣa and Prabhāsa. This only indicates that some of these have two or more names for them.
     2) Curse of Vasiṣṭha. Once the Aṣṭavasus were enjoying a picnic with their wives and they happened to go to the āśrama of Vasiṣṭha. One of the wives got enamoured over Nandinī, Vasiṣṭha's beautiful cow and wanted it. The Vasu to please his wife took the cow by force and left the place. When the sage found his cow missing after some time he understood by his divine powers who stole the cow and so he cursed the Aṣṭavasus saying that all of them would be born on earth as men. The Aṣṭavasus were greatly worried and approached the sage apologising and craving for pardon. The sage relaxed the curse and declared that their life on earth would be only for a very short time maintaining that the particular Vasu who committed the theft would live for a long time as man. It was this Vasu, Āpa (Dyau) who was born as Bhīṣma.
     3) Rebirth of Aṣṭavasus. The Aṣṭa vasus were pondering over the curse and were thinking of how to bear it without hardship when Gaṅgādevī appeared before them and they then appealed to her: "Devī, if you become the queen on earth of some noble King we shall be born as your sons and you must throw us into the river as soon as we are born". Gaṅgādevī accepted their request. Once there was a King called Pratīpa in the Candra dynasty. One day when this ascetic King was worshipping Sūrya on the banks of the river Gaṅgā a beautiful damsel arose from the waters and sat on the right thigh of the King. Surprised the King told her thus, "Oh beautiful maiden, who are you? Do you realise what unrighteous thing you have done? I am not one who goes after women and it was a bit daring of you to have taken me as a beau. Please understand that the right thigh is intended for a daughter and daughter-inlaw. You can claim this right when you become the wife of my son." The beautiful girl was none other than Gaṅgādevī herself and she disappeared soon on receiving the rebuke.
     Pratīpa got a son named Śantanu and Gaṅgādevī became the wife of Śantanu. (For more details about this see under Gaṅgā). When Gaṅgādevī became the wife of Śantanu she made a condition to be his queen. "Whether good or bad you should not obstruct any action of mine. You must never give me any opinion of yours on any matter. You must obey what I order. If at any time you break any of these promises I will leave you that instant."
     It was while Gaṅgādevī was living on earth as the wife of Śantanu that the Aṣṭavasus were born to her. One after the other she threw into the river seven sons but when she was about to throw the eighth the King objected to it and Gaṅgā disappeared immediately. That son was Bhīṣma, who was none other than Dyau born on earth by the curse of Vasiṣṭha. All the others, released from the curse, went to heaven. (More details under Bhīṣma).
     4) A missile to Bhīṣma. When Bhīṣma had to fight against his guru, Paraśurāma, the Aṣṭavasus gave him the missile, Prasvāpā. (See Ambā) (Ślokas 11 to 13, Chapter 183, Udyoga Parva, M.B.).
     5) Sons of Aṣṭavasus. The sons of Āpa, the first of the Vasus, are: Vaitaṇḍha, Śrama, Śānta and Dhvani. Kāla, the destroyer of all, is the son of Dhruva. Varcas is the son of Soma. Dharma got of his wife Manoharī five sons Draviṇa, Hutahavyavāha, Śiśira, Prāṇa and Varuṇa. Śivā was Anila's wife and she got two sons, Manojava and Avijñātagati. Agni's son Kumāra was born at Śarastamba. Kumāra got three brothers, Śākha, Viśākha and Naigameya. Kumāra is known as Kārttikeya because he was born of Kṛttikas. The sage, Devala is the son of Pratyūṣa. Devala got two sons of great intelligence and forbearance. Varastrī, sister of Bṛhaspati and a woman of great yogic powers and world-wide travels became the wife of Prabhāsa. She gave birth to the famous Viśvakarmaprajāpati. He was the inventor of a great many handicrafts and ornaments He became the consulting architect of the devas and ranked first in that art. The aeroplanes of the devas were designed by him. Men on earth depend on his art even now. That architect had four sons: Ajaikapāt, Ahirbudhnya, Tvaṣṭā and Rudra, the bold. The great ascetics, Viśvarūpa, Hara, Bahurūpa, Tryambaka, Aparājita, Vṛṣākapi, Śambhu, Kapardi, Raivata, Mṛgavyādha, Śarva and Kapāli were the sons of Tvaṣṭā. These are known as the twelve Rudras. Purāṇas say that there are a hundred Rudras like this. (Chapter 15, Aṃśa 1, Viṣṇu Purāṇa).

AṢṬAVIDHANĀYIKĀ(S) Eight kinds of heroines of the stage:
     (1) Svādhīnapatikā. Fit to be a counterpart in a love scene and play the role of one who is always fondled by her husband.
     (2) Vāsakasajjikā (Vāsakasajjā). Adorning herself well and waiting for her lover in a well decorated bedroom.
     (3) Virahotkaṇṭhitā. Exhausted by the sorrow of separation from her lover.
     (4) Vipralabdhā. Cheated by her lover after fixing a date and a rendezvous.
     (5) Khaṇḍitā. Angered at the arrival of the husband in the early hours of the morning with suspicion about his character.
     (6) Kalahāntaritā. Repenting after having arrogantly disobeyed her husband.
     (7) Proṣitabhartṛkā. One who has gone weak and moody thinking about her husband in a foreign place.
     (8) Abhisārikā. One who approaches her husband with great passion. (Nāṭyakrama).

AṢṬAVIDHAPRAKṚTYAVASTHĀ(S) Earth, Water, Agni, Air, Ether, Mind, Intelligence and Egotism.

AṢṬAVIDHAPRATIMĀ(S) Śilāmayī, Dhātumayī, Lohamayī, Lepyā, Lekhyā, Mṛṇmayī, Maṇimayī and Manomayī.

AṢṬAVIDHAKUṢṬHA(S) Vimarccika, Bhadru, Maṇḍala, Śukti, Siddhmaka, Kṛṣṇa, Śukla and Taruṇa. (Aṣṭāṅgahṛdaya).

AṢṬAVIVĀHA(S) Eight kinds of marriage. (1) Brāhma (2) Daiva (3) Ārṣa (4) Prājāpatya (5) Gāndharva (6) Āsura (7) Rākṣasa (8) Paiśāca. Brāhma is the one where the father gives her daughter with sacred water to a bachelor without accepting anything in return. When the father gives his daughter to the priest at the time of a yāga it is called Daiva. It is Ārṣa if the father gives the daughter and gets in return a cow or bullock. When the father gives the daughter with her blessings it is Prājāpatya. The marriage between two lovers is Gāndharva. It is Āsura when the male takes his mate by force and it is Paiśācika (most cruel and mean) when the girl is taken as his wife when she is in a state of unconsciousness.

AṢṬAYOGINĪ(S) The eight hermit-maidens who are the attendants of the goddess, Durgā. (1) Mārjjatī (2) Karpūratilakā (3) Malayagandhinī (4) Kaumudikā (5) Bheruṇḍā (6) Mātalī (7) Nāyakī (8) Jayā (Śubhācārā).

AṢṬOPĀYA(S) Eight ways of attaining salvation. Yajña, Dāna, Vedādhyayana, Tapas, Dama, Satya, Ṛjuśīla, and Mārdava. These are the qualities required for attaining salvation.

ASTĪ Daughter of Jarāsandha, King of Magadha. Kaṃsa married Astī and also another daughter of Jarāsandha. (Ślokas 29 to 32, Chapter 14, Sabhā Parva, M.B.). Chapter 12 of Agni Purāṇa states that Jarāsandha went to war with the Yādavas because of the persuasion of these daughters.

ASTRA After killing the demoness, Tāṭakā, Viśvāmitra reveals to Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa the secret of using a great many varieties of Divyāstras (Divyāstra is missile charged with power by holy incantation). Some of those astras are named below:
     1. Daṇḍacakra 2. Dharmacakra
     3. Kālacakra 4. Viṣṇucakra
     5. Indracakra 6. Vajrāstra
     7. Śaivaśūla 8. Aiṣīka
     9. Brahmaśirāstra 10. Brahmāstra
     11. Modakīśikharī 12. Dharmapāśa
     13. Kālapāśa 14. Vāruṇāstra
     15. Vāruṇapāśa 16. Paramāstra
     17. Pinākāstra 18. Nārāyaṇāstra
     19. Āgneyāstra 20. Śikharāstra
     21. Vāyavyāstra 22. Prathanāstra
     23. Krauñcāstra 24. Hayaśśirāstra
     25. Kaṅkālāstra 26. Musalāstra
     27. Kapālāstra 28. Kaṅkaṇāstra
     29. Mānavāstra 30. Prasthāpanāstra
     31. Praśamanāstra 32. Saurāstra
     33. Varṣaṇāstra 34. Śoṣaṇāstra
     35. Santāpanāstra 36. Vilāpanāstra
     37. Madanāstra 38. Mohāstra
     39. Saumanāstra 40. Saṃvartāstra
     41. Satyāstra 42. Māyādharāstra
     43. Tejaprabhāstra 44. Saumyāstra
     45. Śiśirāstra 46. Tvāṣṭāstra
     47. Sudāmanāstra Śrī Rāma received all these astras standing facing east. (Sarga 27, Bālakāṇḍa, Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa)

ASURA Those born to Kaśyapa of his wife Danu are called Dānavas and those born of his wife Diti are called Daityas. They belong to the demonaic dynasty (Refer under 'Asuravaṃśa' in the genealogy chart). Renowned among the asuras were the following:
     Prahlāda, Saṃhlāda, Anuhlāda, Śibi, Bāṣkala, Virocana, Kumbha, Nikumbha, Bali, Bāṇa, Mahākāla, Vipracitti, Śambara, Namuci, Pulomā, Viśruta, Asilomā, Keśī, Durjaya, Ayaśśiras, Aśvaśśiras, Aśva, Śaṅku, Mahābala, Garga, Mūrdhā, Vegavān, Ketumān, Svarbhānu, Aśvapati, Vṛṣaparvā, Ajaka, Aśvagrīva, Sūkṣma, Tuhūṇḍa, Ekapād, Ekacakra, Virūpākṣa, Harāhara, Candra, Kupaṭa, Kapaṭa, Para, Śarabha, Śalabha, Sūrya and Candramas.

ASURĀ One of the eight daughters born to Kaśyapa of his wife Pradhā. (Śloka 41, Chapter 65, Ādi Parva, M.B.).

AŚŪRBANIPAL (See under Gilgamis, Jalapralaya).

ASŪRTARAJASA A son born to King Kuśa of his wife Vaidarbhī. Kuśāmba, Kuśanābha, Asūrtarajasa and Vasu are the four sons of Kuśa. (Sarga 32, Bālakāṇḍa, Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa).

AŚVA I A demon. This was the same demon who later on was born as Aśoka, King of Kaliṅga. (Chapter 67, Ādi Parva, M.B.).

AŚVA II A maharṣi. The sage Vaśa is the son of this ṛṣi. (Sūkta 112 of Ṛgveda).

AŚVA (Horse). Horses and camels were born, in this world, of Tāmrā, wife of Kaśyapa, grandson of Brahmā. (Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 19).

AŚVAGHOṢA A famous Sanskrit poet. He has written many Sanskrit books prominent among which are the two great poems, Buddhacarita and Saundarananda and a drama called Śāriputraprakaraṇa. He lived in the 2nd Century A.D. His history of Buddha (Buddhacarita) was translated into Chinese during the period 414 to 421 A.D. He was known under the following names also: Ācārya, Bhadanta, Mahāvādī and Bhikṣu.

AŚVAGRĪVA Son born to the Sage, Kaśyapa by his wife, Danu. (Śloka 24, Chapter 65, Ādi Parva, M.B.).

AŚVAHṚDAYA A mantra (sacred incantation) for controlling the horse. (See under 'Akṣahṛdaya').

AŚVAKETU Son of King Gāndhāra. He fought on the side of the Kauravas and was killed in the battle by Abhimanyu. (Śloka 7, Chapter 48, Droṇa Parva, M.B.).

AŚVAKṚTA A river. Once a sage called Rcīka went to Gādhi and asked for the hand of his daughter, Satyavatī, in marriage. He demanded as dowry a thousand horses black in colour and with only one ear for each. Ṛcīka prayed to Varuṇa and he gave him the horses required. The river Aśvakṛta (created by horse) was made by the flow of urine from these horses. (Chapter 57, Brahmāṇḍa Purāṇa).

AŚVAMEDHA I A country of ancient India which was ruled by a King named Rocamān. Bhīmasena conquered him during the world-wide conquering campaign. (Śloka 8, Chapter 29, Sabhā Parva).

AŚVAMEDHA II A yāga. Kings used to conduct this in order to get absolved of all sins. Fixing a victory card on the head of a horse it is allowed to roam about freely. If anybody stops the horse and ties it, the King should go and defeat him in battle and bring back the horse. If you do a hundred such yāgas you can become Indra.*
*) Aśvamedha or horse sacrifice was performed by autocrats to establish their supreme sovereignty. For this the horse let out to roam about should go into all countries. Those who opposed the sovereignty of the King could stop the horse and tie it. Then the King had to defeat him before conducting the yāga. The vedas enjoin that the sacrificial horse should be followed by a hundred young men ready to fight those who opposed the King. Indra had conducted a hundred such yāgas.

AŚVAMEDHA Son of King Sahasrānīka (Refer under Sahasrānīka).

AŚVAMEDHADATTA Son born to Śatānīka of the princess of Videha. (Śloka 86, Chapter 95, Ādi Parva, M.B.).

AŚVAMEDHAPARVA A parva of the Mahābhārta. See under Bharata.

AŚVANADĪ A river in the country of Kuntibhoja. Aśvanadī joins Carmaṇvatī and the latter joins the Yamunā and the Yamunā joining Gaṅgā falls into the ocean. It was through this river that Kuntīdevī floated in a box the infant Karṇa. At night accompanied by her maid, Kunti floated the box containing her illegitimate son and stood on the banks of Aśvanadī weeping bitterly. Then thinking that her father would notice her absence from the palace she returned home soon. The box floated and reached the country, Campāpurī, ruled by a charioteer. (Ślokas 22 to 26, Chapter 308, Araṇya Parva, M.B.).

AŚVARATHĀ A river in the Gandhamādana valley flowing near the Āśrama of the sage Ārṣṭiṣeṇa. Many kings of the Candra dynasty used to come and stay in this āśrama. (Śloka 10, Chapter 160, Vana Parva, M.B.).

AŚVAŚAṄKU Son of Kaśyapa born of his wife Danu. (Śloka 21, Chapter 67, Ādi Parva, M.B.).

AŚVAPATI I Father of the most chaste woman, Sāvitrī. He was King of Madra. He was without children for a long period and for eighteen years he worshipped the goddess, Sāvitrī and got a maiden from Agnihotra whom he named as Sāvitrī. For more details see under Sāvitrī. (Chapter 293, Vana Parva, M.B.).

AŚVAPATI II The son born to Kaśyapa of his wife Danu. (Śloka 24, Chapter 65, Ādi Parva, M.B.).

AŚVASENA A serpent which lived in the forest of Khāṇḍava. This was the son of Takṣaka and he tried his best to escape from the fire that burnt the forest. (Śloka 5, Chapter 239, Ādi Parva, M.B.).
     Once when Arjuna and Kṛṣṇa were sitting on the banks of the river Yamunā, Agni approached them and requested them to help him burn the forest of Khāṇḍava (see under Khāṇḍavadāha). They agreed to help him and Agni started burning the forest. Indra poured rains over the fire; Arjuna created a canopy of arrows and prevented the rains from falling down. Aśvasena, son of Takṣaka tried to escape from the fire but Arjuna obstructed his way by arrows. Then Aśvasena's mother swallowed him and kept him in her stomach. Arjuna cut off her head. Seeing this Indra sent a cyclone to smash the canopy of arrows and Arjuna fell fainting. Taking the opportunity Aśvasena escaped. When Arjuna woke up from his unconscious state he found Aśvasena missing. Then Arjuna cursed him thus: "Let not you get refuge anywhere." (Chapter 226, Ādi Parva, M.B.). Aśvasena kept his grudge against Arjuna till the end. In the great battle Arjuna and Karṇa met for a fight and when Karṇa sent his Nāgāstra (serpent missile) against Arjuna, Aśvasena hid himself in that missile and burnt the beautiful headwear of Arjuna. But Karṇa did not like this foul play and refused to accept him when he came back. Enraged at this the serpent attacked Arjuna directly and was killed. Before his death he got acquainted with Kṛṣṇa. (Chapter 96, Karṇa Parva, M.B.).

AŚVAŚIRAS I A son born to Kaśyapa of Danū. (Śloka 23, Chapter 65, Ādi Parva, M.B.).

AŚVAŚIRAS II Bhagavān Hayagrīva who was teaching the Vedas at Vaihāyasakuṇḍa near Naranārāyaṇāśrama. (Śloka 3, Chapter 127, Śānti Parva, M.B.).

AŚVAŚIRASTHĀNA(M) A sacred place in ancient India. Arjuna dreams of going to Śiva with Kṛṣṇa and in that dream they visit this place also. (Chapter 80, Droṇa Parva, M.B.).

AŚVĀTAKA A country of ancient India. (Śloka 15, Chapter 51, Bhīṣma Parva, M.B.).

AŚVATARA A serpent. A sacred pond built in Prayāga also carries this name. (Śloka 76, Chapter 55, Vana Parva and Śloka 10, Chapter 35, Ādi Parva, M.B.).

AŚVATĪRTHA An ancient holy place on the banks of the river, Ganges, near Kanauj. It was at this place that the horses rose from the earth at the request of Ṛcīka Ṛṣi to Varuṇa (See under Aśvakṛta). (Śloka 17, Chapter 4, M.B.)

     1) Birth and genealogy. The semen of Bharadvāja Ṛṣi fell into the hollow of a bamboo and from there was born Droṇa. As per the instructions of his father Droṇa married Kṛpī, daughter of the sage, Śāradvata. The good-natured Kṛpī gave birth to Aśvatthāmā. (See under Droṇa for genealogy). (Chapter 130, Ādi Parva, M.B.)
     2) How he got his name. The moment he was born he made a loud hoot like Uccaiśravas and the sound resembled the braying of a horse. Immediately a voice from heaven said that the boy should be named Aśvatthāmā. The boy was, therefore, named so. (Ślokas 48 and 49, Chapter 130, M.B.).
     3) Training in archery. Aśvatthāmā took his lesson in archery from his father Droṇa. At that time Droṇa got new lessons from Paraśurāma and they were also imparted to Droṇa's disciples. When Droṇa became the preceptor of the Kauravas and Pāṇḍavas Aśvatthāmā also went with him. (Ślokas 52 to 64, Chapter 130, Ādi Parva, M.B.).
     4) Droṇa's affection for his son. Droṇa was very affectionate to his son and wanted to teach him something special in archery. So he used to instruct him during the time the other disciples went to fetch water for the āśrama. Arjuna came to know of this and he, thereafter, started bringing his quota of water quickly enough to join the special class of Droṇa. Thus Arjuna and Aśvatthāmā learned a lot more than the others in the military art. (Ślokas 17-19, Chapter 132, Ādi Parva, M.B.).
     5) The Mahābhārata Battle and Aśvatthāmā. In Sabhā Parva we find Aśvatthāmā participating in the Rājasūya of Yudhiṣṭhira. After that we meet him only at the Kurukṣetra war. Fighting on the side of the Kauravas he played a very important role in that war. He killed many veteran warriors and kings including the following: Nīla, Añjanaparvā, Suratha, Śatruñjaya, Balānīka, Jayānīka, Jayāśva, Srutāśva, Hemamālī, Vṛṣadhara, Candrasena, the ten sons of Kuntibhoja, Sudarśana, Vṛddhakṣetra, Cedirāja, Malayadhvaja and Suratha. He defeated many including Śikhaṇḍī, Abhimanyu, Virāṭa, Sātyaki and Vindhya. By using Āgneyāstra (the arrow of fire) he made Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna fall fainting in the battle-field. He commanded the Kaurava army once. He killed many Pāñcālas and Somakas while they were sleeping. In Chapter 139 of Droṇa Parva we read about Arjuna defeating Aśvatthāmā in a single combat one day.
     6) Aśvatthāmā sees a ghost. Dhṛṣṭadyumna, son of King Pāñcāla, killed Droṇa. When Aśvatthāmā heard of his father's death his rage knew no bound. He immediately went to the heart of the military camp of the Pāṇḍavas, Kṛpa and Sātvata following him. There at the gate of the camp he beheld a ghostly apparition. It is described in the Bhāṣā Bhārata (Malayālam version of M.B.) as follows: He saw a huge figure standing at the door with a body blazing like the Sun and the Moon. Bathed in blood and wearing a tiger's skin in the loins the figure wore a snake as his sacred thread and covered his upper body with a deer-skin. There were innumerable hands for this ghost and in each hand adorned with snake-bangles he held a deadly weapon. With crooked teeth and a ghastly face the goblin gave a shiver to those who saw him. Flames bursting forth from his eyes, ears, nose and mouth he barred the way of Aśvatthāmā. Undaunted the son of Droṇa showered divine arrows on the figure. But the ghost by his supreme powers absorbed the arrows to his body the moment they touched him. In despair Aśvatthāmā meditated on Śiva and the latter appearing before him in person gave him a divine dagger. With that he entered the bed-chamber of Dhṛṣṭadyumna, woke him up by striking him with his foot, caught hold of him by the hair on his head and killed him.
     7) Aśvatthāmā and his jewel. The anger of Aśyatthāmā did not abate even after killing Dhṛṣṭadyumna, the butcher of his father. With a view to destroying the whole Pāṇḍava dynasty he sent against the Pāṇḍavas the all-powerful Brahmaśirāstra (a missile charged with great power by a holy incantation). But Droṇa had given the same type of missile to Arjuna also and so he sent forth his to meet the other. It created such a great explosion that all the elders on both the sides joined together and requested them to withdraw the missiles. Arjuna demanded the jewel on Aśvatthāmā's head to withdraw his missile. But Aśvatthāmā refused to part with it. He said, "This jewel of mine is more valuable than all the wealth of both Pāṇḍavas and Kauravas put together. If you wear this you need not be afraid of your enemies, disease, hunger and thirst. No harm will come to you from Yakṣas, Nāgas or thieves. I will never part with such a jewel". (Ślokas 28-30, M.B., Chapter 15, Sautika Parva). After great persuasion Aśvatthāmā surrendered his jewel but without withdrawing the missile directed it towards the womb of Uttarā who was bearing a child then. We are reminded of an incident which happened when the Pāṇḍavas were residing in Upaplāvya; a poor brahmin looking at Uttarā said, "When the Kauravas will be weakening in power a child will be born to you. The boy will have to bear a test even while in the womb and so you must name the child Parīkṣit (One who has been tested)".
     When the powerful missile was flying straight towards Uttarā's womb Śrī Kṛṣṇa said, "Even though the child in the womb will die of this arrow it will be reborn. Oh, Aśvatthāmā, you will be denounced by all as a sinner for killing this unborn babe. To suffer for this evil deed you will roam about in the earth for three thousand years. Nobody will associate with you; you will be shunned by society. You will be tormented by all diseases on earth. But the babe which you have now killed will be a famous scholar and brave King. He will rule this country for sixty years. He will be known as the next Kururāja. Look, I am giving life to the babe you have killed". Vyāsa supported Kṛṣṇa, and Aśvatthāmā repenting on his hasty action gave the jewel to the Pāṇḍavas and left for the forest with Vyāsa. (Sautika Parva, M.B.).
     8) Synonyms of Aśvatthāmā. The Mahābhārata has used the following names also for Aśvatthāmā. Ācāryanandana, Ācāryaputra, Ācāryasuta, Ācāryatanaya, Ācāryasattama, Drauṇi, Drauṇāyani, Droṇaputra, Droṇasūnu, Guruputra, Gurusuta and Bhāratācāryaputra.

AŚVATTHĀMĀ II Indravarmā, King of Mālava, had an elephant of this name and it was killed in the battle by Bhīmasena. (Śloka 15, Chapter 190, Droṇa Parva, M.B.).

AŚVAVATĪ A river. It is believed that if one just thinks about it at daybreak, midday and sunset one will get salvation. (M.B., Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 165, Śloka 25).

AŚVAVĀN The first child of King Kuru. (See under genealogy of Kuru). His mother was Vāhinī. He is known as Avikṣit also. He got eight sons: Parīkṣit, Śabalāśva, Ādirāja, Virāja, Śālmali, Uccaiḥśravas, Bhayaṅkara and Jitāri. (Ślokas 50 to 53, Chapter 94, Ādi Parva, M.B.)

AŚVINĪKUMĀRA(S) (AŚVINĪDEVAS) Satya and Dasra, the two sons of Sūrya (The Sun) are called Aśvianīkumāras. (Ślokas 17 and 18, Chapter 150, Anuśāsana Parva, M.B.). They are also known as Aśvins, and Aśvinīdevas. These two are the physicians of the devas. (Śloka 12, Chapter 123, Araṇya Parva, M.B).
     1) Genealogy. Descending from Viṣṇu in order are: Brahmā, Marīci, Kaśyapa, Vivasvān (the Sun), Aśvinīkumāras.
     2) Birth. The Viṣṇu Purāṇa describes the birth thus: "Saṃjñā, daughter of Viśvakarmā, was the wife of Sūrya. She got three children: Manu, Yama and Yamī. Once finding the effulgence of Sūrya unbearable she engaged Chāyā to look after Sūrya and left for the forests to do penance there. Sūrya took Chāyā to be Saṃjñā and got three children of her: Śanaiścara, (another) Manu and Tapatī. Once Chāyā got angry and cursed Yama. It was then that Sūrya and Yama came to know that she was not Saṃjñā, getting more details from Chāyā, Sūrya found out by his Jñānadṛṣṭi (a power of sight developed by Yoga by which one could see things far beyond the limits of his vision) that Saṃjñā was practising austerities taking the form of a mare. Then Sūrya went to her disguised as a horse and with her co-operation produced three children of which the first two became known as Aśvinīkumāras. The third son was called Revanta. Then Sūrya took Saṃjñā to his place (Chapter 2, Aṃśa 3, Viṣṇu Purāṇa). Śloka 35 of Chapter 66 of Ādi Parva states that Aśvinīkumāras were born from the nose of Saṃjñā.
     3) How Aśvinīkumāras tested Sukanyā. The Devī Bhāgavata contains a story of how the Aśvinīkumāras tested the fidelity of Sukanyā, daughter of Śaryāti and made her old and senile husband into a young and virile one. Śaryāti, son of Vaivasvata manu, had four thousand beautiful princesses as wives. But none had any children. When they were lamenting over this misfortune one of the wives gave birth to a girl and she was called Sukanyā. The father and all his wives together brought up this daughter with great affection.
     In the neighbourhood of the palace of Śaryāti there was a tapovana as good and grand as Nandanavana and it contained a lake similar to the Mānasa lake. In one corner of this tapovana a sage named Cyavana was doing penance. He had been sitting there for so long a period without food meditating on a goddess that he was covered with plants and shrubs had grown over him. He was unaware of the growth around him. Once at this time Śaryāti with his wives and child and followed by a large retinue entered the tapovana for recreation. The King and his wives entered the lake and Sukanyā with her friends moved about in the garden plucking flowers and playing. Moving about thus aimlessly Sukanyā and party reached the place where Cyavana was doing penance. She saw the huge shrubby growth and while looking at it saw two gleaming points inside the shrubby heap. She was about to break open the thing when from inside she heard somebody addressing her thus: "Oh, innocent girl, why do you think of doing this mischief. Please do go your way. I am an ascetic. What wrong have I done to you for you to disturb me like this?" But Sukanyā brought up as she was, as a very pet girl did not like anybody advising her like this and so taking a pointed stick gave two pricks at the site of the gleampoints and left the place arrogantly.
     The gleam-points were the eyes of Cyavana and so he lost his eyes and suffered much from the pain. Though he felt angry he did not curse anybody. But slowly the country began to witness the evil effects of this cruel deed. People stopped passing urine or faeces. Even animals were affected. The King and his ministers were worried. People came on deputation to the King to describe the disaster that had gripped the state. The King began to doubt that somebody must have done some great injury to the sage, Cyavana. He started enquiries asking his subjects one by one about this. But everybody replied in the negative. He bribed, he threatened. The result was the same. Then one day while the King and his courtiers were sitting despondent Sukanyā approached her father and confessed what she had done. She said: "While I was playing with my friends in the tapovana I saw this huge shrub-heap and two points gleaming from inside. I took a pin-stick and pricked them both and on drawing it out I found it wet also. But I left the matter there and never made any enquiries thereafter". Śaryāti now knew the cause of this national disaster and so immediately rushed to the sage for forgiveness. Prostrating before the ṛṣi the King pleaded "Oh, best of ṛṣis, forgive us for this injury done unknowingly. My daughter who is only an innocent child did this playfully while she was playing in this garden with her friends. She never knew what she pricked for a fun were your eyes. Oh, the best of sage, thou art rich in forgiveness and so please do condone this mischief and bless us." Cyavana replied that he would forgive if he gave Sukanyā in marriage to him. Śaryāti was depressed. How could he give his only and beautiful daughter to this aged senile ugly and blind ṛṣi? While the King was thus pondering over this, Sukanyā herself came to him and said, "Oh, dear father, please do not worry on my account. I shall go as his wife. If he is satisfied the nation would be saved from a calamity and I am prepared to sacrifice my happiness for the sake of the country. I will be only too glad to do so." With suppressed unwillingness the King gave his daughter in marriage to Cyavana.
     Sukanyā after her marriage engaged herself fully in the service of looking after the welfare of her husband. She gave her husband healthy and tasty fruits and vegetables, bathed him daily in hot water, placed before him all the materials for his pūjā and when the time came for his meals gave him his food sitting by his side. After the meals she gave him tāmbūla and only after putting him on a bed would she go to attend to her own affairs. After finishing her meals she would come again to her husband and sit by his side massaging him. In the evening she would make ready all the things required for the pūjā and after the pūjā feed him with nourishing food. Whatever remained after his feed would be taken by her. At night she would be at the foot of her husband and take a nap. In the morning she would attend to all the details of the ablutions of her husband. Thus Sukanyā lived true to her husband always anxious to please him. Then one day the Aśvinīkumāras saw her going to the āśrama after her bath. They were very much attracted by the stunning beauty of the maiden that they approached her and asked: "Oh, beautiful maiden, who are you? We are Aśvinīkumāras. You seem to be alone. How did you happen to come to this place? You are one who should always move about with friends and courtiers and what is the reason for your living like this?" Sukanyā replied, "Revered Devas, I am the daughter of Śaryāti and wife of Cyavana. Forced by certain circumstances my father gave me in marriage to this sage who is very old and blind. He is living in the āśrama nearby. I am living with him looking after his comfort. If you think it convenient you can come and accept our hospitality." Hearing this the Aśvinīkumāras told her thus: "Sweet girl, you are fit to be the wife of one who is better than this blind old ascetic. So please do accept one of us as your husband". Sukanyā did not relish this talk and threatening them that if they did not withdraw stopping such blabbering she would curse them to ashes. The Aśvinīdevas were a bit surprised and also frightened at the attitude of Sukanyā. "Oh, Princess, we are immensely pleased at your sense of righteousness and chastity and you can ask of us a boon. We are physicians of the devas and can give your husband his sight and can also make him young and virile. But there is a condition for this. As soon as your husband becomes young and handsome we will also become like him and then you can select one among us. Are you willing? If so we will make your husband charming and handsome at this instant.
     Sukanyā was well pleased with this offer but the condition placed did not satisfy her. So she ran to the āśrama and told her husband thus: "Lord, I met the Aśvinīdevas on my way from the river after my bath and enamoured of my beauty they have made this offer. We will make your husband young and beautiful giving him back his eyesight and then we will change ourselves to resemble him. You have then to select one of us as your husband. I am not able to understand their cunning and so I have come to you to get from you the answer for their question. I am anxious to see you young and handsome with your eyesight regained. I shall do as you direct."
     Cyavana said: "There is nothing in this for great thinking. You go and tell them that you would do as they wish and bring them down here. On hearing this Sukanyā went to the Aśvinīkumāras and took them to the āśrama. They asked Cyavana to take a dip in the lake nearby and as he entered the lake the Aśvinīdevas also entered it and took a dip in its waters along with Cyavana. Lo! As they rose from the waters all the three became young and handsome looking alike. The Aśvinīdevas then requested Sukanyā to select one among them. Sukanyā was in a fix and she prayed to her goddess to give her power to identify her husband. She was blessed with that power and she selected Cyavana from the lot at which the Aśvinīdevas were also pleased. (Seventh Skandha, Devī Bhāgavata).
     4) Cyavana's gratitude. Cyavana who got back his eyesight and youth asked the Aśvinīkumāras what boon they wanted. They then told him thus: "We are the physicians of the devas. Devendra has unnecessarily put a ban on our drinking Soma (juice extracted from the creeper Soma). When Brahmā performed a yāga at Mahāmeru this leader of the devas did not allow us to take a soma drink. If you are capable of doing it you should get us the right to take this celestial drink." Cyavana promised to do that.
     Before long, King Śaryāti and his wife came to the āśrama to enquire about the welfare of their daughter. To their great amazement they found a young and handsome ascetic at the āśrama and were a bit suspicious of the character of their daughter. But soon all doubts were cleared and they were immensely pleased. Cyavana then told the King the request of the Aśvinīdevas and Śaryāti also promised his help on this matter.
     On their return to their palace Śaryāti decided to perform a big yāga to which all the devas were also invited. Cyavana officiated as priest. The Aśvinīdevas were also present quite to the dislike of Indra. The time came for distributing soma, and when Cyavana called the Aśvinīkumāras to take their share Indra objected saying that since they were physicians of the devas they could not be given that drink. Cyavana argued against that and after a great verbal combat Cyavana succeeded in making the Aśvinīkumāras take the drink. For more details look under 'Cyavana'. (Seventh Skandha, Devī Bhāgavata).
     5) Other information regarding Aśvinīkumāras.
     (1) How they tested Upamanyu. This story is given under the word Āpodadhaumya.
     (2) Birth of Nakula and Sahadeva. Kuntī, wife of Pāṇḍu, had obtained from Sage Durvāsas five sacred mantras, the chanting of each of which would give her a child.
     Even before her marriage Kuntī tested the power of the mantras by chanting one of them. Sūrya appeared and she had to take a son from him who became the famous Karṇa later. By chanting the second, third and fourth meditating on Yama, Vāyu and Indra, Kuntī got respectively the sons Dharmaputra, Bhīma and Arjuna. The fifth mantra she gave to Mādrī and she meditated on the Aśvinīdevas and got Nakula and Sahadeva.
     (3) The Aśvinīdevas were present for the marriage of Pāñcālī. (Śloka 6, Chapter 186, Ādi Parva, M.B.). During the burning of the forest Khāṇḍava the Aśvinīdevas stood on the side of Arjuna.
     (4) King Yuvanāśva became pregnant and bore a child. It was the Aśvinīdevas who took the child out by surgery. The boy became known as Māndhātā later. (Śloka 3, Chapter 62, Droṇa Parva, M.B.).
     (5) During the Mahābhārata battle the Aśvinīdevas handed over some Pārṣadas to the god, Skanda. (Śloka 38, Chapter 43, Śalya Parva, M.B.).
     (6) The Aśvinīdevas like very much oblations of Ghee. The others who like it are Bṛhaspati, Pūṣan, Bhaga and Pāvaka. (Śloka 7, Chapter 65, Anuśāsana Parva, M.B.).
     (7) The month of Āśvina (October-November) is the month of Aśvinīkumāras and if a man gives ghee to the Brahmins freely in that month he will acquire more physical beauty. (Śloka 10, Chapter 65, Anuśāsana Parva, M.B.).
     (8) One who offers Ghee as oblation to the fire for twelve months in succession will reach the country of the Aśvinīkumāras. (Śloka 95, Chapter 107, Anuśāsana Parva, M.B.).
     (9) The great poet of Kerala, Vallathol, in his commentary on the 93rd Sūkta of the Ṛgveda states that there is a belief that the Aśvins and Candrasūryas (the Sun and Moon) are one and the same.
     (10) Dīrghaśravas son of Dīrghatamas once prayed to the Aśvinīdevas to get rains and it is said that they gave a downpour of sweet water. (Ṛgveda, Sūkta 112, Ṛk 11).
     (11) Once a sage named Gotama was lost in a desert and craved bitterly for drinking water. He prayed to the Aśvinīdevas for water and they dug a well itself in the desert and quenched the thirst of the sage. (Ṛk 9, Sūkta 16, Ṛgveda).
     (12) The sage Dadhyañc taught the Aśvinīdevas the technique, Madhuvidyā. There is an interesting story about it. It was Indra who taught this to Dadhyañc and while teaching him he had threatened that if he gave away that secret to anybody else his head would be cut off. Aśvinīdevas found a way to tide over this difficulty. They at first cut off his head and fixed the head of a horse on him. It was with the head of a horse that Dadhyañc taught them Madhuvidyā and as soon as the teaching was over his horse-head was cut off and the real head placed in its place. (Ṛk 22, Sūkta 116, Ṛgveda).
     (13) The vehicle of the Aśvinīdevas is a donkey. Once this donkey in the disguise of a wolf went and stayed with Ṛjrāśva, son of the Rājaṛṣi Vṛṣāgīr. Ṛjrāśva gave the wolf to eat hundred goats belonging to the people of the place. Vṛṣāgīr got angry at this act of his son and cursed him. The son became blind and he got back his eyesight by pleasing the Aśvinīdevas by prayer and offerings. (Ṛk 16, Sūkta 115, Ṛgveda).
     (14) Once Suryā decided to give his daughter in marriage to the owner of the horse which would win a horse-race which Suryā would conduct. In the race the horse of the Aśvinīdevas won and they thus married Sūryā's daughter. (Ṛk 17, Sūkta 117, Ṛgveda).
     (15) The Aśvinīkumāras killed an asura of name Viṣvak and destroyed his dynasty also. (Ṛk 16, Sūkta 117, Ṛgveda).

AŚVINĪKUMĀRATĪRTHA It is believed that the physical beauty of man would be increased if he bathes in this lake. (Śloka 17, Chapter 83, Vana Parva, M.B.).

AŚVINĪSUTA A son born to Sūrya of the wife of Sutapas. There is this story about it in Brahmavaivarta Purāṇa. Once when the wife of Sutapas was on a pilgrimage Sūrya happened to see her. The beautiful and venerable lady refused to accede to the desire of Sūrya and so the latter used force and took her. They had a son who was named Aśvinīsuta. On her return after the pilgrimage with her son she explained all that happened and the sage sent both of them out. Sūrya taught his son Aśvinīsuta astrology and made him a master in that science. Knowing that, Sutapas cursed him and said he would turn to be one very diseased. Later the sage amended his curse and added that he would be free from disease if he worshipped the sun.

ASVINĪTĪRTHA Promises bodily splendour if one takes a bath in this lake. (Śloka 21, Chapter 25, Anuśāsana Parva, M.B.).

ATALA This is one of the seven sections of Pātāla. The seven sections are: Atala, Vitala, Sutala, Talātala, Mahātala, Rasātala, Pātāla. Of them Atala has been described as follows: Atala is the first world of Pātāla. There reigns Bala, the son of Maya who is the famous but haughty magician. He has created 96 Mayas who are capable of granting all kinds of desires. Even now certain persons who are interested in the practice of Black magic, learn some of these 96 arts and practise them. When this mighty fellow opens his mouth for yawning, three groups of women known as Puṃścalīs, Svairiṇīs and Kāminīs emerge from his mouth. He has with him a rasāyana called hāṭaka with which he can eaisly entice and seduce all who enter Atala and to strengthen them for satisfying his lust. After enticing them with it, he enjoys uncontrolled pleasure with them, showering on them his amorous glances, bewitching smiles and embraces. (Devī Bhāgavata, Aṣṭama Skandha).

AṬAVĪŚIKHARA Name of a village in ancient India. (M.B., Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 48).

ATHARVA(M) Among the Vedas, this has the fourth place. It comprises different kinds of incantations of occult powers for the destruction of enemies. Atharvan the son of Vasiṣṭha was the author of this Veda. In Chapter 6 of the third section of Viṣṇu Purāṇa the following reference is made to Atharvaveda: "Sumantu Maharṣi who was of infinite glory, first taught this Atharvaveda to his disciple Kabandha. (Sumantu Maharṣi was the son of Jaimini, who was the disciple of Vedavyāsa). Kabandha divided Atharvaveda into two parts and communicated them to two Maharṣis named Devadarśa and Pathya. Devadarśa's disciples were: Medhā, Brahmabali, Śautkāyani and Pippalāda. Pathya had three disciples named Jābāli, Kumudādi and Śaunaka. They also made Atharvaveda compilations. Śaunaka divided his compilation into two and gave one part to Babhru and the other to Saindhava. Muñjikeśa learnt it from Saindhava and divided the compilation first into two and later into three parts. The five divisions of the Atharvaveda--Nakṣatrakalpa, Vedakalpa, Saṃhitākalpa, Āṅgirasakalpa and Śāntikalpa, were made by Muñjikeśa. Nakṣatrakalpa contains Brahma's works: Saṃhitākalpa contains Mantra Vidhi; Āngirasakalpa contains ābhicāra and Śāntikalpa contains taming of horses, elephants etc.
     The mantras (incantations) in Atharvaveda and their uses are given below:--
     Mantras     Uses
     1. Suparṇastava     Getting rid of serpents and snakepoison (Sarpa-bādhā-nivāraṇam).
     2. Indreṇadatta     Fulfilment of all desires (Sarvakāma-siddhi).
     3. Imā Devī     Attainment of peace (Sarvaśānti-karma).
     5. Yamasyālokāt     Prevention of bad dreams (Duḥ svapna-śamana).
     6. Indraścandraśca pañcavaṇija     Prosperity in commerce and business (Vāṇijya-lābha).
     7. Kāmojevāji     Enjoyment of women (Strīsaubhāgyam).
     8. Tubhyamevajavīma     Equal to thousand sacrifices (Ayuta-homa-tulyam).
     9. Agnegobhinna     Strengthening of the intellect (Buddhi-vṛddhi).
     10. Dhṛuvaṃdhṛuveṇa     Attainment of posts of honour (Sthāna-lābha)
     11. Alaktajīva-     Profit from agriculture (Kṛṣilābha).
     12. Ahan te bhagna     Prosperity in general.
     13. Ye me pāśā     Freedom from imprisonment (bandhana-vimukti).
     14. Śapatvaha     Destruction of enemies (Śatrunāśam).
     15. Tvamuttama     Enhancement of fame (yaśovṛddhi).
     16. Yathāmṛgavati     Enjoyment of women (Strī saubhāgyam).
     17. Yenapehadiśa     Birth of children (Grabha-lābha).
     18. Ayante yoniḥ     Getting sons (Putra-lābha).
     19. Śivaśivābhiḥ     Prosperity in general (Saubhāgyavṛddhi).
     20. Bṛhaspatirnaḥ pari pātu     Blessings (Mārga-maṅgala).
     21. Muñcāvitva     Warding off death (Mṛtyunivāraṇa).
     When these mantras are chanted several oblations are made to the sacrificial fire. Substances like Camatā, ghee, rice, milk are thrown into the fire as offerings. (Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 262).

ATHARVĀ I This muni is referred to in Mahābhārata, Udyoga Parva, Chapter 43, Verse 50, as a professional chanter of Chandaveda. Once under the curse of Bhṛgu Maharṣi, Agni hid himself under the sea. (See "AGNI"). At that time, it was Atharvā who, at the suggestion of the Devas, went under the water and discovered Agni. (M.B., Vana Parva, Chapter 222, Verse 8).
     Atharvā recovered Agni, and re-created the worlds which were lying dormant owing to the absence of fire. (M.B., Vana Parva, Chapter 222, Verse 19).
     Atharvā was born from Brahmā's face. His wife was Śānti, the daughter of Kardama. Citti was another name for Śānti. But there are some Purāṇas which refer to Citti as another wife of Atharvā. Also, there are Purāṇas which say that Atharvā was Aṅgiras himself.

ATHARVĀ II This name has been used as a synonym of Śiva. (M.B., Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 17, Verse 91).

ATHARVĀ III In Ṛgveda another Atharvā may be seen. It is said that he was the author of the Atharvaveda. After learning Brahmavidyā from Brahmā, it was this Atharvā who first brought fire to the earth from heaven. Atharvā had two wives named Śānti and Citti. This Atharvā was the same person as Atharvaṇa, the son of Vasiṣṭha. (Bhāgavata, 4th Skandha, Chapter 1).


ATHARVAṆA A son of Vasiṣṭha. (Bhāgavata, Fourth Skandha, Verse 42).

AṬHIDA(M) Name of a Janasthāna (Town) in ancient India. (M.B., Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 64).

ATIBĀHU He was a Gandharva born to Kaśyapa by his wife Pradhā. He had three brothers: Hāhā, Hūhū and Tumburu. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 65, Verse 51).

ATIBALA A mantra. Viśvāmitra who took the boys Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa to the forest taught them two mantras, Bala and Atibala, to liberate them from hunger and thirst. Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Bālakāṇḍa, Sarga 22)

ATIBALA I The Maharṣi Atibala was the cause of the death of Śrī Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa.
     After the war with Rāvaṇa, Śrī Rāma returned to Ayodhyā with his retinue and began his reign. After renouncing Sītā while Śrī Rāma was living in the palace with Lakṣmaṇa, Śatrughna and their families, one day Brahmā summoned Yama and said: "Śrī Rāma is the incarnation of Mahāviṣṇu. He has fulfilled all the purposes of the incarnation. Now Viṣṇu has to be recalled to Vaikuṇṭha".
     On hearing this, Yama assuming the guise of a Sannyāsi named Atibala appeared before Śrī Rāma. He said he had to tell a secret to Śrī Rāma. Accordingly Śrī Rāma sent everyone else out of the audience chamber. Lakṣmaṇa was asked to guard the entrance. It was announced that if anyone entered the hall, Lakṣmaṇa would be killed.
     At this stage, Maharṣi Durvāsas arrived at the entrance accompanied by many of his disciples. He had come after having performed penance for a thousand years and in great hunger and thirst. He wanted to see the King to ask for sumptuous food. Lakṣmaṇa requested him to wait a little but Durvāsas refused to do so. He even threatened that he would reduce all of them to ashes by his curse. Finding no alternative, Lakṣmaṇa entered the hall and informed Śrī Rāma of the situation. Durvāsas was given a sumptuous meal. But for the fulfilment of the condition Lakṣmaṇa's death became necessary. Śrī Rāma cried with a broken heart. The honest Lakṣmaṇa went alone to the Sarayū river and drowned himself in its depths. Soon after, Śrī Rāma entrusting the affairs of the state to others and in the presence of thousands of spectators plunged into the Sarayū river and renouncing his earthly life, returned to Vaikuṇṭha. (Uttara Rāmāyaṇa).

ATIBALA II The name of a follower given to Skanda by god Vāyu on the battle-field. (M.B., Śalya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 44).

ATIBALA III There was another King named Atibala who was a great scholar in Nītiśāstra. From the tine of his accession to the throne, he began to lead a vicious life. This Atibala's father was a King named Anaṅga. (M.B., Śānti Parva, Chapter 59, Verse 92).

ATIBHĪMA One of the sons of the Agni, Tapa. (M.B., Vana Parva, Chapter 220, Verse 11).

ATIKĀYA One of the sons of Rāvaṇa.
     1) Previous Birth. This is a story concerning the initial stage of the creation of the Universe. After completing the task of creation Brahmā, in his pride fell into a sleep. In order to slight Brahmā a little, Mahāviṣṇu produced two Rākṣasas called Madhu and Kaiṭabha from his ears. Hearing their terrible roar Brahmā woke up in fear and fled to Mahāviṣṇu seeking refuge. Viṣṇu called Madhu and Kaiṭabha and asked them what boon they would like to ask. They proudly replied that they would grant a boon to Viṣṇu. In that case Mahāviṣṇu wanted them to grant him leave to kill them. They answered: "We will not break our promise about granting the boon. But since our passion for fighting has not been abated, you must fulfil our eager desire." Mahāviṣṇu said: "I agree. But let my boon be carried out first. After that I shall see that your wish is properly fulfilled. After your death, one of you will be reborn under the name of Khara and the other under the name of Atikāya. In the Tretāyuga I shall kill Khara in single combat after allaying his passion for fighting. Lakṣmaṇa who is the incarnation of Ananta will fight with Atikāya to his full satisfaction and kill him. Thus both of you will get Virakti and Mukti."
     After saying this, Mahāviṣṇu made the two asuras stand on each of his thighs and killed them with his Sudarśana Cakra. They were born again as Khara and Atikāya. (Kamba Rāmāyaṇa, Yuddha Kāṇḍa).
     2) Birth. There is a story about the birth of Atikāya in the Yuddha Kāṇḍa of Kamba Rāmāyaṇa: After his victory over Kubera Rāvaṇa was returning in his Puṣpaka Vimāna. On his way he saw some beautiful Gandharva women playing in the valley of Mayūragiri. Their leader was Citrāṅgī, the wife of Citrāṅgada. Rāvaṇa seduced her and had a secret union with her. At once she became pregnant and gave birth to a dazzlingly bright baby. The mother handed over the child to Rāvaṇa and returned to the world of the Gandharvas. Rāvaṇa, in his paternal love, took the child into the Vimāna and proceeded. On the way, the Vimāna knocked against a mountain peak and the baby was thrown overboard and fell in the forest. Rāvaṇa stopped the Vimāna and made a search for the baby in the forest. He found the child without the slightest injury, smiling and lying on a flat rock in the deep woods. He failed in his attempt to take it up even though he used ten of his hands. The child began to grow steadily in size. Then he tried again to lift the baby up using all his twenty arms. The boy, who had by this time grown into enormous size, suddenly sprang up and getting into the Vimāna took his seat in it. Rāvaṇa gave him the name Atikāya. On his arrival in Laṅkā, he presented him as adopted son to the barren Dhanyamālā. Atikāya was brought up by Dhanyamālā.
     3) The Boons. Atikāya went to Gokarṇa and did penance to please Brahmā. Brahmā appeared, but being fully absorbed in Samādhi, Atikāya was not aware of his presence. Even his life-breath had been stopped. Brahmā, by his power, instilled life-breath into him and restored him to consciousness. He granted Atikāya all the boons he asked for. They were three in number. The first was the gift of Brahmāstra which could smash anyone. The second was the gift of an armour which was unassailable by anyone. The third was absence of thirst, desire and other cravings.
     4) Education. Atikāya went to Kailāsa and received his education from Śiva. He learnt all the sciences, Arts, Śruti, Smṛti etc. from there. On the completion of his course he asked what Gurudakṣiṇā he should pay. Śiva made him promise that he would never practise Black magic. Pleased with him, Śiva awarded him the Pāśupatāstra.
     5) Victory in Battle. Atikāya had an uncle, a Rākṣasa named Candra. Once he was defeated by Indra. It was at this time of chagrin that he came to know that Atikāya had reached Laṅkā with the Pāśupatāstra. Candra Rākṣasa ordered Atikāya to bring Indra as a captive. Atikāya went to Svarga (Heaven) and began a war with Indra. Mahāviṣṇu who came to help Indra used his Sudarśana cakra. Atikāya shot his Pāśupatāstra. Knowing Atikāya's history well, Mahāviṣṇu brought the battle to a close. Both parties accepted the position that Devendra had lost the battle and Atikāya had won.
     6) Death. In the Rāmāyaṇa battle Atikāya fought on the side of Rāvaṇa. After a most terrible conflict, Lakṣmaṇa killed Atikāya. (Kamba Rāmāyaṇa, Yuddha Kāṇḍa).

ATILOMĀ An Asura who was killed by Śrī Kṛṣṇa. (M.B. Sabhā Parva, Chapter 38).

ATIMANYU He was one of the ten sons of Manu.

ATIRATHA There was a King named Matināra in Pūruvaṃśa. (See PŪRUVAṂŚA). Four sons were born to him: Taṃsu, Mahān, Atiratha and Druhyu. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 94, Verse 14).

ATIRĀTRA He was one of the ten children born to Manu by Naḍvalā. (See MANU VAṂŚA). Kuru, Pūru, Śatadyumna, Tapasvī, Satyavān, Śuci, Agniṣṭoma, Atirātra, Sudyumna and Atimanyu were the names of the ten brilliant sons of Naḍvalā. (Viṣṇu Purāṇa, Part I, Chapter 13).

ATIṢAṆḌA After his death Balabhadra Rāma went to Pātāla in the guise of Ananta. All the serpents worshipped him. Among them was a serpent named Atiṣaṇḍa. (M.B., Mausala Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 16).

ATIŚṚṄGA Vindhya Presented two pārṣadas to Skanda on the battlefield. They were Atiśṛṅga and Ucchṛṅga. (M.B., Śalya Parva, Chapter 45, Verses 49, 50).

ATISTHIRA Mahāmeru presented two Pārṣadas named Atisthira and Sthira to Skanda on the battlefield. (M.B., Śalya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 48).

ATITHI (guest). In ancient Bhārata Atithi-satkāra (hospitality to a guest) was considered as a yajña. In Manusmṛti, Chapter 100, Verse 3, it is said that even if one lives on the scattered grains in the fields after harvest, and even if penance is offered in the midst of Pañcāgni (five fires) unless the Brahmin who comes as a guest is fed, all virtuous deeds would be useless. Besides, Manu has made the following remarks about the Atithi (guest).
     "A new visitor at night must be treated as an Atithi. An Atithi is one who comes occasionally, not daily. But one who lives in your village and goes about as a vagabond for a living, does not deserve to be treated as an Atithi. The guest who comes either before or after mealtime should not be sent away without being fed. Even a Vaiśya or Śūdra who comes as a guest to a Brahmin's house has to be given food when the servants are given food."

ATITHIGVA He was a King referred to in the Ṛgveda. He had another name, "Divodāsa". This King had fought several battles against Asuras with the help of Indra. It is said that once, being afraid of the Asuras, he tried to hide himself under the water. (Ṛgveda, Maṇḍala 1, Anuvāka 10, Sūkta 53; Ṛgveda, Maṇḍala 1, Anuvāka 16, Sūkta 112).

ATIVARCAS Himavān gave Skanda two Pārṣadas on the battlefield. They were Ativarcas and Suvarcas. (M.B., Śalya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 46).

ATIYAMA God Varuṇa gave Skanda on the battlefield two Pārṣadas (attendant soldiers). One of them was Yama and the other was Atiyama. (M.B., Śalya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 45).

     1) The son of Brahmā. Atri Maharṣi was one of the mānasaputras of Brahmā. The mānasaputras were: Marīci, Aṅgiras, Atri, Pulastya, Pulaha, and Kratu (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 65, Verse 10).
     2) One of the Saptarṣis. Brahma's sons, Marīci, Aṅgiras, Atri, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu and Vasiṣṭha are known as the Saptarṣis (seven sages). (M.B., Śānti Parva, Chapter 208).
     3) Creator of the pracetases. The sage Prācīnabarhis was born in the family of Atri Maharṣi. Ten Pracetases (Prajāpatis) were born as the sons of this Muni. (M.B., Śakti Parva, Chapter 208).
     4) Citra Śikhaṇḍī. Among the seven Munis known as Citra Śikhaṇḍīs, we see Atri Maharṣi as one of the Aṣṭaprakṛtis which form the basis of the Universe.
     5) Important events. (1) How Mahāviṣṇu became Atri's son. Kaśyapa had a son named Kaśipu. He was a very mighty ruler and carried on his reign in an ungodly manner. In a terrible battle which took place at that time between the Devas and Asuras Kaśipu was killed. Prahlāda became the Asura King. Then there was a battle between Indra and Prahlāda. After six years' war, Prahlāda withdrew, defeated. Later Mahābali, the son of Virocana (grandson of Prahlāda) became emperor of Asuras. War broke out again between Mahābali and Indra. In this war, Mahāviṣṇu helped Indra. The Asuras were utterly defeated. They sought refuge with Śukra, the Asura guru. Śukra promised to help them. He set out to the Himālayas to receive a powerful mantra from Śiva. The Asuras kept waiting for Śukra's return.
     At this stage, Mahāviṣṇu who was the protector of Indra, came to Śukra's āśrama and killed Śukra's mother, Kāvyamātā. Seeing this impudence of Mahāviṣṇu, Bhṛgu Maharṣi was enraged and cursed him that he should be born many times in human wombs. It is on account of this that Mahāviṣṇu had to take many avatāras (incarnations). It was in this way that Mahāviṣṇu incarnated as Dattātreya, the son of Atri. (Devī Bhāgavata, 4th Skandha).
     (2) Atri and Parāśara. It was a time when Vasiṣṭha and Viśvāmitra were in a state of mutual ill-will. Once King Kalmāṣapāda was going about in the forest on a hunting expedition. He met Śakti, the eldest son of Vasiṣṭha in the forest. The King did not respect him properly. Śakti transformed Kalmāṣapāda into a Rākṣasa by his curse. The Rākṣasa who was also a cannibal, first swallowed Śakti himself. Viśvāmitra offered whatever help he could, to destroy Vasiṣṭha's family. Kalmāṣapāda ate successively all the 100 sons of Vasiṣṭha. Vasiṣṭha, in great sorrow and Sakti's wife, Adṛśyantī lived in an āśrama. Adṛśyantī was pregnant at the time of Śakti's death. In due course she gave birth to a boy who was called Parāśara and who later on became the father of Vyāsa. when Parāśara grew up, he came to know that his father Śakti was eaten by the Rākṣasa. Enraged at this, he started a yajña to annihilate the whole race of Rākṣasas. As the yajña gained intensity and force Atri Muni arrived there with certain other Maharṣis and dissuaded Parāśara from the yajña. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 181).
     (3) Atri's dispute with Vainya. Atri Maharṣi and his wife once got ready to go for Vanavāsa. At that time the poor Maharṣi's wife was in great distress because they had no money to be distributed to their disciples and children. She requested her husband to go to King Vainya and to beg for some money. Accordingly the Maharṣi visited King Vainya at his yāgaśālā (The shed where a yāga is held). He began to flatter Vainya by saying that he was the first among kings and so on. Vainya did not like it. He began to dispute with Atri. Vainya remarked that Indra was the first King. To settle the dispute they went together to Sanatkumāra Muni. Sanatkumāra sent them away reconciled. After that Vainya gave Atri much wealth. After distributing all this wealth among their sons and disciples Atri and his wife set out to the forest to perform penance.
     (4) How Atri became Sun and Moon. Once there was a fierce battle between Devas and Asuras. Owing to the shower of arrows from the Asuras, the Sun and Moon became dim. Darkness spread everywhere. The Devas began to grope in the dark. They requested Atri Maharṣi to find a remedy for this. Moved by their distress, Atri suddenly transformed himself into the Sun and Moon. The Moon gave light to the Devas. The Sun burnt up the Asuras by his intense heat. Thus the Devas were saved. This story was told by Vāyu Bhagavana, to Arjuna. (M.B., Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 156).
     (5) Atri and King Vṛṣādarbhi. In the Mahābhārata we find a story about a difference of opinion between King Vṛṣādarbhi and some Maharṣis. This story was told by Bhīṣma to Yudhiṣṭhira about the kind of persons from whom Brahmins may accept gifts. Once the Munis, Kaśyapa, Atri, Vasiṣṭha, Bharadvāja, Gautama, Viśvāmitra, Jamadagni, and Paśusakhā, with Arundhatī and Gaṇḍā, who were the wives of two Munis, travelled round the world. Their object was to go to Brahmaloka. At that time there was drought in the world. King Vṛṣādarbhi, the son of Śibi, suggested that the above-mentioned Munis should be called and given wealth. They refused to accept it. Vṛṣādarbhi became angry. He performed Homa in Āhavanīyāgni and from the agnikuṇḍa, the Rākṣasī Yātudhānī (Kṛtyā) arose. Vṛṣādarbhi sent Yātudhānī to destroy Atri and all other Munis. As Yātudhānī was guarding a lotus pond in the forest, the munis led by Atri happened to come that way. The Maharṣis were able to recognize Yātudhānī. They beat her with their tridaṇḍu (Trident or a kind of magic wand) and reduced her to ashes. After satisfying their hunger by eating the lotus flowers the Maharṣis went to Brahmaloka. (M.B., Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 93).
     (6) Atri and Śrāddha. There is a passage in the Mahābhārata in which Atri gives advice to the emperor Nimi who belonged to Atri's family. The story of how Śrāddha originated in the world which Bhīṣma had told Dharmaputra was retold by Atri. A son named Dattātreya was born to Atri, the son of Brahmā. Dattātreya became King. Nimi was his son. Nimi's son died after one thousand years. Nimi who was in deep grief at the death of his son, ordained a Śrāddha in memory of his son. On that occasion Atri Maharṣi came there and explained to Nimi the importance of Śrāddha. (M.B., Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 91, Verses 20-44)
     (7) How Brahmā, Viṣṇu and Maheśvara (Śiva) were born as sons of Atri. There is no other woman in the Purāṇas who surpasses Śīlāvatī in her fidelity to her husband. In order to enable Ugraśravas, her husband, to satisfy his passion, she once carried him on her own shoulders to a prostitute's house. On the way, Māṇḍavya Muni pronounced a curse that Ugraśravas should die before sunrise. The grief-stricken Śīlāvatī pronounced a counter-curse that the sun should not rise on the next day. As the sun failed to rise, the Trimūrtis (Brahmā, Viṣṇu and Śiva), accompanied by Anasūyā, Atri's wife, went to Śīlāvatī. Anasūyā persuaded Śīlāvatī to withdraw her curse. The Trimūrtis who were happy at the success of their mission (of bringing about the Sunrise) asked Anasūyā to demand any boon she wanted. Anasūyā expressed her wish that the Trimūrtis (Brahmā, Viṣṇu and Śiva) should be born as her sons and they agreed.
     Mahāviṣṇu, under the name of Dattātreya, was born as the son of Anasūyā. Śiva was born to her under the name of Durvāsas. There is a story about it in the Brahmāṇḍa Purāṇa. Once Śiva got angry with the Devas. They began to flee for life. But Brahmā alone did not run away. Śiva who became more furious at this, pinched off one of the heads of Brahmā. Still he was not pacified. Pārvatī who was alarmed, approached Śiva and begged him to suppress his anger. At her request, Śiva's fury was transferred and deposited in Anasūyā, Atri's wife. Durvāsas is the embodiment of that element of Śiva's fury.
     According to the promise, Brahmā also took his birth as the moon from Anasūyā, the wife of Atri. (For that story, see PURŪRAVAS). There is a story about that also in the Brahmāṇḍa Purāṇa. Once when Brahmā was performing the task of creation, he experienced carnal passsion. Sarasvatī was the offspring of that passion. When Brahmā saw her, he fell in love with her also. This made him feel angry towards Kāmadeva. He pronounced a curse that Kāmadeva should be burnt up in the fire from Śiva's eye. (This is why Kāmadeva was later burnt to death by Śiva). Although Kāma had retreated from Brahmā his passion had not been suppressed. Brahmā transferred his passion to Atri Maharṣi. The Maharṣi gave it to Anasūyā, his wife. Since she was unable to bear such a violent passion, she gave it back to her husband. That passion emerged from Atri's eye in the form of the Moon. This is why lovers experience strong passion for each other at the time of the rising of the moon. (Brahmāṇḍa Purāṇa, Chapters 39-43).
     (8) Atri and Gaṅgā Devī. Once, while Atri Maharṣi was performing penance in Kāmada forest, there was a terrible drought in the country. At that time, his wife Anasūyā made a Śivaliṅga of sand and offered worship to it. Then Atri asked her to give him a little water. There was no water anywhere. Suddenly Gaṅgā Devī appeared there and said to Anasūyā: "There will be a hole here. Water will come out of it in a torrent."
     Pure water began to flow from the place pointed out by Gaṅgā Devī. Anasūyā begged Gaṅgā Devī to stay there for a month. Gaṅgā Devī agreed to do so on condition that Anasūyā would transfer her Tapaśśakti to her for one month.
     Atri was pleased by drinking the water. He asked Anasūyā where she got such nice fresh water. She explained to him all matters. Atri expressed his desire to see Gaṅgā Devī. She appeared before him at once. Anasūyā prayed to her that Gaṅgā should continue to exist in the world always. Gaṅgā Devī answered that she would do so if Anasūyā was prepared to give her the fruit of one year's Tapaśśakti and of devoted service to her husband. Anasūyā agreed to that condition. Suddenly Śiva appeared there in the shape of a Liṅga. At the request of Atri and Anasūyā Śiva took his seat there permanently assuming the name of "Atrīśvara". (Śiva Purāṇa).
     (9) Other Details. 1. Besides Dattātreya, Durvāsas and Candra. Atri had another son, Prācīnabarhis. (M.B., Śānti Parva, Chapter 208, Verse 6).
     2. Many Pāvakas had been born in Atri Vaṃśa. (M.B., Vana Parva, Chapter 222, Verses 27-29).
     3. When the Kaurava-Pāṇḍava war was raging with great fury, many Maharṣis went to Droṇa and advised him to stop the battle. Atri Maharṣi was one of them. (M.B., Droṇa Parva, Chapter 190, Verse 35).
     4. On another occasion, a King named Soma performed a Rājasūya (Royal sacrifice). Atri Maharṣi was the chief priest at this yāga. (M.B., Śalya Parva, Chapter 43, Verse 47).
     5. Atri was also among the Maharṣis who had gone to witness Paraśurāma's tapas. (Brahmāṇḍa Purāṇa, Chapter 64).
     6. Ṛgveda, 5th Maṇḍala was composed by Atri. (Ṛgveda Saṃhitā, Preface).
     7. Once the Asuras put Atri Maharṣi into the Śatadvāra yantra (a machine of torture with a hundred holes). Ṛgveda, 1st Maṇḍala, 16th Anuvāka, Sūkta 51).
     8. Once the Asuras tried to burn Atri alive. (Ṛgveda, 1st Maṇḍala, 16th Anuvāka, Sūkta 112).
     9. The Asuras at another time made Atri lie down in a machine with a large number of holes and tried to burn him alive in it. At that time he prayed to the Aśvins and they liberated him. (Ṛgveda, 1st Maṇḍala, 17th Anuvāka, Sūkta 116).
     10. Atri was among the Maharṣis who visited Śrī Rāma, on his return to Ayodhyā after the war with Rāvaṇa. (Uttara Rāmāyaṇa).
     11. From the navel lotus of Viṣṇu Brahmā was born, Atri from Brahmā, Soma from Atri, and Purūravas from Soma were born. (Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 12).
     12. Atri begot by Anasūyā, Soma, Durvāsas and Dattātreya yogī. (Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 20).

ATRI II In the Purāṇas another Atri, the son of Śukrācārya, is also seen (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 65, Verse 27).

ATRI III The term Atri has been used as an epithet of Śiva. (M.B., Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 17, Verse 38).

AU This word means Maheśvara (Śiva). (Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 348).

AUDAKA This is the place where Narakāsura with his ten thousand girls was once imprisoned. It is a plateau on the top of Maṇiparvata. Because water was in plenty there the place was called 'Audaka'. An asura named Nūrū was the keeper of this plateau. (Sabhā Parva, M.B.).

AUDDĀLAKA A holy place of ancient India. The place got this name because the sage Uddālaka lived there. It is believed that if one bathes in this holy place one will be absolved of all his sins.

AUDUMBARA The King of the state of Udumbara. This king once paid respects to emperor Yudhiṣṭhira and gave him several presents and gifts. (Śloka 12, Chapter 53, Sabhā Parva, M.B.).

AUKTHYA A glorifying prayer in Sāmaveda. (Śloka 36, Chapter 134, Vana Parva, M.B.).

AURASĪKA A country of ancient India. Śrī Kṛṣṇa conquered this land. (Śloka 16, Chapter 11, Droṇa Parva, M.B.).

AURVA I (Ūrva, Ūrūja). A fierce saint of the line of Bhṛgu Maharṣi.
     1) Genealogy. Descending in order from Viṣṇu, Brahmā, Bhṛgu, Cyavana, Aurva.
     Cyavana Maharṣi married Āruṣī, daughter of Manu. Aurva was her child who was the grandfather of Jamadagni and the great grandfather of Paraśurāma.
     2) Birth. The Preceptors of the Bhṛgu dynasty were the hereditary gurus of the Kings of Hehaya. Kṛtavīrya a famous King of the Hehaya dynasty and father of Kārtavīryārjuna had his education from a Bhṛgu ṛṣi living in his āśrama. On competing his education the king paid lavishly and the Bhṛgus became rich thereafter. Kṛtavīrya died and his sons did not very much like the Bhārgavas (Bhṛgus) becoming rich by the wealth of their ancestors. Knowing this the Bhṛgus started burying their wealth under the earth. Once a Kṣatriya king forcibly dug out from the house of a Bhṛgu the wealth he had safely buried and from that day onwards the Kṣatriyas and the Bhārgavas became enemies. The Bhṛgus were hunted down by the Kṣatriya kings and the Bhārgavas frightened by this move left their abode and went and hid in Caves in mountains far away. Among those who thus fled was Āruṣī, wife of Cyavana. Āruṣī was pregnant at that time and she hid her 'Garbha' in her thighs while fleeing. A brahmin woman who saw this went and informed the Kṣatriyas and they immediately went and caught hold of her. Then the thigh broke and a boy came out of it. Because he was born from the thighs the boy was named Aurva. (Ūrū= Thigh and so, born of a thigh). (Chapter 179, Ādi Parva, M.B.).
     3) The effulgence of Aurva. Aurva was born with fiery radiance and the sudden effulgence made the Kṣatriya Kings blind. Frightened they craved for pardon and praised him. They got back their eyesight then.
     4) Aurva and Baḍavāgni. Aurva bore a deep grudge against the Kṣatriyas who had massacred his forefathers. Aurva started doing rigorous penance and by the force of his austerities the world started to burn. At that stage the Pitṛs appeared before him and persuaded him to withdraw from his penance. Aurva then told them thus: "Pitṛs, while I was lying in the thigh-womb of my mother I heard hideous groans from outside and they were of our mothers when they saw the heads of our fathers being cut off by the swords of the Kṣatriyas. Even from the womb itself I nurtured a fierce hatred towards the Kṣatriyas. No helping hand was raised before the pitiable wails of our mothers".
     The Pitṛs were astounded at the firmness of the vow of Aurva and horrified at the thought of what would happen if the penance was continued. They pleaded again to cease his austerities and then submitting to their request Aurva withdrew the fire of his penance and forced it down into the sea. It is now believed that this fire taking the shape of a horse-head is still living underneath the sea vomiting heat at all times. This fire is called Baḍavāgni. More about this can be had under the head Baḍavāgni. (Chapter 180, Ādi Parva, M.B.).
     5) Aurva and the birth of Sagara. Ayodhyā was once ruled by a celebrated King of Ikṣvāku dynasty named Subāhu. He had as his wife Yādavī a good natured and well behaved woman who was a gem among queens. One day Tālajaṃgha a King of the Hehaya line of rulers who was then the King of Māhiṣmatī defeated Subāhu in a battle. Yādavī was then pregnant. Jealous co-wives poisoned her; Yādavī did not die but the poison affected the child in the womb.
     After the defeat, Subāhu and Yādavī went and stayed with Aurva in his āśrama. For seven years they lived there and then Subāhu died. Grief-stricken Yādavī was about to jump into the funeral pyre and end her life when Aurva stopped her from the act pointing out that she was soon to deliver a child. After a few months she delivered a son and Aurva called him 'Sagara' meaning one with 'gara' (poison) in him. (Brahmāṇḍa Purāṇa, Chapters 16, 17).
     6) Aurva and the sister of Garuḍa. Garuḍa, son of Vinatā, had a sister named Sumati. Upamanyu, a sage, wanted to marry her but neither she nor her relatives liked it. Enraged at this the sage cursed Sumati saying that the brahmin who married her would have his head burst. The marriage of Sumati thus remained a problem for her parents. There was a friend of Vinatā, a sannyāsinī, living in a forest and to find a way to escape from the curse Vinatā sent Garuḍa to her. The sannyāsinī advised Garuḍa to approach Aurva to find a solution for the problem and Aurva was therefore approached for advice.
     It was at this time that the people of Ayodhyā came in search of Subāhu and Yādavī who had left them years before. When they knew of Subāhu's death they were plunged in sorrow but were glad to know a son of Subāhu, Sagara, had grown up to be a successor to Subāhu. When Garuḍa made Aurva acquainted with the pitiable tale of his sister Aurva decreed that Sumati should marry a Kṣatriya instead of a brahmin and thus tide over the curse. He then asked Sagara to marry Sumati and blessed them saying that Sagara would one day become an emperor and perform an Aśvamedha yāga. Aurva then sent Sagara along with the people to Ayodhyā where Sagara after defeating all his enemies became the emperor of Bhāratavarṣa. (Brahmāṇḍa Purāṇa, Chapters 18-21).
     7) Sagara's sons and how Aurva helped in getting them. Sagara ruled the land for three thousand years. He had besides Sumati another wife, Keśinī. Both of them bore no sons for Sagara. Dejected he entrusted the administration of the state with his ministers and left for the āśrama of Aurva. Aurva blessed them and prophesied that Keśinī would deliver a son to continue the dynasty and that Sumati would deliver sixty thousand sons of no great use at all. Sagara and his wives, returned to the palace and very soon both his wives became pregnant. In due time Keśinī delivered a son who was named Asamañjas. But Sumati gave birth to a lump of flesh. Greatly pained the King was about to throw it away when Aurva appeared there and stopped him from doing that. He directed him to cut the piece of flesh into sixty thousand pieces and put one piece each in a jar of ghee. Every year one prince would be born from one of them. Thus Sumati got sixty thousand sons. (Brahmāṇḍa Purāṇa, Chapter 92).
     8) Teaching of Aurva. In the evening of his life Sagara went and stayed in the āśrama of Aurva. Aurva gave him instructions on many a divine subject. He taught him about the importance of the four āśramas, the rituals to be practised by the different castes of Brāhmaṇa, Kṣatriya, Vaiśya and Śūdra and many such other things. Finally Aurva gave Sagara Brahmajñāna. (Chapter 8, Aṃśam 3, Viṣṇu Purāṇa).
     9) Aurvāśrama. All the Bhārgava ṛṣis together once stayed in the āśrama of Aurva. Paraśurāma visited the āśrama one day during that time and paid respects to Bhṛgu, Khyāti, wife of Bhṛgu, Cyavana, son of Bhṛgu and Aurva, son of Cyavana. (Brahmāṇḍa Purāṇa, Chaptre 63).

AURVA II A brahmin living in the country of Mālava. This brahmin got a daughter named Śamīka by his wife Sumedha. She was married very early to Mandāra, son of Dhaumyaka and disciple of Śaunaka. After some days when Mandāra found his wife fully grown he went to Aurva to bring his wife home. Aurva sent them both to the house of Mandāra with his blessings. On their way home they met the Maharṣi Bhuśuṇḍi and burst into laughter at his sight. The sage cursed them and made them into two trees. When Aurva found his daughter and son-in-law missing he started a search for them. Then he came to know that both of them had changed into trees by a curse. Aurva and his wife then prayed to God for help. Aurva then lived in the tree of Śamā in the shape of Agni and Śaunaka made an idol of Gaṇapati with the root of the Mandāra tree and worshipped him. Gaṇapati was pleased by the devotional deeds of Aurva and Śaunaka and changed the trees again into Śamīka and Mandāra. (Gaṇeśa Purāṇa).

AUŚANAS (Kapālamocana). A holy place on the banks of the river, Sarasvatī. Brahmā, the devas and many maharṣis lived here once. (Chapter 83, Vana Parva).
     This place is called Kapālamocana also. There is a story behind the place getting this name.
     At the forest of Daṇḍaka Śrī Rāma killed many demons. The force of the arrows took the skulls of the demons to far off places in the forest. One of the skulls thus sent far fell on the feet of a sage named Mahodara who was then going that way. The skull went deep into his foot and not only did it wound his foot but it stuck to his foot so hard that it could not be drawn out also. With his foot in pains the sage visited all the holy places but with no relief to his pain. At last Mahodara came to Auśanasa and to his surprise the skull came off from his foot healing his wound. He remained there for some time and obtained many divine attainments. From then onwards the place was called 'Kapālamocana'. After this incident Brahmā, Viśvāmitra, Balabhadrarāma and many such divine persons visited the place. (Chapter 39, Śalya Parva, M.B.)

AUŚIJA I A King of ancient India. He equalled Indra. (Śloka 226, Chapter 1, Ādi Parva, M.B.).

AUŚIJA II An ancient sage. There is a reference to this sage who is the son of Aṅgiras in Ṛgveda. This ṛṣi was a brilliant member of the royal council of Dharmaputra. (Chapter 208, Śānti Parva, M.B.).

AUŚĪNARA (AUŚĪNARI). Śibi, son of the King of Uśīnara. See under Śibi.

AUŚĪNARĪ (UŚĪNARĀ). A śūdra girl born in the country of Uśīnara. Gautama Muni got his sons Kakṣīvān and others of this girl. (Śloka 5, Chapter 21, Sabhā Parva, M.B.).

AUṢṆĪKA(M) An ancient place in India. The King of this country paid respects to Dharmaputra offering him several gifts. (Śloka 17, Chapter 51, Sabhā Parva, M.B.).

AUTATHYA Son of Utathya (See under Utathya).

AUVVAYĀR A celebrated Tamil poetess. She was born in a Paraya (lowest of the Hindu castes) family. Her mother left her as soon as she was delivered and a low caste Śūdra brought her up. She lived for 240 years before she left on a long journey never to return. She wrote several books in Tamil. The important ones are Ātticūti, Kontaiventa, Mutturai, Natvali, Katvali slukka, Nannūtkova, Nantanikova, Aruntamilmāla, Darśanappattu, and Jnānakurul. She has made a dictionary in verses also.

AVABHṚTHAM The bath taken at the end of a sacrifice.
     "Then all the Kṣatriya Kings approached Dharmatanūja (Dharmaputra) who had completed successfully, under the protection of the Mighty Lord of the bow, the cudgel and the wheel, the great sacrifice of the Rājasūya (imperial inauguration) and taken the avabhṛtasnāna (the bath at the end of the sacrifice)." (Mahābhārata, Sabhā Parva, Chapter 45, Stanzas 40, 41).

AVĀCĪNA The son born to Jayatsena, a King of the Pūru dynasty, by his wife Śuśrāva the princess of Vidarbha. To him was born Ariha of Maryādā the princess of Vidarbha. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 95, Stanzas 17 and 18).

AVADHŪTEŚVARA An incarnation of Śiva. Once Indra and Bṛhaspati went to Kailāsa to do homage to Śiva who clad in air only hindered their way. Indra requested that person to get out of the way. He requested repeatedly several times but in vain. Indra who got angry took his weapon of Vajra. But Śiva froze it. Moreover fire emanated from his eye on the forehead. At the request of Bṛhaspati Śiva turned the fire from his eye towards Lavaṇa Samudra (the sea of Salt). Jalandhara who was killed by Śiva had his origin in this fire. (Śiva Purāṇa).

AVAGĀHA A warrior of the Vṛṣṇi dynasty. (Mahābhārata, Droṇa Parva, Chapter 11, Stanza 27).

AVAIŚĀKHA (See Dhanaśarmā).

AVĀKĪRṆA(M) A holy place on the bank of the river Sarasvatī. (M.B., Śalya Parva, Chapter 41).

AVANTI A country called Mālava in ancient India. The famous Ujjayinī was the capital of Avanti. This city is situated on the bank of Śiprā. The renowned poets such as Kālidāsa and others, lived in this city. This is one of the seven cities considered to be capable of giving Mokṣa (heavenly bliss). (M.B., Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 9, Stanza 43).

AVANTI VAṂŚA (The Dynasty of Avanti). The dynasty of Avanti Kings had its origin in the Yadu dynasty. Candra was born to Atri the son of Brahmā. Budha was born to Candra, Purūravas to Budha, Āyus to Purāravas, Nahuṣa to Āyus, Yayāti to Nahuṣa and Yadu to Yayāti. Yadu had five sons, the eldest of whom was known by the name Sahasrajit. The rest of them were known as Nīlāñjika, Raghu, Kroṣṭu and Śatajit.
     Sahasrajit had three sons called Śatajit, Haihaya and Reṇuhaya. Dharmanetra was born to Haihaya, Sahana to Dharmanetra, Mahimān to Sahana, Bhadrasena to Mahimān, Durgama to Bhadrasena and Kanaka to Durgama. From Kanaka were born the four sons Kṛtavīrya, Kṛtāgni, Karavīra and Kṛtaujas. Arjuna (Kārttavīryārjuna) was born as the son of Kṛtavīrya.
     Arjuna renowned as Kārttavīrya became the supreme lord of the earth comprising the Saptadvīpa (Seven Islands) by the merits of his penance. He got invincibility and thousand hands in battles, as boons. He performed ten thousand sacrifices all in conformity with the rules and regulations. To escape from loss of wealth one had only to remember his name. It was ordered that Kings other than Kārttavīrya, however great the extent of their might and prowess, and the number of sacrifices, offering of alms and penance done be, would not stand on a par with him.
     Kārttavīrya had a hundred sons, of whom the most famous were Śūrasena, Śūra, Dhṛṣṭa, Kṛṣṇa, and Jayadhvaja. Jayadhvaja the most renowned of these five ruled in Avanti as King. Tālajaṅgha who had several sons, was born from Jayadhvaja. The family of the Haihayas was split into five. They were the Bhojas, the Avanti family, the Vītihotra family, the Svayaṃjātā family and the Śauṇḍikeya family. (Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 275)

AVARODHA A King of the family of Bharata.

AVASĀNAM An ancient Bath in Bhārata. One could attain the merits of Sahasragodāna (giving a thousand cows as alms) by bathing in this holy bath. (M.B., Vana Parva, Chapter 82, Stanza 128).

AVATĀRA (Incarnation). The incarnations of Mahāviṣṇu:--
     1) General information. God takes three kinds of incarnations such as avatāra, āveśa and aṃśa. That which has full power is avatāra; that which has power only for the time being is āveśa and partial incarnation in aṃśāvatāra.* The incarnations of Viṣṇu are countless. Hermits, Manus, Devas (gods) and sons of Manus are incarnations in part (aṃśāvatāras) of Viṣṇu. Complete avatāras are ten in numbers of which Balabhadra Rāma is not considered as an avatāra by some. Instead of him they place Buddha.
     b) Reason for the incarnations. Mahāviṣṇu has taken so many incarnations in the world. In the Śrī Mahādevī Bhāgavata a story occurs to the effect that Mahāviṣṇu was forced to take so large a number of incarnations due to the curse of the great hermit Bhṛgu. The story is as follows: Kaśyapa had a son named Kaśipu. He was daring and brave and ruled the country as an enemy of the Gods. There arose a severe battle between the gods and the Asuras. Kaśipu was killed in that battle. After Kaśipu his son Prahlāda became King. He too was an enemy of the Gods. So there was a battle between Indra and Prahlāda. The battle continued for a hundred years. At last Prahlāda was defeated. He felt very sorry at the defeat. So he anointed Bali, son of Virocana, as King and leaving the Kingdom he went to the Gandhamādana and began to do penance. The fight continued between Bali and Indra.
     In this fight Mahāviṣṇu helped Indra. The Asuras were completely destroyed. The defeated Asuras went to their teacher Śukra who promised to protect them by spells and incantations and herbs. The Gods knew that Śukra had undertaken to protect the asuras.
     Leaving the asuras behind, Śukra went to Kailāsa to get more power of spells and incantations from Śiva. Before going to Kailāsa Śukra had asked the Asuras to wait for him with faith. After this the Asuras sent Prahlāda to the Gods for a truce. Prahlāda, though an Asura was in good favour with the Gods. He reached the court of Indra and said, "Gods, we have no desire at all for war. We have decided to spend the remaining period in penance wearing barks of trees and tufts of hair. How wicked a deed is battle and how delightful it is to become a devotee of God! So hereafter you will not be troubled by us. Likewise I hope you will not do us innocent people any harm."
     The gods believed Prahlāda. The Asuras, in the guise of hermits waited for Śukra in the hermitage of Kaśyapa. Śukra reached Kailāsa and bowed before Śiva and requested that he might be given the power of defeating the Gods by some means quite unknown to Bṛhaspati the teacher of the devas (Gods). Śiva was in trouble. He could refuse neither Śukra nor the Gods. At last he told hermit Śukra that to come by such a spell he had to stand head downwards, inhaling smoke for a thousand years. Śiva said so thinking that when the dreadful nature of the feat was considered, Śukra might desist from the attempt. But Śukra began that penance instantly.
     The Gods understood everything. The deceit of the Asuras, the crookedness of Śukra all were now clear to them. They trembled with fear and began to consult how to get over the difficult situation. Finally they decided to go to war with the Asuras. The gods did accordingly. The Asuras were in trouble. They were not strong enough to face the Gods. So they all went to Kāvyamātā, the mother of Śukra. The devas (gods) with Mahāviṣṇu at their head chased the Asuras. Kāvyamātā, by the merits of her devotional meditation petrified Mahāviṣṇu and Indra. Mahāviṣṇu thought of his Sudarśana (wheel-weapon of Viṣṇu) which instantly made its appearance and cut off the head of Kāvyamātā. The great hermit Bhṛgu got angry because Mahāviṣṇu committed woman-slaughter, and cursed him thus: "You are a crooked being, a viper, a deceit. The hermits who adore you as the seat of all that is good are mere fools; you are wicked, of a black character, and I curse you to take countless incarnations in the world, and painful confinement by and by because of your sins." (Śrī Mahādevī Bhāgavata, 4th Skandha).
     Thus having cursed Viṣṇu, the hermit Bhṛgu took some water from his water-pot and sprinkled it on the face of Kāvyamātā, who woke up as if from sleep. (For the remaining portion of the story see Śukra).
     2) Daśāvatāras. (The ten Incarnations). Owing to the curse of Bhṛgu, mentioned above, Mahāviṣṇu had to undertake so many incarnations, complete as well as partial. Complete incarnations are ten in number. They are called Daśāvatāras (The Ten Incarnations).
     "matsyaḥ kūrmo varāhaśca narasiṃhaśca vāmanaḥ / rāmo rāmaśca rāmaśca kṛṣṇaḥ kalkir janārdanaḥ //"
     Matsya (Fish), Kūrma (Turtle), Varāha (Pig), Narasiṃha (Lion-man), Vāmana (Dwarf), Rāma (Paraśurāma), Rāma (Śrī Rāma), Rāma (Balabhadrarāma), Kṛṣṇa (Śrī Kṛṣṇa), Kalki (Yet to come). These are the ten incarnations of Janārdana.
     The daśāvatāras. are described one by one below.
     1) Matsyāvatāra. (Fish Incarnation). To Kaśyapa, the son of Marīci, and the grandson of Brahmā a son was born, by his wife Aditi. He was called Vivasvān and the Manu who was the son of Vivasvān is known as Vaivasvata Manu or Satyavrata Manu. It was during the time of this Manu that Viṣṇu incarnated as a Matsya (fish).
     Once, while Brahmā was reciting the Vedas (the Scriptures) Hayagrīva, an asura, stole the Vedas from the side of Brahmā and with them he went under water to the bottom of the ocean and hid himself there. So Mahāviṣṇu decided to take the form of a fish to recover the stolen Vedas.
     Vaivasvata Manu, the first and foremost of the godfearing, was once doing penance in a place known as Badarī. He got down into the river Kṛtamālā to take a bath. Then a small fish said to the Manu: "Oh King, I am afraid of large fishes. So please don't forsake me". Hearing this the Kind Manu took the fish in his hand and put it in an earthenware pot and brought it up. In a few days the fish began to grow. When the pot became insufficient the King put it in a larger pot. When that also became too small, the King put the fish in a pond. When the pond could not hold the fish any longer the King put it in the Ganges at its request. After a few days the Ganges also became too small for the fish. Finally the fish told the King: "Oh, King, within seven days there will be a great flood in the world. You should make a boat and take the seven hermit-sages with you in the boat and escape. I will help you."
     Hearing this he got an immensely large boat ready and obeyed the instructions of the fish. Within seven days rain started in torrents. Everything in the world, the moving and the not moving, were under the flood. A horn began to sprout from the head of the fish. Manu tied his boat on that horn. The fish reached the summit of the Himālayas with the boat, which was tied to the highest peak. Since the peak came to be called 'Naubandhana Śṛṅga' (The peak to which boat is tied). The rain ceased to pour. It was seen that everything in the world had been destroyed except the Manu and the seven hermit-sages and some of the germs, saved in the boat. (This story occurs in the great Hindi work 'Kāmāyanī' of Jayaśaṅkar Prasād). (M.B., Araṇya Parva, Chapter 187; Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 2; Bhāgavata 8th Skandha, Chapter 24).
     This story of the incarnation of Viṣṇu as fish is seen in the Bible figuratively. "In the order of the generations of Adam, the first creation of God, Śeth, Enos; Kainān, Mahalīl, Jāred, Enoch, Methūselah, Lamech and Noah were born. When Noah was five hundred years old he begot Shem, Ham and Japheth.
     There was a great flood during the time of Noah. God said to him: "The end of all flesh is come before one; for the earth is filled with violence through them, and behold, I will destroy them with the earth. Make thee an ark of gopher wood; rooms shalt thou make in the ark and shalt paint it within and without with pitch. And this is the fashion which thou shalt make it of. The length of the ark should be three hundred cubits, the breadth of it fifty cubits, and the height of it thirty cubits. A window shalt thou make to the ark and in a cubit shall thou finish it above and the door of the ark shalt thou set in the side thereof, with lower, second and third stories shalt thou make it. And behold, I, even I, do bring a flood of water up on the earth. to destroy all flesh wherein is the breadth of life from under heaven and everything that is in the earth shall die. But with thee will I establish my covenant, and thou shalt come into the ark, thou and thy sons and thy wife and thy sons' wives with thee, and of every living thing of all flesh, two of every sort, shalt thou bring into the ark to keep them alive with thee; they shall be male and female. Of fowls after their kind, and of cattle after their kind, and of every creeping thing of the earth after their kind, two of every sort shall come unto thee to keep them alive. And take thou unto thee of all food that is eaten and thou shalt gather it to thee, and it shall be for food for thee and for them." Thus did Noah according to all that God commanded him, so did he.
     And the Lord said unto Noah, "Come thou and all thy house into the ark, for thee Have I seen righteous before me in this generation. Of every clean beast thou shalt take to thee by sevens the male and his female and of beasts that are not clean by two the male and his female. Of fowls also of the air by sevens the male and the female to keep seed alive up on the face of all the earth. For yet seven days and I will cause it to rain up on the earth forty days and forty nights, and every living substance that I have made will I destroy from off the earth." And Noah did according unto all that the Lord commanded him.
     And Noah was six hundred years old when the flood of waters was up on the earth. And Noah went in, and his sons and his wife and his sons' wives with him into the ark because of the waters of the flood. Of clean beasts and of beasts that are not clean and of fowls and of everything that creepeth upon the earth. There went in two and two unto Noah into the ark the male and the female as God had commanded Noah. And it came to pass after seven days that the waters of the flood were upon the earth. In the six hundredth year of Noah's life in the second month on the seventeenth day of the month the same day were all the fountains of the great deep broken up and the windows of heaven were opened and the rain was up on the earth for forty days and forty nights. In the self-same day entered Noah and Shem, and Ham and japheth the sons of Noah and Noah's wife and the wives of the sons with them into the ark. They and every beast after his kind and all the cattle after their kind and every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth and every fowl after his earth after his kind, every bird of every sort. And they went in unto Noah into the ark, two and two of all flesh wherein is the breadth of life. And they that went in, went in male and female of all flesh as God had commanded him and the Lord shut him in. And the flood was forty days upon the earth, and the waters increased and bore up the ark and it was lifted up above the earth. And the waters prevailed and were increased greatly upon the earth and the ark went up on the face of the waters. And the waters prevailed exceedingly upon the earth and all the high hills that were under the whole heaven were covered. Fifteen cubits upward did the waters prevail and the mountains were covered. And all the flesh died that moved upon the earth, both of fowl and of cattle and of beast and of every creeping thing that creepeth up on the earth, and every man. All in whose nostrils was the breadth of life, of all that was in the dry land, died. And every living substance was destroyed which was up on the face of the ground both man and cattle and the creeping things and the fowl of the heaven, and they were destroyed from the earth. And Noah only remained alive, and they that were with him in the ark. And the waters prevailed upon the earth for hundred and fifty days.
     And God remembered Noah and every living thing and all the cattle that was with him in the ark and God made a wind to pass over the earth and the waters became calm. The fountains also of the deep and the windows of heaven were stopped and the rain from heaven was restrained. And the waters returned from off the earth continually and after the end of the hundred and fifty days, the waters were abated. And the ark rested in the seventh month on the seventeenth day of the month upon the mountains of Arārat. And the waters decreased continually until the tenth month. In the tenth month on the first day of the month were the tops of the mountains seen. And it came to pass at the end of forty days that Noah opened the window of the ark which he had made. And he sent forth a raven which went forth to and fro until the waters were dried up from off the earth. Also he sent forth a dove from him to see if the waters were abated from off the face of the ground. But the dove found no rest for the sole of her foot and she returned unto him into the ark for the waters were on the face of the whole earth. Then Noah put forth his hand and took her and pulled her to the ark. And he stayed yet other seven days. And again he sent forth the dove out of the ark. And the dove came in to him in the evening, and lo, in her mouth was an olive leaf plucked off. So Noah knew that the waters were abated from off the earth. And he stayed yet other seven days and sent forth the dove, which returned not again unto him anymore. And it came to pass in the six hundredth and first year in the first month, the first day of the month the waters were dried up from off the earth and Noah removed the covering of the ark and looked and beheld the face of the ground was dry. And in the second month on the seven and twentieth day of the month was the earth dried. And God spake unto Noah saying: "Go forth of the ark, thou and thy wife, and thy sons and thy sons' wives with thee. Bring forth with thee every living thing that is with thee, of all flesh both of fowl and of cattle and of every creeping thing that creepeth up on the earth, that they may breed abundantly in the earth and be fruitful and multiply up on the earth. And Noah went forth and his sons and his wife and his sons' wives with him. Every beast, every creeping thing and every fowl and whatsoever creep up on the earth after their kinds went forth out of the ark. And Noah built an altar unto the Lord and took of every clean beast and of every clean fowl and offered burnt offerings on the altar. And the Lord smelt a sweet savour and the Lord said in his heart: "I will not again curse the ground anymore for man's sake. For the imagination of man's heart is evil from his youth. Neither will I again smite anymore every thing as I have done. While the earth remaineth seed time and harvest and cold and heat and summer and winter and day and night shall not cease. (Holy Bible, Genesis, Chapters 6, 7 and 8).
     2) Kūrmāvatāra. (Incarnation as a tortoise). Long ago when Durvāsas visited the realm of Gods he presented Devendra with a garland made of flowers of exquisite fragrance. Indra tied it on to the tusk of Airāvata (the elephant of Indra). When the beetles which gathered on the garland for honey became a nuisance, Airāvata destroyed that garland. Durvāsas who got angry at this cursed the gods as a whole that they would get wrinkles and grey hair. The gods were advised by Mahāviṣṇu that if they got Ambrosia (Amṛta--celestial honey) from the sea of Milk by churning it they could escape from this. Accordingly the Gods called the asuras for help, and they approached the sea of Milk. They made use of the Mountain of Mandara as churndrill and the huge snake Vāsuki as churning rope, and the churning commenced. The gods took hold of the tail of the snake and as the churning was proceeding the churn-drill, the mountain of Mandara, having no fixation at the bottom sank down. Then Mahāviṣṇu took the form of a turtle, and got under the Mandara mountain and lifted it up on his back. By the force of lifting it went higher and higher up. Then Mahāviṣṇu took the form of an eagle and sat on the top of the mountain and it came down a little and placed itself in the right position. (Bhāgavata, Skandha 8, Chapter 7; Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 3; Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Bālakāṇḍa, Sarga 45).
     3) Varāhāvatāra. (Incarnation as a Pig). Jaya and Vijaya were the two watchers who stood at the gate of Mahāviṣṇu. Once the great hermit-sages Sanaka and others reached Vaikuṇṭha to visit Mahāviṣṇu. Then Jaya and Vijaya treated the hermits without respect. The hermits cursed them that they would become Dānavas (Asuras or giants). They also said that when they were slain thrice by Mahāviṣṇu they would reach heaven. At that period when hermit Kaśyapa was carrying on his evening prayer and devotional rites, his wife Diti approached him with lustful desire. Kaśyapa told her that as he was engaged in prayer and meditation it was not proper on her part to select that particular moment for her lustful desire. But she persisted and the sage yielded and out of that union two sons were born. They are the two asuras Hiraṇyākṣa and Hiraṇyakaśipu. Of these Hiraṇyākṣa was the incarnation of Jaya and Hiraṇyakaśipu that of Vijaya.** With the birth of these two the whole world began to tremble. These two asura brothers began to terrorize the world. They wandered about causing destruction and devastation wherever they went. Once Hiraṇyākṣa got down into the ocean and began to beat the waves in the ocean with his cudgel. The ocean began to sway and surge. Varuṇa (the Lord of water) was terrified and he ran to Mahāviṣṇu and sought protection. Mahāviṣṇu took the form of a Pig and came to the ocean. When Hiraṇyākṣa saw Mahāviṣṇu he took the earth in his hand and ran to Pātāla (the nether world). Mahāviṣṇu followed him and killed him and recovered the earth. (Bhāgavata, Skandha 3, Chapter 18; Bhāgavata, Skandha 2, Chapter 7 and Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 4).
     4) Narasiṃhāvatāra. (Incarnation as lion-man). With the death of Hiraṇyākṣa, his brother Hiraṇyakaśipu became furious more than ever. He wanted to avenge the death of his brother. His fury was turned towards Mahāviṣṇu. So he got on the top of the Mountain of Mandara and did penance before Brahmā and Brahmā appeared and granted him boons, one of which was that nobody but Viṣṇu should be able to kill him. He returned with gladness and began to roam about torturing devotees of Viṣṇu everywhere.
     A son named Prahlāda was born to him. He was a godfearing child and from birth an ardent believer in Viṣṇu. Hiraṇyakaśipu tried his utmost to change his son to a hater of Viṣṇu. He got a special teacher for the purpose and Prahlāda was taken to the house of the teacher to live with him until he changed his mind. The result was that the teacher and all others who advised him ultimately became believers in Viṣṇu. Anger overpowered Hiraṇyakaśipu. Prahlāda was thrown before mad elephants. But the tusks of the elephant missed the aim and were driven into the earth and broken. Venomous snakes were employed and those which bit him had their fangs broken. Finally the child was put in blazing fire. But the child felt the fire to be cool and soothing. From that fire a ghost arose and tried to kill Prahlāda. Instantly the Sudarśana, the wheel-weapon of Viṣṇu came down and cut off the head of the ghost. Hiraṇyakaśipu jumped with anger and called out. "Where is your Viṣṇu?" His son replied that his Viṣṇu dwelt in every movable and immovable thing. Hiraṇyakaśipu kicked at a stone pillar close by and asked him, "Is your Viṣṇu in this pillar?" Prahlāda replied, "My Viṣṇu is in Pillar and in fibre". Before he had finished, the Pillar broke open and a monster as horrible as the Destroyer Śiva, in the shape of a lion-man made its appearance.
     "mīmāṃsamānasya samuthito 'grato nṛsiṃharūpastadalaṃ bhayānakaṃ prataptacāmīkaracaṇḍalocanaṃ sphuratsaṭākesarajṛmbhitānanaṃ karāladaṃṣṭraṃ karavālacañcala-kṣurāntajihvaṃ bhrukuṭimukholbaṇaṃ stabdhordhvakarṇam girikandarādbhutavyāttāsyanāsaṃhanubhedabhīṣaṇaṃ divispṛśatkāyamadīrghapīvara-grīvoruvakṣaḥsthalamalpamadhyamaṃ candrāṃśugauraiśchuritaṃ tanūruhaiṛviṣvagbhujānīkaśataṃ nakhāyudham."
     "Before him who was waiting with curiosity to see what would happen, with eyes blazing as molten gold, mouth wide open in the middle of long bushy mane, tusks long and curved and protruding fearfully, tongue swaying like a sword, eyebrows fierce looking, ears standing erect and still, two nostrils as wide and deep as mountain canyons, jaws prominent and thick and broad and set with fierceness, colossal body reaching the sky, neck very thick and fat and short, breast excessively broad and strong, waist very small and narrow, body thickly covered with bushy hair exuberantly grown and as yellow as the light of the moon, a number of claws very sharp and pointed, the horrid monster Narasiṃha (Lion with human head) suddenly appeared. (Bhāgavata, Skandha 7, Chapter 8, Stanzas 20-22).
     This was the figure of Narasiṃha. Mr. S. Paramesvara Iyer, Ulloor, has described this figure in his "Bhaktidīpikā" as follows:
     "Glaring eyes burning as blazing cinder, tongue as a dagger just used in piercing to death, neck with folds, eyebrows looking mad, tusks like young moon, fierce face with bushy mane grown to it, hair long and sharp like pointed wire, claws looking like having drunk blood, body shining as if countless suns had risen together, all combined as if the fire of anger burning inside had incarnated, in the shape of a lion up to neck and human shape beyond the neck." (Bhaktidīpikā)
     The horrid monster caught hold of Hiraṇyakaśipu the King of the Asuras, pushed him to the ground and opened his heart with its fierce claws. Blood sprouted like a spring. With great ferocity he pulled out the intestines of Hiraṇyakaśipu and wore them round his neck as a garland and roared loudly. Prahlāda, with songs of praise and chanting of hymns of adoration pacified the stormy Narasiṃha and bowed low down before him. The Narasiṃha was pleased with the devotion of Prahlāda. He blessed the child and then disappeared. (Bhāgavata, Skandha 7, Chapter 8).
     5) Vāmanāvatāra. (Incarnation as a Dwarf). It was to expel the Emperor Mahābali, that Mahāviṣṇu incarnated as a dwarf. To Kaśyapa, the son of Marīci and the grandson of Brahmā, was born of Diti, Hiraṇyakaśipu. And from Prahlāda the son of Hiraṇyakaśipu was born Virocana and Bali was the son of Virocana. Bali got the name Mahābali because of his prowess. He was the emperor of the Asuras. A fierce battle began over the Ambrosia got from churning the sea of Milk, between the Asuras and the gods. In the battle Indra cut Mahābali down with his Vajrāyudha. The Asuras took the body of Mahābali to Pātāla (the nether world) where their teacher Śukra brought him to life again. Then Mahābali worshipped the Bhārgavas and became more powerful than before and went to heaven again and renewed the battle. This time he defeated the Gods altogether and subjugated the realm of the Gods who were scattered to all sides. The devas or gods are the sons of Kaśyapa born by his wife, Aditi. She felt very sorry at the defeat of the gods. Seeing that she was silent and sad Kaśyapa asked her the reason. She replied that she was thinking of ways to enable the gods to recover their lost power and position. Kaśyapa advised her to please Mahāviṣṇu by observing Dvādaśī vrata (fast of the twelfth lunar night). Aditi did so and Viṣṇu appeared before her and asked her what she desired. Her request was that Viṣṇu should take birth in her womb and recover Indra to his lost power and position. Thus Viṣṇu took birth as the younger brother of Indra in the shape of Vāmana (dwarf.)
     At this time Emperor Mahābali was celebrating a sacrifice on the bank of the River Narmadā after having subjugated the whole of the world. A large number of hermits gathered there. Vāmana also was among them. He requested Mahābali to grant him three feet of ground as alms. The teacher Śukra warned Mahābali against granting the request. But the emperor granted the request and asked Vāmana to measure the ground. Vāmana immediately enlarged his body and measured the heaven, the earth and the Pātāla (the upper realm, the earth and the lower realm) in two steps and asked for place for the third step. The honest Mahābali showed his head and requested to complete the three steps. Vāmana put his step on the head of Mahābali and pushed him down to Pātāla. Thus the gods regained their lost places. (Bhāgavata, Skandha 8, Chapter 19). A description that by the toe of Vāmanas' raised foot (raised for measuring the third step) the testicle of Brahmā was cut open where from the Ganges originated, is seen in the Bhāgavata, Skandha 5.
     When Viśvāmitra took Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa to the forest they entered a holy hermitage and Viśvāmitra told the boys that it was the hermitage where Aditi, long ago had observed dvādaśī fast. It was in that same place that Vāmana incarnated and placed his step on the head of Mahābali.
     "The bright Mādhava took birth in Aditi as Vāmana and went to Mahābali, requested for three feet of ground and brought under control the three worlds for the good of all. By binding Bali by might, he gave to Indra the three worlds and this hermitage is the place where He once placed his steps. I am a devotee of that Vāmana." (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Bāla Kāṇḍa, Sarga 29).
     6) Paraśurāmāvatāra. (Incarnation as Paraśurāma). Once Kārttavīryārjuna pleased the hermit-sage Dattātreya the son of Atri, by doing penance and got the boon of one thousand hands. One day he went to the forest for hunting and entered the bank of Narmadā. The hermit Jamadagni had been living there with his wife Reṇukā and sons Paraśurāma and others. The King being tired of hunting got into the hermitage. Paraśurāma was not there. The hermit called his divine cow Kāmadhenu, which provided the King and his followers with a very good supper.
     When the King departed he asked for the wonderful cow. The hermit did not consent. The King caught hold of the cow by force and went to his city. Paraśurāma went to Māhiṣmatīnagar the capital of Kārttavīryārjuna, killed the King and took Kāmadhenu back. From that day onwards the sons of Kārttavīrya were waiting for an opportunity to take revenge.
     Once Reṇukā went to the river to bring water. A gandharva (semi god) named Citraratha was bathing in the river. She happened to look at him for a little while. When she returned the hermit was very angry and asked each of his sons to cut off the head of their mother. They all refused. But Paraśurāma immediately obeyed his father and cut off her head. His father was pleased and said that he might ask any boon. He requested his father to bring his mother back to life. Accordingly Reṇukā was brought back to life.
     Once the sons of Kārttavīrya got into the hermitage, at a time when Paraśurāma was away and cut off the head of the hermit Jamadagni and took it off. When he returned his mother told him how his father was killed. She cried and beat her breast twentyone times. Paraśurāma became an incarnation of revenge, and travelled over the world twentyone times and killed every Kṣatriya King. The blood of all those Kings flowed into one channel and gathered in a holy Bath called Syamantapañcakaṃ. Thus Mahāviṣṇu took his sixth incarnation as Paraśurāma and fulfilled his duty of destroying the wicked Kṣatriya Kings (For details about Paraśurāma see under Paraśurāma and Kārttavīryārjuna). (Bhāgavata, Skandha 9, Chapter 16).
     7) Śrī Rāmāvatāra. Mahāviṣṇu took the incarnation of Śrī Rāma to kill Rāvaṇa. (For further information see the words Śrī Rāma and Rāvaṇa).
     8) Balabhadrarāmāvatāra. (The incarnation of Balabhadrarāma) (See the word Balabhadrarāma).
     9) Śrī Kṛṣṇāvatāra. (The incarnation of Śrī Kṛṣṇa) (See the word Kṛṣṇa).
     10) Kalkyavatāra (The incarnation as Kalki). At the end of Kaliyuga (the Age of Kali) all the people would become atheists and sceptics. Rewards will be received from the depraved. The classes will be mixed. People would become degenerate having no good qualities. A religion called 'Vājasaneyam' with its fifteen doctrines only will be acceptable. People would become irresponsible wearing the garment of duty. Lawless people would take the form of Kings and will begin to eat men. In those days Lord Viṣṇu will incarnate as Kalki, the son of Viṣṇuyaśas and the priest of Yājñavalkya and learn the arts of wielding weapon and handling missiles and destroy all lawless ones. The subjects will be brought back to the four classes and the four āśramas or stages of life and the doctrines and directions of the long-established religion and peace and order will be restored. Then the Lord will cast away the form of Kalki and go to heaven. After that, as of old, Kṛtayuga (the first age) will begin class distinctions and the four stages of life and such other establishments will once more prevail. (Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 16).
     3) The Incarnations of Mahāviṣṇu.
     It is mentioned in Śrī Mahādevī Bhāgavata, Skandha 1, Chapter 3 that Mahāviṣṇu had taken the twentysix incarnations given below:
     1) Sanaka 2) Sananda 3) Sanātana 4) Sanatkumāra 5) Varāha (pig) 6) Nārada 7) Nara Nārāyaṇas 8) Kapila 9) Dattātreya 10) Yajña 11) Ṛṣabha 12) Pṛthu 13) Matsya (fish) 14) Mohinī 15) Kūrma (turtle) 16) Garuḍa (eagle) 17) Dhanvantari 18) Narasiṃha (Lion-man) 19) Vāmana (dwarf) 20) Paraśurāma 21) Vyāsa 22) Śrī Rāma 23) Balabhadrarāma 24) Śrī Kṛṣṇa 25) Buddha 26) Kalki. (Information about Matsya, Kūrma, Varāha, Narasiṃha, Vāmana and Paraśurāma, are given under the word Avatāra and for the rest see the same words).
     In the first Skandha of "Bhāgavata Kilippattu" the incarnations are exhaustively dealt with as follows:
     "And after that to make it possible for the Lord with four faces to rule his subjects justly and well. He took various incarnations with his portions, the first four of which are four persons, Sanaka, Sananda, Sanātana and Sanatkumāra, in the order given, four or five-year old children, well-versed in the four Vedas, the four always inseparable wandered everywhere come to the world to show the merits of Brahmacarya (the vow of celibacy). To kill Hiraṇyākṣa and to lift up the earth He took the form of Sūkara (Pig). To show the world the tattva (essence) of Sat (good) and tama (darkness) He took the form of hermit Nārada. To show the merits of penance He became Nara and Nārāyaṇa. To impart to the world the meaning of Sāṃkhya Yoga (Indian Philosophy dealing with evolution and union with the Supreme Spirit) He came as Kapila the learned. To teach the world the laws of chastisement He was born as Datta of the wife of Atri. Then He came as Yajña to become Indra. The next incarnation He took was Ṛṣabha, the noble King. To shorten and flatten the earth He came as Pṛthu. To recover the Vedas he took the form of Matsya (fish). To remove wrinkles and grey hair the gods had churned the sea of Milk and then to lift the mount Mandara He went under it and as a bird He got up on it. To give the world Āyurveda (the scripture of medicine) He came as Dhanvantari. To entice Asuras and to recover Ambrosia from them He took the form of Mohinī. To save the devoted Prahlāda and to slay his father He came in the form of Narasiṃha. Then as Vāmana the younger brother of Indra to deceive Mahābali and to recover the lost worlds for the gods he came. To destroy the Kings who were haters of Brahmins He came as the son of Jamadagni. Then he took the incarnation of Veda Vyāsa. And to slay the giant Rāvaṇa He became Śrī Rāma. Next we see Him as Balabhadrarāma. Then He came as Devakīsuta [son of Devakī (Kṛṣṇa)]. Next He came in the Kaliyuga as Śrī Buddha and at the end of Kaliyuga He will come as Kalki. And there are many incarnations still to speak of."
*) See Aṃśāvatāra.
**) During their next birth they made their appearance as Rāvnca and Kumbhakarṇa and during the third birth they were Śiśupāla and Daṇḍavaktra.

AVĪCI One of the twentyeight hells. The following are the twentyeight hells: (1) Raurava (2) Sūkara (3) Rodha (4) Tāla (5) Viṣāsana (6) Mahājvāla (7) Taptakumbha (8) Lavaṇa (9) Vilohita (10) Rudhirāmbhas (11) Vaitaraṇi (12) Kṛmīśa (13) Kṛmibhojana (14) Asipatravana (15) Kṛṣṇa (16) Lālābhakṣa (17) Dāruṇa (18) Pāyavāha (19) Pāpa (20) Vahnijvāla (21) Adhaśśiras (22) Sandaṃśa (23) Kālasūtra (24) Tamas (25) Avīci (26) Śvabhojana (27) Apratiṣṭha (28) Aprāci. (Viṣṇu Purāṇa, Aṃśa 2, Chapter 6).
     The hell called Avīci is described thus: "This is the hell meant for those who stand false witness, who take false oath and false name. The soldiers of Yama will push these false people into the hell of Avīci, from the top of a mount which is a hundred yojanas (league) high. The place of Avīci, like the waves of the ocean, is swelling and falling and swaying and surging always. When sinners fall there their bodies will be crumbled to pieces. Their life will enter into new bodies and then the punishment will be repeated again and again." (Devī Bhāgavata, Skandha 8).

AVIJÑĀTAGATI Two sons were born to Anila, a vasu by his wife Śivā. They were called Avijñātagati and Manojava. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 66, Stanza 25).

AVIKAMPANA This ancient King got from the hermit Jyeṣṭha Sātvatadharma (righteousness). (M.B., Śānti Parva, Chapter 384, Stanza 47).

AVIKṢIT I A famous King. The son of Karandhama and father of Marutta. He was honoured even by Bṛhaspati, having performed a hundred horse sacrifices. Mention is made in the Mārkaṇḍeya Purāṇa that Avikṣit had seven wives: Varā, Gaurī, Subhadrā, Līlāvatī, Vibhā, Maṅgavatī, and Kumudvatī. Besides them Vaiśālinī the princess of Viśālā also was his wife. He had taken this Vaiśālinī from her Svayaṃvara dais (the bride herself selecting a husband from those who are present), defeating the Kings who were present there. Those defeated Kings, later, joined together and defeated Avikṣit and took him a prisoner. Finally Karandhama rescued him. His greatness is described as follows:
     "The righteous man Avikṣit is equal to Indra in prowess. This austere and righteous man has become a great sacrificer. In brightness he is equal to the Sun, as forgiving as the earth, in intelligence equal to Bṛhaspati and as firm as the Himālayas. By his thought, word, and deed and self control and noble actions he kept his subjects in peace and prosperity." (Bhāṣā Bhārata, Aśvamedha Parva, Chapter 4, Stanzas 19-21).

AVIKṢIT II Five sons were born to King Kuru by his wife Vāhinī. Avikṣit was one of them. [See the word Vaṃśāvalī (Genealogy)].

AVIMUKTA(M) The middle part of the city of Kāśī. There is a holy temple here. It is said that those who commit suicide in this temple would attain heaven. (Vana Parva, Chapter 64, Stanzas 78 and 79). For more information see the word Divodāsa.

AVINDHYA A giant in whom Rāvaṇa had confidence. But he held the opinion that Sītā should be returned to Rāma.
     "The aged giant and noble leader Avindhya, who had earned the confidence of Rāvaṇa, brave, learned and of good qualities, pleaded with Rāvaṇa and said that Rāma would exterminate the entire race of the giants but the wicked Rāvaṇa would not pay heed to his words."
     (Śrī Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Sundara Kāṇḍa, Sarga 37, Stanzas 12 and 13). This aged giant had sent Trijatā to the Aśoka park to console Sītā. Hear what she says: "The famous giant leader, the noble aged well-wisher of Rāma, Avindhya, had told me about you."
     "(M.B., Araṇya Parva, Stanza 56). There is a situation in Vana Parva when this noble giant prevented Rāvaṇa from his attempt to kill Sītā.
     "When he saw the decision of Rāvaṇa to kill Sītā, Avandhya pacified Rāvaṇa" and said, "you, a great King of a great kingdom should not deteriorate to the level of killing a woman. A woman who is in prison and at your disposal is as good as dead. But in my opinion, even if you cut her body into pieces she would not die and if she must die you will have to kill her husband." (M.B., Araṇya Parva, Chapter 289, Stanzas 28 to 30).
     From this statement the wonderful intelligence of Avindhya could be understood. It is seen in stanzas 6 and 7 of Chapter 291 of M.B., Vana Parva that it was Avindhya who had taken Sītā before Śrī Rāma when he had captured Laṅkā.

AVIRATHA A hermit of the family of Kardama. Genealogy. Brahmā-Kardama-Kapila-Gṛtsapati-Brāhmaṇa-Dhanvantari-Ketumān-Aviratha.

AVIVĀHITA (Spinster). In the Mahābhārata a statement regarding spinsters and widows is seen.
     "Place meat on the ground and many birds will come to it. So also men will gather round the woman who is having no husband." (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 158, Stanza 12).

AVYAYA A serpent of the Dhṛtarāṣṭra family. This serpent fell in the sacrificial fire meant for serpents, prepared by Janamejaya. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 57, Stanza 16).

AYAŚŚAṄKU A great Asura. He was born as a Prince of the Kekaya kingdom. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 67, Verse 10).

AYAŚŚIRAS A son of Kaśyapa by his wife, Danu. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 65, Verse 23). He was born a prince of Kekaya. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 67, Verse 10).

AYĀTAYĀMA(S) See Guruparamparā.

AYĀTI Son of King Nahuṣa and brother of Yayāti. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 75, Verse 30).

AYĀVAHA(M) A place in ancient India. (M.B., Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 5).

AYOBĀHU (AYOBHUJA) A son of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 67, Verse 98). Bhīmasena killed him at Kurukṣetra. (M.B., Droṇa Parva, Chapter 157, Verse 19).

AYODHADHAUMYA (Āyodhadhaumya). Āpodadhaumya, Apodadhaumya, Dhaumya. A great Muni (sage). He had three disciples, Āruṇi, Upamanyu and Veda.
     1) Disciple Āruṇi. He belonged to Pāñcāla, and once his guru deputed him to construct embankments in the field. But, his attempts to construct embankments did not succeed. Finally he lay himself in the field where the embankment was required, and then the flow of water stopped. The guru enquired about Āruṇi, who was thus lying in the field. Then only he knew the reason for Āruṇi's absence. The guru went to the field and called Āruṇi. Then the embankment burst open and Āruṇi came out, and because of that Āruṇi got the name Uddālaka. (M.B., Chapter 3, Verses 21-33).
     2) Disciple Upamanyu. Once Dhaumya (the guru) asked his second disciple Upamanyu to tend the cows. He used to take care of the animals grazing in the woods during daytime and return home at dusk and prostrate before the guru. Looking at the plump and healthy body of Upamanyu the guru asked him how he was feeding himself. His reply was that he was begging alms and feeding himself with what he got thus. Then the guru asked him to hand over to him (guru) all alms got in future. After that he used to give everything he got by way of alms to the guru. And, he continued returning to the Gurukula at dusk and prostrating before the guru. Finding Upamanyu even then as plump and healthy as he was formerly, the guru said: My son Upamanyu, you hand over to me all the alms you get, and yet your body looks as trim as of old. How happens it so?" Upamanyu replied: "After giving the alms I get first to you, my guru, I do again beg for alms and feed myself". To this the guru reacted thus: My boy, what you do is not the proper thing. By the second course of alms-taking you stand in the way of other people getting their food. It is gross injustice to do so."
     Upamanyu, from that day onwards strictly followed his guru's instruction, and continued returning at dusk to the guru and doing obeisance to him.
     Even then finding Upamanyu to be quite plump and healthy the guru told him: "Well, now you hand over to me all the alms you get, and you do not take alms a second time the same day. Yet you are quite fit and fat. How is it so?"
     To this Upamanyu's reply was that he was feeding himself on the milk of the cows he tended. The guru told him that this too was not just and proper on his part. The guru had not permitted him to drink milk thus.
     Upamanyu agreed to obey his orders. And, as usual he continued tending the cows and returning at dusk. Even then he maintained the same plump and healthy physique. And the Guru told him as follows: "You do not eat the food you get at the first alms-taking, you do not go in for alms a second time the same day, nor do you drink milk. Yet, how is it that you maintain the same fat and healthy physique as in former days?"
     Upamanyu's reply was that he was feeding now-a-days on the foam of milk bristling at the mouth of the calves when they had fed on their mother's milk. And, the guru said: "if that is so the calves will be, out of kindness and sympathy for you, releasing much foam of milk out of their mouths. That will affect them. So, do not repeat the process. Since the guru forbade him to have food in any manner as detailed above, Upamanyu, while tending the herd of cows in the forest, ate the bitter and poisonous leaves of a tree one day to satisfy his burning hunger. The leaf was bitter in taste and injurious in its properties. Therefore, this new way of satisfying hunger affected the health of the eyes of Upamanyu and he became blind. Moving about in this condition he fell into a neglected well in the woods.
     When, even after the sun had set, Upamanyu did not, as usual, return, the guru enquired about him from other disciples. Naturally, they told the guru that Upamanyu was out in the forest with the cows. As the guru felt that Upamanyu was staying away late in the forest since he had been prevented from doing everything he (guru) went to the forest accompanied by other disciples and called out for Upamanyu, and Upamanyu responded from deep down the well. He also told the guru how he happened to fall into the well. After telling him that if only he would pray to the Aśvinīdevas they will cure his blindness the guru returned to the Āśrama with other disciples. Upamanyu, accordingly offered praises and prayed to the Aśvinīdevas, who were so pleased with him that they appeared before him and gave him a bread. Upamanyu refused to eat the bread without giving it to the guru. Then the Aśvinīdevas told him thus: "In the past when we gave your guru a bread like this he ate the same without giving it to his guru. You may just imitate him and eat the bread yourself". Even then Upamanyu did not eat the bread. The Aśvinīdevas were so much pleased at this that they blessed Upamanyu thus: "The teeth of your guru will turn into hard iron and yours into pure gold. Your blindness will be cured and all happiness and prosperity will be yours."
     The blessings of the Aśvinīdevas took full effect, and Upamanyu hurried to his guru and prostrated at his feet. Dhaumya and the other disciples of his congratulated Upamanyu. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 3, Verses 34-77).
     3) Disciple, Veda. Ayodhadhaumya one day said to Veda, his third disciple: "You stay with me for sometime serving me. That will bring you all prosperity in life." Veda agreed, and stayed for a long time in the Āśrama in the service of the guru. Without even the slightest murmur he put up with every discomfort and hardship, be it acute hunger and thirst or extreme cold or heat, and gladly performed all the work and duties the master imposed on him. The guru was absolutely pleased and his blessings resulted in all prosperity and omnipotence for the disciple. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 3, Verses 78-80).

AYODHYĀ A city in North India which enjoyed great importance and reputation for many years as the capital of the Kings of the solar dynasty. (See Ikṣvāku dynasty). All the Kings of this dynasty ruled the country from this city as their capital. Vasiṣṭha, the great preceptor of the Ikṣvāku Rājas, came to Ayodhyā during the period of the reign of Kalmāṣapāda, who was the thirtyfifth ruler in succession to Ikṣvāku. A quarrel broke out between Kalmāṣapāda and Vasiṣṭha during a hunting expedition, and Vasiṣṭha cursed the King and as the result the latter became a Rākṣasa. After regaining his former form as King, he apologised to Vasiṣṭha and they became friends again. At the request of the King in the interests of his dynasty Vasiṣṭha came to Ayodhyā, and the people were greatly elated. A son was born to Vasiṣṭha by Kalmāṣapāda's wife and that son was Aśmaka. After that Vasiṣṭha used to go to Ayodhyā frequently and was installed as family preceptor of the Ikṣvākus. Till the time of Śrī Rāma the city of Ayodhyā maintained its pomp and glory, and after that gradually its decay and fall set in. Laudatory references to the city are found in most of the Purāṇas like the Mahābhārata, Brahmāṇḍa Purāṇa etc. (See Kosala).

AYOMUKHĪ A Rākṣasa woman. She met Śrī Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa on their way to Mataṃgāśrama in search of Sītā, and requested Lakṣmaṇa to marry her. Lakṣmaṇa, as in the case of Śūrpaṇakhā cut off her nose and breasts and drove her away. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Araṇya Kāṇḍa, Chapter 69).

AYUTANĀYI A king of the Pūru Vaṃśa; he was the son of Mahārāja Bhauma. Suyajñā, Kāmā and Akrodha were the names respectively of his mother, wife and son. He came to be known as Ayutanāyi because of his having performed 10,000 Puruṣamedhas. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 95, Verses 19-20)

AYUTĀYU A king who ruled his state for 1000 years. The Purāṇas like Bhāgavata, the Matsya and the Vāyu refer to him as the son of Śrutaśravas.

AYUTĀYUS Father of King Ṛtuparṇa. (Bhāgavata, Navama Skandha). For genealogy see Ikṣvāku dynasty.

Ā This word means Brahmā and also anādaravākya (a word showing disrespect). In the indeclinable form it means limit, anger and pain.

     A few details: 1) A low-caste people. People living in the estuary of the rivers of Sindhū and Sarasvatī were generally called Ābhīras. In the Sabhā Parva of Mahābhārata we find Nakula defeating these people during his victory march after the great Mahābhārata battle.
     2) Once Ābhīras went to Dharmaputra with many gifts. (Ślokas 11-13, Chapter 51, Sabhā Parva, M.B.).
     3) Once it was prophesied by Mārkaṇḍeya Ṛṣi, that low-caste people like Ābhīras and Śakas would become rulers of states in different parts of Bhārata during Kaliyuga. (Ślokas 35-36, Chapter 188, Vana Parva, M.B.).
     4) In the Garuḍavyūha (Battle array named after Garuḍa) which Droṇa created during the Kurukṣetra battle he included Ābhīras also. (Śloka 6, Chapter 20, Droṇa Parva, M.B.).
     5) Because of the hatred of Śūdras and Ābhīras a sacred lake named Vināśana disappeared from the river, Sarasvatī. (Ślokas 1 and 2, Chapter 37, Śalya Parva, M.B.).
     6) Ābhīras were Kṣatriyas formerly. Afraid of Paraśurāma they fled and lived in mountain-caves not continuing their hereditary work and thus became Śūdras. (Śloka 16, Chapter 29, Aśvamedhika Parva, M.B.).
     7) When Dvārakā was destroyed by floods and all the Yādavas were killed Arjuna went north taking along with him the wives of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. At that time Ābhīras were among those who attacked and carried away the women. (Ślokas 47-63, Chapter 7, Mausalya Parva, M.B.).

ĀCAMANA First drink water three times accompanied by incantations and then with water wipe your face twice and your eyes, ears, nose, shoulders, breast and head once. This act is called Ācamana.
     "trirācamedapaḥ pūrvaṃ dviḥ pramṛjyāttato mukhaṃ khāni caiva spṛśedabhir ātmānaṃ śira eva ca" (Manusmṛti, Śloka 60, Chapter 2).
     Devī Bhāgavata in its eleventh Skandha says about Ācamana like this: "Drinking water by your right hand is called ācamana. Curve your palm into the shape of a spoon, hold water in it and drink. There must be enough water in the palm to cover a green-gram seed, not less nor more. If it falls short or exceeds the measure it is considered to be like drinking alcohol. While shaping your palm neither your little finger nor your thumb should touch the other fingers. At the time of ācamana you should support your right hand by your left hand. Otherwise the water will turn impure."

ĀCĀRAMARYĀDAS See under Pūjāvidhi.

ĀḌAMBARA One of the five Pārṣadas whom Brahmā gave to Skandadeva. Brahmā gave Kunda, Kusuma, Kumuda, Damba and Āḍambara.

ĀḌI A mighty son of the demon, Andhakāsura. He did penance to please Brahmā and obtained from him a boon to seek vengeance on Śiva who had murdered his father. The boon was that Āḍi would die only when he left his present form and took another form. After obtaining the boon Āḍi went to Kailāsa and outwitting the sentries entered the abode of Śiva in the shape of a serpent. After that he disguised himself as Pārvatī and went near Śiva. But Śiva knew the trick and killed him. (Sṛṣṭi Khaṇḍa of Padma Purāṇa).

ĀḌĪBAKA A combat without serving any useful purpose and conducted out of sheer spite between two people to the surprise of others. The fight between Vasiṣṭha and Viśvāmitra was of this king. (Skandha 6 of Devī Bhāgavata).

ĀDIGADĀDHARA It was with the bones of an asura (demon) named Gada that Mahāviṣṇu made the first gadā (mace). By that mace Viṣṇu killed Heti and other asuras of that lot and got the name Ādigadādhara (He who first handled the mace). (See under Gadā).

ĀDIKŪRMA The mountain of Mandara which was used as a churn-stick to churn the great milky ocean, Kṣīrābdhi went down the ocean. Then Mahāviṣṇu took the shape of a tortoise to lift it up and this first tortoise was called Ādikūrma. (Śloka 12, Chapter 18, Ādi Parva, M.B.).

ĀDIPARVA One of the parvans of the epic Mahābhārata. It is the first parva. (See under Bhārata).

ĀDIPARVATA The place of abode of Śiva in the Himālayas. (Śloka 22, Chapter 327, Śānti Parva, M.B.).

ĀDIRĀJA The son of Kuru who was a king of the Pūru dynasty. (See under Pūru).

ĀDIŚIŚIRA One of the disciples of Śākalya. Vyāsa made the Vedas and taught his son Śākalya a portion of it. Śākalya divided his portion into five different and equal divisions and taught each of his five disciples, Vātsyāyana, Maudgalya, Śāli, Ādiśiśira and Gokhali a division. (Skandha 12, Bhāgavata).

ĀDIṢṬI The disciple who was ordained by his preceptor to observe celibacy for a stipulated number of years.

ĀDITYA The twelve sons born to the sage Kaśyapa of his wife Aditi are known as the twelve Ādityas. They are the following: Dhātā, Mitra, Aryamā, Rudra, Varuṇa, Sūrya, Bhaga, Vivasvān, Pūṣā, Savitā, Tvaṣṭā and Viṣṇu. Besides these Aditi had twentyone children including Indra. All of them are called Ādityas meaning children of Aditi. From the thirtythree sons of Aditi were born the thirtythree crores of devatās. Of these the eldest is Indra and the youngest, Vāmana. (Śloka 36, Chapter 66, Ādi Parva, M.B.). (There is corroboration for this in Śloka 14, Sarga 14, Araṇya Kāṇḍa, Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa).
     Sirdar K.M. Panikar in his preface to the book "Ṛgvedasaṃhitā" writes thus about Ādityas: "Generally we think of Sūrya (the Sun) when we hear the word Āditya. But there are many different Ādityas in Ṛgveda, chief of them is Varuṇa. Though Savitā, Pūṣā and Mitra are all synonyms of Sūrya in Ṛgveda they are all separate devas. There is no end to the varieties of Ādityas and their prominence in the Vedas. Summarising we can say thus. The familiar devas like Indra, Agni, Varuṇa and Sūrya are not found in the same form or power as we are taught to believe. Those whom we have lowered down to the posts of the eight sentries of the universe are very prominent devatās in the Vedas. Many Ādityas have merged in Sūrya and winds in the god of Vāyu. Rudra has merged in Śiva. Who will believe that the all-powerful Deva of the Ṛgveda and the vainglorious Indra who lives in fear of men doing penance are one and the same person?"

ĀDITYAHṚDAYA A mantra (incantation) of great power to destroy all enemies. During the combat with Rāvaṇa at one time Rāma fell exhausted in the battlefield. Seeing this the sage Agastya rushed to him and taught him this mantra. (Sarga 107, Yuddha Kāṇḍa, Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa).

ĀDITYAKETU One of the sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. Bhīma sena killed him in the great battle of Kurukṣetra. (Śloka 102, Chapter 67, Ādi Parva and Śloka 28, Chapter 88, Bhīṣma Parva, M.B.).

ĀDITYASENA A very brave King. Stories about this King are found in Kathāsaritsāgara. (Taraṅga 4, Kathāpīṭhalambaka).

ĀDITYATĪRTHA An ancient holy place on the banks of the river, Sarasvatī. (Śloka 17, Chapter 99, Śalya Parva, M.B.).

ĀDITYAVARṆA A king who always ordered without thinking and repented later. The book Kathāsaritsāgara tells the story of this King in the fifth taraṅga of its part, Kathāpīṭhalambaka.

ĀDYAKAṬHA A sage of old. He attended the sacrifice conducted by the King Uparicara. (Śloka 9, Chapter 336, Śānti Parva, M.B.).

ĀGNEYAPURĀṆA See under Agnipurāṇa,

ĀGNEYĀSTRA A powerful weapon or missile. One night Arjuna fought against a gandharva, Aṅgāraparṇa, on the banks of the river Ganges. Arjuna then described to him how he came into possession of this missile. This powerful missile was given first to Bhāradvāja by Bṛhaspati and Bharadvāja gave it to Agniveśya who in turn gave it to Droṇa and the latter gave it to Arjuna, his most favourite disciple. (Ślokas 29-30, Chapter 170, Ādi Parva, M.B.).

ĀGNEYĪ Wife of Kuru, son of Manu. Śambhu wife of Dhruva gave birth to two sons, Śiṣṭi and Bhavya. Succhāyā wife of Śiṣṭī gave birth to five sinless sons Ripu, Ripuṃjaya, Vipra, Vṛkala and Vṛkatejas. Cākṣuṣa was born of Bṛhatī, wife of Ripu. Manu was born to Cākṣuṣa of his wife Puṣkariṇī, daughter of the great Vīraṇaprajāpati. Puṣkariṇī hailed from the dynasty of Marutta. To Manu were born of Naḍvalā ten sons, Kuru, Puru, Śatadyumna, Tapasvī, Satyavān, Śuci, Agniṣṭoma, Atirātra, Sudyumna, and Abhimanyu. Of these, Kuru got of his wife Āgneyī six sons: Aṅga, Sumanas, Khyāti, Kratu, Aṅgiras and Śibi. Vena was born to Aṅga of his wife Sunīthā. (Chapter 13, Aṃśam 1, Viṣṇu Purāṇa).

ĀGNĪDHRA See Agnidadhra.

ĀGNIVEŚYA (AGNIVEŚA). An ancient sage who received an armour and the sacred mantras associated with it from Bṛhaspati. He was the Ācārya of Dhanurveda and the revered preceptor of Droṇa. (Ślokas 67 and 68, Chapter 94, Droṇa Parva, M.B.).

ĀGRĀYAṆA The fourth son of the Agni, Bhānu. (Śloka 13, Chapter 221, Vana Parva, M.B.).

ĀGREYA A country conquered by Karṇa. (Ślokas 1921, Chapter 254, Vana Parva, M.B.).

ĀHAVANĪYA An agni. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 74, Verse 67).

ĀHUKA A king of Yadu Vaṃśa. He was the father of Ugrasena, the father of Kaṃsa. (Some Purāṇas say that Āhuka and Ugrasena were the names of the same person). For genealogy, see "YADU VAṂŚA". In M.B., Sabhā Parva, Chapter 14, Verse 33, we find that Akrūra had married Sutanū, the daughter of Āhuka. Āhuka had a hundred sons. (M.B., Sabhā Parva, Chapter 14, Verse 56). There were constant quarrels between Āhuka and Akrūra. (M.B., Śānti Parva, Chapter 81, Verses 8-11).

ĀHUTI A Kṣatriya King. Śrī Kṛṣṇa defeated this King in the city called Jārūthī. (M.B., Vana Parva, Chapter 12, Verse 30).

ĀJAGARA An ascetic. Śānti Parva of Mahābhārata in its 179th Chapter states that Prahlāda conversed with this sage.

ĀJAGARA PARVA A sub-division of the Vana Parva of Mahābhārata. (See under M.B.).

ĀJAGARAVRATA The vrata practised by the sage, Ajagara. (A vrata is a predetermined course of action which is followed with continued persistence). In his own words it is the following: "If I get a grand feast I will accept it but I will go without food for days together if I do not get any food at all. People used to feed me well sometimes, sometimes a little and sometimes not at all. I will eat vegetables and cakes sometimes. I will eat meat and any kind of food. I will lie on soft bed or on bare earth sometimes and in big houses if I get the chance. I will wear costly clothes if I get them or I will wear dried leaves and animal skins. If I get food from yāgaśālās I will never refuse it, but I will never go seeking for it." (Ślokas 19-25, Chapter 179, Śānti Parva, M.B.).

ĀJAGAVA The bow of Māndhātā and Pṛthu and the Gāṇḍīva of Arjuna bear the name Ājagava. (Ślokas 33 and 34, Chapter 126, Vana Parva; Śloka 94, Chapter 145, Droṇa Parva, M.B. and Chapter 13, Aṃśam 1 of Viṣṇu Purāṇa).

ĀJAMĪḌHA A king born of the family of Ajamīḍha.

ĀJĀNEYA A species of good horses. (Śloka 10, Chapter 270, Vana Parva, M.B.).

ĀJYAPA(S) A community of Pitṛs belonging to the dynasty of Pulaha. They are called so because they drink during yāgas the ghee made out of goats milk (Ājyam) (Matsya Purāṇa). They live in the land of Kardama Prajāpati. Their daughter Virajā is the wife of Nahuṣa. (Sṛṣṭi Khaṇḍa, Padma Purāṇa).

ĀKARṢA People living in the land named Ākarṣa are called Ākarṣas. (Śloka 11, Chapter 34, Sabhā Parva, M.B.).

ĀKĀŚAJANANĪ Holes made on the walls of a Fort. Bullets are sent out from the fort through these holes.

ĀKATHA Son of Maṅkaṇa. He was a great devotee of Śiva and once when his house was burnt completely the idol of Śiva inside his house was partially destroyed. Worried much over this loss Ākatha was about to give a portion of his body also to the flames when Śiva appeared before him and blessed him. (Pātāla Khaṇḍa, Padma Purāṇa).

ĀKROŚA A king of ancient Bhārata. He was king over the land of Mahottha. Nakula conquered him during his victory march. (Ślokas 5 and 6, Chapter 32, Sabhā Parva, M.B.).

ĀKṚTI A king of ancient Bhārata. This king ruled over the land of Saurāṣṭra. (Śloka 61, Chapter 31, Sabhā Parva, M.B.).

ĀKṚTIPUTRA Ruciparvā, son of Ākṛti. He fought on the side of the Pāṇḍavas and was killed by Bhagadatta. (Ślokas 40 to 47, Chapter 27, Droṇa Parva, M.B.).

ĀKŪTI Wife of Ruciprajāpati. Brahmā's son Svāyambhuva Manu got of his wife Śatarūpā two sons Priyavrata and Uttānapāda and two daughters Prasūti and Ākūti. Prasūti was married to Dakṣaprajāpati and Ākūti to Ruciprajāpati. Ākūti delivered twins named Yajña, a son, and Dakṣiṇā, a daughter. (Chapter 7, Vaṃśam 1, Viṣṇu Purāṇa).


ĀLAMBA An ancient sage. He flourished in Yudhiṣṭhira's court. (M.B., Sabhā Parva, Chapter 5, Verse 5).

ĀLAMBĀYANA A comrade of Indra. (M.B., Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 13, Verse 15).


ĀMA See under AVATĀRA.

ĀMARATHA A place in ancient Bhārata. (Śloka 54, Chapter 9, Bhīṣma Parva, M.B.).

ĀNA I (A Malayalam word meaning elephant). Bhāgavata relates the story of how Indradyumna became an elephant by the curse of Agastya. (See under Indradyumna).

ĀNA II (Elephant). Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa narrates the origin of elephants thus: "Kaśyapa was born to Marīci, son of Brahmā. Kaśyapa married the daughters, Aditi, Diti, Danu, Kālikā, Tāmrā, Krodhavaśā, Manu and Analā, of Dakṣaprajāpati. Of these Krodhavaśā gave birth to ten girls, Mṛgī, Mṛgamadā, Harī, Bhadramatā, Mātaṅgī, Śārdūlī, Śvetā, Surabhi, Surasā, and Kadrū. Elephants were born as the sons of Mātaṅgī. (Sarga 14, Araṇya Kāṇḍa, Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa.).
     There is a story in the Mahābhārata to explain why the tongue of the elephant is curved inside. "Bhṛgu Maharṣi cursed Agni and greatly dejected over this he disappeared from public and hid somewhere. The Devas started searching for him and it was an elephant that showed the devas the hiding place of Agni. Agni then cursed the elephants and said that thereafter all the elephants would have their tongues curved inside. (Śloka 36, Chapter 85, Anuśāsana Parva, M.B.).
     The signs of good elephants and the treatment to be accorded to sick ones are detailed in Agni Purāṇa. "Elephants with long trunks and heavy breathing belong to the top class and they will possess great endurance power. Those who have nails eighteen or twenty in number and who became turbulent during winter belong to a superior class. Those ones whose right tusks are a bit raised, whose cry is stentorian as that of thunder whose ears are very big and whose skins are spotted are the best of the species. Other varieties especially the dwarfish type and she-elephants in the early stage of pregnancy are not good and not fit to be tamed. Elephants who have Varṇa, Sattva, Bala, Rūpa, Kānti, Śarīraguṇa and Vega will conquer enemies in a battle; there is no doubt about it. Elephants are an ornament for any battle-array. The victory earned by a King with his elephants is more respected.
     For all diseases of an elephant Anuvāsana or Snehavasti is recommended. A bath after anointing it with oil or ghee is good. For skin diseases the ghee may be combined with Mañjal (Turmeric), Maramañjal or gomūtra (cow urine). If it suffers from enlargement of the belly, giving it a bath with sesame oil is good. It can be given Pañcalavaṇas and Vāruṇīmadya to drink. If there is fainting it must be given rice mixed with Vlalari, Triphala, Cukku, Mulaku and Tippali and water mixed with honey to drink. If there is headache anointing the head with sesame oil and inhalation of the same is good.
     For diseases of the foot, treatment with Snehapuṭas is prescribed. To get motion of the bowels Kalkaṇṭa Kaṣāya (infusion of sugar candy) is good. To those who have shivers should be given the flesh of peacock, Tittiri bird and Lāva bird mixed with Tippali and pepper. For dysentery the tender fruit of Kūvala, skin of Pāccotti, flower of Tātiri should be dried and powdered and be given mixed with sugar along with rice. For Karagraha (pain inside the trunk) Nasyam of ghee with Īntappū mixed in it should be done. It must be given "Muttaṅga Kañci with tippali, Cukku and Jīraka in it. For Utkarṇaka (pain in the ear) flesh of pigs should be given. For Galagraha (pain in the neck) a liniment made of Daśamūla, Mutirappuli and Kākkappancci in oil should be rubbed at the site of pain and the elephant kept under chains. If there is difficulty in passing urine light liquor containing powdered Aṣṭalavaṇas should be given. For all skin diseases use Vep oil as an ointment and give the infusion of Āṭaloṭaka to drink. For worms (inside the stomach) give cow's urine with powdered Vlālari in it. If the elephant is getting reduced and weak it should be given milk or meat soup with Cukku, Tippali and grapes well mixed in it. If there is lack of appetite it is to be given Mulgaudana (rice boiled along with Cerupayar) to which is added Cukku, Mulaku and Tippali. If it is Gulma it should be given sesame oil boiled with the following: Trikotpakkonna, Cukku, Mulaku Tippali, Kotuvelikkilaṅgu, Nāgadantiveru, Erikkinveru, Nātkkotpakkonna, Milk and Attittippali. Navara rice with sort of cerupayar can also be given. For swellings on the face, a paste made of tender Kūvala fruits can be rubbed at the site of the swelling. For all sorts of pains in the stomach rice well mixed with the powder made by grinding together Vlālari, Kuṭakappālayari, Asafoetida, Carala, Mañjal, Maramañjal may be given.
     The best food for elephants is the rice of Navara, Vrīhi and cennellu. Yava and wheat are next to the above. Any other food is inferior to these. Yava and sugarcane will give strength to elephants. Dry yava rice is not good. Milk and meat cooked with carminative ingredients are good for elephants who have gone lean.
     If the elephants receive great injuries in a battle the meat of birds like crow, fowl, cuckoo and Hari mixed with honey is good. Fumigation by the burning of chilli, fish, Vlālari, caustic soda, Puttal, Pīram and maramañjal mixed together is effective. Dropping honey medicated with tippali tandula, sesame oil, and fruit honey in the eyes is not only good for the eyes but is also inducive of digestion. Make an ointment with the faces of the birds cātaka and Pārāvata mixed with the burnt skin of Nātpāmara dissolved in light spirit. If this ointment is applied, the elephant would defeat all enemies in a battle. Powder Nīlotpala, Muttaṅga and Takara and make an ointment using rice gruel. Applying this ointment in the eye is excellent.
     If the nails grow they should be cut at least once a month. Once in a month an oil bath is good for the elephants. Elephant sheds should be spread with cowdung discs and dust. Doing Seka with ghee during autumn and summer is advisable. (Chapter 287, Agni Purāṇa).
     1. Vlālari--The grain of Vlal--Viḍaṅga (Babreng)
     2. Triphalā--A combination of the three fruits: a) āmalakī (Emblic Myrobalam) b) Vibhītakī (Beleric Myrobalam) and c) Harītakī (Myrobalam)
     3. Cukku--Suṇṭhī (dry ginger)
     4. Mulaku--Raktamarica (chilli)
     5. Tippali--Pippalī (long pepper)
     6. Kūvala--Vilva (Bengal Kins)
     7. Pāccotti--Lodhra (symplocos Racemosa)
     8. Tātiri--Dhātakī (Grislea Tomentosa)
     9. Nasyam--A method of introducing medicine through the nose
     10. Intappū--Śallakī Puṣpa (Flower of Boswellia Thurifera)
     11. Muttaṅga--Mustā (Cyperus Rotendus) Kañcī means rice boiled with water and Muttaṅga Kañcī means rice and muttaṅga boiled together.
     12. Jīraka--Jīraka (cumin seeds)
     13. Daśamūla--A combination of ten herbs.
     14. Mutirappuh
     15. Kākkappanacci--Kākatindu
     16. Aṣṭalavaṇas--Eight salts like common salt, rock salt, magnesium sulphate etc.
     17. Āṭaloṭaka--Āṭarūṣa (Vasaka)
     18. Cerupayar--Mudga (green-grain)
     19. Gulma
     20. Trikotpakkonna--Trivṛt (Turbithroot)
     21. Koṭuvelikkilañgu--Citraka (Plumbago rose)
     22. Nāgadantivcru--Root of Nāgadantī (Glancous leaved Physicnut)
     23. Erikkin Veru--Root of Arkka (Gigantic swallow wort)
     24. Nātkkotpakkonna--Kṛṣṇa Trivṛt
     25. Attittippalī--Hasti-pippalī
     26. Navara--Ṣaṣṭikā--A kind of rice.
     27. Carala--Saralā (long leaved pine)
     28. Mañjal--Haridrā (Turmeric)
     29. Maramañjal--Dārvī
     30. Vrīhi--Cīnaḥ (A kind of paddy)
     31. Cennellu--Śāli (Red rice)
     32. Yava--yava (Barley)
     33. Puttal
     34. Piram
     35. Taṇḍula--same as Vlāl
     36. Nātpamara--Four trees: Vaṭa, Vaṭa, Aśvattha and Udumbara.
     37. Nīlotpala--Nīlapadma (Blue water-lilly)
     38. Takara--Tagara
     39. Seka--A drip-bath with medicated oil.

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ĀNAKA A person of the Yādava dynasty. (See under YĀDAVAVAṂŚA).

ĀNAKADUNDUBHI An epithet of Vasudeva, father of Śrī Kṛṣṇa.

ĀNANDA A forest on the top of the mountain Mahāmeru. It was inhabited by celestial damsels, devas, gandharvas and Maharṣis. (Chapter 93, Bhūmi Khaṇḍa, Padma Purāṇa).

ĀNANDA (CĀKṢUṢA). Son of Maharṣi Anamitra. It was he who was born as Cākṣuṣa, the sixth Manu. There is a story behind his birth. One day, while his mother was keeping him in her lap and caressing him the baby laughed and questioned "Oh mother why are you caressing me, but look at those two cats. They consider me as their food". After some time one of the cats took the child away and put it in the cradle of the child of King Vikrānta. Vikrānta took the child as his for granted and reared him. At the time of Upanayana the King asked the boy to prostrate before his mother at which the boy exclaimed "Oh King, I am not your son. Your son is at some other place. By births and rebirths all of us have many mothers and so it is better to be above rebirths". After having said so much Ānanda went to the forest and started doing penance. Brahmā appeared before him and blessing him said that he would become the sixth Manu and lead the world to righteousness. By the blessing of Brahmā Ānanda was reborn as Cākṣuṣamanu. (See under Cākṣuṣa). (Mārkaṇḍeya Purāṇa).

ĀNANDAVARDHANA A great critic of Sanskrit literature. He lived in the 9th century A.D. He expounded his theory of Dhvanivāda by 120 Kārikās. His own commentary of the Kārikās is the book called Dhvanyāloka. There are four parts for Dhvanyāloka and each part is called an Udyota.
     There is a belief among a few that the Kārikās were written by another scholar, Sahṛdaya, and that Ānandavardhana had written only a commentary on it. He was a member of the royal council of Avantivarmā who ruled Kashmīr during the period 854-884 A.D. It is believed that he wrote Dhvanyāloka in 850 A.D. Many commentaries have been written of Dhvanyāloka of which the one written by Abhinavagupta is considered to be the best.

ĀNARTTA Grandson of Vaivasvatamanu. He was a king, son of Śaryāti.
     1. Genealogy. Descending in order from Viṣṇu-Brahmā-Marīci-Kaśyapa-Vivasvān-Vaivasvatamanu-Śaryāti-Ānartta.
     Sixteen sons were born to Vaivasvatamanu: Manu, Yama, Yamī, Aśvinīkumāra, Revanta, Sudyumna, Ikṣvāku, Nṛga, Śaryāti, Diṣṭa, Dhṛṣṭa, Karūṣa, Nariṣyanta, Nābhāga, Pṛṣadhra and Kavi. Of these Śaryāti got two children, Sukanyā and Anartta. Sukanyā became the wife of Cyavana.
     2) Other details. It was this king who built the fortresses at the town of Kuśasthalī (Dvārakā). Varuṇa submerged in the ocean all the fortresses built by him and the place for some time remained as a forest-land. (Daśama Skandha, Bhāgavata Kilippāttu). It was after that that Śrī Kṛṣṇa made that land beautiful and called it Dvārakā. The country ruled over by Ānartta was called Ānarttam. During his regime there lived in his land a very great scholar named Vedaratha. (Umeśānavrata, Śiva Purāṇa) See under Vedaratha.

ĀNARTTA (M) A place in ancient Bhārata. Arjuna conquered this place. (Śloka 4, Chapter 26, Sabhā Parva, M.B.).

ĀNDHRA The present Āndhra Pradeśa. It was famous even from purāṇic times and it was annexed by Sahadeva by defeating its ruler in a game of dice.

ĀṄGARIṢṬHA A king of ancient Bhārata. (Ślokas 13 and 14, Chapter 123, Śānti Parva, M.B.).

ĀṄGIRASAKALPA A saṃhitā division of Atharvaveda. The five saṃhitā divisions of Atharvaveda written by Muñjikeśa are the best. They are: The Nakṣatra Kalpa dealing with the pūjā rites of the stars; The veda Kalpa dealing with the rites associated with Brahmā, the Ṛtvik; The Saṃhitā Kalpa, dealing with the use and practice of Mantras; The Āṅgirasa Kalpa dealing with sorcery; and the Śānti Kalpa dealing with matters relating to the welfare and control of animals like horses and elephants. (Chapter 6, Aṃśam 3 of Viṣṇu Purāṇa).

ĀṄGIRASĪ A very chaste wife of a Brahmin. By the curse of Śakti, son of Vasiṣṭha Kalmāṣapāda, a king of the Ikṣvāku dynasty became a demon. That demon killed and devoured the husband of Āṅgirasī. Enraged at this the Brahmin lady cursed Kalmāṣapāda saying that if he touched his wife thereafter he would die. That was why Vasiṣṭha had to beget a son for Kalmāṣapāda of his wife. (Ślokas 16-22, Chapter 181, Ādi Parva, M.B.).

ĀṄGHRIKA One of the sons of Viśvāmitra who were Brahmavādins. (Śloka 54, Chapter 4, Anuśāsana Parva, M.B.).

ĀÑJALI A sage who was a classmate of Śaunaka. (Skandha 12, Bhāgavata).

ĀÑJANA KULA A division of elephants (in the army). (Ślokas 17 and 18, Chapter 112, Droṇa Parva, M.B.).

ĀNUŚĀSANIKA PARVA One of the Parvans of the Mahābhārata. (See under Mahābhārata').

ĀPA One of the Aṣṭavasus. The Aṣṭavasus are Āpa, Dhruva, Soma, Dharma, Anila, Agni, Pratyūṣa and Prabhāsa. The sons of Āpa are Vaitaṇḍa, Śrama, Śānta and Śvani. (See under Aṣṭavasus). (Chapter 15, Aṃśam 1, Viṣṇu Purāṇa).

ĀPAGĀ A sacred river. It is said that if one gives food to one brahmin on the banks of this river it will be equivalent to giving food to a crore of brahmins elsewhere. (Śloka 68, Chapter 83, Vana Parva, M.B.).

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ĀPASTAMBA An ancient sage. He once consoled King Dyumatsena. (Śloka 18, Chapter 298, Vana Parva, M.B.).
     1) How he got his name. Once a brahmin did not get a suitable man toofficiate as priest for a śrāddha ceremony. He then prayed to his ancestors, Viśvedevas and Mahāviṣṇu for help and then Āpastamba appeared before him. The brahmin gave him food to his heart's content and asked him how he felt. To the surprise of the brahmin Āpastamba replied, he wanted some more and thus made the Śrāddha ineffective. The brahmin got angry and cursed him by sprinkling on his face water taken in his palm. But before the water-particles reached his face Āpastamba ordered the water-drops to remain still. Water stopped stiff and still midway by the power of the sage. Because water (Āpa) became stiff (Stamba) the ṛṣi was named Āpastamba. (Brahma Purāṇa).
     2) How Āpastamba tīrtha came into existence. Once he met Agastya Muni and asked him who was superior among the gods Brahmā, Viṣṇu and Śiva. Agastya declared that Śiva stood supreme of the lot and gave him advice as to how to please Śiva. Following his instructions Āpastamba did penance on the banks of the river Gautamī and Śiva appeared before him, blessed him, and made that place a holy one. Śiva declared that those who, bathed at that place would obtain 'Divyajñāna' (Divine knowledge enabling one to know the past, present and future). From then onwards that place was known as Āpastamba tīrtha.
     3) Other details. Āpastamba had a very chaste and humble wife named Akṣasūtrā. Their son was Gārki. 'Gṛhyasūtrasaṃgraha' containing a prayer and two mantras is a contribution to the holy science by Āpastamba. Many Hindus follow it even now. He had stated that the decrease in the number of great sages was because of the fact that people were not practising the control of the senses as before.

ĀPADDHARMA PARVA A sub-divisional Parva of the Mahābhārata. (See under Mahābhārata).

ĀPAVAN I Another name of sage Vasiṣṭha. (Śloka 5, Chapter 99, Ādi Parva, M.B.).

ĀPAVAN II An ancient sage. Kārttavīryārjuna once burnt the āśrama of this ṛṣi and he cursed Agni and Kārttavīryārjuna. (Ślokas 42 and 43, Chapter 49, Śānti Parva, M.B.).

ĀPODADHAUMYA (See Ayodadhaumya).

ĀPTA A well-known serpent of the Kaśyapa dynasty. (Śloka 8, Chapter 35, Ādi Parva, M.B.).

ĀPŪRAṆA A well-known serpent of the Kaśyapa dynasty. (Śloka 6, Chapter 35, Ādi Parva).

ĀR The significance of the number six among the ancients, is given below. (In Malayālam Ār means six).
     1) Six factors which reduce the span of life. Eating dry meat, Drinking curd at night, Sleeping at dawn, Drinking impure water, Exposure to sun's heat in the morning, Inhaling fumes from dead body.
     2) Six divine qualities. Omniscience, Omnipresence, Omnipotence, Sarvakāraṇatva (being the cause of everything); Sarvanityatva (immortality) and Sarveśvaratva (having domination over everything).
     3) Six noblest qualities. Truth, Wisdom, Mercy, Justice, fortitude in grief, control of anger.
     4) Six Ṛsi Dharmas (Duties of Sages). Brahmacarya, Absolute truth, Japa, Jñāna (wisdom), Niyama, Sense of Justice.
     5) Six qualities of noble wives. A minister in business, a servant-maid in action, the goddess Lakṣmī in appearance, the Earth in patience, a mother in love and a prostitute in bed.
     6) Six qualities of a bad wife. Habit of dispute, stealing of money, showing favour to strangers, scandal-mongering, taking food earlier than the husband, spending most of the time in other houses.
     7) Six Vedāṅgas. Śikṣā, Kalpa, Vyākaraṇa, Nirukta, Jyotiṣa, Chandas.

ĀRĀLIKA A mahout who could control elephants that had gone mad temporarily. (Śloka 9, Chapter 2, Virāṭa Parva, M.B.).

ĀRAṆEYAPARVA A sub-divisional Parva of the Mahābhārata. (See under Mahābhārata).

ṄAU A mountain in front of the forest Saindhava inhabited by Manīṣipuruṣās. (Śloka 16, Chapter 125, Vana Parva, M.B.).

ĀRJAVA Son of Subala and brother of Śakuni. He was killed by Irāvān son of Arjuna. (Bhīṣma Parva, M.B.).

ĀROCAKA (M) A country of ancient Bhārata. The people of this place are called Ārocakas. (Śloka 7, Chapter 51, Bhīṣma Parva, M.B.).

ĀRṢA(M) A form of marriage. Brāhma is the form of marriage in which the bride is given to a man of good ancestry and fine character. Marriage by giving the bride after receiving a pair of cows from the bridegroom is called Ārṣa. Prājāpatya is the form of marriage in which the bride is given to the man who asks for her. When the bride is given with dowry, the marriage is known as Āsuram. Marriage with the mutual love and consent is Gāndharva. Capturing the bride after a fight and marrying her by force is Rākṣasa. Marriage after deceiving the bride is called Paiśāca. These are the seven types of marriage. According to the author of the Smṛti another form of marriage known as DAIVA is also mentioned. (Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 154).

ĀRṢṬIṢEṆA A Maharṣi. In the Mahābhārata, Vana Parva, Chapter 159 there is a reference to the Pāṇḍavas visiting this sage during their life in the forest. Ārṣṭiṣeṇa's āśrama was midway between Badaryāśrama and Kubera's capital.
     Power of Tapas. In Kṛtayuga this sage did rigorous tapas in Pṛthūdakatīrtha. Owing to the rigour of the tapas he obtained all the chief vedas. He gave three boons to that sacred tīrtha:--
     1. Those who bathe in this tīrtha will get the benefit of Aśvamedha yāga.
     2. There will be no fear of snakes in this tīrtha.
     3. A slight effort made here, will be rewarded with greater results.
     After giving these three boons to the river Sarasvatī which is Pṛthūdakatīrtha the sage attained Brahminhood and entered Devaloka. (M.B., Śalya Parva, Chapter 40, Verses 3-9).

ĀRTTĀYANI Śalya, son of Ṛtāyana. He was noted for his great honesty and love of truth. (Śloka 56, Chapter 32, Śalya Parva, M.B.).

ĀRTIMĀN A mantra which eliminates all kinds of fear. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 50, Verses 23-26).

ĀRUṆI I A disciple of the sage Āyodhadhaumya. (For details see under Āyodhadhaumya).

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ĀRUṆI II A cobra born in the family of the serpent, Dhṛtarāṣṭra. This cobra fell dead at the Sarpasatra of Janamejaya. (Śloka 19, Chapter 57, Ādi Parva, M.B.).

ĀRUṆI III A son born to Kaśyapa of his wife Vinatā. (Śloka 40, Chapter 65, Ādi Parva, M.B.).

ĀRUṆI IV A soldier of the Kaurava army. He fought against Arjuna along with Śakuni. (Śloka 122, Chapter 156, Droṇa Parva, M.B.).

ĀRUṆI V One of the one hundred and eight Upaniṣads.

ĀRUṢĪ A daughter of Manu. Cyavana Maharṣi married her. They got a son named Aurva. The child was taken from the thigh of Āruṣī. Rcīka was the son of this Aurva. Rcīka was the father of Jamadagni, father of Paraśurāma. Even from childhood Aurva was a bold, bright and good boy. (Ślokas 47 and 48, Chapter 66, Ādi Parva, M.B.).

ĀRYAS The Ṛgveda gives us most of the information regarding the Āryas who came to the north of India during the times of the Vedas through the passes on that north-western side of Bhārata. Sirdar K.M. Panikar writing in his preface to the 'Ṛgvedasaṃhitā' by Poet Vallathol summarises the information available in the Ṛgveda about Āryan culture and says: "When the Āryans first entered India they were rich in cattle. They used to breed goats, dogs, donkeys, and horses. The elephant was unknown to them. In the Vedas the vehicle of Ind a is a horse and not an elephant. When hailing Indra they shout 'come, come on your horse-back'. The Veda does not say anything about how Indra got the elephant, Airāvata, as his vehicle. Sing to the glory of Indra against whom in his chariot driven by two horses no enemy would dare to face.
     The Ṛgveda gives great importance to agriculture. Areas under cultivation were called Urvara and 'Kṣetra'. Fields were ploughed by attaching six, eight and even twelve bullocks to the plough. Water was taken from hṛadas and Kulyakas (ponds and tanks) for the purpose of irrigation. Agriculture was a very familiar art to them. They used to cultivate all sorts of grains and grams including yava. They conducted trade by the exchange of goods generally. There is a reference in one place of the use of a coin 'Niṣka'
     The Āryas were clever in the art of leather work, woodwork and metallurgy. They were well versed in medicine also. In a sūkta of the ninth maṇḍala it is stated that the father of a ṛṣi was a medical practitioner. There are references to many industries also. Weaving was a very important industry at that time. Cotton cloth and woollen blankets were made by them on a large scale. Iron was used by them with great skill. The manufacture of armours and the descriptions about them in Ṛgveda are ample evidence of the proficiency of the Āryas in ironmongery and blacksmithy. Sea voyage was not familiar to them. References to traders cruising in boats in the Sindhu river do not give much importance to the cruising. In food rice and ghee were important. Meat was also relished. Rṣis wore animal skins but others wore dhotis and shawls.
     During the Ṛgvedic times their social structure was divided into four stages: Grāma was a colony of families and was the nucleus of the society. A number of gramas formed into a place called Viṣaya. A number of Viṣayas became what was known as 'Janam'. The importance of Janas can be understood by the statements made about Pañcajanas and the existence of special Janas like Yādava Jana and Bhārata Jana.
     There is no wonder why the Āryas who had to live among enemies accepted kingship. The Ṛgveda narrates the difficulties people would have to encounter if they were left to fight their enemies without a proper leader and so advocates Kingship and gives it an exalted position in their social structure. Sūkta 22, Anuvāka 12 of Maṇḍala 10 describes the coronation of a King thus: "I do hereby crown you as King. Come to our midst. Rule us with courage and an unwavering mind. Let all your subjects love you. Let thy kingdom remain with you for ever". The next mantra is also of the same idea. A King is above punishment. The veda speaks about many famous kings of which the following are worth mentioning. Divodāsa, Sudās, Ambarīṣa, Nahuṣa and Purūravas.
     The chief priest was always the political advisor also. Viśvāmitra and Vasiṣṭha were two great priests of the Bharata dynasty. There were other priests also. Mention is there about a Rājasabhā though nothing is said about their powers or functions. It can be surmised that the Sabhā was constituted of only men of character and learning.
     It is interesting to note the type of domestic life in vogue then. A father had the right, to sell his children, To cite an example is the story of Śunaśśepha who was made into a cow and sold to Viśvāmitra who looked after him well. The father had the right to make his children lose all rights over his properties. Viśvāmitra sent out from his family fifty sons who refused to obey him. Dowry was current then. Sūkta 11, Anuvāka 3, Maṇḍalam 10 ordains that the bride should go to the house of her husband after the marriage. Polygamy was not objected to. There is a mantra to harass the co-wife and its purpose is to make the husband more attached to her who hates the co-wife. The originator of this mantra was Indrāṇī, the queen of Indra. Indra had many wives. Marriage was considered as a necessary duty. Widow marriage was allowed.
     The Ṛgveda gives the picture of a society of people who were always at war with each other. "We are surrounded by mighty enemies. Help us". This is the slogan that rings out from the Ṛgveda.
     The Ṛgveda is a history of the Āryas. The march from Kubhātaṭa (Kubul) to the banks of Yamunā is depicted there. It was at Kubhātaṭa that the mantras were first made. When they reach the banks of the Gaṅgā the period of Ṛgveda ends. The crossing of each of the five rivers of Pañcanada is treated as a big event by the ṛṣis. When they saw the huge and deep river, Sindhu, they were amazed. The wonder is reflected in a lovely mantra. It was after crossing Sindhu that they had to oppose the 'Dasyus'. The Ṛgveda itself records that the Dasyus were more cultured than the Āryas. Śambara, a Dasyu King, was the ruler of a hundred cities. Their fortresses were strong. They have been described in the Ṛgveda as Aśvamayī, Āyasī and Śatabhujī.
     The chief opponents of the Āryas were a tribe of people called Paṇis. From the Nirukta of Yāska we are given to understand that the Paṇis were mainly engaged in trade. The Ṛgveda names many Dasyu kings of which the following few were more daring and brave and the Āryas acknowledged their superior strength and courage: Dhuni, Cumuri, Vipru, Varcis and Śambara. Among the several divisions of the Dasyus, the Śimyus, Kīkaṭas, Śigrus and Yakṣus ranked foremost in power. They are described as having black colour and flat noses and speaking a language different from that of the Āryas. We may surmise from these facts that they belonged to the Drāviḍa class of people. They never conducted yāga nor did they worship gods like Indra. They were idol worshippers for they have been abused as 'Śiśnadevas'. Later the Āryas learnt from the Dasyus the worship of Śiva, Devī and Liṅga.
     Conquering these daring and cultured enemies the Āryas reached the banks of the Yamunā to find to their pleasant surprise a radical change in themselves. The Bharatas settled themselves in the land between the Yamunā and Gaṅgā and remained friendly with the Dasyus living to the east of Gaṅgā. The Āryas who settled down in Pañcanada were strong and to prevent them from coming and conquering them Bharata tried to keep them remain on the other side of Śutudri (Sutlej). This led to a war called Dāśarājña.
     This war is to be considered as one of the most important of wars in the world. Those who opposed Sudās were Āryas though among the supporters of Sudās were also Āryas. It was the people under Sudās who came out victorious in that war and put a stop to further conquests by the Āryas. From thereafter the Āryas joined hands with the aborigines and laid the foundation for the great Hindu civilization. Thereafter the Ṛgveda states about prayers for help to combat 'our enemies of Āryas and Dasyus'. The gods who were recognised later were those who were not found in the vedas of the Āryas. The worship of Mahāyogī and Devī found in Mohenjodaro is an evidence of this change.

ĀRYĀ One of the seven mothers who were present at the birth of Subrahmaṇya. (Śloka 13, Chapter 228, Vana Parva, M.B.).

ĀRYAKA A famous serpent. (Śloka 7, Chapter 35, Ādi Parva, M.B.) Āryaka is associated with Bhīmasena in the following story. Once Duryodhana gave snake poison in his food to Bhīmasena. Unaware Bhīma took his food as usual and went to bathe in the river. After some time Bhīma became unconscious due to the effect of the poison and fell flat in the river.
     Immediately Duryodhana bound him by ropes and put him in more deep waters. Bhīma reaching the bottom was bitten by all the snakes there. This fortunately served as an antidote and the poison in Bhīma's body was neutralized and Bhīma became his old self again and killed all the serpents. Those serpents who escaped went and brought their chief, Vāsuki. At that time it was Āryaka who advised Vāsuki to give him 'rasapāna'. (Ślokas 64-68, Chapter 127, Ādi Parva, M.B.).

ĀRYAKU Another name for Durgādevī. (Chapter 12, Agni Purāṇa).

ĀRYĀVARTA Another name for Bhārata. There is also a place of that name. According to Smṛti the land lying between the Himālayas and the Vindhyas is called Āryāvarta. (Śloka 15, Chapter 325, Śānti Parva, M.B.).

ĀRYĀVARTA A king of the dynasty of Viśvakarmā. Genealogy. Descending in order from Viṣṇu are Brahmā, Dharma, Prabhāsa, Viśvakarmā, Priyavrata, Agnīdhra, Nābhi, Ṛṣabha and Āryāvarta.
     Of these Ṛṣabha got of his wife Jayantī twenty sons: Bharata, Kuśāvarta, Ilāvarta, Brahmāvarta, Aryāvarta Malaya, Ketu, Bhadrasena, Indraspṛk, Vidarbha, Kīkaṭa, Kavi, Hari, Antarīkṣa, Prabuddha, Pippalāyana, Āvirhotra, Dramiḍa, Camasa and Karabhājana. Of these Bharata ruled over this land and gave it the name Bhārata. Brothers of Bharata ruled different parts of this land. Dramiḍa's land became known later as Drāviḍa (Dakṣiṇabhārata).

ĀṢĀḌHA I A Kṣatriya King. He was the incarnation of a Rākṣasa called Krodhavaśa. Kaśyapa was the son of Marīci, Brahmā's son. Kaśyapa married Krodhavaśā, daughter of Dakṣa. The Rākṣasa group called Krodhavaśas were the children of Krodhavaśā. Many Kṣatriya kings trace their descent from this group of Rākṣasas. The names of such Kṣatriya Kings are given below: Madraka, Karṇaveṣṭha, Siddhārtha, Kīṭakariddha, Subāhu, Bālhika, Kratha, Vicitra, Suratha, Cīravāsas, Kauravya, Dantavaktra, Durjaya, Rukmi, Janamejaya, Āṣāḍha, Vāyuvega, Bhūritejas, Ekalavya, Sumitra, Gomukha, Vātadhāna, and Kṣemadhūrti. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 6, Verses 59-64).

ĀṢĀḌHA II Śiva. (M.B., Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 17, Verse 121).

ĀṢĀḌHABHŪTI See under Pañcatantra.

ĀṢĀḌHA Name of a month. By feasting in this month, one will have many sons and much wealth. (M.B., Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 106, Verse 26).

ĀṢĀḌHA Name of a star. After observing a fast on the day of this star, if curd is given to a Brahmin of noble birth, one can take rebirth in a family having many cows. (M.B., Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 64, Verses 25-26).

ĀṢĀḌHAKA A mahout in the Udayana story. In Kathāsaritsāgara, Kathāmukhalambaka, 5th Taraṅga, we find a reference to an elephant called Bhadravatī and a mahout named Āṣāḍhaka in the palace of the heroine, Vāsavadattā.


ĀSAṂGAPLĀYOGI A King, who was generous by nature. In the Ṛgveda, there is a reference to this King who once lost his masculinity and was transformed into a woman but was restored to manhood by a Muni named Medhyātithi.

ĀSANA Posture in Yogābhyāsa. There are different types of āsanas. The chief of them are given below:
     1) Bhujaṅgāsana. Lying flat, face downwards on a sheet with hands placed close to the body on either side. After relaxing all the muscles of the body, concentrate the mind on health. Keeping the feet close together and pressing the knees against the ground, raise the soles upwards to the sky. Place both palms, pressing against the ground, touching the shoulders on both sides. Then raise the head and bend the neck backwards as far as possible. At this time, the trunk and legs should be in close contact with the ground. Gradually raise the chest, supported by the hands on the ground. Bring the head down in the same way as it was raised and restore the body to its former position. This āsana strengthens the backbone.
     2) Śalabhāsana. Lie flat on the sheet, face downwards. Keep the legs close together and raise the feet up with the heels touching each other. Place the hands close to the body on either side and close the fists upwards. Place the fists and shoulders close to the ground and make the whole body stiff after inhaling the breath. Then try to raise the legs. Support the weight of the body with the breast and hands. This is possible by pressing the fists, firmly against the ground. Until the āsana is completed, do not send out the breath. Keep the legs straight and stiff. The lower abdomen and legs may be raised slightly. This makes the āsana complete. On feeling suffocation, the legs must be brought down slowly.
     Besides these, there are many other āsanas like Dhanurāsana, Paścimātānāsana, Halāsana, Mayūrāsana, Sarvāṅgāsana, Matsyāsana, Śīrṣāsana, Arddhamatsyendrāsana, Pādahastāsana, Trikoṇāsana, Uḍḍīyāsana, Nauli, Viparītakaraṇi, Yogamudrā, Śavāsana, etc. (See under Yoga).

ĀŚĀVAHA I A son of Kaśyapa and Aditi. From Viṣṇu Brahmā, from Brahmā Marīci and from Marīci Kaśyapa were born. Kaśyapa married Aditi, daughter of Dakṣa. Aditi gave birth to ten sons: Bṛhadbhānu, Cakṣurātmā, Vibhāvasu, Ṛcīka, Savitā, Arka, Bhānu, Āśāvaha, Ravi and Vivasvān. Vaivasvata Manu was the son of Vivasvān. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 1, Verse 42).

ĀŚĀVAHA II A prince of the Vṛṣṇi dynasty. He was present at the Svayaṃvara of Draupadī. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 185, Verse 19).

ĀŚRAMA Asramites (Inmates of an Āśrama) have to pass through four stages. The four stages of Brahmacarya, Gārhasthya, Vānaprastha and Sannyāsa are known as the four Āśramas. Viṣṇu Purāṇa, Part III, Chapter 9 describes each of the Āśramas as follows:
     1. Brahmacarya. "After Upanayana a boy should maintain a Brahmacārī's vrata, engage himself in the study of the Vedas, suppress his indriyas (the five senses) and live in the house of the preceptor. Living there with proper observance of śauca, customs and vratas he should serve and attend on the Guru. The study of Vedas should be with proper observance of Vratas and steady attention. A Brahmacārī should worship with concentration, the Sun and Agni at the time of the two sandhyās (dawn and dusk) and after that he should do obeisance to the Guru. When the Guru stands, he should also be standing. When the guru walks, he should walk behind him and when he sits, he should sit in a lower position. The Śiṣya (disciple-pupil) should not do anything against the guru. When the guru himself asks, the Śiṣya should sit in front of him and recite Vedas without attending to anything else. After that, with his permission he may eat food which has been got by begging. The Śiṣya may take his bath in the water only after the Ācārya (guru) has taken his bath in it. Everyday the Camata, darbha, water and flowers which the guru needs, must be brought and supplied (by the Śiṣya).
     2. Gārhasthya. After the study of the Vedas the intelligent śiṣya gives Gurudakṣiṇā (Payment to the preceptor) and with the consent of the Guru, enters into Gṛhasthāśrama. Then he is to marry and by earning money from a suitable occupation, should fulfil all obligations of a Gṛhastha according to his capacity. The Gṛhastha who worships the Pitṛs with Piṇḍadāna (offerings of rice balls), Devas with Yāgas (sacrifices), Ṛṣis with Svādhyāya (self discipline), Prajāpatis with begetting of children, spirits with bali (offering of food etc.) and the whole world with love, attains the holy world by his own virtuous deeds. Gṛhasthāśrama is the only source of support for sannyāsīs and brahmacārīs who beg their food. Therefore feeding them is an act of nobility. Brāhmaṇas travel from country to country to study Vedas, for pilgrimage and for seeing the places. The Gṛhastha is the only refuge and support of those who are homeless, who do not carry their food with them and those who spend the night wherever they reach. If such people come to his house, the Gṛhastha should welcome them with kind and loving words, and give them bed, seat and food. The guest who leaves a house disappointed, is really departing after transferring his own sins to that householder and taking away all the virtuous deeds of the householder. It is not proper for the Gṛhastha to treat a guest with disrespect, to behave rudely or treacherously towards him, to regret what has been given to the guest, or to obstruct or rebuke him. The Gṛhastha who performs the supreme duty of Gṛhasthāśrama in this way properly, is liberated from all secular bonds and reaches the noblest worlds.
     3. Vānaprastha. After having finished all his duties in this way, to his satisfaction, the Gṛhastha, with the commencement of old age, should go to the forest, either after entrusting his wife to his sons or taking her also with him. There, he should use leaves, roots and fruits for his food, grow hair and beard, sleep on the bare ground, lead the life of a tāpasa and receive and honour all classes of guests. His clothes, sheets and blankets should be of deer-skin and darbha grass. The rule is that he should bathe three times a day. Worship of gods, performing homas, hospitality to all guests, mendicancy -all these are the laudable features of Vānaprastha. Any oil that is available in the forest is to be used for his oil bath. Enduring heat and cold, performing tapas, are also his duties. The Muni who observes this rule in Vānaprastha with due austerity, burns up all his evils as with fire and attains the eternal worlds.
     4. Sannyāsa. The fourth Āśrama is that of the Sannyāsī. Before entering upon the fourth Āśrama one has to renounce the love of travel, wealth and wife and also give up all spirit of rivalry. One who embraces sannyāsa should abandon completely the efforts for the three Puruṣārthas of Dharma, Artha and Kāma, treat friends and foes alike and continue to love all living beings. Not even a single creature should be offended by thought, word or deed. Conquering all passions, the Sannyāsī should renounce all bonds and attachments. He should not stay in a village more than one night and in a town more than five nights. Even that should be in such a way that no one feels any love or hatred towards him. For sustaining life, he should go about begging food from the houses of the people of the three castes--Brahmins, Kṣatriyas and Vaiśyas. It should be after all people have taken their food and put out the cooking fire. The Sannyāsī should cast away all vices like Kāma, Krodha, Garva, Lobha, and Moha and should not have any thought of self in anything. The Muni who goes about giving shelter to all creatures will not have to fear any creature. The Brāhmaṇa who follows the Sannyāsāśrama as described above with a pure heart and without difficulty will shine like fire without fuel and attain Brahmaloka in peace.

ĀŚRAMAVĀSA PARVA One of the Parvas in the Mahābhārata. (See under Mahābhārata).

ĀŚRAMAVĀSIKA PARVA One of the Parvas in the Mahābhārata. (See under Mahābhārata).

ĀŚRĀVYA A muni (sage) in Indra's assembly. (M.B., Sabhā Parva, Chapter 7, Verse 18).

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ĀSTĪKA The son of the Maharṣi Jaratkāru and his wife, also named Jaratkāru. He stopped King Janamejaya's Sarpasatra and saved the nāgas.
     1) Birth. There is a story about Āstīka's birth in the Devī Bhāgavata. Long ago the people of the world were so much troubled by the serpents, that they sought protection from Kaśyapa Prajāpati. To find a remedy for this, Kaśyapa discussed the matter with Brahmā. To put an end to the troubles from the serpents, Brahmā suggested that a number of mantras and a deity as the basis of those mantras should be created. Accordingly Kaśyapa created many mantras and Manasā Devī as the basic deity of those mantras. She is named "Manasādevī" because Kaśyapa created her by his mental power. Manasādevī has eleven other names also, namely Jaratkāru, Jagatgaurī, Siddhayoginī, Vaiṣṇavī, Nāgabhaginī, Śaivī, Nāgeśvarī, Jaratkārupriyā, Āstīkamātā, Viṣaharā and Mahājñānayutā.
     Manasādevī (Jaratkāru) when quite young, went to Kailāsa for doing tapas (penance). There she did tapas to Śiva for a thousand years. At last Śiva appeared and blessed her with divine wisdom. She returned with great learning and devotion. (Devī Bhāgavata, Navama Skandha).
     At that time, a Muni (sage) named Jaratkāru, when travelling through the forest happened to see his pitṛs (souls of forefathers) hanging over a precipice at the end of a blade of grass. They were hanging precariously at the end of a reed grass, head downwards, about to fall into the abyss. Jaratkāru enquired why they were lying in that condition. They explained that they were in that plight because their descendant Jaratkāru had no children. As he is a bachelor there is no hope either, of his having any issue. Since he has no children, we will not get to heaven, they added. To save the Pitṛs from their predicament, Jaratkāru decided to marry. But he wished to marry a woman who had the same name as his. Once Vāsuki met Jaratkāru and told him that he had a sister named Jaratkāru and that he would be very happy if Jaratkāru married her. Jaratkāru accepted the offer readily and married Jaratkāru.
     After their marriage, while they were living together in a place called Puṣkara tīrtha, an unexpected event happened which interrupted the happy course of their life. One evening, the husband was sleeping with his head in the wife's lap, under a tree. The sun was about to set. As the Maharṣi did not wake up before sunset, the wife became anxious. It is believed that he who does not wake up before sunrise and he who does not offer prayers at dusk will be guilty of the sin of Brahmahatyā (killing a Brahmin). Nor was it proper to wake him up from a sound sleep. But in the end, she did wake him up. The husband sprang up in great fury. He renounced the wife then and there. Weeping bitterly, she begged for his forgiveness. At last Jaratkāru relented and told her: "You will have a very noble, brilliant, renowned, virtuous, scholarly and devout son who will be a devotee of Viṣṇu and a preserver of the family". After this Manasādevī set out to Kailāsa. When she reached there Parama-Śiva and Pārvatī comforted her.
     Manasādevī was pregnant. The precepts and spiritual advice given by Jaratkāru, Parama-Śiva and Pārvatī were heard by the child in the womb and so even before his birth he became a Jñānī and a yogī. In due course Manasādevī gave birth to a son who was a part of Nārāyaṇa (Viṣṇu). Since he was the son of Manasādevī who had deep devotion to the Guru and to the Gods, the boy was named Āstīka.
     The Mahābhārata, Ādi Parva, gives another reason for giving this name to the boy. When the sage Jaratkāru abandoned his wife, he had blessed her saying that the child in her womb would be a brilliant and devoted son. That is why this boy came to be called Āstīka.
     2) Boyhood Āstīka was taught Veda, Vedāṃgas etc. by Parama-Śiva himself. After receiving the blessings of Parama-Śiva, Āstīka went to Puṣkara tīrtha and did tapas to Viṣṇu for many years. Having received Viṣṇu's blessings also, he returned to Kailāsa. After living there happily with his mother for some time, one day they started to the Āśrama of Kaśyapa Prajāpati, the father of Manasādevī. Kaśyapa was very much pleased to see his noble-hearted daughter and her brilliant son. To enhance the fame and accomplishments of the boy Kaśyapa gave a sumptuous feast to ten crores of Brahmins. (Devī Bhāgavata, Navama Skandha).
     Vāsuki was Manasādevī's brother. Āstīka grew up there under the care of Vāsuki. It was Cyavana Muni who taught Sāṃgavedas to Āstīka, at this time. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 48, Verse 18).
     3) Āstīka at the Sarpasatra. Once King Parīkṣit, the son of Abhimanyu was travelling through the forest for hunting animals. He picked up a dead snake with the tip of his bow and put it on the shoulder of a sage named "Śamīka". Śamīka's son, Śṛṃgī came to know of this. In his anger, Śṛṃgī pronounced a curse that King Parīkṣit should die within seven days by the bite of Takṣaka. When Parīkṣit heard of this, he had a palace built on a single pillar in the middle of the ocean, quite inaccessible to Takṣaka and took shelter there. The most famous physicians and wizards were engaged to ward off the approach of Takṣaka to that place. Six days passed like this. On the seventh day, determined to make a final attempt, Takṣaka disguised himself as an old Brāhmaṇa and set out to the King's place of shelter. On his way he met Dhanvantari who was proceeding to Parīkṣit to protect him. They became friends and as a result of it, Dhanvantari returned after receiving a large number of rare precious stones given to him by Takṣaka. Assuming the form of a small worm, Takṣaka secretly entered into a fruit which was to be presented to the King. As soon as the King took that fruit in his hand, Takṣaka took his own shape and size and bit the King who died immediately. Janamejaya was the son of this King Parīkṣit.
     Janamejaya performed all the obsequies of his father. After that, in a spirit of revenge, with the object of annihilating the whole race of serpents, he summoned Brāhmaṇas to conduct a sarpa satra (snake sacrifice).
     In the sacrificial fire specially prepared at that yāga, many serpents were being burnt up. It seemed that the whole race of serpents would shortly be wiped out. But Takṣaka alone was not to be seen. The officiating priests were beginning to get angry. Impatient cries of Where is Takṣaka rent the air. The frightened Takṣaka fled for life to the palace of his friend Indra and there lay down, curling round Indra's cot. When the priests understood this they decided to use their charms and mantras which would bring Indra, his bed, cot and all, along with Takṣaka to the sacrificial fire. At this stage, all the gods rushed to Manasādevī and fell at her feet and begged her to save the situation. The kindhearted Devī called her son Āstīka and advised him to persuade Janamejaya to stop the sarpasatra. Āstīka went to Janamejaya and requested him to give him the lives of Takṣaka and Indra as a gift. Janamejaya, after consulting the munis and priests and at their advice, agreed to do so. In this way, the Sarpasatra was stopped and the remaining serpents escaped with their lives. (Devī Bhāgavata, Navama Skandha, M.B., Ādi Parva).

ĀSTĪKA PARVA One of the Parvas in the Mahābhārata. See Mahābhārata.

ĀSURAM A form of marriage. (See VIVĀHA).

ĀSURĀYAṆA A son of Viśvāmitra. (M.B., Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 56).

ĀSURI An ancient Maharṣi. He was the ācārya of Kapila Sāṃkhyadarśana and the guru of the maharṣi Pañcaśikha. Once Āsuri had a full vision of God. He gave many precepts on spiritual matters to other Maharṣis. The Bhāgavata says that Āsuri received his spiritual enlightenment from his wife, Kapilā. (M.B., Śānti Parva, Chapter 218, Verses 10-14).

ĀŚVALĀYANA I A son of Viśvāmitra. (M.B., Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 54).

ĀŚVALĀYANA II An Ācārya. He was a disciple of Śaunaka. Āśvalāyana composed three famous works: Āśvalāyana Gṛhyasūtra, Āśvalāyana Śrautasūtra and Āśvalāyana Stuti.

ĀṬAKA A serpent born of the Kaurava dynasty. This serpent was burnt at the Sarpasatra of Janamejaya. (Śloka 12, Chapter 57, Ādi Parva, M.B.)

ĀṬAVĪPURI An ancient city in India Sahadeva conquered this city. (M.B., Sabhā Parva, Chapter 31, Verse 72).

ĀTHARVAṆA A sage. When Arjuna dreamed of going to Śiva accompanied by Kṛṣṇa they visited in the dream the āśrama of this sage also.

ĀTMADEVA See under Gokarṇa.

ĀTREYA A sage. This sage had acquired the power to go from one planet to another. Once this ṛṣi went to devaloka as the guest of Indra and there he drank Amṛta (the celestial elixir) and enjoyed the dances of the celestial maidens A desire to have a similar heaven of his own budded in his mind and he approached Viśvakarmā who gave him a new heaven of his own. But before long the demons took over this heaven from him. Though Viśvakarmā took back the same from the demons, Ātreya did not go back but returned to his old āśrama on the banks of Gomatī and doing penance there for a long time attained salvation (Brahma Purāṇa).
     More details. Ātreya was also present among the ascetics who assembled at the sarpasatra of Janamejaya. (Śloka 8, Chapter 55, Ādi Parva, M.B.).
     2) Ātreya was a disciple of Vāmadeva. (Śloka 6, Chapter 192, Vana Parva, M.B.).
     3) This ṛṣi taught his disciples about Nirguṇabrahma. (Śloka 7, Chapter 137, Anuśāsana Parva, M.B.).

ĀTREYA(M) A place of ancient Bhārata. (Śloka 68, Chapter 9, Bhīṣma Parva, M.B.).

ĀTREYĪ I Wife of King Ūru. Svāyambhuva Manu got of his wife Śatarūpā two sons, Priyavrata and Uttānapāda. Uttānapāda got a son named Uttama of Suruci and one of name Dhruva of Sunīti. Dhruva got three sons, Śiṣṭi, Bhava and Śambhu. Śiṣṭi got five sons, Ripu Ripuñjaya. Śipra, Vṛkala and Vṛkatejas. Cākṣuṣa was, born to Ripu of his wife Bṛhatī. Manu was born to Cākṣuṣa of his wife Vīraṇī. Ūru was the son of Manu. Ūru got of Ātreyī Aṅga, Sumanas, Svāti, Kratu, Aṅgiras and Gaya. (Chapter 18, Agni Purāṇa).

ĀTREYĪ II A river. (Śloka 22, Chapter 9, Sabhā Parva, M.B.).

ĀTREYĪ III Anasūyā, wife of Atri is also called Ātreyī.

ĀTREYĪ IV Daughter of Maharṣi Atri. She was married to Aṅgiras, son of Agni. Aṅgiras always spoke rudely to her and pained at this she once approached her father and told him about this. Her father told her thus: "Your husband is the son of Agni. That is why he appears unbearable to you. Therefore give him a cold bath always and he would gradually become mild." Hearing this the devout Ātreyī transformed herself into a river and started to cool him down by constant showers. This river later on became the famous Paruṣṇī Nadī. (Brahmāṇḍa Purāṇa).

ĀVAHA A Vāyu. (M.B., Śānti Parva, Chapter 328, Verse 37).

ĀVANTIKĀ Daughter of Yaugandharāyaṇa, a famous character in the story of Udayana. (See under Yaugandharāyaṇa).

ĀVARAṆA A King of Viśvakarmā's dynasty.
     Genealogy. From Viṣṇu were born in the following order: Brahmā-Dharma-Prabhāsa-Viśvakarmā-Priyavrata-Āgnīdhra-Nābhi-Ṛṣabha-Bharata-Āvaraṇa.
     Bharata married the world-beauty, Pañcajanī. Five children, Sumati, Rāṣṭrabhṛt, Sudarśana, Āvaraṇa, and Dhūmraketu were born to her. (Bhāgavata, Daśama Skandha).

ĀVARTANANDĀ A sacred Tīrtha. One who bathes in this tīrtha will be able to enjoy life in Nandanavana. (M.B., Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 25, Verse 45).

ĀVAŚĪRA A place in ancient India. It is said that Karṇa conquered this place. (M.B., Vana Parva, Chapter 254, Verse 9).

ĀVASTHYA An Agni. (M.B., Vana Parva, Chapter 221, Verse 5).

ĀVIRHOTRA A king of Viśvakarmā's dynasty.
     Genealogy. From Viṣṇu were descended in the following order: Brahmā-Dharma-Prabhāsa-Viśvakarmā-Barhiṣmatī-Priyavrata-Āgnīdhra-Nābhi-Ṛṣabha-Āvirhotra.
     Jayantī, Ṛṣabha's wife bore to him twenty children who were: Bharata, Kuśāvarta, Ilāvarta, Brahmāvarta, Āryāvarta, Malaya, Ketu, Bhadrasena, Indrasprk, Vidarbha, Kīkaṭa, Kavi, Hari, Antarīkṣa, Prabuddha, Pippalāyana, Āvirhotra, Dramiḍa, Camasa and Karabhājana. The eldest of them, Bharata, became the ruler of India. From him this country came to be called "BHĀRATA". All the younger brothers ruled over the different parts of this country.

ĀYATI A daughter of Mahāmeru. Two daughters were born to Mahāmeru, Āyati and Niyati. Āyati was married by Dhātā and Niyati by Vidhātā. Dhātā and Vidhātā are the two sons born to Bhṛgu Maharṣi of his wife Khyāti. Dhātā got a son, Prāṇa, of Āyati and Vidhātā, a son, Mṛkaṇḍu of Niyati. Prāṇa got a son Dyutimān and he got a son Rājavān. (Chapter 10, Aṃśam 1, Viṣṇu Purāṇa).

ĀYAVASA A King. There is mention about this king in Sākta 128, Maṇḍala 1 of the Ṛgveda.

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ĀYOGAVA A special caste of people. Their profession was drama acting. They were adepts in handicrafts. See under Cāturvarṇyam. (Chapter 151, Agni Purāṇa).

ĀYODHADHAUMYA See under Ayodhadhaumya.

ĀYRĀJAS Name of a class of Kings. Till the beginning of the 10th century A.D. Āyrājas were a prominent political force in Kerala. They ruled over a huge area in S. Kerala (S. Travancore) till the time of the Veṇād dynasty coming into power.

ĀYUDHA PARĪKṢĀ A test in the skill of archery was conducted when the Pāṇḍavas and Kauravas finished their study at the feet of Droṇācārya. This is described beautifully in Chapter 134 of ādi Parva, M.B.

ĀYURVEDA It is the science which the sage Dhanvantari taught Suśruta. This describes all the diseases and the treatment meant for them. Ailments are of four kinds: Śārīrika refers to fever, skin diseases etc., Mānasika refers to those arising out of anger; Āgantuka refers to cuts, wounds and injuries, and Sahaja refers to hunger, thirst, old age, etc. (Chapters 279 to 286, Agni Purāṇa). Refer Dhanvantari for more details.

ĀYUS I Son of Purūravas and father of Nahuṣa.
     1) Genealogy. Descending in order from Viṣṇu Brahmā-Candra-Budha-Purūravas-Āyus.
     Āyus was born to Purūravas of Urvaśī. To Āyus was born of his wife Svarbhānavī Nahuṣa. (Śloka 24, Chapter 7, Ādi Parva, M.B.).
     2) Birth of the son. See under Nahuṣa.
     3) Other details. Āyus was a king who had acquired great power by penance. (Śloka 15, Chapter 296, Śānti Parva, M.B.).

ĀYUS II One who was the king of frogs. Suśobhanā was the daughter of this frog-king. Suśobhanā was married to King Parīkṣit. For the interesting story of the marriage of a king with a frog see under Parīkṣit II.

ĀYUṢMĀN Kaśyapa, son of Marīci, got two sons, Hiraṇyākṣa and Hiraṇyakaśipu and a daughter Siṃhikā, of his wife Diti. Siṃhikā became the wife of Vipracitti. Of her were born the celebrated asuras, Saiṃhikeyas, of which Rāhu was one. Hiraṇyakaśipu had four brave sons, Anuvrāta, Vrāta, Prahlāda and Saṃhrāda. Of these Vrāta got a son Vrata, Saṃhrāda got Āyuṣmān, Śibi, and Bāṣkala and Prahlāda got a son, Virocana. Mahābali was the son of Virocana. (Chapter 19, Agni Purāṇa).

BĀBHRAVYA An author of the 'Science of Love'. Śvetaketu was the first of the authors who had written on the Science of amour (Kāma-śāstra). Bābhravya made only a condensation of the work of Śvetaketu.

BĀBHRAVYAM A clan or gotra of Brāhmaṇas in Ancient India. It is mentioned in Mahābhārata, Śānti Parva, Chapter 342, Stanza 103 that the hermit Gālava belonged to this clan.

BABHRU I A maharṣi of the line of preceptors from Vyāsa. (See Guruparamparā).

BABHRU II A Yādava of the Vṛṣṇi dynasty. He was one of the ablest of Yādava warriors. (Chapter 14, Dākṣiṇātya Pāṭham, M.B.). Even in his old age he used to do penance. Śiśupāla carried away his wife when once he was away in Dvārakā. He was a friend of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. He died when hit by an arrow from Vyāsa. (Chapter 4, Mausala Parva, M.B.).

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BABHRU III A king of Kāśī. By the help of Śrī Kṛṣṇa he attained Rājyalakṣmī. (Chapter 28, Udyoga Parva, M.B.).

BABHRU IV A son of King Virāṭa. (Śloka 33, Chapter 57, Udyoga Parva, M.B.).

BABHRU V One of the sons of Viśvāmitra who were Brahmavādīs. (Śloka 50, Chapter 4, Anuśāsana Parva, M.B.).

BABHRUDAIVĀVṚDHA A Yādava king. The information from Purāṇas available about him is given below:
     1) This Rājarṣi was an adept in the art of yajña. He was a disciple of Nārada and Parvata Maharṣi. (Aitareya Brāhmaṇa 7. 34).
     2) He was a Yādava of the Vṛṣṇi dynasty and one of the seven noted ministers of the Yadu line of Kings. (Sabhā Parva, M.B.).
     3) At the time of the kidnapping of Subhadrā Babhrudaivāvṛdha was partaking in a grand festival at the mountain of Raivataka. (Chapter 211, Ādi Parva, M.B.).
     4) When once this Rājarṣi went on a visit to Kṛṣṇa, Śiśupāla carried away his wife. (Chapter 42, Sabhā Parva, M.B.).
     5) When in the end the Yādavas in Dvārakā quarrelled with each other and were destroyed, the plight of the Yādava ladies became miserable. Then Śrī Kṛṣṇa entrusted Dvāraka and Babhrudaivāvṛdha with the task of taking care of them. But in the battle of the maces he was killed with a mace thrown at him. (Chapter 5, Mausala Parva, M.B.).

BABHRUMĀLI A sage. He was a lively member of the Sabhā of Yudhiṣṭhira. (Śloka 16, Chapter 4, Sabhā Parva, M.B.).

BABHRUSETU A Gāndhāra king. He was the brother of Druhyu and father of Purovasu. (Chapter 277, Agni Purāṇa).

BABHRUVĀHANA A son of Arjuna.
     1) Birth. When the Pāṇḍavas were residing in Indraprastha after marrying Pāñcālī, Nārada went to see them once. With a view to avoiding any quarrel between the Pāṇḍavas over the one wife they jointly possessed, Nārada suggested that each should take Pāñcālī for a year in turn and he who violated the arrangement should go to the forest for a year. Once Arjuna went to the house of Yudhiṣṭhira who was with Pāñcāli and for thus violating the arrangement Arjuna had to go to the forest for a year. During this exile while he was staying at Gaṅgādvāra he married the serpent girl, Ulūpi and got a son called Irāvān of her.
     After that he went to a country called Maṇalūr. At that time that country was being ruled by a king called Citrāṅgada. Prabhañjana one of the forefathers of Citrāṅgada had, by hard penance for a progeny, acquired from Śiva a boon and each of his successors got a son each to maintain the line. But when it came to Citrāṅgada to his surprise he got a girl instead of a son. But he got her up as a son and named her Citrāṅgada. It was when she was ready for marriage that Arjuna went there. The king received Arjuna with respect and after enquiring about his welfare requested him to marry his daughter. Arjuna married her and stayed there for three months. Leaving that place Arjuna went to Pañcatīrtha and there he gave salvation to the celestial maidens who were lying in the tīrthas as crocodiles. When he went back to Maṇalūr Citrāṅgadā had delivered a son whom he named Babhruvāhana. Promising them that he would take them later to Hastināpura, he left the place.
     2) His fate to kill his own father. It was by a ruse that Arjuna made Bhīṣma fall. Arjuna put Śikhaṇḍī before his chariot and Bhīṣma refused to take arms against a eunuch and accepted defeat. But Gaṅgādevī witnessing the battle between Bhīṣma, her son, and Arjuna from above could not bear this foul play and so cursed that Arjuna would die at the hands of his son. Ulūpi the serpent wife of Arjuna heard this curse and went to her father Kauravya who in turn went to Gaṅgā and begged for a relief from the curse. Gaṅgādevī then said that Arjuna would be killed by Babhruvāhana but would be brought to life by Ulūpi by placing the Mṛtasañjīvanī stone on the dead man's breast.
     3) The killing of Arjuna. The Mahābhārata battle was over. When Yudhiṣṭhira was performing the Aśvamedha yāga Arjuna conducted a victory march with the yāga horse. On his way he reached Maṇalūr. At once Ulūpi called Babhruvāhana and asked him to challenge Arjuna. Babhruvāhana with his bow and arrows attacked Arjuna and in the grim battle that followed Arjuna fell dead. Seeing this Citrāṅgadā came to the place of battle weeping and abused Ulūpi for persuading Babhruvāhana to kill his own father. Ulūpi immediately went to the serpent world and brought the Mṛtasañjīvanī stone and as she placed it on Arjuna's breast he came to life as if waking up from a sleep. When he saw Citrāṅgadā, Babhruvāhana and Ulūpī he smiled and asked them why they had all come there. Ulūpī then explained to him the story of the curse and extremely pleased over the end of the curse Arjuna took them all to Hastināpura. (Chapters 218 to 210 of Ādi Parva and Chapters 79 to 82 of Aśvamedha Parva, M.B.).
     4) Other details. (1) On reaching Hastināpura Śrī Kṛṣṇa gave Babhruvāhana as a present a chariot drawn by divine horses. (Śloka 6, Chapter 88, Aśvamedha Parva, M.B.).
     (2) The different names given to him in the Purāṇas are as follows: Citrāṅgadāsuta, Maṇippūrpati, Dhanañjayasuta and Maṇipureśvara.

BADARIKĀŚRAMA (BADARYĀŚRAMA). A very holy place in the Himālayas. It was here that Nara and Nārāyaṇa did penance for thousands of years and the Purāṇas, therefore, give it a very prominent place in them.

BADARĪPĀCANA TĪRTHA (BADARAPĀCANA). A sacred place in Kurukṣetra. If one lives here fasting for twelve years eating dates only, one will become as great as Vasiṣṭha. (Chapter 83, Vana Parva, M.B.).

BADARĪVANA A sacred place. Viśālapurī an ancient city of purāṇic fame is near this place. The Badarikāśrama comprises Badarīvana and Viśālapurī also.

BAḌAVĀGNI See under Aurva.

BADHIRA A serpent of the Kaśyapa dynasty. (There is a reference to this serpent in Śloka 16, Chapter 74, Udyoga Parva, M.B.).

BĀDULI A son of Viśvāmitra. He was a follower of the Brahma cult. (M.B., Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 4, Stanza 53).

BAHIRGIRI A mountainous region of ancient Bhārata. Mention is made in Mahābhārata, Sabhā Parva, Chapter 27, Stanza 3 that this country lying in the vicinity of the Himālayas had been conquered by Arjuna during his conquest of the North.

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BĀHU I A king of the Sūrya-vaṃśa (solar dynasty). He was the father of Sagara. He is known by the name Subāhu also. This king was once defeated in a battle and being weary and sad he entered the hermitage of Aurva. His queen was given poison by another wife of the King. But the child in her womb did not die. The queen wanted to jump into the fire in which the body of her husband was to be burned. But Aurva told her that her son would become a famous king and that she should not commit suicide. Thus she desisted from committing suicide. A son was born to her. As she had been poisoned when the child was in her womb the son was given the name Sagara (with poison). It is said in Mahābhārata, Ādi Parva that this prince became a famous king later.

BĀHU II Mention is made in Mahābhārata, Udyoga Parva, Chapter 4, Stanza 22, that the Pāṇḍavas thought of sending an invitation to a king named Bāhu for the battle between the Kurus and themselves.

BĀHU III A king of the Sundara dynasty. Mention is made about this king in Mahābhārata, Udyoga Parva, Chapter 74.

BAHUBHĀRYĀTVA (Polygamy). Polygamy was a custom in vogue in ancient India. It was not prohibited for a man to have more than one wife. It was customary to give dowry also. It is said in the Ṛgveda, Maṇḍala 10, Anuvāka 3, Sūkta 11 that the bride should proceed to the house of the husband, after the marriage. A spell (mantra) meant for keeping down one's co-wife, is seen in the Ṛgveda, Maṇḍala 10, Anuvāka 11, Sūkta 17. It is a prayer to destroy the love of husband for a co-wife and to direct that love towards oneself. The deity of this spell is Indrāṇī the wife of Indra who was a polygamist. In those days marriage was an essential duty. Widow marriage was not forbidden.

BĀHUDĀ A holy bath. If one stays in this place for a night in celibacy and fast, one will get the fruits of performing a sacrifice to devas (gods). The modern investigators say that this place is on the bank of river Dhavala which flows near Avadhi. It is mentioned in Mahābhārata, Śānti Parva, Chapter 23 that the hermit Likhita had recovered his lost hand, by bathing in this holy place and giving oblations to his ancestors.

BAHUDĀMA An attendant of Subrahmaṇya. (M.B., Śalya Parva, Chapter 46, Stanza 10).

BAHUDANTAKA A book on the science of Ethics (Nītiśāstra), the work of Brahmā. It contains ten thousand chapters. This book was abridged into five thousand chapters by Purandara. (M.B., Śānti Parva, Chapter 69, Stanza 83).

BAHUDANTĪ Mother of Purandara who was the Indra during the Manvantara (Period of a Manu) of Manu Vaivasvata. (See the word Purandara).

BĀHUDĀSUYAŚĀ The wife of Parīkṣit, a King of the Kuru dynasty. A son named Bhīmasena was born to her. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 95).

BAHUGAVĀ A king born of the family of Yayāti. (Bhāgavata, Skandha 9).

BĀHUKA I A serpent born in the family of Kauravya. This snake fell in the sacrificial fire of Janamejaya and was burnt to death. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 57, Stanza 13).

BĀHUKA II The pseudo-name assumed by Nala when he was living in the palace of Ṛtuparṇa in disguise. For further information see the word Nala.

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BĀHUKA III A mighty hero of the family of the Vṛṣṇis. About this Bāhuka, mention is made in Mahābhārata, Vana Parva, Chapter 129, Stanza 19.

BAHULĀ I A river. In Mahābhārata, Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 9, Stanza 29, mention is made about this river which is famous in the Purāṇas.

BAHULĀ II An attendant of Subrahmaṇya. (M.B., Śalya Parva, Chapter 46, Stanza 3).

BAHULĀ III Wife of Vidura a Brahmin, who frequented the houses of harlots. Bahulā was in the habit of going to the temple of Gokarṇa and hear Purāṇas, after the death of her husband. By this good deed Vidura got deliverance from sin. (Skanda Purāṇa 3.3.22).

BAHULĀŚVAN I A king of the family of Śrī Rāma. (Bhāgavata, Skandha 9).

BAHULĀŚVAN II A king of Mithilā. He was godfearing. Once Śrī Kṛṣṇa visited his palace. At that time he received much good advice from Śrī Kṛṣṇa. (Bhāgavata, Skandha 10).

BAHUMŪLAKA A serpent born to Kaśyapa Prajāpati of his wife Kadru. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 35, Stanza 16).

BAHUPUTRA A Prajāpati (creator). He was one of the spiritual sons (Mānasaputras) of Brahmā. (Vāyu Purāṇa 65: 53).

BAHUPUTRIKĀ An attendant (female) of Subrahmaṇya. (M.B., Śalya Parva, Chapter 46, Stanza 3).

BAHURATHA A king of the family of Bharata. (Bhāgavata, Skandha 9).

BAHURŪPA One of the eleven Rudras. Eleven Rudras were born to Kaśyapa by his wife Surabhi. Surabhi, who had been purified by Maheśvara whom she had pleased by her penance, got as sons, Aja, Ekapād, Ahirbudhnya, Tvaṣṭṛ and Rudra. The renowned Viśvarūpa was the son of Tvaṣṭṛ. The eleven Rudras are Hara, Bahurūpa, Tryambaka, Aparājita, Vṛṣākapi, Śambhu, Kapardin, Raivata, Mṛgavyādha, Sarpa and Kapālin The number of the Rudras is one hundred lakhs. They pervade everything moving and not moving. (Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 18).

BĀHUŚĀLI A prince of Avanti. He was a friend of Śrīdatta. (For further information see the word Śrīdatta).

BAHUSUVARṆAKA An ancient city on the bank of the Ganges (Kathāsaritsāgara).

BAHUVĀDYA A country in ancient India. Mention is made about this country in Mahābhārata, Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 9, Stanza 55.

BAHUVIDHA A king of the family of Aṅga. (Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 277).

BAHUYOJANĀ An attendant of Subrahmaṇya. (M.B., Śalya Parva, Chapter 46, Stanza 9).

BAHVĀŚI One of the hundred sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. It is mentioned in Mahābhārata, Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 28 that he was killed by Bhīmasena in the battle of Mahābhārata.

BĀHYAKARṆA A serpent born to Kaśyapa Prajāpati of his wife, Kadru. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 35, Stanza 9).

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BĀHYAKUṆḌA A serpent born in the family of Kaśyapa Prajāpati. Mention is made about this serpent in Mahābhārata, Udyoga Parva, Chapter 103.

BĀHYĀŚVAN A king of the Pūru dynasty. He was the son of King Purujāti. Five sons were born to Bāhyāśvan called Mukula, Sṛñjaya, Bṛhadiṣṭha, Yavīnara and Kṛmila. These five sons became famous as Pāñcālas. Of these, the family of Mukula became the Maukulyas, who were having temples and were of two classes. A son named Pañcāśva was born to Mukula. A son named Divodāsa and a daughter named Ahalyā were born to Pañcāśva. Ahalyā got with child from the hermit Śāradvata and gave birth to a son named Śatānanda. (Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 278).

BAKĀ Daughter of the demon, Sumāli. He had four daughters: Bakā, Puṣpotkaṭā, Kaikasī and Kumbhīnadī. Rāvaṇa is the son of Kaikasī. (Uttara Rāmāyaṇa).

BAKA I A demon. The Pāṇḍavas escaping from the trap of Arakkilla (lac-house) through a secret tunnel went to the village Ekacakrā on the banks of the river Gaṅgā and stayed there in the house of a brahmin. Baka was a demon who was terrorising the villagers there. He used to come to the village freely and carry away people for his food. Because of this nobody lived in peace and so they all joined together and decided to send one man daily with plenty of other eatables to the demon in this cave. Days went by like that and one day the turn came to the brahmin who was sheltering the Pāṇḍavas. That brahmin had besides his wife one son and a daughter. The problem arose as to who should go to the demon. The father was willing but the wife did not want him to go and vice versa. The children began to cry and hearing the noise Kuntī, mother of the Pāṇḍavas, went there to enquire and learned the tragic story of the family. She immediately went to Bhīma and acquainted him with the problem before the brahmin. Bhīma at once volunteered to go to the demon deciding to kill the man-eater and thus putting an end to his depredations.
     Bhīma started on his journey to the demon carrying a cartload of rice and curry. Deliberately Bhīma arrived at the place of the demon very late. Baka rolled his eyes in anger at the sight of the late-comer. But Bhīma without heeding him sat in front of the demon and started eating the rice and curry. Baka charged at Bhīma with fury but Bhīma defended and a battle ensued in which Baka was killed and he fell dead like a mountain-head dropping down.* (Chapters 157164, Ādi Parva, M.B.).
*) Kirmīra, a demon, was the brother of Baka. (Śloka 23, Chapter 11, Araṇya Parva, M.B.). f It is in the 10th Skandha of Bhāgavata that the story of this Baka occurs. But in the vernacular translation of the same the story is not so clear. Hence the original in Sanskrit is quoted below:
     "sa vai bako nāma mahānasuro bakarūpadhṛk āgatya sahasā kṛṣṇam tīkṣṇatuṇḍo 'grasadbalī kṛṣṇam mahābakagrastaṃ dṛṣṭvā rāmādayo 'rbhakāḥ babhūvurindriyāṇīva vinā prāṇaṃ vicetasaḥ."

BAKA II A demon. As young boys Śrī Kṛṣṇa and Balarāmabhadra were once playing in Ambāḍi (Gokula) on the banks of the river Yamunā when the demon, Baka, despatched by Kaṃsa, went to them in the form of a huge terrible-looking stork. In no time opening its ferocious beaks the stork swallowed Kṛṣṇa. But the touch of Kṛṣṇa burnt the throat of the bird and vomitting Kṛṣṇa the bird fell dead.

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BAKA III (Bakadālbhya). The great sage who poured into the sacrificial fire the country of King Dhṛtarāṣṭra. For details see under Dālbhya.

BALA A sacred incantation. (See Atibala).

BALA I (VALA) A demon born to Kaśyapa Prajāpati of his wife Danāyu. This demon had three brothers: Vikṣara, Vīra and Vṛtra. It was this Bala who later on became the king of Pāṇḍyadeśa. (Śloka 42, Chapter 67, Śloka 33; Chapter 65, Ādi Parva, M.B.).
     Chapter 168 of Vana Parva states that this Bala was killed by Indra. (For details see Vala).

BALA II A deva born to Varuṇa of his elder brother's wife. (Śloka 52, Chapter 66, Ādi Parva, M.B.).

BALA III The son born to Parīkṣit of the Ikṣvāku dynasty of the daughter of Maṇḍūkarāja. This Bala had two wives, Śalā and Dalā. (Śloka 38, Chapter 192, Vana Parva, M.B.).

BALA IV A monkey. In the battle with Kumbhakarṇa this monkey did many brave deeds. (Śloka 6, Chapter 287, Vana Parva, M.B.).

BALA V One of the two warriors whom Vāyu Bhagavān gave as a gift to Subrahmaṇya. The name of the other was Atibala. (Śloka 44, Chapter 91, Śalya Parva, M.B.).

BALA VI A Maharṣi of ancient Bhārata. He was the son of Maharṣi Aṅgiras. (Śloka 27, Chapter 208, Śānti Parva, M.B.).

BALA VII A sanātana Viśvadeva. (Śloka 30, Chapter 91, Anuśāsana Parva, M.B.).

BALA VIII A pārṣada of Viṣṇu. When Vāmana trampled over the head of emperor Bali and sent him to the underworld, the followers of Bali ascended the yajña maṇḍala and created a commotion. Bala was one of the pārṣadas who then came to the scene to quell the trouble. (Aṣṭama Skandha, Bhāgavata).

BALA IX A son of Māyāsura. He lived in a place in the netherlands called Atala. He created ninetysix different kinds of magic and gave them to the asura magicians who by the use of them gave the devas immense trouble.
     Once when Balāsura yawned three bad women, Svairiṇī, Kāminī and Puṃścalī were born. They had with them a potable substance called Hāṭaka which they gave to men whom they liked and after enlivening the sex impulse in them enjoyed a sexual life with them to their heart's content. (Pañcama Skandha, Bhāgavata). Once during a fight between Indra and Jalandhara Bala defeated Indra in a pathetic way. Indra then sought refuge in him and praised him with songs. Flattered by this Bala asked Indra to ask of him whatever he wanted and the sly Indra requested for the physical body of Bala. Without the least hesitation Bala cut his body into pieces and gave him. Indra threw away the cut pieces to different sides and all the places where these pieces fell were at once transformed into Diamond mines.
     "taṃ tālumūlam pradahantamagnivad gopālasūnum pitaraṃ jagadguroḥ cacchardda sadyo 'tiruṣākṣatam baka-stuṇḍena hantum punarabhyapadyata tamāpatantam sa nigṛhya tuṇḍayor dorbhyām bakaṃ kaṃsasakhaṃ satām patiḥ paśyatsu bāleṣu dadāra līlayā mudāvaho vīraṇavaddivaukasām." (Chapter II, Daśama Skandha, Bhāgavata). After the death of Balāsura his wife Prabhāvatī went to their preceptor (Kulaguru) Śukrācārya and told him all that took place and requested to bring back to life her lost husband. But Śukrācārya regretted that he could not give life again to her dead husband but could by his powers make her hear his voice again. Prabhāvatī agreed to that and then she heard her husband say "Leave your body and join me". Prabhāvatī immediately courted death and joining Bala became a river. (Padma Purāṇa, Uttara Khaṇḍa, Chapter 6).

BALA(M) To know what are Daśabalas see under Pattu.

BALABANDHU A king of ancient Bhārata. There is a reference to him in Śloka 236, Chapter 1, Ādi Parva, M.B.

BALABHADRA (Balabhadrarāma, Balarāma, Baladeva). The elder brother of Śrī Kṛṣṇa and the eighth incarnation of Mahāviṣṇu.*
     1) Birth. When the number of wicked kings increased Bhūmīdevī (goddess of Earth) turned herself into a cow and took refuge in Mahāviṣṇu. Mahāviṣṇu then promised to be born as the sons of Vasudeva named Balabhadrarāma and Śrī Kṛṣṇa and destroy the wicked. Vasudeva was the son of the Yādava, Śūrasena, King of Madhurā. To Devaka the brother of another Yādava King, Ugrasena, was born a daughter Devakī. The marriage of Devakī with Vasudeva was celebrated but on the same day an Aśarīriṇī (a heavenly voice from above) said that the eighth child of Devakī would kill Kaṃsa. Instantly Kaṃsa put both Vasudeva and Devakī in jail. The first six sons born to Devakī were killed the moment they were born by striking them against the ground. Devakī became pregnant for the seventh time. The babe in the womb was Ananta incarnate by Viṣṇu's directive to be of help to him when he would also be born soon as Kṛṣṇa. Therefore it was necessary to save the child from the cruel hands of Kaṃsa as it was certain he would kill the babe the same way he had killed all the others before. So he ordered Māyādevī to take the child from the womb of Devakī and place it in that of Rohiṇī, another wife of Vasudeva. Māyādevī did so and the boy got the name Saṃgharṣaṇa, also because of this. The news spread that Devakī aborted. Rohiṇī delivered a boy and was named Saṃgharṣaṇa alias Balabhadrarāma. (Daśama Skandha, Bhāgavata).
     2) The colour of Balarāma and Śrī Kṛṣṇa. Śrī Kṛṣṇa is the eighth child of Devakī. The elder brother Balarāma is white in complexion while the younger, Śrī Kṛṣṇa is black in complexion. There is a story behind this. The devas decided to be born as Gopālas (shepherds) in the earth to be of help to Kṛṣṇa in his duty of killing the wicked. They informed Mahāviṣṇu of their decision and the Lord was immensely pleased. He then took one white hair from his head and said that it would go to Rohiṇī's womb and change into Balarāma and taking a black hair said that it would go into Devakī's womb and change into Śrī Kṛṣṇa. It was thus that Balabhadra became white and Śrī Kṛṣṇa black. (Chapter 199, Ādi Parva, M.B.).
     3) Brothers. Balabhadrarāma had six brothers born of his mother Rohiṇī. They were: Gada, Sāraṇa, Durddama, Vipula, Dhruva, and Kṛta. (Navama Skandha, Bhāgavata).
     4) Till their marriage Śrī Kṛṣṇa spent his childhood in Aṃbāḍi and Balarāma, in Madhurā. Once the sage Garga went to the house of Vasudeva and it was he who then told the story behind the births of Balarāma and Kṛṣṇa. Hearing this Vasudeva went to Madhurā and brought Balabhadrarāma also to Aṃbāḍi. Gargamuni then performed all those sacred rites which were usually done to boys of that age and both of them then remained in Aṃbāḍi. Several important events happened during their stay here, notable among which are: Pūtanāmokṣam (killing of the demoness Pūtanā and giving her salvation). Śakaṭāsuravadha (killing the asura, Śakaṭa), Tṛṇāvarttavadha (killing the asura, Tṛṇāvartta), Vatsāsuravadha (killing the asura, Vatsa), Bakavadha (killing the demon bird, Baka), Aghāsuravadha (killing the asura, Agha), Dhenukāsuravadha (killing the asura, Dhenuka), Kāliamardana (beating the snake, Kālia) and Pralambavadha (killing Pralamba). (See under Kṛṣṇa for more details).
     Kaṃsa conducted a Cāpapūjā (worship of the bow) to kill Kṛṣṇa. It was on a festive scale and both Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma went to Madhurā to attend the same. There they killed Kaṃsa and after that went to the āśrama of Sāndīpani Maharṣi for education. When they completed their education they at the request of the preceptor gave as Gurudakṣiṇā (The fee you pay in the end for the instructions given) the lost child of the guru. Then they went to Madhurā and there several events took place, important among which was the fight between Kṛṣṇa and Jarāsandha. By this time the Yādavas were becoming lean financially and so to make some money Kṛṣṇa and Rāma went to the diamond-infested mountain of Gomantaka. On their way they met Paraśurāma doing penance under a Banyan tree. On the advice of Paraśurāma they killed Sṛgālavasudeva and got immense wealth. On their return Rāma and Kṛṣṇa along with many Yādavas went and settled down in the island, Dvārakā, in the western ocean. (Daśama Skandha, Bhāgavata).
     5) Marriage. Before the advent of Balarāma and Kṛṣṇa the island Dvārakā was known as Kuśasthalī. It was ruled over by a famous Rājarṣi, Revata. This king was the son of King Ānartta and grandson of emperor Śaryāti. Revata got a hundred sons, Kukudmin being the first and a daughter named Revatī. When the time for marriage of his daughter came the King was anxious to find out a fitting husband for her and he went to Brahmaloka to take the advice of Brahmā. Revatī also accompanied him. There stupefied he saw Vedas, Yajñas, mountains, rivers, oceans, Ṛtus, all in divine figures standing before Brahmā, worshipping him. The sweet celestial songs gave them both untold happiness. He then told Brahmā the purpose of his visit and Brahmā meditating for some time told him that Balabhadrarāma, son of Vasudeva, was the only one person suited for her. The king returned to Dvārakā and gave his daughter in marriage to Balarāma. (Saptama Skandha, Devī Bhāgavata).
     6) A pilgrimage. When the great Pāṇḍava-Kaurava battle started Kṛṣṇa became the charioteer of Arjuna and Balarāma went to the forest, Naimiśa. He was not much interested in the battle. At the forest of Naimiṣa he saw Sūta telling Purāṇic stories to the several sages assembled there before him. Sūta did not rise up when he saw Balarāma and the latter moved to anger very soon cut off the head of Sūta. The sages assembled there decried the act of Balarāma and lamented deeply over the incident. At this Balarāma promised that he would give birth, from the dead body of Sūta, to one who will be well versed in all the Vedas, śāstras and sciences. The sages then blessed Balarāma.
     During that time there lived in the vicinity of Naimiṣa forest a demon called Balvala (Vatkala). He used to annoy the sages there and the sages requested Balarāma to put a stop to the atrocities of that demon. He immediately killed the demon by his weapon, Hala, and then raised from the dead body of Sūta a paṇḍita of great erudition. Later, to remedy the sin of killing Sūta, Balarāma, repentant, visited all the sacred places in Bhārata. Once when he heard about the grim battle between Duryodhana and Bhīmasena, he went to the battle-field and tried his best to stop the war. Disappointed he returned to Dvārakā. (Daśama Skandha, Chapter 79, Bhāgavata).
     7) Death. Once the ṛṣis Nārada, Kaṇva and Viśvāmitra came to Dvārakā. To make fun of them some of the Yādavas dressed a Yādava like a pregnant woman and producing her before the sages asked them what child she would deliver. Enraged at this the munis said in one voice that she would deliver a mace and that iron mace would be the cause of the end of all Yādavas.
     After the Mahābhārata battle the Yādava dynasty remained alive only for thirtysix years. After that by the curse of the brahmin the Yādavas were all killed in a drunken brawl between themselves in the very presence of Kṛṣṇa and Balabhadra. This happened on the shore of Prabhāsa tīrtha and Balarāma was sitting there then in deep meditation. Suddenly the soul of Balarāma went out from his mouth in the shape of a white serpent and the serpent entering the nether world was given a warm welcome by the prominent serpents there. (Mausala Parva, M.B.).
     8) Other details.
     (1) It was Balabhadrarāma who taught Bhīmasena the mace-fight. (Śloka 4, Chapter 138, Ādi Parva, M.B.).
     (2) Balabhadrarāma was present along with Śrī Kṛṣṇa at the marriage of Pāñcālī. (Śloka 17, Chapter 185, Ādi Parva, M.B.).
     (3) Balabhadrarāma became very indignant when he heard about Arjuna carrying away Subhadrā and it was Kṛṣṇa who pacified him. (Chapter 22, Ādi Parva, M.B.).
     (4) He was present at the marriage of Abhimanyu conducted at the city of Upaplāvya. (Śloka 21, Chapter 72, Virāṭa Parva, M.B.).
     (5) He was very insistent that the Pāṇḍavas and Kauravas should come to a truce. (Chapter 2, Udyoga Parva, M.B.).
     (6) He witnessed the battle of maces between Duryodhana and Bhīmasena at Kurukṣetra. (Chapter 34, Śalya Parva, M.B.).
     (7) Balarāma conducted a pilgrim tour and visited all the holy places of Bhārata at a time when the Pāṇḍava-Kaurava war was in full swing. (Chapter, 35-54, Śalya Parva, M.B.).
     (8) Balarāma was of opinion that it was unjust of Bhīmasena to have killed Duryodhana and was about to kill Bhīmasena. (Śloka 4, Chapter 60, Śalya Parva, M.B.).
     (9) Once Balarāma spoke in extolling terms about the secrets of Dharma. (Śloka 17, Chapters 126, Śalya Parva, M.B.).
     (10) It was Balarāma who performed the obsequies of Abhimanyu. (Śloka 6, Chapter 62, Aśvamedha Parva, M.B.).
     (11) He went to Hastināpura when Yudhiṣṭhira performed the Aśvamedha yāga. (Śloka 4, Chapter 66, Aśvamedha Parva, M.B.).
     (12) Balarāma introduced Prohibition in Dvārakā. (Śloka 29, Chapter 1, Mausala Parva, M.B.).
     (13) Once he made dry the river Kālindī. (See Kālindī).
*) Since the life of Balabhadra is so mixed with that of Kṛṣṇa a complete life story of Balarāma could be had only if it is read along with that of Kṛṣṇa.

BALABHADRARĀMA II A very mighty serpent. (Śloka 37, Chapter 1, Ādi Parva, M.B.).

BALADA The first son of the Agni, Bhānu. It is this Agni which gives life and strength to all living beings. (Śloka 10, Chapter 221, Śānti Parva, M.B.).

BALANDHARĀ A daughter of the king of Kāśī. Let the mightiest of men marry her, said her father. Defeating all the kings who tried to take her Bhīmasena married her and Sarvaśa was the son born to Bhīmasena of Balandharā. (Śloka 70, Chapter 95, Aśvamedha Parva, M.B.).

BĀLADHI An ancient hermit. He was powerful. He performed a severe penance for getting sons. The Devatās appeared and granted him a boon. Accordingly a son called Medhāvin was born to him. Once Medhāvin teased the great hermit Dhanuṣākṣa, who cursed him to death. (M.B., Vana Parva, Chapter 135).

BALĀHAKA I (VALĀHAKA). A serpent famous in the Purāṇas. This serpent stays in the durbar hall of Varuṇa, worshipping him. (M.B., Sabhā Parva, Chapter 9, Stanza 9).

BALĀHAKA II (VALĀHAKA). A brother of Jayadratha the King of Sindhu. He helped Jayadratha in kidnapping Draupadī. (M.B., Vana Parva, Chapter 265, Stanza 12).

BALĀHAKA III (VALĀHAKA). A famous horse yoked on the right side of the chariot of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. Mention is made about this horse in M.B., Virāṭa Parva, Chapter 45, Stanza 23.

BALĀHAKA IV A king. Once Śiva gave this king a vision of him in the shape of a cow-calf. After that in the place where Śiva appeared as calf a Śivaliṅga arose. It began to grow to the extent of an atom daily. But the growth ceased, when an outcaste who became so by Karma (action) visited it. (Skandha Purāṇa 3-2-27).

BALĀKA (VALĀKA). A forester. This forester used to go for hunting and he gave everything he got to his old parents without reserving anything for himself. One day he did not find any animal even though he had made a thorough search in the forest. He was much worried. At last he reached the bank of a river. He saw an extraordinary animal drinking water. He had never seen such an animal before.
     It was a peculiar creature. That creature had done penance before Brahmā, from its young age with the view of destroying everything. Brahmā appeared before the creature and granted it the boon that it would have the power to make anything blind. Brahmā also said that anybody who killed the creature would be given a place in the realm of Gods. The creature had been wandering in the forest making blind every creature it met, and one day it was drinking water and it was then that Valāka shot it down. As soon as the creature fell down the gods showered flowers, and took him to the realm of Gods in a divine chariot. (M.B., Karṇa Parva, Chapter 69).

BALĀKĀTĪRTHA (VALĀKĀTĪRTHA). A holy place near the mountain of Gandhamādana. Those who bathe in this holy bath would become as bright and famous as devas (gods) It is mentioned so in the Mahābhārata, Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 25, Stanza 19.

BALĀKĀŚVA (VALĀKĀŚVA). He is the grandson of the hermit Jahnu and the son of Aja otherwise called Sindhudvīpa. Balākāśva had a son called Kuśika. (M.B., Śānti Parva, Chapter 49, Stanza 3).

BĀLAKHILYA(S) (VĀLAKHILYAS). A group of hermits.
     1) Origin. Sixty thousand hermits were born to Kratu, one of the Saptarṣis (seven hermits), by his wife, Santati.* They are called Bālakhilyas. Everyone of them was only the size of half a thumb, but they were as bright as the blazing sun and had attained control over their senses. (Viṣṇu Purāṇa, Aṃśa 1, Chapter 10).
     2) Garuḍa (Eagle) and Bālakhilya(s). A story connecting the birth of Garuḍa with Bālakhilyas occurs in the Purāṇas.
     Once Kaśyapa Prajāpati performed a sacrifice to obtain children. The work of bringing firewood for the sacrifice was entrusted to Indra and the other devas (Gods) and the Bālakhilyas. When Indra was heaping up on heaps pieces of big logs the Bālakhilyas who were very small were bringing in chips of wood. Seeing this Indra laughed. The Bālakhilyas got angry and stopping the work entrusted to them began to do penance with a view to create another Indra. Knowing this Indra was much flurried. He went to Kaśyapa and told him everything. Kaśyapa went to the Bālakhilyas and pacified them. At this time Vinatā, a wife of Kaśyapa, was doing penance to obtain a son. Kaśyapa said that the penance of the Bālakhilyas would not be fruitless and that as a result of their penance a son who would overpower Indra would be born to Vinatā. Accordingly a son was born to her. Garuḍa was that son. The fact that Garuḍa overthrew Indra when he went to heaven for ambrosia, is well known. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 31).
     3) Routine of life. The Bālakhilyas live in the maṇḍala of Sūrya (solar region). They travel in front of the sun in the shape of birds. They wear hides of animals. They are righteous and are only as big as a thumb. They are very ardent in doing the works of devas (Gods). They are sinless. There are Bālakhilyas living in the lunar region also. They worship the Sun daily. All the world stand firm in truth because of the penance of the Bālakhilyas. (M.B., Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 141.).
     4) Other information. (1) Garuḍa (Eagle) who went to the realm of devas (gods) for Amrta (ambrosia) took rest on the branch of a banyan tree, and that branch was broken from the tree. Sixty thousand Bālakhilyas were doing penance hanging head downwards on that branch. Garuḍa knew this only after the branch was broken. Fearing the curse form them he took the branch in his beak and flew about here and there. At last, according to the advice of Kaśyapa, he took the branch to the mount Gandhamādana and without causing any harm to the small hermits placed it there. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 30).
     (2) When Duṣyanta entered the hermitage of Kaṇva he saw the Bālakhilyas doing panance, hanging down on the trees in the vicinity. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 7).
     (3) In Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Bālakāṇḍa, Sarga 51, it is mentioned that the Bālakhilyas were engaged in prayer and meditations and offering oblations to fire in the hermitage of Vasiṣṭha.
     (4) It is mentioned in Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Bālakāṇḍa, Sarga 51, that in the period of the Rāmāyaṇa, in South India, when Rāvaṇa was going to the house of Mārīca, he saw the Bālakhilyas doing penance.
     (5) The Bālakhilyas learned the Vedas and Śāstras (scriptures) sitting in the chariot of the sun. (Kampa Rāmāyaṇa, Pūrvakāṇḍa).
*) In some other Purāṇas the mother of Bālakhilyas is given the name 'Sannati'. This may be a mistake in the manuscript.

BĀLAKHILYA SAṂHITĀ See the word Guruparamparā

BALĀKI (VALĀKI). One of the hundred sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. Mention is made in the Mahābhārata, Ādi Parva, Chapter 185, Stanza 2, that Valāki had been present on the occasion of the svayaṃvara (wedding) of Draupadī.

BĀLĀKI A hermit. He is called Gārgya also as he is a son of Garga. He acquired much knowledge and so he became arrogant. Because of this some called him Dṛptabālāki.
     Once the hermit went to the King of Kāśī and told him that he would impart to him the knowledge of Brahma. The king replied that he would give thousand cows in return. Bālāki declared that the sun-god was Brahmā. The king said that he had known it. Everything that Bālāki said had been known to the king earlier. So, in the end Bālāki had to become the disciple of the King. Then the King took him to a man who was sleeping. The King called the sleeping man. But he did not wake up. The King woke him up and then asked the hermit, where he had gone when he was sleeping. Bālāki could not say where men go when they are sleeping and where they return from when they wake up. The king said "In our sleep we attain 'Sārūpya' (assimilation to god). But we are not aware of it. Though we get eternal bliss we do not know it. If we can get eternal bliss when we keep awake that is 'Ātmajñāna' (knowledge of Supreme Soul). As the flames emanate from fire, and as the spider weaves its net and sits in its centre, the soul creates everything, controls everything and pervades everything." (Bṛhadāraṇyakopaniṣad).

BALĀKṢA An ancient king of Bhārata. While the Pāṇḍavas were living incognito in the kingdom of Virāṭa, Duryodhana and his brothers stole the cows of Virāṭa, in consequence of which there was a battle. The devas (gods) came in planes to see the fight between Arjuna and the teacher Kṛpa. It is mentioned in the Mahābhārata, Virāṭa Parva, Chapter 56, that the King Balākṣa was there with the gods when they came to see the fight.

BALAMITRA A king. Śatrughna who led the yāga horse of Śrī Rāma fought with Vīramaṇi and at that time Balamitra fought on the side of Vīramaṇi. (Chapter 40, Pātāla Khaṇḍa, Padma Purāṇa).

BALAMODAKA The son of Suratha, the King of Kuṇḍalanagarī. (Padma Purāṇa, Chapter 40).

BALĀNĪKA (VALĀNĪKA) I. A son of the King Drupada. Mention is made in Mahābhārata, Droṇa Parva, Chapter 156, that Aśvatthāmā killed him in the battle of Kurukṣetra.

BALĀNĪKA (VALĀNĪKA) II. A brother of Matsya, the King of Virāṭa. During the battle of Kurukṣetra he had taken the side of the Pāṇḍavas and had fought against the Kauravas. (M.B., Droṇa Parva, Chapter 158).

BĀLASVĀMĪ A warrior of Subrahmaṇya. (M.B., Śalya Parva, Chapter 45, Stanza 74).

BĀLĀVATĪ The daughter of hermit Kaṇva. She did penance to please the Sun to obtain a husband of a very good nature. The Sun appeared before her and gave her some dates and asked her to prepare food with them and bring them back. Bālāvatī began to cook the dates. Though all the faggots she had gathered were consumed it was not properly boiled. As there was no more firewood she put her leg into the oven. Seeing this the Sun-God was pleased and said "All your wishes will be realized". From that day onwards that place was called by the name 'Bālāpa'. (Padma Purāṇa, Uttara Khaṇḍa, Chapter 152).

BĀLAVINAṢṬAKA The hero of a story, given in Kathāsaritsāgara, Kathāmukhalambaka, Taraṅga six, to show that it is not good to make others angry. The story is as follows:--
     Long ago there was a Brahmin named Rudra Śarmā. He had two wives. Both gave birth to a son each. The elder wife died and her son also was brought up by the younger wife. Being jealous she fed the child with food too hard for the child and it became lean with stomach swollen and the bones projecting. It looked an uncouth figure. Seeing him like this Rudra Śarmā called him Bālavinaṣṭaka (one who is lost when he is a boy). He gradually grew up. When he was only five years old he showed extraordinary intelligence. One day he decided to teach his foster-mother a lesson. On that day he was sitting alone on the lap of his father. He said to his father, "Father, I have two fathers". Thenceforward the father began to doubt his wife, that she was having a lover. He grew jealous. He would not talk to her. The fostermother thought Bālavinaṣṭaka was the cause for this change in her husband's behaviour. One day she called the boy to her mildly and asked him for the reason for the change in the behaviour of his father towards her. He said that he would bring about a change in the behaviour of his father if he would be cared for properly. She agreed. Then he took a mirror and held it before his father and when the reflection of his father fell in the mirror he said, "Father, I have two fathers". Immediately the doubt of his father was removed. It is not right to make even a boy angry.

BĀLĀYANI An ācārya (Teacher). In Bhāgavata, Skandha 10, it is seen that Bālāyani was taught Bālakhilya saṃhitā by Bāṣkala.

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BĀLAYOGĪ A king of the Aṅga dynasty. He was the son of Bali, who had six sons named Aṅga, Vaṅga, Kaliṅga, Puṇḍra, Bāleya and Bālayogī. (Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 277).

BALĀYUS One of the eight sons born to Purūravas by Urvaśī. (Padma Purāṇa, Sṛṣṭi, Chapter 12).

BĀLHĪKA (BĀLHIKA) I. A powerful king born in the family of Ahara. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 67, Stanza 25).

BĀLHĪKA II A king who in his previous life was the asura called Krodhavaśa. It is mentioned in Mahābhārata, Droṇa Parva, Chapter 96, Stanza 12, that this King helped the Kauravas in the battle of Kurukṣetra.

BĀLHĪKA III A king who was the third son of Janamejaya and the grandson of King Kuru. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 94, Stanza 56).

BĀLHĪKA IV A son of Pratīpa, a King of the Kuru dynasty. He had two brothers, Devāpi and Śantanu. It is said in Mahābhārata, Ādi Parva, Chapter 94 that Sunandā, the princess of the country of Śibi was their mother. Mention is made in Bhāgavata, Skandha 9, Chapter 22, Stanza 18 that this king Bālhīka had a son named Somadatta. Bālhīka was a friend of the Kauravas and the Pāṇḍavas. Bālhīka exhorted them strongly, not to engage in a battle. Still, when the battle was begun, Bālhīka sided with the Kauravas. Bālhīka was once elected as the general of eleven divisions of the army of Dury odhana.
     The achievements of Bālhīka in the battle of Kurukṣetra are given below:--
     1) There was a combat on the first day of the battle between Bālhīka and Dhṛṣtaketu. (M.B., Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 45, Stanza 38).
     2) Bhīmasena defeated Bālhīka. (M.B., Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 104, Stanza 26).
     3) Fought with Drupada. (Mahābhārata, Droṇa Parva, Chapter 25, Stanza 18).
     4) Bālhīka fought with Śikhaṇḍī. (Mahābhārata, Droṇa Parva, Chapter 96, Stanza 7).
     5) Bhīmasena killed Bālhīka. (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 157, Stanza 15).

BĀLHĪKA V The charioteer of Dharmaputra. (M.B., Sabhā Parva, Chapter 58, Stanza 20).

BĀLHĪKADEŚA A country in ancient Bhārata. Mention is made about this country in Mahābhārata, Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 9.

BALI (MAHĀBALI) I. An emperor of the Asuras. He was the son of Virocana and the grandson of Prahlāda.
     1) Genealogy and Birth. The Asuras or the Daityas are the sons born, of his wife Diti, to Kaśyapa Prajāpati, son of Marīci and grandson of Brahmā. There were so many Asuras born as the sons of Diti. But among them Hiraṇyākṣa, Hiraṇyakaśipu, Śūrapadmā, Siṃhavaktra, Tārakāsura and Gomukha were notorious. Of their sisters Siṃhikā and Ajamukhī were famous.
     Four sons called Prahlāda, Saṃhrāda, Hrāda and Anuhrāda were born to Hiraṇyakaśipu. Virocana was the son of Prahlāda and Mahābali was the son of Virocana. Bāṇa was born from Mahābali and four crores of Asuras called Nivātakavacas were born from Bāṇa.
     2) The churning of the ocean. Once Mahābali had stolen the wealth of Devendra. While he was carrying it to his house, it all fell in the ocean. Mahāviṣṇu ordered the devas (gods) to recover the lost wealth from the ocean. It was impossible to churn the ocean without the help of Mahābali. So the devas went to Mahābali and sought his help. Mahābali agreed to help them.
     The real aim of the devas was not to regain the lost wealth but to obtain the celestial nectar known as Nectar of Immortality (Amṛta) and to defeat the Asuras in battle. On the side of the Asuras there was the knowledge of the Mṛtasañjīvanī (life-restoring remedy). So the dead were being brought to life. But it was not possible for devas to do so. It was to make up this deficiency, by obtaining Ambrosia from the sea, that the devas tried to churn the sea, under the pretence of recovering the lost wealth. Mention is made in the Viṣṇu Purāṇa, Aṃśa 1, Chapter 9 and Matsya Purāṇa, Chapters 250 and 251 that these events took place during the regime of the Indra named Mantradruma in the Cākṣuṣamanvantara (the period of the manu named Cākṣuṣa).
     3) War with Indra. The great teacher Śukra again anointed Bali, who was brought to life again, as Indra. After that he performed the sacrifice of Viśvajit (conqueror of the world) on behalf of Bali. Assuming the responsibilities of government, Bali performed one hundred Aśvamedha yāgas (Horse sacrifices) (Bhāgavata, Skandha 8).
     After the Viśvajit sacrifice, Yajñadeva (god of sacrifice) who was greatly pleased at the sacrifice, presented Bali with a divine chariot, equal in all aspects to that of Indra, a golden bow, two quivers, which would never become empty and a divine armour, and his grandfather gave him a garland that would never fade, and the teacher Śukra gave him a divine conch, and Brahmā presented a garland. (M.B., Śānti Parva, Chapter 216).
     4) Attainment of the Position of Indra. Mahāviṣṇu had not been on good terms with the devas, for a time. Taking this opportunity, Śukrācārya the teacher of the Asuras, persuaded Bali to engage the devas in a battle. Bali defeated the devas completely in a pitched battle. Thus the realm of the gods came under the sway of Mahābali. Once, during that period Bali invited his grandfather Prahlāda to heaven and requested him to accept the most honourable seat there. Prahlāda accepted his invitation and anointed Bali as Indra. Bali enquired of Prahlāda as to the method of carrying on the government of heaven. Prahlāda said thus in reply: "Only virtue will always win. Rule the kingdom without deviating from virtue." (Vāmana Purāṇa, Chapter 74). Because Bali had ruled his kingdom according to the advice of Prahlāda, he became famous in the three worlds. (Vāmana Purāṇa, Chapter 75).
     According to the version of Bhāgavata, Prahlāda when he grew old, left his kingdom in the hands of his son Virocana and went to the forest for penance. Virocana was not as famous as Prahlāda. After the period of Virocana, Mahābali came to the throne. He was a mighty king. Within a short time he became the emperor of the Asuras. It was during this period that the churning of the Milk Sea took place. The Asuras and the Devas (gods) sat on either side and using the mount Mandara as churn-drill, churned the Milk Sea and obtained Amṛta (the celestial nectar of immortality). A battle took place between the Asuras and the Devas for the possession of Amṛtakalaśa (the Ambrosia and the container) and the emperor Mahābali was killed in the battle. The Asuras carried the dead body of Mahā. bali to his capital, where Śukrācārya (their teacher-priest Śukra) brought him to life again by the help of sacred herbs. Mahābali instantly waged another war, fiercer than the previous ones, with the devas, and having defeated them, he drove them out of their realm and brought it under control. (Bhāgavata, Skandha 8).
     5) The curse of Prahlāda. As the whole of heaven came under the sway of Bali, the devas began to leave the country one by one. Everybody was happy and comfortable under the rule of Bali. But the devas and Brāhmaṇas were denied the privileges they deserved. They approached Viṣṇu and represented their grievances. Viṣṇu told them thus: "Bali is devoted to me. Still, to redress your grievances I shall take the incarnation of Vāmana shortly."
     In course of time the Asuras and their countries began to be weakened. Seeing the approach of destruction emperor Bali became thoughtful. He approached Prahlāda to learn the reason. Prahlāda told Bali thus: "Lord Viṣṇu is now staying in the womb of Aditi for his incarnation as Vāmana. That is why the country and the Asuras are subjected to destruction. Hearing this Mahābali said: "Our Rākṣasas are more powerful than that Viṣṇu." Hearing these haughty words of Bali, Prahlāda got angry and cursed Bali "Let your country be destroyed." Bali requested Prahlāda to pardon him. Prahlāda advised Bali "You will get salvation only by relying on Viṣṇu". (Vāmana Purāṇa 77).
     6) Defeated by Vāmana. The defeated devas had taken refuge in forests. Aditi the mother of the devas was very sorry at this. She shed tears before her husband Kaśyapa Prajāpati, who advised his wife to take a fast of twelve days, and taught her the rules and rituals of the fast. Accordingly she took the fast, Viṣṇu appeared before her and asked her what boon she wanted. She requested Viṣṇu to take birth as her son, to drive away Bali and to restore her sons, the devas (gods), to their kingdom of heaven. Mahāviṣṇu agreed.
     Aditi became pregnant and gave birth to the son Vāmana. He was an incarnation of Mahāviṣṇu. [The 5th incarnation (avatāra) of Viṣṇu].
     At this time Mahābali was performing a sacrifice on the bank of the river Narmadā. Vāmana came to the place of sacrifice in the dress of a hermit boy and told Mahābali that he was a helpless hermit boy and requested that he might be given three steps of ground. Mahābali was pleased with the boy and told him that he was willing to give the boy even the country called Bhṛṅgāraka and that he was prepared to forego the kingly pleasures for the boy. The hermit boy did not show any desire for them. So many gathered round them to witness this sight. The teacher Śukrācārya called Mahābali and said that the boy was a cheat and that his request should not be granted. But Mahābali decided to grant the wish of the boy and as a token of his gift he began to offer the boy water from a waterpot. Then the teacher got into the mouth of the pot in the shape of a mote and water would not flow freely out of the mouth of the pot. Knowing this Vāmana took a grass of Darbha and pushed it at the mouth of the pot. The grass pierced one eye of Śukrācārya. From that time onwards Śukrācārya had only one eye. Water flowed freely into the hands of Vāmana. Śukra got angry and cursed Bali. Vāmana began to measure the ground and simultaneously began to grow. The asuras who were horrified at this, began to attack Vāmana with anything they could lay hands on. Still Vāmana was growing. Finally he became an immensely large being. With one step he measured the whole of earth and with the second step he took the whole of heaven. Then he asked Bali, where to place the third step. Mahābali said that he had only his body left, as his own, and that Vāmana might take it and complete three steps. Vāmana placed his foot on the head of Bali and pushed him down to Pātāla (the Netherworld). Thenceforward the asuras became the inhabitants of Pātāla. (Bhāgavata, Skandha 8).
     7) Bali and Rāvaṇa. Once Rāvaṇa visited Bali who was under custody in Pātāla, and said to him, "I have come to save you from here. So get yourself free from the custody of Mahāviṣṇu, with my help." Hearing this, Bali asked Rāvaṇa to fetch the two earrings of Hiraṇyakaśipu, which were shining like blazing fire a little away from them. Rāvaṇa moved forward to take them. But he fell unconscious. Bali caused him to recover and said: "These earrings were worn by my great grandfather Hiraṇyakaśipu. How could you, who are not even capable of taking his earrings, save me from his slayer, Viṣṇu? Viṣṇu is Almighty and All-powerful and Supreme Lord of everything." Hearing this, Rāvaṇa was filled with shame and he returned. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Uttara Kāṇḍa, Prakṣipta Sarga).
     8) Bali born as a Gardabha (Ass). Bali, who was fallen from power took birth in the womb of an ass and roamed about. Brahmā instructed Indra to find out Bali. (M.B., Śānti Parva, Chapters 216-218).
     9) Other information.
     (1) Mahābali shines in the durbar of Varuṇa. (M.B., Sabhā Parva, Chapter 9, Stanza 12).
     (2) Once Mahābali went to Prahlāda and repented of his sins and begged for pardon. Then he began to make enquiries on spiritual matters. (M.B., Vana Parva, Chapter 28, Stanza 3).
     (3) From his childhood Mahābali was a hater of the Brāhmaṇas. (M.B., Śānti Parva, Chapter 90, Stanza 24).
     (4) Once Mahābali was engaged in a serious contest with Indra. (M.B., Śānti Parva, Chapter 223).
     (5) After having lost his kingdom Mahābali ridiculed Indra in various ways. (M.B., Śānti Parva, Chapter 225, Stanza 30).
     (6) Once Mahābali talked with Śukrācārya about giving gifts of flower, smoke and light. (M.B., Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 98, Stanza 15).
     (7) Lakṣmī Devī had forsaken Mahābali because he behaved haughtily towards Brāhmaṇas. (M.B., Śānti Parva, Chapters 216-218).
     (8) In the religious Books such as Yogavāsiṣṭha the story of Mahābali is given to illustrate disinterestedness (Anāsakti).

BALI II A hermit. It is mentioned in the Mahābhārata, Sabhā Parva, Chapter 4, Stanza 10, that this hermit lived in Hastināpura.

BALI III An incarnation of Śiva. Śiva incarnated in the hermitage of the Bālakhilyas in the mount of Gandhamādana during the period of Varāha Kalpa (Kalpa--one day of Brahmā or the period of 14 manus). It is seen in Śiva Purāṇa, Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa that Bali had four sons, called Sudhāmā, Kaśyapa, Vasiṣṭha and Virajas.

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BALI IV A king of the Yādavas. He was the son of Kṛtavarman. Bali married Cārumatī, the daughter of Rukmiṇī. (Bhāgavata, Skandha 10).

BALI V A famous monkey-king of the country of Ānava. This King who was the son of Sutapas was a contemporary of the great King Sagara.
     Bali did penance and Brahmā appeared before him, and blessed him and said, "You will become a great sage and will live till the end of the Kalpa (a period of world age). Your power will be inimitable. Nobody will overthrow you in battle. You will be loved by your subjects and they will obey you. You will be wellversed in the knowledge of law and its observance and the learned will recognize your knowledge. You will re-establish caste system in your kingdom." (Harivaṃśa, 1. 31.35.39).
     Sudeṣṇā was the wife of Bali. The couple had no children. At last they appealed to Dīrghatamas a hermit, from whom they got five sons called Aṅga, Vaṅga, Kaliṅga, Pāṇḍu and Suhma (Brahma Purāṇa). In Bhāgavata it is mentioned that he had one more son called Andhra.
     Bali left his body at the end of the Kalpa and entered heaven. Before his death he had divided his kingdom equally among his sons. (Bhāgavata, Skandha 9, Mahābhārata, Ādi Parva, Chapter 92).

BĀLI A mighty monkey-king.
     1) Birth. Bāli is the son of Indra. There is a story about the birth of Bāli as follows:--
     Śīlavatī who was devoted to her husband once carried her husband Ugratapas who was a leper, on her shoulder to the house of a harlot one night. On the way they saw the hermit Aṇimāṇḍavya, who had been placed on a trident by the order of the King, beating his limbs with agony. Lying on the trident he saw Ugratapas. Seeing the amorous nature of Ugratapas Aṇimāṇḍavya cursed him that before sunrise he would die. Śīlavatī who was a woman of great purity and loyalty hearing the curse said, "Let the Sun not rise tomorrow."
     Next day, though it was time the sun did not rise. The night prolonged. Aruṇa the charioteer was ready at the usual time but saw the Sun sitting motionless. Wasting time was intolerable to the charioteer. So he decided to make the best use of the time at his disposal by witnessing a little of the dance of the celestial beauties in the realm of the devas. But males had no admittance there. So Aruṇa took the shape of a beautiful woman and got in. Seeing a new person, very beautiful to look at, sitting in the midst of the celestial maids Indra grew amorous. He secretly took her to a dark place and a son was born out of that coition. That son is Bāli. When Aruṇa returned the Sun was standing full of anger. Being afraid of him Aruṇa confessed everything to the Sun. When he heard the whole story the Sun expressed his desire to see that figure which Aruṇa had adopted. Accordingly Aruṇa again became a woman. The Sun also had coition with her and Sugrīva was the son born out of this coition. Bāli and Sugrīva were brought up by Ahalyādevī in the hermitage of Gautama.
     At that time a monkey-king named Ṛkṣarāja had been ruling over the forest with Kiṣkindha as his capital. He had no sons and so he approached Indra and placed before him his grievances. Indra brought Bāli and Sugrīva from the hermitage of Gautama and handed them over to Ṛkṣarajas. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 107; Brahmāṇḍa Purāṇa, Chapter 42; Uttara Rāmāyaṇa and Kampa Rāmāyaṇa, Pūrvakāṇḍa).
     2) Marriage and Kingship. Owing to difference of opinion, Bāli defeated the asuras who came for the churning of the Sea of Milk. The devas who were pleased at this, gave Bāli, a woman named Tārā, derived from the Sea of Milk. Thus Tārā became his wife and he got a son by her, named Aṅgada who became famous as a mighty warrior-prince. Sugrīva married Rumā. At that time Ṛkṣarāja died and Bāli became King. (Kampa Rāmāyaṇa, Pūrvakāṇḍa).
     3) Enmity with Hanūmān. It was during this period that Hanumān was born. While Śiva and Pārvatī were living in the forest as monkeys Pārvatī got with child. The child was given to Bhagavān Vāyu (Wind-God) with the womb. Vāyu placed the womb with the child in Añjanā Devī's stomach. Nārada informed Bāli all these things. Bāli thought that his position would be lost, if a being born of Śiva, grew up in the form of a monkey. In accordance with the advice of Nārada, Bāli melted Pañcaloha (Five metals) and passed it into the womb of Añjanā. Still the child in the womb was not killed as it was the sperm of Śiva. The molten metals became earrings of the child in the womb. (Kampa Rāmāyaṇa, Pūrvakāṇḍa).
     4) Sugrīva separated. Once, the son of Maya, the carpenter of the asuras, wanted to defeat Bāli by a combat or cunning sleights as he was an expert wrestler and magician. He came to Kiṣkindhā in the midnight and standing before the palace, challenged Bāli, who getting angry came out followed by Sugrīva. Seeing the two of them the magician began to run. Bāli and Sugrīva chased him to a cave. Placing Sugrīva at the mouth of the cave Bāli followed the magician. Before going, Bāli said to Sugrīva: "Brother, I will go in and kill the Magician and return. Be brave and stay here. If the asura dies milk will appear at the mouth of the cave and if he kills me blood will be seen. If the latter happens close the mouth of the cave firmly and return to Kiṣkindhā and live happily there."
     Bāli did not return even after a year. Finally the asura was killed. But by the cunning sleights of the magician it was blood that appeared at the mouth of the cave. Thinking that his brother was slain by the magician Sugrīva felt sorry. Then he closed the mouth of the cave firmly with stone and returned to Kiṣkīndhā. Hearing about the death of Bāli the monkeys anointed Sugrīva as King. After a time Bāli returned stronger than before and saw the mouth of the cave closed. He thought that Sugrīva had closed the mouth of the cave deliberately to kill him and to usurp his throne. Bāli reached Kiṣkindhā and drove Sugrīva away. Śugrīva fled to Mount Ṛśyamūkācala which was prohibited area for Bāli due to a curse. Mātaṅga had cursed him that if he entered that mountain his head would be broken. So Sugrīva was safe in that mountain.
     The desire of Bāli to take revenge on Sugrīva increased everyday. Everyday he used to go to the four seashores and conduct bath, prayer, meditation etc. and return to Kiṣkindhā within a short time. With one jump he will reach one place from another, and in each jump he would put one step on the head of Sugrīva in the Ṛśyamūkācala. Hanumān was the minister of Sugrīva. He was much annoyed at this habitual torture of Sugrīva. One day as usual Bāli was stepping on the head of Sugrīva to jump to another place, when Hanumān caught hold of Bāli by his waist. Hanumān thought that if Bāli was dragged down on the mountain somehow or other, his head would break and there would be an end of his wicked deeds. Bāli thought that if he could jump into Kiṣkindhā with Hanumān it would be easy for him to destroy Sugrīva. But both were of equal strength. So Bālī did not jump with Hanumān to Kiṣkindhā and Hanumān did not drag Bāli to the ground. Both did not know how to stop the fight. At last they made a treaty. Bāli agreed to stop torturing Sugrīva and Hanumān agreed not to cause any trouble to Bāli. Both returned to their own places. After that Sugrīva lived in Ṛśyamūkācala with his ministers and Bāli in Kiṣkindhā. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Kiṣkindhā Kāṇḍa, Sarga 10; Kampa Rāmāyaṇa, Pūrvakāṇḍa).
     5) Bāli was cursed by Mātaṅga the great hermit. See the word Dundubhi para 4.
     6) Defeating Rāvaṇa. Bāli had got a boon from the Gods that he would get half the strength of his opponent who stood face to face with him in fight. This power enabled Bāli to defeat all his foes and bring the countries in all directions under his sway. Rāvaṇa heard about this and decided to overpower Bāli somehow or other and approached Kiṣkindhā. Bāli knew this. His minister, Tāran, went to Rāvaṇa and told him about the power of Bāli and of the boon by which Bāli got half the strength of his opponent. When Rāvaṇa heard of this peculiar boon he decided to kill Bāli. His idea was to kill Bāli by going behind him when he went to the sea-shore to take bath in the morning.
     Next morning Bāli went to the eastern sea-shore and began his prayer and meditation. Rāvaṇa approached Bāli from behind and sat close to him. Perhaps the idea of Rāvaṇa might have been to take Bāli by his tail and beat him on the ground. Bāli knew that Rāvaṇa was sitting behind him. But pretending that he knew nothing put his long tail on the body of Rāvaṇa, and passed it lengthwise and breadthwise through every part of his body and tied him like a bundle of faggots, and made a jump into the air. Within a short time he visited all the usual places and reached Kiṣkindhā. Seeing Rāvaṇa hanging by the tail of Bāli, even the women folk laughed. Thus Rāvaṇa admitted defeat. Bāli let him go unhurt. (Uttara Rāmāyaṇa).
     7) Death. After Sītā had been stolen away Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa wandered about in the forest. Then they met with Hanumān, who took them to his King Sugrīva. Śrī Rāma and Sugrīva entered into a treaty, by which Śrī Rāma was to kill Bāli and to restore to Sugrīva his wife who was under the custody of Bāli, and to make him the King of Kiṣkindhā, in return for which Sugrīva and his men had to help Śrī Rāma to find out and recover Sītā. In accordance with the conditions of the treaty, Śrī Rāma and Sugrīva reached Kiṣkindhā, to confront with Bāli. Śrī Rāma and Sugrīva had hit up on a plan, by which Śrī Rāma was to shoot Bāli down, when Sugrīva was engaged in boxing with Bāli. Sugrīva challenged Bāli to a single combat. Bāli came out and a horrible boxing began between the two. But Srī Rāma could not distinguish one from the other. Thier faces were so alike. Sugrīva, being defeated, receded from fight. Śrī Rāma and Sugrīva returned to Ṛśyamūkācala. Surgīva spoke ill of Śrī Rāma. But Śrī Rāma revealed the truth, and Sugrīva believed it. Next day morning both of them started for Kiṣkindhā to kill Bāli. Śrī Rāma had put a flower garland around the neck of Sugrīva to distinguish him from Bāli. This time Tārā tried to the utmost to dissuade Bāli from fighting. But without paying any heed to her words Bāli engaged Sugrīva in fighting. Śrī Rāma, sitting in ambush, instantly sent an arrow to the breast of Bāli who looked to the side from which the arrow came. Before falling down, looking at Śrī Rāma Bāli said "It is not right on the part of the King of Ayodhyā to have shot an arrow from ambush". Hearing that Śrī Rāma said, "If you see me face to face you will become devoted to me. It is not right to kill one's devotee. You are a friend of Rāvaṇa, who as you know, is my foe. If I let you alone Rāvaṇa is likely to get your help. Besides, you have a boon that you will get half the strength of the foe who faces you, and as such you cannot be killed by anybody in direct fight. It is unavoidable for the safety of Sugrīva, for my interest, for the protection of the world at large, and for the preservation of law and order that you should be killed. Was it not a violation of duty on your part to steal the wife of Sugrīva?"
     Bāli fell down. Immediately Tārādevī and Aṅgada arrived there. Tārā spoke very harsh words to Śrī Rāma. At last Bāli entrusted Tārā and Aṅgada with Śrī Rāma and then he died. (Kampa Rāmāyaṇa, Kiṣkindhākāṇḍa).

BALĪHAṂ A dynasty of Kṣatriyas. It is mentioned in Mahābhārata, Udyoga Parva, Chapter 74, Stanza 14 that there was a king named Arkaja in this dynasty.

BĀLIŚIKHA A serpent born to Kaśyapa prajāpati of his wife Kadru. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 35, Stanza 8).

BALIVĀK A hermit. It is mentioned in Mahābhārata, Sabhā Parva, Chapter 4, Stanza 14 that this hermit had been a member of the durbar of Yudhiṣṭhira.

BALLĀLA Son of a Vaiśya named Kalyāṇa. From childhood Ballāla was an ardent devotee of Gaṇapati. When he was a child he used to gather pebbles and make a heap and then worship it, imagining it to be Gaṇeśa (Gaṇapati).
     His parents did not like this. They tried their best to dissuade him from this habit. Once they tied him to a tree and gave him severe cuts. But their attempts were futile. One day an image of Gaṇapati arose in the place where the child used to worship. (Gaṇeśa Purāṇa 1:2).

BALLAVA (VALLAVA) A country in Bhārata. Mention is made about this country in Mahābhārata, Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 9.

BALLAVA (VALLAVA) This is the pseudo-name assumed by Bhīmasena, while the Pāṇḍavas were living in pseudonymity in the kingdom of Virāṭa. In some Purāṇas this name is shown as 'Valala'. (M.B., Virāṭa Parva, Chapter 2, Stanza 1).

BALOTKAṬĀ A female attendant of Subrahmaṇya. (M.B., Śalya Parva, Chapter 46, Stanza 23).

BALVALA (VALKALA) An asura. This asura had been tormenting the hermits of the forest of Naimiśa. This asura was killed by Balabhadrarāma.* For detailed story see para 6 of the word Balabhadrarāma.
*) In the original of Bhāgavata this name is given as Balvala. But in the Malayalam translation the name used is "Valkala".

BĀṆA (BĀṆABHAṬṬA) I. A Sanskrit poet who lived in the 7th century A.D. He was a member of the assembly of emperor Harṣavardhana. 'Harṣacarita' (prose) is the most important work of Bāṇa. Though many of the descriptions in this book contain exaggerations it affords plenty of scope for investigation into the features of ancient Sanskrit literature. He has mentioned about Vyāsa, Bhaṭṭāra-hariścandra, Sātavāhana, Pravarasena, Bhāsa, Kālidāsa and such others.
     Harṣacarita, in a sense, is a Romance. It is divided into eight Ucchvāsas. From the first two or three chapters informations could be had of Bāṇabhaṭṭa. His mother Rājyadevī died when he was a little boy. At the age of fourteen his father also died. After that he arrived at the palace of Harṣa. The story of Harṣacarita begins with the death of Prabhākara-Vardhana, father of Harṣa. The Book ends with the story incomplete. Harṣacarita is the only historic prose work available in Sanskrit.

BĀṆA II A mighty and powerful Asura.
     1) Genealogy and birth. Descended from Mahāviṣṇu in the following order: Brahmā-Marīci-Kaśyapa-Hiraṇyakaśipu-Pṛahlāda-Virocana-Mahābali-Bāṇa.
     2) Getting a boon. Bāṇa began his reign with the city of Śoṇitapura as his capital. Then he went to the vicinity of the Himālayas and began to do penance thinking of Śiva. Śiva made his appearance and asked him what he wanted. He requested that he should be considered as the son of Pārvatī and that he should be given thousand hands so as to destroy all his enemies. Śiva granted him the boon. From that day onwards Pārvatī considered him as the younger brother of Subrahmaṇya. He returned to his Kingdom and began to reign.
     3) Battle with Śrī Kṛṣṇa and his fall. (See the word Aniruddha).
     4) Other information. (1) In the Purāṇas Bāṇāsura is often called by the name Mahākāla, which is the name of an attendant of Śiva. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 65, Stanza 20).
     (2) Śukrācārya (the teacher of the Asuras) always worked for the uplift of Bāṇa. (M.B., Sabhā Parva, Chapter 38, Stanza 29).
     (3) In the Battle with Śrī Kṛṣṇa, Bāṇa was helped by Śiva, Subrahmaṇya, and the Gods like Agni (fire) and others. (M.B., Sabhā Parva, Chapter 38).
     (4) Śrī Kṛṣṇa cut down the thousand hands of Bāṇa with his Cakrāyudha (the wheel weapon). (M.B., Sabhā Parva, Chapter 38).
     (5) Bāṇa often stood under the cover of the mountain of Krauñca and attacked the devas (gods). So once Subrahmaṇya had to cut the mountain Krauñca with his arrows. (M.B., Śalya Parva, Chapter 46, Stanza 82).

BĀṆA III A warrior of Subrahmaṇya. Mention is made about this Bāṇa in Mahābhārata, Śalya Parva, Chapter 45, Stanza 67.

BĀṆA IV An asura. During the regime of Śrī Rāma this Asura fought against the King and his brothers. A Śivaliṅga had been consecrated in the throat of this asura. So it was not possible for Lakṣmaṇa to defeat him though he had fought with him for so many days. Lakṣmaṇa heard an etherial voice saying, "Unless and until the image of Śivaliṅga is removed from his throat Bāṇa could not be killed." By the operation of arrows Lakṣmaṇa smashed the image of Śivaliṅga in his throat. With the same arrow he cut the throat of the asura also and thus Bāṇa was killed. (Kampa Rāmāyaṇa, Uttara Kāṇḍa).

BANDHUDĀYĀDA A son who can claim to be a heir. The Purāṇas state about six different kinds of Bandhudāyādas.
     1) Svayaṃjāta. A son born to one's wife without a progenitor.
     2) Praṇīta. A son born to one's wife by the blessing of any holy man.
     3) Putrikāputra. Son of one's daughter.
     4) Paunarbhava. A son born after a re-marriage.
     5) Kānīna. A son born before marriage.
     6) Bhāñja. Son of one's sister. All these sons are heirs. (Chapter 119, Adi Parva, M.B.).

BANDHUMĀN A king of the country of Videha. (Chapter 6, Brahmāṇḍa Purāṇa).

BANDHUMATĪ A lady attendant of Vāsavadattā, wife of Udayana. (See Vāsavadattā).

BARBARA A country of purāṇic fame. The people living there were called Barbaras. They were considered as low caste people. There is also a statement that these people were born of the sides of the cow, Nandinī. (Śloka 37, Chapter 174, Ādi Parva, M.B.). During the victory march of the Pāṇḍavas Bhīmasena conquered the Barbaras. Nakula also conquered these people. (Chapter 32, Sabhā Parva, M.B.). In the Rājasūya yajña of Dharmaputra the Barbaras were present with gifts.

BARBARIKA Son of Maurvī born of Ghaṭotkaca, son of Bhīma. Skanda Purāṇa gives the following details about him.
     Barbarika was a Yakṣa in his previous life. Once the devas unable to bear the insufferable harm done to them by the Dānavas approached Lord Mahāviṣṇu for help and then the Yakṣa who was present there at that time said with arrogance, "There is no need for Viṣṇu to curb the activities of the Dānavas. I shall do it myself." Hearing those arrogant words Brahmā cursed him saying that in his next life he would be killed by Viṣṇu.
     True to the curse the Yakṣa was born in his next life as Barbarika, son of Ghaṭotkaca. To lessen the force of the curse Kṛṣṇa advised him to worship Devī. At last pleasing the goddess by the kindly help of a brahmin named Vijaya Barbarika killed a demoness called Mahājihva and a demon of name Repalendra. The brāhmin further gave him a weapon named Vibhūti which could split the vital centres of the body of an enemy and said, "Use this weapon against the Kauravas who oppose the Pāṇḍavas."
     Once Barbarika defeated his grandfather Bhīma in a battle and greatly grieved over the injury done started to commit suicide. Then Devī appeared before him and reminded him thus, "You will get salvation only if you are killed by Śrī Kṛṣṇa and so desist from committing suicide."
     The great war started and Barbarika fighting on the side of the Pāṇḍavas started using his weapon Vibhūti. He sent it against all excepting the Pāṇḍavas, Kṛpācārya and Aśvatthāmā. He did not leave even Kṛṣṇa alone and the weapon fell on the feet of Kṛṣṇa also. Enraged at this Kṛṣṇa used his Sudarśana Cakra and cut off his head; at once Devī appeared and brought him to life. After the great battle on the advice of Kṛṣṇa Barbarika went and lived in Guptakṣetra.

BARHAṆĀŚVA A king born of the dynasty of emperor Pṛthu. Descending in order: Pṛthu-Viśvarandhi-Candra-Yuvanāśva-Śāvanta-Bṛhadaśva-Dhundhumāra (alias Valayāśva)-Dṛḍhāśva-Haryaśva-Nikumbha and to Nikuṃbha was born Barhaṇāśva and from him Kṛśāśva-Prasenajit-Yuvanāśva-Māndhātā. (Saptama Skandha, Devī Bhāgavata).

BARHIS A devagandharva clan. These were born to Kaśyapa prajāpati of his wife Pṛthā. (Chapter 65, Ādi Parva, M.B.).

BARHIṢAD(S) A class of Manes. It is mentioned in Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 20 that some classes of manes such as Agniṣvāttas, Barhiṣads, Anagnis, and Sāgnis are said to have derived from Brahmā. Brahmā created two different sets of Pitṛs, Agniṣvāttas and Barhiṣads. (Chapter 10, Aṃśam 1, Viṣṇu Purāṇa).
     These Barhiṣads who are members of the Yamasabhā (council of the God of Death) perform the māntric rites for the dead. The name brings into its fold the world of the seven sacred sages also. (Chapter 208, Śānti Parva, M.B.). It was through these Barhiṣads that Brahmā taught Sātvatadharma to a brahmin who became wellknown later as Jyeṣṭha. (Chapter 34, Śloka 45, Śānti Parva, M.B.).
     Manusmṛti states that the Barhiṣads are the sons of the Maharṣi Atri and the Pitṛs of all the Daityas, Dānavas, Yakṣas, Gandharvas, Uragas, Rākṣasas, Suvarṇas and Kinnaras.
     "daityadānavayakṣāṇāṃ gandharvoragarākṣasām suvarṇakinnarāṇāṃca smṛtā barhiṣado'trijāḥ" (Manusmṛti, Śloka 196, Chapter 3).

BARHIṢMATĪ Wife of Priyavrata, son of Svāyambhuva Manu and brother of Uttānapāda. She was the daughter of Viśvakarmaprajāpati. Priyavrata married another daughter of his named Surūpā. Surūpā delivered ten sons and a daughter. They were: Agnīdhra, Idhmajihva, Yajñabāhu, Mahāvīra, Rukmaśukra, Ghṛtapṛṣṭha, Savana, Madhātithi, Vītihotra, Kavi and a daughter Ūrjjasvatī. Priyavrata got of his wife Barhiṣmatī three sons, Uttama, Tamasa and Raivata. These sons became in due course the Manvantarādhipatis. (Aṣṭama Skandha, Devī Bhāgavata).

BĀRHASPATYA The Nītiśāstra of Brahmā. Bṛhaspati condensed and codified the laws of Ethics by Brahmā. This was compiled by Bṛhaspati. This book contains three thousand chapters. Mention is made about this Book in Mahābhārata, Śānti Parva, Chapter 59, Stanza 84.

BĀṢKALA I A king of the asuras.
     1) Birth. Two sons, Hiraṇyākṣa and Hiraṇyakaśipu and a daughter Siṃhikā, were born to Kaśyapa prajāpati of his wife Diti. Siṃhikā became the wife of Vipracitti. Four sons, Anuhrāda, Hrāda, Prahlāda and Saṃhlāda, were born to Hiraṇyakaśipu. Hrāda was the son of Hrada. Three sons Āyuṣmān, Śibi and Bāṣkala were born to Saṃhrāda.
     2) Later history. Bāṣkala became one of the ministers of the famous and mighty hero Mahiṣāsura. Cikṣura was the minister of law and order. Tāmra was the Finance Minister. Asiloma was the Prime Minister and Biḍāla the minister of foreign affairs. Udarkka was the general of the army; Bāṣkala, Trinetra and Kālabandhaka were members of the administrative council. Śukrācārya was the minister of education. Bāṣkala played an important part in the battle between Mahiṣāsura and Indra. When soldiers were killed by thousands, Mahiṣāsura sent lastly, Bāṣkala and Durmukha. Bāṣkala engaged himself in a combat with Devī who fought on the side of the Devas. Bāṣkala became angry and aiming at the breast of Devī he gave a severe blow with his club. But Devī evaded him with her club and gave him a severe thrust with her trident at his breast and Bāṣkala fell dead. (Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 19; Devī Bhāgavata, Skandha 5).

BĀṢKALA II One of the disciples of Vyāsa. (See the word Guruparamparā).

BAṬU (VAṬU). A brahmin who reads the Gītā daily. Because in life he held fast to duty he was carried to heaven after death. The dead body was eaten away by birds and the bony skeleton remained. When rains started the empty skull was filled with water and a sinner passing that way touched the skull and the sinner got salvation. (Padma Purāṇa, Uttara Khaṇḍa).

BAUDHĀYANA A teacher-priest who acted according to Kalpa Sūtras (rituals of sacrifices).

BHADRA I A king of Cedi who fought on the Pāṇḍava side. Karṇa killed him. (Karṇa Parva, Chapter 56, Verse 48).

BHADRA II One of the four elephants which, from Pātāla, support the world. (See Aṣṭadiggajas).

BHADRA III Son of Sraddhā, daughter born to Svāyambhuva Manu by his wife Śatarūpā. Sraddhā had the following sons: Śubha, Prasāda, Maitrīputra, Abhaya, Dayātmaja, Śāntija, Bhadra, Muda, Tuṣṭija Smaya, Puṣṭija and Yoga. (Bhāgavata, Caturtha Skandha)

BHADRA IV A yakṣa, one of the ministers of Kubera. He had to be born as a lion on account of the curse of sage Gautama.

BHADRA V People of the kingdom of Bhadragaṇa are generally called Bhadras. It is stated in the Sabhā Parva that the Kṣatriya princes of Bhadragaṇa presented lots of money in connection with the Rājasūya yajña of Yudhiṣṭhira.

BHADRA VI A maharṣi, son of Pramati, and father of Upamanyu.

BHADRA VII A son born to Śrī Kṛṣṇa of Kālindī. (Bhāgavata, Daśama Skandha).

BHADRĀ I See Bhadrakālī.

BHADRĀ II The beautiful daughter of King Kakṣīvān. She was married to King Vyūṣitāśva of the Pūru dynasty. When Bhadrā, in unbearable grief lamented the death of her husband his soul appeared on the skies and blessed her. Accordingly she got pregnant by the corpse of her husband and delivered six sons. (Ādi Parva, Chapter 120, Verse 38).

BHADRĀ III One of the wives of Kubera. Kuntī once related the story of Bhadrā to Pāñcālī and exhorted her to live like Bhadrā. (Ādi Parva, Chapter 198, Verse 6).

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BHADRĀ IV The word Bhadrā is used as another name of Subhadrā, sister of Śrī Kṛṣṇa in Verse 14, Chapter 218 of Ādi Parva.

BHADRĀ V Yet another Bhadrā, daughter of the King of Viśālā is mentioned in Chapter 45 of the Mahābhārata. She did penance for getting the kingdom of Karūṣa, when Śiśupāla, disguised as King Karūṣa appeared on the scene and carried her away.

BHADRĀ VI There is reference to another Bhadrā, daughter of Soma in Chapter 154 of the Anuśāsana Parva. She once did intense penance to secure Utathya as her husband. Atri maharṣi, father of Soma, came to know of the desire of his granddaughter, and got her married to Utathya. Varuṇa once fell in love with Bhadrā, who was an exceptionally beautiful woman, and abducted and concealed her in the sea. When Utathya returned to the Āśrama, his wife was missing. He understood what had happened to Bhadrā by the light of his divine knowledge (television of mind). Burning with anger he drank up the sea completely dry, and Varuṇa shuddering with fear returned Bhadrā to Utathya and profusely apologised. Thus ended the problem.

BHADRĀ VII Verse 24, Chapter 7 of the Mausala Parva, states that Bhadrā, one of the four wives of Vasudeva, father of Śrī Kṛṣṇa died by jumping into the funeral pyre of her husband.

BHADRĀ VIII A daughter of the King of Kāśī. The grandson of Sagara, a king of the Solar dynasty married Bhadrā, daughter of the King of Kāśī. (Brahmāṇḍa Purāṇa, Chapter 96).

BHADRĀ IX One Bhadrā, daughter of Meru was married by King Agnīdhra. She had eight sisters, viz. Meru Devī, Pratirūpā, Ugradamṣṭrī, Latā, Ramyā, Śyāmā, Nārī and Devavītī. (Bhāgavata, Pañcama Skandha).

BHADRA X See Vidūṣaka.

BHADRA(M) A kingdom in ancient India. The Kṣatriya princes of Bhadram gave costly presents to Dharmaputra at the Rājasūya Yāga (Sabhā Parva, Chapter 52, Verse 14). Karṇa, in the course of his digvijaya (conquest of countries) subjugated this kingdom. (Vana Parva, Chapter 254.)

BHADRABĀHU A king of Pūruvaṃśa. (Navama Skandha, Bhāgavata).

BHADRACĀRU A son of Pradyumna. (Bhāgavata, Daśama Skandha).

BHADRADEHA A king. According to the Viṣṇu Purāṇa he was one of the sons of Vasudeva by Devakī.

BHADRAKA I A king belonging to the Aṅga dynasty. (Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 277).

BHADRAKA II A brahmin outcaste. This brahmin, who spent his whole life in committing sins, by chance, took māgha bath for three days at Prayāga, and thus got himself sanctified.
     King Vīrasena, who was then ruling the Avanti kingdom had earned ample sanctity by the performance of seventeen Aśvamedha yāgas. The Deaths of King Vīrasena and Bhadraka took place on one and the same day. Though Bhadraka was immoral in his life, he went to heaven along with Vīrasena after death as he had taken the māgha bath. (Padma Purāṇa, Uttarakhaṇḍa).

BHADRAKĀLĪ Another form of Pārvatī.
     1) General. Lord Śiva, on hearing about the selfimmolation in fire of his wife, Satī at the famous yajña conducted by Dakṣa rushed in all anger to the spot, and beat the earth with his matted hair, and there ensued two forces called Vīrabhadra and Bhadrakālī. This Bhadrakālī was really Satī or Pārvatī in another form.
     2) Bhadrakālī and Kaṃsa. There is a story in the Daśama-Skandha of Bhāgavata that Kaṃsa took away from the room in which Devakī had delivered Śrī Kṛṣṇa the child of Yaśodā by whom Kṛṣṇa had been replaced, and dashed the child against a rock, and that the child then escaped from his clutches and rose up to the sky. That child was Bhadrakālī in another form. (Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 12).
     3) Kampa, Laṅkālakṣmī and Bhadrakālī. Laṅkālakṣmī, who was guarding the city of Laṅkā, was the first to prevent Hanumān from entering the city. Tamil Purāṇas aver that this Laṅkālakṣmī was an incarnation of Bhadrakālī. Hanumān thrashed Laṅkālakṣmī with his left hand at which she vomitted blood and fell down unconscious. On regaining consciousness remembrance of the past occurred to her, and after thanking Hanumān, who restored her to her former form, she returned to Kailāsa. She complained to Śiva that she could not witness the Rāma-Rāvaṇa war. Then Śiva told her thus:
     "You go to the Drāviḍa country and be put up in the 'Svayambhūliṅga' temple there. I shall be born there as Kampa, compose the Rāmāyaṇa in Tamil and get conducted the dolls-play. Then you would be able to enjoy the story of Śrī Rāma, especially the Rāma-Rāvaṇa war, both by hearing and seeing the same in better manner than by actually seeing the war.
     Bhadrakālī acted according to this bidding of Śiva. There lived a great scholar named Saṅkaranārāyaṇa close to the temple. His wife was Ciṅkāravallī. Lord Śiva, as decided upon previously was born as the son of Ciṅkāravallī, who had become a widow while she was worshipping 'Svayambhūdeva' for the gift of a child. But, Ciṅkāravallī, who feared scandal in her, a widow, becoming a mother, forsook the child in the temple precincts and left the place. One Gaṇeśakaunta sighted the orphan child, and took it to Jayappavallan, the Kaunta chief. The Kaunta chief, who was without children brought up the orphan child as though it had been his own child. Since the child was recovered from the foot of the flagstaff it was named Kampa. Kampa, who was very intelligent even in his infancy, but lazy by nature turned out to be a great scholar and good poet in Tamil by the time he grew up to be a youth, and he became, consequently a prominent member in the 'poets' assembly' of King Cola. When to his name was added the plural suffix 'r' as a token of great respect he came to be known as Kampar.
     Once King Cola asked Kampar and Oṭṭakkūtta another member of the poets' assembly to compose in Tamil poetry the story of Śrī Rāma. The King's direction was that. Oṭṭakkūtta should compose his poem upto the incident, Setubandhana (building a bridge in the sea up to Laṅkā) and Kampar should write the story of the war in his poem. Oṭṭakkūtta completed the task allotted to him within six months. But Kampar had not attempted to write even a single line. Having been informed about the matter the King ordered that the poem, Rāmāyaṇa should be recited in the assembly the very next day itself. Kampar, who began writing his poem the same day with the object of completing it in the night itself fell asleep without writing anything at all. When Kampar awoke early in the morning he saw a divine form disappearing from his room, and exclaimed, "Oh! mother! you have slipped away". To this the divine form replies, "Oh Kampar! I have finished writing". And, then the divine form vanished completely.
     When Kampar got completely out of sleep and looked about he found the Rāmāyaṇa story fully written in verse on his desk. Kampar inferred that the poem was composed by Śāradābhagavatī, the presiding deity of learning and literature, and he was wonder-struck. He recited the poem in the royal assembly, and the King and others too were wonder-struck. And, afterwards, according to the orders of the King the story of the war (Yuddhakāṇḍa Kathā) began to be exhibited as dollsplay in the presence of the idol of the Devī in the temple. Thus Śiva incarnated himself as Kampar, recited the story of the Rāma-Rāvaṇa war in the temple, and hearing it Bhadrakālī danced.
     The above is the chief legend about Kampar.

BHADRAKĀLIPPĀṬṬU (Pāṭṭu = Song). Folk song very popular in Kerala temples. The practice is to sing songs in praise of Bhadrakālī

BHADRAKĀRA A king of ancient India; he once left his kingdom, in fear of Jarāsandha, and took refuge in South India. (Sabhā Parva, Chapter 14, Verse 26).

BHADRAKARṆEŚVARA(M) A sacred place. He who visits this place conducts worship will never have to face ill fate. (Vana Parva, Chapter 84, Verse 39).

BHADRAMATĀ (BHADRAMANĀ). Daughter born to Kaśyapa prajāpati of his wife, Krodhavaśā. The ten daughters of Krodhavaśā are: Mṛgī, Mṛgamandā, Harī, Bhadramatā, Mātaṅgī, Śārddūlī, Śvetā, Surabhi, Surasā and Kadru. (Sarga 14, Āraṇya Kāṇḍa, Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa).

BHADRAMATI A very poor brahmin. This brahmin had six wives and two hundred and fortyfour daughters. (Nārada Purāṇam).
     Once, hearing the glory of Bhūdāna (giving away land free to the deserved) he was much impressed and from then onwards he became filled with a strong desire to give land free to the poor. He had no land of his own. But he went to the king of Kauśāmbī and begged for some land which when received was immediately given as gift to poor brahmins. After that he went and bathed in the Pāpanāśana tīrtha situated in the mount of Veṅkaṭācala. Bhadramati got salvation by this good deed. (Skanda 2,1,10).

BHADRAŚĀKA A name of Subrahmaṇya. It is the figure of Subrahmaṇya in the shape of a goat that is known as Bhadraśāka. (Śloka 4, Chapter 228, Vana Parva, M.B.).

BHADRAŚĀLA(M) A forest on the top of the Mountain Bhadrāśvavarṣa which lies to the east of Mahāmeru. There is a tree called Kālāmra in this forest. This is a very sacred tree standing miles high above other trees and is being worshipped by the Vṛddhacāraṇas. By worshipping this tree the men have become white and majestic and by drinking a juice prepared from its leaves the women keep themselves eternally young. Chapter seven of Bhīṣma Parva says like this about this tree: "Kālāmra stands towering miles high bearing flowers and fruits at all times of the year. The Vṛddhacāraṇas worshipping it are white, strong and majestic. The women drinking its juice are lotus-complexioned, beautiful, Moonfaced, well versed in music and dance and having a life-span of over a thousand years, remaining young all the time."

BHADRASĀRA A king in the region of Kāśmīra. His only son, Sudharman, was very much devoted to Śiva and spent most of his time worshipping him. The father tried his best to withdraw his son from this excessive devotion but failed.
     Then one day the great sage, Parāśara, came to the King as his guest and the King then requested him to make his son withdraw from his Śiva-worship. But Parāśara then told him about the previous life of Sudharmā and consoling him persuaded the King to do the 'Rudrābhiṣeka' (uninterrupted pouring of cold water over an idol of Śiva) by himself. The king then entrusted the state with his son and left for the forests accepting an ascetic life. (Skandha Purāṇa, 3.3.20-21).

BHADRASENA A king. Uddālaka Maharṣi performed a demoniac yāga to destroy this king. (Śatapathabrāhmaṇa).

BHADRAŚRAVAS A king whom the Purāṇas extol as having ruled Saurāṣṭra in Dvāparayuga. At the forest of Naimiśa sage Sūta told the following story to explain how Lakṣmī (goddess of wealth) took her abode in the houses of men.
     Bhadraśravā (Bhadraśravas) who was ruling Saurāṣṭra had seven sons and a daughter of his wife Suraticandrikā. The daughter was named Śyāmabālā. Once truthful-Śyāmabālā was sitting under a green-wood tree with her playmates playing with diamonds and gold sand when the goddess of wealth disguised as an aged brahmin woman went to the gates of the palace and asked for permission to see the queen, Suraticandrikā. The sentries pressed for details about her and then she said this: "My name is Kamalā. My husband is a man named Bhuvanāśva and we live in Dvārakā. Your queen in her previous birth was a Vaiśya woman. One day she quarrelled with her husband and he beat her hard and then crying loudly she ran out of the house. I met her and when she told me her story I instructed her to observe a Puṇyavrata (Fasting to any particular deity). She did it willingly and as a result she acquired great wealth and happiness.
     One day the husband and wife died. Yama, the king of Death, then sent his orderlies to bring before him that couple who had always quarrelled with each other while living. Bound by ropes the ghastly servants of Yama were about to drag them to their land when the angelic servants of Viṣṇu with the insignia of 'Śaṃkha-Cakra-Gadā' on their lapels arrived there and those messengers of Lakṣmī headed by Svaprakāśa cut off the ropes and carrying them in a Rājahaṃsa chariot took them through noble paths to the land of Lakṣmī. They lived there happily for a period calculated at the rate of a thousand years for one week of Puṇyavrata observed. In the end to complete the goodness remaining they were born as King and queen on earth with plenty of wealth and happiness. But they have now forgotten about the Puṇyavrata and I have come here to remind them of it."
     The gate-keeper immediately went to her mistress and told her all that happened. But the queen, Suraticandrikā got angry when she heard the story and ordered the old woman to be sent away from there with thrashes. The old woman ran away from the palace crying loudly and Śyāmabālā on hearing the cry went and enquired about the incident. On hearing the story from the woman Śyāmabālā got instructions regarding that Puṇyavrata from the old woman and started observing it. Within four weeks she got married and went to her husband's house. After Śyāmabālā's departure from the palace the wealth of the King began to wane and they became so poor that at the request of the queen the King Bhadraśravā went to his daughter to ask for help. The daughter gave his father a block of solid gold drapped in a paper. But on his return to the palace when he opened the bundle he found there a block of charcoal instead of gold. On seeing the mishap the king burst into a cry.
     Suraticandrikā then went to her daughter and was well received and attended to. During her stay there the Puṇyavrata day of the month came and the daughter tried her best to make her mother also observe the same. But the poverty-stricken queen broke the fast without her daughter's knowledge by eating what remained in the dishes of the children. But the next month Śyāmabālā compelled her mother to observe the fast strictly and so Suraticandrikā took the Vrata successfully. A few days after that Suraticandrikā returned home and to her amazement found everything in plenty there once more. (Chapter 11, Bhaga 2, Padma Purāṇa).

BHADRAŚREṆYA A Hehaya King who was ruling a state with Māhiṣmatī as capital. He had fought many wars with Divodāsa, king of Kāśī. (See under Divodāsa).

BHADRĀŚVA I A king of Pūruvaṃśa. He was the son of Rahovādi. Bhadrāśvā had ten sons: Ṛkṣeyu, Kṛṣeyu, Sannateyu, Ghṛteyu, Citeyu, Sthaṇḍileyu, Dharmeyu, Sammiteyu, Kṛteyu and Matināra. (Chapter 278, Agni Purāṇa).
     Once Agastya went and stayed for seven days in the palace of Bhadrāśva and his wife Kāntimatī. Everyday Agastya used to speak in glowing terms about Kāntimatī and asked about the reason for it he replied: "In her previous birth Kāntimatī was a servant girl in a wealthy house. The master of the house once entrusted her with the task of seeing that none of the temple lights went out on the night of Dvādaśī in the month of Tulā (Āśvina--October). She did her duty so willingly and sincerely that she was born as a queen and you a King". Then Agastya gave them instructions about that Vrata which both Bhadrāśva and Kāntimatī observed sincerely, receiving as a result benediction from Viṣṇu. (Vāyu Purāṇa).

BHADRĀŚVA II Agnīdhra, son of Priyavrata and grandson of Manu, got nine sons of his wife Pūrvacitti, a celestial maiden. One of the sons was Bhadrāśva. His brothers were Nābhi, Kiṃpuruṣa, Hari, Ilāvṛta, Ramyaka, Hiraṇmaya, Kuru and Ketumāla. The country ruled by Bhadrāśva was called Bhadrāśva lying to the east of the mountain Gandhamādana. (Pañcama Skandha, Bhāgavata).

BHADRĀŚVA An island near the mountain of Meru. Dharmaputra was ruling this land and Sañjaya once described this land to Dhṛtarāṣṭra. (Chapter 14, Śānti Parva and Chapter 7, Bhīṣma Parva).

BHADRATANU An immoral brahmin. On the advice of Danta he became a devotee of Viṣṇu and attained salvation. (Padma Purāṇa, Kriya, Chapter 17).

BHADRATUṄGA A sacred place; a dip in the holy waters of this place would entitle one to Brahmaloka. (Vana Parva, Chapter 82, Verse 80).

BHADRAVAṬA The abode of Pārvatī and Parameśvara. The glory of it is described in Chapter 82, Vana Parva, M.B.

BHADRĀYU A king who was a devotee of Śiva. He was a leper and in his life he suffered much, even the pangs of death. His wife was the dutiful and good natured lady, Kīrtimālinī.
     On the sixteenth birthday of Bhadrāyu Śiva appeared before him in the name of Ṛṣabha and blessed him after instructing him on the precepts of Rājadharma. He further gave him a dagger and a conch as weapons and twelve thousand elephants. With the might of all these, Bhadrāyu became unconquerable. (Śiva Purāṇa, Śatarudrasaṃhitā).
     One day, while Bhadrāyu was ruling the country, Śiva came in the guise of a tiger and carried away the wife of a brahmin. Bhadrāyu, a firm protector of his subjects gave his own wife to the brahmin and prepared himself to give up his life in fire. Śiva greatly pleased at this selfless act of Bhadrāyu befitting a true King appeared before him and blessed him and gave back the brahmin his wife.
     Bhadrāyu in his previous birth was a King called Mandara and Kīrtimālinī in her previous birth was Piṅgalā, queen of Mandara. (Skanda Purāṇa, 3.3.12; 9.14).

     1) General. One of the twelve Ādityas born as sons of Kaśyapa prajāpati by his wife, Aditi. Viṣṇu, Śakra, Aryaman, Dhātā, Tvaṣṭā, Pūṣā, Vivasvān, Savitā, Mitra, Varuṇa, Aṃśu and Bhaga--these are the Dvādaśādityas, and they were Devas famous as Tuṣitas in the last Cākṣuṣamanvantara.
     2) Other information. (1) Bhaga married Siddhi, and the couple begot three sons called Mahiman, Vibhu and Prabhu and three daughters called Suvratā, Varārohā, and Āśīs.
     (2) Bhaga participated in the birthday celebrations of Arjuna. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 122, Verse 66).
     (3) At the time of Khāṇḍavadāha (burning of the Khāṇḍava forest) Bhaga, as a supporter of Indra, who was fighting Arjuna and Śrī Kṛṣṇa, sprang upon the enemies with sword in hand. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 236, Verse 36).
     (4) Bhaga shines forth in Indra's assembly. (M.B., Sabhā Parva, Chapter 7, Verse 22).
     (5) Bhaga was also present at the installation of Subrahmaṇya as commander of the fighting forces. (M.B., Śalya Parva, Chapter 45).
     (6) After Devayuga (Deva age), the Devas asembled together and decided upon the share of yajñas due to each of them, and in thus fixing shares they left out Rudra. Enraged at this neglect Rudra made a bow and fought against the Devas. During the fight Rudra, with the point of his bow, extracted the hands of Savitā, the eyes of Bhaga and the teeth of Pūṣā. Ultimately the Devas satisfied and pleased. Rudra, who returned to Bhaga and others the eyes etc. which had been extracted. (M.B., Sauptika Parva).

BHAGA II Certain Purāṇas refer to Bhaga as one of the eleven Rudras. But, this view is not universally accepted.

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BHAGA III A vedic god considered to be the lord of wealth, prowess and happiness. Bhaga is also one of the six Ādityas mentioned in the Ṛgveda, viz. Bhaga, Mitra, Aryamā, Varuṇa, Dakṣa and Aṃśa. (Ṛgveda, 2.27).

BHAGADĀ An attendant (woman) of Subrahmaṇya. (Śalya Parva, Chapter 46, Verse 26).

BHAGADATTA Bhagadatta was King of Prāgjyotiṣapura. Mahābhārata furnishes the following information about him.
     1) Bhagadatta was born from a limb of the asura called Bāṣkala. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 67, Verse 9).
     2) He was present at the wedding of Pāñcālī. (Ādi Parva, Chapter 185, Verse 12).
     3) Known also as lord of the Yavanas (Yavanādhipa). Bhagadatta was a friend of Pāṇḍu, and that friendship was transferred to Yudhiṣṭhira too. (Sabhā Parva, Chapter 14, Verse 14).
     4) The triumphal tour of Arjuna in connection with the Rājasūya yajña performed by Yudhiṣṭhira evoked feelings of jealousy in the heart of Bhagadatta, and he fought against Arjuna. The courage and prowess Arjuna exhibited in the fight astonished Bhagadatta, who congratulated Arjuna on his supreme courage and admitting defeat yielded to Arjuna. (Sabhā Parva, Chapter 26, Verse 7).
     5) Bhagadatta, along with the Yavanas was present at the Rājasūya of Yudhiṣṭhira. He also made presents of horses of very high pedigree and very costly gems etc. (Sabhā Parva, Chapter 51, Verse 14).
     6) Karṇa once defeated Bhagadatta in fight. (Vana Parva, Chapter 254, Verse 5).
     7) In the great war he, with his army, fought on the side of Duryodhana. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 19, Verse 15).
     8) During the first day of the war Bhagadatta fought a duel with the King of Virāṭa. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 49).
     9) He was defeated in his fight with Ghaṭotkaca. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 64, Verse 59).
     10) In the fight which took place after the above defeat Bhagadatta caused Bhīmasena to faint in the field. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 64, Verse 13).
     11) And after that he defeated Ghaṭotkaca in fight. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 83, Verse 40).
     12) Next ensued the combat with King Daśārṇa in which the King was defeated. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 95, Verse 48).
     13) It was not long after this that Bhagadatta cut off the hands of the Kṣatradeva. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 95, Verse 73).
     14) Viśoka, the charioteer of Bhīma-sena, hit by the arrows of Bhagadatta fell down and fainted. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 95, Verse 76).
     15) Bhagadatta and Sātyaki fought against each other. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 111, Verse 7).
     16) Chapters 113 and 114 of the Bhīṣma Parva describe the combats fought by Bhagadatta with Bhīmasena and Arjuna.
     17) Bhagadatta and Drupada fought with each other. (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 14, Verse 40).
     18) Bhagadatta killed king Daśārṇa. (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 26, Verse 38).
     19) Bhagadatta killed Ruciparvan. (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 26, Verse 52).
     20) He shot the Vaiṣṇavāstra (arrow given by Viṣṇu) on Arjuna. (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 29, Verse 17).
     21) Arjuna killed Bhagadatta. (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 29, Verse 48).
     22) After his death, his son, Vajradatta became King of Prāgjyotiṣa. Arjuna killed Vajradatta also. (Aśvamedha Parva, Chapter 76).
     23) King Śailālaya, who was Bhagadatta's grandfather, attained Indraloka on account of the greatness of his tapas. (Āśramavāsika Parva, Chapter 20, Verse 10).

BHAGANANDĀ An attendant woman of Subrahmaṇya. (Śalya Parva, Chapter 46, Verse 11).

BHAGAVADDHYĀNAPARVA A sub-parva of Udyoga-Parva. It comprises chapters 72-150 in Udyoga Parva.

BHĀGAVATA One of the eighteen famous Purāṇas. Gāyatrī is the main theme of this Purāṇa and based on it it dwells on the greatness of Dharma (duty) and states about the dharmas of Sārasvatakalpa. (See under Purāṇa).

     1) General. The Bhagavad Gītā is a poem consisting of 650 verses divided into eighteen chapters. The Gītā covers chapters 25-45 in the Bhīṣma Parva of the Mahābhārata, and it is in the form of a talk or discussion between Arjuna and Lord Kṛṣṇa. The mighty armies of the Pāṇḍavas and the Kauravas were arrayed on opposite sides for mortal combat on the field of Kurukṣetra when Arjuna, overcome by grief at the prospect of fathers, brothers, preceptors and other Kinsmen fighting and killing one another expressed to his charioteer, Śrī Kṛṣṇa his aversion to fighting. But, the Lord pointed out to the unwilling Arjuna, by unique and various arguments, his imperative duty, under the circumstance, to fight and fight in heroic earnestness with the result that Arjuna shed his disinclination to fight and entered the fray, which ended in the ultimate victory of the Pāṇḍavas. And the dialogue between Arjuna and Kṛṣṇa, and especially the great teaching of Kṛṣṇa on the field form the theme of the Gītā. The Gītā contains three spheres or fields of teaching; the karma yoga (philosophy of action), jñāna yoga (philosophy of knowledge) and Bhaktiyoga (philosophy of devotion). The three yogas are treated each in six chapters.
     The theme of the Gītā is philosophy, and it is revered as one of the most sublime philosophical texts of the Hindu religion. Many a great thinker and philosopher like Ācārya Śaṅkara, Rāmānujācārya and Madhvācārya have annotated, and written commentaries on the Gītā. There is a school of thought which believes that the Gītā was taught to Arjuna by Kṛṣṇa himself on the battle-field in something like tabloid form and that Vyāsa eleborated the mighty teaching in its present form. The poet, Bāṇa, who flourished in the 7th century A.D., and the great Śaṅkara, who lived in the 8th century believed that the Gītā was sung by Kṛṣṇa himself. But there are some modern thinkers, who argue that the Gītā was composed some time between the third and fourth centuries B.C. and it was interpolated into the Mahābhārata in the second century A.D.
     The Gītā has translations in all the languages of the world. The whole world has acclaimed it as a very weighty and valuable contribution in the sphere of philosophy.
     2) Theme of the Gītā. It has been mentioned above that the Gītā forms chapters 25-45 in the Bhīṣma Parva of the Mahābhārata. The subject-matter of each chapter of the Gītā is given below.
     Chapter 25. Arjunaviṣāda yoga :--Both the armies take positions in Kurukṣetra. At the sound of the conches Arjuna becomes dejected and sorrowful at the prospect of killing relations, preceptors and Kinsmen.
     Chapter 26. Sāṃkhya yoga :--The greatness and majesty of the Sāṃkhya and the Karma yogas.
     Chapter 27. Karma yoga :--The need for action according to the Jñāna and the Karma yogas.
     Chapter 28. Jñānakarma Vibhāga yoga :--Power of Saguṇa Brahma (Brahma with attributes), Niṣkāma-karma yoga (Action without an eye on the result) spiritual greatness of various yajñas.
     Chapter 29. Sannyāsa yoga :--Sāṃkhya yoga, Niṣkāmakarma yoga, Jñāna yoga, Jñāna yoga with Bhakti.
     Chapter 30. Ātmasaṃyama yoga :--Niṣkāmakarma yoga, Ātmodhāraṇa, Jñānayoga.
     Chapter 31. Jñāna yoga :--Jñānavijñānas, origin of the world, the Daiva and Āsura aspects of Īśvara, worship of other Devas.
     Chapter 32. Tārakabrahma yoga :--Seven questions of Arjuna about Brahma, Ātmatatva and Karma. Śrī Kṛṣṇa's answers thereto. Bhakti yoga, the Śukla and the Kṛṣṇa mārgas.
     Chapter 33. Rājarāja guhya yoga :--Jñāna and Vijñāna, origin of the world, Īśvarasvarūpa, Sakāmaniṣkāmopāsana, Bhagavadbhakti.
     Chapter 34. Vibhūti yoga :--Bhagavān's Vibhūti (Divine attributes), Bhakti yoga.
     Chapter 35. Viśvarūpadarśana yoga :--Arjuna's prayer to be shown Viśvarūpa (cosmic form), description of viśvarūpa by Śrī Kṛṣṇa and Sañjaya, Śrī Kṛṣṇa reveals viśvarūpa to Arjuna; fear-stricken at the sight, Arjuna sings the praise of Kṛṣṇa.
     Chapter 36. Bhaktiyoga :--The great benefits of worshipping God with form and without form.
     Chapter 37. Kṣetrakṣetrajña Vibhāga yoga :--Description of Kṣetrakṣetrajña with Jñāna, and of Prakṛti and Puruṣa.
     Chapter 38. Guṇatrayavibhāga yoga :--The greatness of Jñāna; world's origin from Prakṛti and Puruṣa, the three guṇas, sattva, rajas and tamas; means to attain god; marks of Yugātītapuruṣa.
     Chapter 39. Puruṣottama yoga :--Essential principles of world and life, attainment of God, relationship between Jīvātmā and Paramātmā, principle and theory of kṣara puruṣa and akṣara puruṣa.
     Chapter 40. Daivāsura sampadvibhāga yoga :--Good actions, evil deeds, scientific actions and unscientific actions.
     Chapter 41. Śraddhātrayavibhāga yoga :--Descriptions of Scientific tapas, diet, yajñatapas and dāna. Interpretation of Om.
     Chapter 42. Mokṣasannyāsa yoga :--Tyāgam, Sāṃkhya theory, Varṇadharmas, jñānaniṣṭhā, Niṣkāmakarmayoga with bhakti and the greatness of the Gītā.
     (For another story about the greatness of the Gītā see Duśśāsana II).

BHAGAVATĪ The words Bhagavān and Bhagavatī mean Paramātmā (universal self) and Prakṛti (Nature and its modifications) respectively. Prakṛti is also called by the name Śakti. The following elucidation once given by Mahāviṣṇu about Bhagavān and Bhagavatī is greatly illuminating.
     Time, space, atmosphere and the universe (Brahmāṇḍam) are, just like Paramātmā, eternal. This is the truth and reality. Below this eternal Gokula exists Vaikuṇṭhaloka, which also is, like the former, eternal. Just like this, Prakṛti, which is a sport to Brahmā and is also without beginning or end (Sanātanī) too is eternal. In the same manner as flame exists in fire inseparable from it, moonlight in moon, beauty in the lotus flower and brightness in the sun, so does nature exist in soul inseparable therefrom. In the same way as the goldsmith cannot make gold ornaments without gold and the potter cannot make pots without clay, the Paramātmā will not in the least be able to function unaided by Prakṛti. Prakṛti (Nature, Devī) is all powerful. 'Para' becomes powerful enough to do everything when he joins the Devī.
     The sound 'Śa' means welfare and good fortune, and the sound 'kti' means prowess. Hence "Śakti" means the embodiment of welfare and prowess or she, who is the giver of welfare and prowess. Bhagavatī combines in herself knowledge, affluence, riches, fame and strength. As the Paramātmā is always with and inseparable from such Bhagavatī he is called Bhagavān also. When Prakṛti and Paramātmā remain combined it is called Parabrahma, which possesses neither form nor attributes. And, when Prakṛti and Puruṣa separate, of their own accord, they assume forms and attributes.
     The above is Śaiva doctrine in a nut-shell. The Vaiṣṇavas do not accept this position. They ask, "How is it possible to have brightness or effulgence without there being an effulgent one?" Therefore, the Vaiṣṇavas believe in the existence, at the centre of an effulgent sphere, of a thing possessing the utmost effulgence and brightness equal to that of Brahmā. This 'thing'-Deva--is very efficient and effective to remedy sorrows due to birth, death, disease etc. and to him the lifetime of Brahma is just one minute only. This Deva is called Paramātmā, Parabrahma and Kṛṣṇa by the Vaiṣṇavas. 'Kṛṣ' means maximum devotion (love) towards Paramātmā, and 'ṇa' means he who becomes slave to such devotion. Hence Kṛṣṇa means he who becomes a slave to the love of his devotees. There is another meaning also for the word Kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣ means all and 'ṇa' means seed or root; and thus Kṛṣṇa means he, who is the root of everything. In the very beginning there was only this Kṛṣṇa; and this Lord, subject only to his own will and pleasure, divided himself into two, the left side becoming woman and the right side man. (Devī Bhāgavata, Navama Skandha).

BHAGINI A word used in addressing women. Verse 129 in chapter two of the Manusmṛti lays down that the wife of another person and women who are not one's relatives should be addressed either as Bhavati, Subhage or Bhagini.

     1) Genealogy. Descended from Viṣṇu thus: Brahmā-Marīci-Kaśyapa-Vivasvān-Vaivasvata manu-Ikṣvāku-Vikukṣi-Śaśāda-Kakutstha-Anenas-Pṛthulāśva-Prasenajit-Yuvanāśva-Māndhātā-Purukutsa-Trasadasyu-Anaraṇya-Haryaśva-Vasumanas-Sudhanvā-Traiyyāruṇa-Satyavrata or Triśaṅku-Hariścandra-Rohitāśva-Harita-Cuñcu-Sudeva-Bharuka-Bāhuka-Sagara-Asamañjas-Aṃśumān*-Bhagīratha.
     2) Recluse. Many years had not lapsed after his coronation as King when, in the heart of Bhagīratha spiritual thoughts began to crop up. A great sage called Tritula was his guru. Once Bhagīratha asked the guru what was the means to get rid of worldiy sorrows, and the guru replied as follows:--
     The ego will be annihilated when the tendencies and cravings towards objects of the senses are absolutely suppressed and the whole and perfect truth is realised through knowledge, the practice of concentration etc. The ego will not disappear as long as one does not become one's real self by completely overcoming the sense of pride, shame etc. which form the outer case of worldly life. The egoless state is the ultimate achievement and most supreme state. Oh! Bhagīratha! if you would get rid of sentiments like pride etc., give up all attachment to material objects, become fearless and gift away, with thoughts concentrated on the inner self, all your wealth to enemies, and then move among those enemies, without any sense of ego and pride about this material body, and take alms from them (enemies) and also give up me, who am your preceptor in the matter of knowledge; then you will become the most sublime Brahma". This advice of the guru affected him so much that Bhagīratha, holding his duties firmly in mind, engaged himself in spiritual practices, and after spending some time thus he performed, according to rules, the Agniṣṭoma yajña aimed at gifting away everything. All wealth like cows, land, horses, gold etc. were distributed in gifts to noble brahmins and the poor folk according to their eligibility for the same. Within three days he had gifted away everything except the clothes he was wearing. And, then he invited his neighbouring enemy king and gave to him, without the least hesitation, the kingdom which had been bereft of all wealth. The ministers and other citizens felt very sorry about the whole thing. But, Bhagīratha left the country at once for other places having with him only the clothes he was wearing. He spent his days in various places and forests where he was not known even by name. Ere long, Bhagīratha attained ultimate spiritual solace. And, then he accidentally came to his former kingdom, which was then being ruled by the enemy King. The ministers and other citizens to whose houses he went begging for alms recognised him, and with sorrow unbearable they appealed to him to accept the throne again and rule the country. Bhagīratha rejected their request, and, after staying there for some time, he started for other places. During this wandering of his he met his old preceptor, Tritula, and both of them, in company, toured for some time cities and forests. They felt it very painful to keep on to their body like that. They thought like this: "Why should the body be kept like this. What if this material object continues to exist or perishes? But let it (the body) continue as long as it exists without in any way being against the order of things and ethical practices". And, in this frame of mind they traversed the forests. Now, the minister of a distant kingdom who was on the look out for a successor to the King who had died heirless, persuaded Bhagīratha to accept the Kingship of that country. The ministers of Bhagīratha's former Kingdom also now requested him to resume his old kingship, especially since its new ruler had already expired. Bhagīratha obliged them, and became once again King of his own country. (Jñānavāsiṣṭham).
     3) Bhagīrathaprayatnam. (Himālayan or Herculean effort). Sagara, an old predecessor of Bhagīratha had two wives called Keśinī and Sumati. Keśinī had one son named Asamañjas and Sumati 60,000 sons. Sagara once conducted an Aśvamedha yajña in the Indo-Gangetic plane, when Indra stole away the sacrificial horse and kept it quite near to sage Kapila who was doing tapas in Pātāla. The 60,000 sons of Sagara set out in search of the horse and found it out in Pātāla. At the sight of the horse they shouted themselves hoarse. Enraged at this sage Kapila reduced those sons of Sagara to ashes in the fire which emanated from his eyes.
     After entrusting Asamañjas with the duty of performing the funeral rites of his 60,000 sons Sagara expired. Asamañjas transferred that duty on to Aṃśumān, and he to Bhagīratha. Bhagīratha did penance on the seashore concentrating his mind on Gaṅgādevī. The Devī appeared before Bhagīratha and asked him to choose what boon he would, and he requested the Devī to perform the funeral rites of 60,000 sons of Sagara remaining in the form of ashes in Pātāla. To this Gaṅgādevī replied that the earth will not be able to withstand the impact of her powerful flow, but she shall, if Śiva permits, flow into his matted hair. And, Gaṅgādevī asked Bhagīratha to first get that permission. This did not dishearten Bhagīratha, who went to mount Kailāsa to do penance so that Śiva might grant him his prayer. He thus did penance for 1000 years. Śiva appeared to him and agreed to receive the rushing flow of Gaṅgā water on his matted head. And, accordingly Śiva stood in position to receive the rushing waters of Gaṅgā, and Gaṅgā flowed on to his head. Even the most powerful flow of Gaṅgā water on his head did not cause Śiva to move from his position even by a hair's breadth. This awakened the conceit in Gaṅgādevī, understanding which Śiva contained her on his head. Without finding any outlet the waters of river Gaṅgā flowed along the matted hairs of Śiva for thousand years. So, Bhagiratha had once again to please Śiva. Thus pleased again Śiva shook his matted head and one drop of water fell on the ground, and that is the river Ganges in North India. The Gaṅgā flowed along plane ground to Pātāla and performed the funeral rites of Sagara's sons. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 108; Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Bāla Kāṇḍa, Canto 42; Brahmāṇḍa purāṇa, Chapter 97; Bhāgavata, Navama Skandha, Kampa Rāmāyaṇa (Tamil), Yuddha Kāṇḍa; Padma Purāṇa, Part 4, Chapter 21).
     4) Other Information.
     (1) Bhagīratha is a member of Yama's assembly and serves him. (M.B., Sabhā Parva, Chapter 8, Verse 11).
     (2) Śiva bestowed boons on him. (Vana Parva, Chapter 180, Verse 1).
     (3) Bhagīratha had faith in the great efficacy of making a gift of cows. (Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 76, Verse 25).
     (4) He married his daughter to Kautsa. (Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 131, Verse 25).
     (5) Once Bhagīratha made a gift of one lakh of cows with calves to Maharṣi Kohala, and attained Uttamaloka. (Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 137, Verse 27).
*) According to verse 12, Chapter 25, of Vana Parva, Bhagīratha is the son of Dilīpa. But most of the Purāṇas refer to him a he son of Aṃśumān.

BHĀGĪRATHĪ Another name of Gaṅgā. (See under Gaṅgā).

BHAGNARATHA A synonym of Citraratha. (See Citraratha).

BHĀGURI A man of great erudition, Bhāguri was noted for his proficiency as a Sarvaśāstra Paṇḍit (scholar of all sciences), Vyākaraṇakāra (grammarian), Kośakāra (etymologist), Jyotiśśāstrajña (Astronomer) and Smṛtikāra (authority on Smṛti).

BHAIRAVA I A nāga belonging to the Dhṛtarāṣṭra Vaṃśa. There is a reference to this nāga in Mahābhārata, Ādi Parva, Chapter 51, Verse 17. He was burnt up at the Sarpasatra performed by King Janamejaya.

BHAIRAVA II A Pārṣada of Śiva.
     1) General. Immediately after his birth, this terrible monster subdued all the Devas without getting the permission of Śiva. Enraged at it, Śiva turned him into a tree by a curse. But Śiva was soon pacified and lifted the curse by declaring that those who offered pūjā to the gods would get the full reward for their worship only if they offered pūjā to Bhairava also.
     Bhairava became a tree as soon as he was cursed. He became a tree because he subdued the gods. Therefore that tree came to be called "DAMANAKA" tree (Damana = Subdue). It has another name. "TĀTIRI" tree. Even now, pious people offer pūjā to this tree. (Agni Purāṇa, Chapters 52-80).
     2) Birth. Once Brahmā and Viṣṇu became swollen with pride. In his haughty way, Brahmā insulted Śiva. Under the insult, Śiva was infuriated and out of the fire of his fury was born Bhairava with his black form. (Liṅga Purāṇa 1.90).
     3) Brahmahatyā. As soon as he was born, Bhairava rushed towards Brahmā and pinched off his fifth head which had insulted Śiva. By this, he incurred the sin of Brahmahatyā. For the expiation of this sin, as ordered by Śiva, Bhairava started on a journey to go abegging, with Brahmā's severed head in his hand. Śiva then created a woman named "Brahmahatyā" and asked her to follow Bhairava.
     Although Bhairava visited many holy places, he was not able to liberate himself from the sin of Brahmahatyā. At last, at the suggestion of Śiva, he went to Vārāṇasī and washed off his sin. Brahmā's head which he carried, was also deposited there and the place became famous under the name of "Kapālamocana tīrtha". (Śiva Purāṇa, Śatarudra Saṃhitā).
     4) Family. In Kālikā Purāṇa there is an elaborate account of the family of Bhairava. According to this Purāṇa, Vijaya, the reputed King of Vārāṇasī was born in the family of Bhairava. Kālikā Purāṇa also says that Vijaya destroyed the Khāṇḍavī city and set up the Khāṇḍava forest in its place.
     According to Kālikā Purāṇa, Bhairava and Vetāla were, in their previous births, two Śivapārṣadas named Mahākāla and Bhṛṅgi. It was by the curse of Pārvatī. that they were born as mortals in their next birth. (Kālikā Purāṇa 53).
     The Purāṇas mention eight Bhairavas called Asitāṃga, Ruru, Caṇḍa, Krodha, Unmatta, Kapāli, Bhīṣaṇa and Saṃhāra.
     5) Shape. Bhairava has a terrible shape. He wears the crescent moon and plaited hair on his head. His weapons are, sword, arrow, dagger, bow, trident, rope etc. At times he is dressed in elephant-skin. He has five faces. Serpents are his ornaments. (Agni Purāṇa, Chapters 52-80).

BHAIRAVĪ One of the eight Ambas. They are: Rudrārcikā, Rudracaṇḍī, Naṭeśvarī, Mahālakṣmī, Siddhacāmuṇḍikā, Siddhayogeśvarī, Bhairavī and Rūpavidyā. All these are the eight different forms of Devī. (See the word DEVĪ).

BHAJAMĀNA A Yādava King, whose father was Satvata and mother Kausalyā, and they had, beside Bhajamāna, another son called Satvata or Andhaka. Bhajamāna married the two daughters of Sñjaya, named Bāhyakā and Upabāhyakā by whom he got six sons. (Bhāgavata, Navama Skandha).

BHAJYA An ācārya in the line of the Ṛk disciples of Vyāsa. Bhajya studied Vālakhilyasaṃhitā at the feet of his guru Bāṣkali. (Bhāgavata, Dvādaśa Skandha).

BHAKṢAKA A Śūdra sinner. In Padma Purāṇa the following story is related about this Śūdra.
     Bhakṣaka who was once going aimlessly somewhere felt extremely thirsty, and quenched his thirst by drinking water which was found near the small platform raised for the holy Tulasī shrub. The sanctity of the water thus drunk washed away all the sin attached to him. Some time later he was killed by a forestdweller, and he attained svargaloka (heaven). Bhakṣaka, in his previous birth, was a king who led a voluptuous life, and he, once, robbed a very beautiful woman of her chastity, and it was as a punishment for the sin that the King had to be born, in the next birth, in the womb of a Śūdra woman. (Padma Purāṇa, Brahma Kāṇḍa, Chapter 22).

BHAKTI A Devī born in Drāviḍa deśa (Southern India). Once Devī, along with her two sons, Jñāna and Vairāgya, started on a walking tour to Gokula and Vṛndāvana via Karṇāṭaka, Mahārāṣṭra and Gurjara (Gujarat). During the long tour the mother and her sons became aged. But, as soon as they set foot on Gokula and Vṛndāvana old age quitted Bhakti and she became young again. But, her sons remained old. So the mother requested Nārada to turn them young again. Nārada read out to them the Vedas, the Vedānta (Upaniṣads) and the Bhagavad Gītā, all to no purpose. Bhakti's sons still remained old. Then Sanaka, Sananda and Sanatkumāra asked Nārada to read out the Bhāgavata to them. Nārada did so, and the sons of Bhaktī Devī became young again. (Padma Purāṇa).

BHALANDANA A king. Though by birth he was a brahmin he became a Vaiśya because of doing things belonging to the Vaiśya community like trade and commerce. (Mārkaṇḍeya Purāṇa). According to the Bhāgavata, Viṣṇu Purāṇa and Vāyu Purāṇa Bhalandana was the son of Nābhāga.

BHALLĀTA A king of the line of Bharata. He was the son of King Viśvaksena and father of King Bṛhadaśva. (Navama Skandha, Bhāgavata).

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BHALLĀṬA(M) A place of habitation in ancient India. Bhīmasena conquered this Iand during his victory march. (Śloka 5, Chapter 30, Sabhā Parva, M.B.).

BHĀLUKI I A Ṛṣi, who was a member of Yudhiṣṭhira's assembly. (Sabhā Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 15).

BHĀLUKI II A maharṣi. He also accompanied the Pāṇḍavas to Dvaitavana. (Vana Parva, Chapter 27).

BHĀLUKI III An ācārya. He was a disciple of Lāṅgali, a member of the Sāma line of disciples of Vyāsa. (Vāyu Purāṇa).

BHĀMAHA A critic who lived in the sixth century A.D. He was one of the top critics in the Sanskrit language. His important work is 'Kāvyālaṃkāra'. This is also called Bhāmahālaṃkāra by a few. There are six chapters in this. The first chapter deals with Kāvyaśarīra, the second and third with Alaṃkāra, the fourth with Kāvyadoṣa the fifth with Nyāya and the sixth with Śabdaśuddhi. As against Daṇḍī Bhāmaha separates 'Kathā' from 'Ākhyāyikā'. According to him the requisites of a good Kāvya are sweetness, pleasantness and liveliness. Daṇḍī prescribes ten attributes for a good Kāvya. Bhāmaha is of opinion that Vakrokti is no alaṃkāra at all. In a wider sense it is 'atiśayokti' (exaggeration). But Bhāmaha admits it has a place in Kāvya.

BHĀMINĪ Wife of Avikṣit, King of Vaiśāli. The famous Marutta is the son born to this couple. The Mārkaṇḍeya Purāṇa states that Bhāminī once went to Nāgaloka to give refuge to the serpents there.

BHĀNAVĪ A river. Śri Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa on their way to the forests from Citrakūṭa crossed this river, Bhānavī. (Sarga 52, Ayodhyā Kāṇḍa, Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa).

BHĀṆḌĀYANI A maharṣi. This sage sits in Devaloka and worships Indra. (Śloka 12, Chapter 7, Sabhā Parva, M.B.).

BHĀṆḌĪRA(M) An ancient forest. It was in this forest situated in Aṃbāḍi that Śri Kṛṣṇa with his cowherd chums conducted his childhood exploits. There was a very huge tree of name Bhāṇḍīra in this forest and it was under this great tree that Kṛṣṇa and his friends met daily for their play. This forest is on the northern bank of Gaṅgā in front of Keśighaṭṭa in Vṛndāvana. The Purāṇas proclaim that it was here that Brahmā conducted the marriage of Kṛṣṇa with Rādhā. (Chapter 38, Sabhā Parva, Dākṣiṇātya Pāṭha, M.B.).

BHAṄGA A serpent born in the Takṣaka dynasty. Bhaṅga was burnt to ashes at the Serpent Yajña performed by King Janamejaya. (M.B., Chapter 57, Verse 9).

BHAṄGAKĀRA I A king, son of Avikṣit and grandson of King Kuru of the Lunar dynasty. (Ādi Parva, Chapter 94, Verse 53).

BHAṄGAKĀRA II A king of the Yadu dynasty. He attended the grand celebrations held at Mount Raivata. (Ādi Parva, Chapter 218, Verse 11).

BHĀṄGĀSURI I Another name of King Ṛtuparṇa.

BHAṄGĀSVAN (BHAṄGĀSVANA). A king in ancient India. For the story of his transformation into a woman refer to para 42 under 'Indra'.

BHĀNU I A son born to Kṛṣṇa of Satyabhāmā. (Daśama Skandha, Bhāgavata).

BHĀNU II Son of Dyau; this Bhānu was a guru of Sūrya. (Śloka 42, Chapter 1, Ādi Parva, M.B.).

BHĀNU III A devagandharva born to Kaśyapa prajāpati of his wife Pṛthā. (Śloka 47, Chapter 65, Ādi Parva, M.B.).

BHĀNU IV He is the son of an agni called Pāñcajanya. He is born of the spiritual essence of Aṅgiras and Cyavana. This Bhānu is called Manu and Bṛhadbhānu. (Chapters 220 and 221, Vana Parva, M.B.).

BHĀNU V A king of ancient Bhārata. This king took a flying tour of Kurukṣetra in Indra's aeroplane to witness the battle between Arjuna and Droṇa. (Śloka 9, Chapter 56, Virāṭa Parva, M.B.).

BHĀNU VI A yādava. He learnt the art of archery from Pradyumna. Sahadeva married the daughter of this Bhānu called Bhānumatī. (Vana Parva, 180, 27 and Harivaṃśa 2.20.12).

BHĀNUDATTA A brother of Śakuni. In the Mahābhārata battle he fought against Bhīma and died. (Śloka 24, Chapter 157, Droṇa Parva, M.B.).

BHĀNUDEVA A warrior of Pāñcāla state. Karṇa killed him in battle. (Śloka 15, Chapter 48. Karṇa Parva).

BHĀNUKOPA A demon. He fought against Subrahmaṇya. (Asura Khaṇḍa, Skanda Purāṇa).

BHĀNUMĀN I A king of the dynasty of Śrī Rāma. He was the father of a King called Śakradyumna. (Navama Skanda, Bhāgavata).

BHĀNUMĀN II A son born to Kṛṣṇa of Satyabhāmā. (Daśama Skandha, Bhāgvata).

BHĀNUMĀN III A prince of Kaliṅga. He fought on the side of the Kauravas and was killed by Bhīmasena. (Chapter 54, Bhīṣma Parva, M.B.)

BHĀNUMATĪ I The daughter of Bhānu, a leader of the Yādavas. When Śrī Kṛṣṇa went with his retinue of Yādavas to visit the holy palace called Piṇḍāraka the Yādavas conducted a wine festival. During that festival a demon of the name Nikumbha carried away Bhānumatī. This was because of a curse to Bhānumatī from Durvāsas whom Bhānumatī did not respect once when they met at the garden of Raivata. Durvāsas had after the curse consoled her by assuring her that she would be saved and married by Sahadeva, one of the Pāṇḍavas. True to this, Bhānumatī was married to Sahadeva in the presence of Nārada and Kṛṣṇa. (Viṣṇu Parva, Chapter 90).

BHĀNUMATĪ II Daughter of Kṛtavīrya. She was the wife of Ahaṃyati, a king of the Pūru line of monarchs. They had a son named Sārvabhauma.

BHĀNUMATĪ III Daughter of Aṅgiras. She was extraordinarily beautiful. (Śloka 3, Chapter 218, Vana Parva, M.B.).

BHĀNUSENA A son of Karṇa. He was killed in the battle by Bhīmasena. (Śloka 27, Chapter 48, Karṇa Parva, M.B.).

BHARADVĀJA I Another name of Dīrghatamas.**
**) Dīrghatamas is also called Bharadvāja. But the Bharadvāja of purāṇic fame is not Dīrghatamas. Dīrghatamas is the son whom Bṛhaspati illegitimately got of Mamatā, his brother's wife. There was then another legitimate child in the womb of Mamatā. Knowing this the devas told her 'Bharadvāja' meaning 'bear the brunt of two' and so the son of Bṛhaspati got the name of Bharadvāja also. The real name of this son was Dīrghatamas or Vitatha. Dīrghatamas is not the Bharadvāja who was the father of Droṇa. The famous Bharadvāja was the son of Atri. Dīrghatamas or Vitatha was the adopted son of Bharata, son of Duṣyanta. (Bhāgavata and Kamparāmāyaṇa. For details see under Bharata I and Dīrghatamas.

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BHARADVĀJA II The sage Bharadvāja of Purāṇic fame.
     1) General information. Ayodhyā Kāṇḍa of Kampa Rāmāyaṇa states that this sage was the son of Atri Maharṣi. He lived for many thousands of years. He is connected with Vālmīki and the story of Śrī Rāma. Bharadvāja was for many years a disciple of Vālmīki. He was present with Vālmīki when the hunter killed one of the couple of Krauñca. When Vālmīki and Bharadvāja reached the shores of the river, Tamasā, that day Vālmīki told Bharadvāja thus: "Look, Bharadvāja, what a clean ghat this is. The water is pure and clear. Place your water-jug here and give me my valkala. We will get down here in this sacred water". Then Vālmīki taking the valkala from the disciple walked along the shore admiring the beauty of the forest trees and found on his way the historic Krauñca couple. (Sarga 2, Bāla Kāṇḍa, Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa).
     2) Bharadvāja and the study of Vedas. Bharadvāja gave himself untiringly to the study of the Vedas. He obtained from Indra a boon to extend his term of life on earth to many thousands of years by different stages, each stage covering a span of a thousand years of life. All these years he devoted to an incessant study of the Vedas. Finding the term not sufficient for completing the study of the Vedas he appealed to Indra again for extension and Indra appearing in person took him before three mountains and giving him three handfuls of sand told him thus, "What you have studied about Vedas till this time is equivalent to the amount of sand I have now given and what is yet to be studied about the Vedas is as big as the three mountains before you". Any other mortal being would have been disheartened by this revelation made by Indra, but not Bharadvāja. Undaunted he continued his studies. (Bhāgavata).
     3) Bharadvāja in the role of a magician. The āśrama of Bharadvāja was in Citrakūṭa and Śrī Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa in the beginning of their exile went to his āśrama accepting his blessings. Bharata on his return from Kekaya knew about the exile of his brothers and hoping to bring them back to Ayodhyā went in search of them with a big retinue of soldiers and men. Keeping the retinue outside, Bharata went to the āśrama of Bharadvāja. The latter decided to give Bharata and his people a grand reception and calling Viśvakarmā to his side asked him to arrange a royal banquet that night. Devas, Gandharvas, Apsarases, Aṣṭadikpālas and all such people were invited for the night. Renowned dancers from devaloka like Ghṛtācī, Hemā, Viśvācī Miśrakeśī and Alambuṣā appeared for entertainment. Even Vanarājī took part in the dance. Dishes of food came to the guests of their own accord. The night came to an end wonderfully and at daybreak everything vanished and all were amazed at the magic of the sage. (Sarga 91, Ayodhyā Kāṇḍa, Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa).
     4) Droṇa's origin. Droṇa was the son born to Bharadvāja of the celestial woman, Ghṛtācī. (see under Droṇa).
     5) How Bharadvāja died once but was born again. See under Arvāvasu.
     6) The name Bharadvāja. This is how the connotation of the word is explained.
     "bhare'sutān bhare śiṣyān bhare devān bhare dvijān bhare ca bhāryāmavyājād bharadvājo'smi śobhane" (I protect even those who are not my sons, I protect my disciples, I protect devas and the brahmins. I protect my wife and all these I do with ease and so I am named Bharadvāja). (Bhāgavata)
     7) Other details.
     (1) Bharadvāja once gave refuge in his āśrama to Manoramā, daughter of the King of Kaliṅga and her son. (See under Manoramā).
     (2) The sixth maṇḍala of Ṛgveda contains the songs of Bharadvāja.
     (3) He was among the sages who once went to Dvārakā and cursed Sāmba. (See under Sāmba).
     (4) Bharadvāja had a daughter Devavarṇinī whom Viśravas married and got the son, Kubera. (see under Kubera).
     (5) Once Bharadvāja was travelling through an uninhabited forest with his son when he became exhausted by hunger and he then begged of a śūdra, Pṛthu, several cows. (Śloka 107, Chapter 1, Manusmṛti).
     (6) This sage took part in a birthday celebrations of Arjuna. (Śloka 57, Chapter 122, Ādi Parva, M.B.).
     (7) Because of the blessing of Bharadvāja Bharata got a son named Bhūmanyu. (Śloka 22, Chapter 94, Ādi Parva, M.B.).
     (8) Bharadvāja taught the secret of the missile Āgenya to Agniveśa. (Śloka 39, Chapter 129, Ādi Parva, M.B.).
     (9) He worshipped Brahmā sitting in the council of Brahmā. (Śloka 22, Chapter 11, Sabhā Parva, M.B.).
     (10) This sage came to the battlefield during the Mahābhārata battle and requested Droṇa to lay down his missile. (Śloka 35, Chapter 196, Droṇa Parva, M.B.).
     (11) Once Bhṛgu Maharṣi asked him some questions on the creation of this universe and Bharadvāja gave him satisfactory answers. (Chapter 182, Śānti Parva, M.B.).
     (12) This sage performed the sacrifice Putrakāmeṣṭi, and gave a son to Divodāsa. (Chapter 30, Anuśāsana Parva, M.B.).

BHARADVĀJA III The eldest son of the Agni, Śamyu. (Śloka 5, Chapter 219, Vana Parva, M.B.).

BHARADVĀJA IV A renowned sage. Bharata, a King of the Pūru line of kings, had no sons and as he was spending his days in sorrow Marutta gave Bharata this Bharadvāja as a son. Bharadvāja who was by birth a brahmin from then onwards became a Kṣatriya. (Matsya Purāṇa 49. 27-39 and Vāyu Purāṇa 99. 152158).

BHARADVĀJA V A maharṣi born of the line of Aṅgiras. He was the father of Yavakrīta and a friend of Raibhya, son of Viśvāmitra.
     Once Raibhya created a Kritya and that Kritya killed Bharadvāja's son Yavakrīta. Unable to bear the loss of his son Bharadvāja was preparing to give up his own life by jumping into the fire when Arvāvasu brought to life Yavakrīta and gave him to the sage. Immensely pleased at the regain of his son Bharadvāja ended his life on earth and went to heaven. (M.B., Vana Parva, 165-168)

BHARADVĀJA VI A brahmarṣi who lived in the Pūrvamanvantara. He was living on the shore of Gaṅgā doing rigorous penance. One day desirous of conducting a special type of Yajña he went to bathe in the river along with other sages. There he saw the celestial beauty, Ghṛtācī, standing in all splendour after her bath. Bharadvāja had seminal emission and from that was born a daughter, Śrutavatī, to him. (Chapter 47, Śalya Parva, M.B.).

BHARADVĀJA VII A great scholar well-versed in all the Śāstras. He is the author of 'Dharmasūtra' and 'Śrautasūtra'. (The Viśvavidyālaya of Bombay keeps a hand written copy of his work Śrautasūtra written in Pāṇḍu script).

BHĀRADVĀJA I A Maharṣi. It was he who convinced Dyumatsena, father of Satyavān that he (Satyavān) would be endowed with long life. (Vana Parva, Chapter 288, Verse 16).

BHĀRADVĀJA II The collective name of a particular sect of preceptors mentioned in the Upaniṣads. The Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad refers to this sect of preceptors as disciples of Bhāradvāja, Pārāśarya, Valāka, Kauśika, Aitareya, Āsurāyaṇa and Baijavāpāyana.

BHĀRADVĀJA III A grammarian. According to the Ṛktantra, prātiśākhya of Sāmaveda, it was Brahmā, who first composed the science of grammar. This science was taught by Brahmā to others in the following order: Brahmā to Bṛhaspati, he to Indra, Indra to Bhāradvāja and he to his disciples.
     Pāṇini has discussed the grammatical concepts of Bhāradvāja. Ṛkprātiśākhya and Taittirīya have quoted the opinions of this grammarian.

BHARADVAJA(M) A place of habitation in ancient Bhārata. (Śloka 68, Chapter 9, Bhīṣma Parva, M.B.).

BHĀRADVĀJATĪRTHA One of the five sacred places (bathing ghāṭs in sacred rivers). (See Varga).

BHĀRADVĀJĪ A famous Indian river mentioned in the Purāṇas. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 29).

BHĀRADVĀJĪPUTRA A preceptor, who was a disciple of Pārāśarīputra. In the Bṛhadāraṇyakopaniṣad he is referred to in many contexts as Vātsīmāṇḍavīputra.

BHARAṆĪ One of the twentyseven constellations. Puṇya is assured if one gives as gift a cow to a brahmin on that day. (Śloka 35, Chapter 64, Anuśāsana Parva, M.B.).

BHARATA I Son of Duṣyanta born of Śakuntalā.
     1) Genealogy. Descending in order from Viṣṇu-Brahmā-Atri-Candra-Budha-Purūravas-Āyus-Nahuṣa-Yayāti-Pūru-Janamejaya-Prācinvā-Pravira-Namasyu-Vītabhaya-Śuṇḍu-Bahuvidha-Saṃyāti-Rahovādī-Raudrāśva-Matināra-Santurodha-Duṣyanta-Bharata.
     2) Birth. Duṣyanta was once hunting in the forests when he hit a fawn with his arrow. The fawn fled to the Āśrama of Kaṇva Muni and the king followed it. On reaching the Āśrama grounds he saw Śakuntalā watering the plants helped by her companions Anasūya and Priyaṃvadā. Duṣyanta and Śakuntalā fell in love with each other at first sight. Kaṇva was absent from the Āśrama and they married according to the Gāndharva rites and Śakuntalā became pregnant soon. The king gave her his signet ring as a sign of faith and left for his palace. When Duṣyanta left her Śakuntalā fell into a deep reverie and she never knew about the arrival of the arrogant sage, Durvāsas to the āśrama. Durvāsas mistook her as disrespectful and cursed her saying that she would be forgotten by the man of whom she was thinking then. Śakuntalā never knew about the curse also.
     Kaṇva Muni when he returned to the Āśrama and knew everything, sent Śakuntalā to the palace of Duṣyanta. But King Duṣyanta never recognised her and when Śakuntalā was returning deeply grieved Menakā her mother, took her and left her in the āśrama of Kaśyapa. There Śakuntalā delivered a son. The boy grew brave and fearless and he could subdue even the wildest of animals around there. Kaśyapa, therefore, named him Sarvadamana.
     Once when Duṣyanta was returning home after visiting Indra he saw Śakuntalā, recognised her, and took her and the boy to his palace. This was the boy who later on became known as Bharata. (Chapter 73, Ādi Parva, M.B.).
     3) Marriage and reign. Bharata was a partial incarnation of Mahāviṣṇu. Even while he was young he became a ruler and conquering the world destroyed the wicked. Bharata had three wives. All the sons born to them were bad and so the mothers killed them all. Aggrieved over the loss of his sons he worshipped the devas to get a son for him. At that time the great preceptor Bṛhaspati forcibly married Mamatā the wife of his brother. Mamatā was pregnant then and when she conceived from Bṛhaspati also she bore two children. On delivery she threw the child of Bṛhaspati in the forests and went away with the other son.
     The Devas took care of the discarded child and named him Bharadvāja and gave the child to Bharata. Bharata gave the boy the name Vitatha (Dīrghatamas). Bharata ruled over his land for twentyseven thousand years and the land was, therefore, called Bhārata. (Śloka 96, Chapter 2, Ādi Parva, M.B.).
     After ruling the land ideally he left for the forests entrusting the land to his son, Vitatha. (Navama Skandha, Bhāgavata).
     Vitatha also was called Bharata and he had five sons: Suhotra, Suhota, Gaya, Garbha and Suketu. (Chapter 278, Agni Purāṇa).

BHARATA II Son of Daśaratha.
     1) Genealogy. Descending in order from Viṣṇu-Brahmā-Marīci-Kaśyapa-Vivasvān-Vaivasvatamanu-Ikṣvāku-Vikukṣi-Śaśāda-Kakutstha-Anenas-Pṛthulāśva-Prasenajit-Yuvanāśva-Māndhātā-Purukutsa-Trasadasyu-Anaraṇya-Haryaśva-Vasumanas-Sudhanvā-Trayyāruṇa-Satyavrta-(Triśaṅku)-Hariścandra-Rohitāśva-Harita-Cuñcu-Sudeva-Bharuka-Bāhuka-Sagara-Asamañjas-Aṃśumān-Bhagīratha-Śrutanābha-Sindhudvīpa-Ayutāyus-Ṛtuparṇa-Sarvakāma-Sudās-Mitrasaha (Kalmāṣapāda)-Aśmaka-Mūlaka-Khaṭvāṅga (Dilīpa, Dīrghabāhu)-Raghu-Aja-Daśaratha-Bharata.
     2) Birth. Daśaratha, King of Ayodhyā, had three wives: Kausalyā, Kaikeyī and Sumitrā. Kausalyā gave birth to Śrī Rāma, Kaikeyī to Bharata and Sumitrā to Lakṣmaṇa and Śatrughna. Kaikeyī, mother of Bharata, was the sister of Yudhājit, Rājā of Kekeya. Bharata was born on the day of Pūya. (Śloka 14, Sarga 18, Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa)
     Daśaratha remained in sorrow without children for a very long time and then he performed a Putrakāmeṣṭi yāga (A sacrificial ceremony to get children) with the Maharṣi Ṛṣyaśṛṅga as the officiating priest. From the sacred fire arose a divine figure carrying a pot of pudding and it was after taking that pudding that the wives of Daśaratha became pregnant. (Sarga 15, Bālakāṇḍa, Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa).
     3) Till the end of Śrī Rāma's forest life. The sons of Daśaratha married the daughters of Janaka, King of Mithilā. Śrī Rāma married Sītā, Bharata, Māṇḍavī, Lakṣmaṇa, Ūrmilā and Śatrughna, Śrutakīrtī.
     Daśaratha made arrangements to crown Rāma as King and then leave for the forests and lead an ascetic life. At that time Bharata and Śatrughna were in the country of Kekaya with their uncle, Yudhājit. When the day of coronation was drawing near Kaikeyī demanded of Daśaratha the execution of two boons which were once promised by Daśaratha to her long ago during a battle between the devas and asuras. One of them was to crown her son, Bharata, as king and the other to send Rāma to the forests for a period of fourteen years. Daśaratha was shocked to hear that. But, without any hesitation, Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa accompanied by Sītā went to the forests and Daśaratha overcome with immense grief caused by this unpleasant turn of events fell down dead. Messengers were sent then to Kekaya to bring Bharata and after travelling for three days Bharata and Śatrughṇa reached Ayodhyā. Though they were not informed of the death of their father they were worried all the way because of the several bad omens which they saw. On entering Ayodhyā they were shocked to find all the roads desolate and arriving at the palace they found it silent and gloomy. Kaikeyī then told him all that had happened and when Bharata knew that his mother was at the root of all this calamity his rage knew no bounds. Forgetting himself he drew from the sheath the glittering sword and stood before his mother with the drawn sword wavering to strike or not to strike and mused to himself "No, Not a woman and not one's own mother, No, it should not be done". Immediately after this was decided, he swung the sword straight to his throat. But adroitly Śatrughna intervened and swept away the sword before it fell at its aim. This strong move of Śatrughna brought Bharata to his senses and he looked at his mother so fiendishly that at his stare his mother turned pale like a flower brought near a burning flame. Bharata immediately changed into the dress of a Sannyāsī and started to go to the forests. Śatrughna followed his brother. Vasiṣṭha also started. The news spread like wildfire and people began to crowd at the palace eager to follow the brothers. Very soon a huge procession was seen moving towards the forests. Vasiṣṭha and Arundhatī in a chariot in the front, Kausalyā and Sumitrā in another next to it and Bharata and Śatrughna closely following the chariots, walking. People joined the procession from behind. The great crowd of people reached the banks of the river Gaṅgā. Guha coming to know of the great exile of people from Ayodhyā through spies went and saw Bharata, at first in disguise, and later as himself made his acquaintance. He then took Bharata and Śatrughna across the river to the presence of Śri Rāma at Citrakūṭa.
     When they reached Citrakūṭa only Bharata-Śatrughna, Vasiṣṭha and Arundhatī, Kausalyā and Sumitrā entered the āśrama of Śrī Rāma, all the others remaining outside. When Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa were told about the death of their father they were filled with grief. All the sons, then, Vasiṣṭha officiating, performed the obsequies of their father. Rāma and Bharata then discussed the future. Śrī Rāma persisted in his vow and said he would return to his country only after fourteen years and insisted that Bharata should rule the country during that period. Bharata accepted the arrangement saying that if his brother did not come back after fourteen years he would give up his life by jumping into the fire. Śrī Rāma then gave his sandals to Bharata who accepting the same with due respect returned home followed by others. On reaching Ayodhyā Bharata did not go to the royal palace which he considered as empty because of the absence of his brother, Rāma and abhorrent because of the presence of his mother, Kaikeyī. Instead, he went to a nearby village called Nandi and installing the sandals there lived there and ruled the country.
     4) Return of Śrī Rāma. Śrī Rāma when he came back to Ayodhyā after fourteen years was crowned King. Bharata got two sons of his wife Māṇḍavī, Subāhu and Śūrasena. While they were thus living happily in Ayodhyā, message was sent through an ascetic by Yudhājit from Kekaya that some gandharvas were creating trouble in that country. It was the state of Sindhu in Kekaya which was subjected to this molestation and on the advice of Rāma Bharata went and subdued the trouble, killing the gandharvas. He then created two small states on either side of Sindhu and made his two sons the Kings of those states. When Śrī Rāma gave up his life in Sarayū river and rose to heaven as Viṣṇu Bharata and Śatrughna also gave up their lives and took the forms of the conch and the wheel which adorn the hands of Viṣṇu. (Uttara Rāmāyaṇa).

BHARATA III A son of Ṛṣabha.
     1) Genealogy and birth. Descending in order from Viṣṇu-Brahmā-Svāyambhuvamanu-Priyavrata-Agnīdhra-Nābhi-Ṛṣabha-Bharata.
     Emperor Priyavrata partitioned his empire to his eight children. Agnīdhra got Jambudvīpa. Agnīdhra had nine sons: Nābhi, Kimpuruṣa, Harivarṣa, Ilāvṛta, Ramya, Hiraṇvan, Kuru Bhadrāśva and Ketumāla. On the death of the father Jambudvīpa was divided into nine states and Nābhi got the land called Hima. Nābhi married Merudevī and got a son, Ṛṣabha. Ṛṣabha had a hundred sons and Bharata was the eldest. (Chapter 1, Aṃśam 2, Viṣṇu Purāṇa).
     2) Marriage, administration and entry into Āśrama life. Bharata took over the administration of the kingdom at the death of his father, Ṛṣabha. He married Pañcajanī daughter of Viśvarūpa. They had five sons, Sumati, Rāṣtrabhṛt, Sudarśana, Āvaraṇa and Dhūmraketu. The Pañcama Skandha of Bhāgavata contains a statement to the effect that India got the name Bhārata from this king. (It is worthwhile remembering at this juncture a previous statement that the name Bhārata was obtained from Bharata, son of Duṣyanta). Bharata like his forefather was very erudite and affectionate and always respected his duties. He always meditated on Brahmā and in his heart there shone the Paramapuruṣa in the figure of Vāsudeva adorned with Srīvatsa, Kaustubha, Vanamālā, Śaṃkha, Cakra, Gadā and Padma. He ruled the country for a crore of years and after that dividing the country among his sons went to the āśrama of Pulaha Maharṣi to spend the rest of his life there. On the rocks lying in the river flowing in front of the Āśrama were the marks of Cakra on one side and Nābhi on the other and the river therefore came to be known as Cakranābhi. Bathing in this river and doing pūjā Bharata lived there oblivious of the world outside. (Pañcama Skandha, Bhāgavata).
     3) Bharata and the deer. Bharata led a purely ascetic life performing everyday the rites laid down by scriptures and muttering the mystic formula of Brahmākṣara. One day a thirsty pregnant deer went to drink water in a nearby pond. As it was drinking it heard the loud roar of a lion nearby. Frightened the poor animal without even waiting to quench its thirst ran into the forest and on its way delivered a child and the deer-babe fell into the river. The deer exhausted and tormented by fear ran into a cave and fell down dead. Bharata happened to see the new-born deer floating on the river and took it to his āśrama. From then onwards Bharata's mind was diverted from the spiritual to the mundane effort of taking care of the young deer. The deer followed him wherever he went and if it did not turn up in time in the evening after grazing Bharata went about in search of it weeping. Years went by and Bharata became old and died with the name of the deer on his lips. (Pañcama Skandha, Bhāgavata).
     4) Rebirths of Bharata. Because he died with the thought of the deer in his mind he was reborn as a deer. The deer was aware of his previous birth and regretted that he spent the life of a man for the sake of a deer. The deer, therefore, left the house of his mother in the mountain of Kālañjara and went to the āśrama of Pulaha. The pious animal daily bathed in the river and died there on the bank of that river. So in its next life the deer was born as the son of a brahmin in the line of Aṅgiras. That brahmin had two wives and got nine sons of his first wife and one of the second. The son born to the second wife was none other than Bharata. In due course the brahmin died and his second wife jumped into the funeral pyre and ended her life. Thrown an orphan Bharata became a puppet in the hands of his brothers. Bharata was asked to look after the cattle and fields of his brothers for his living. With great forbearance Bharata did all he was told.
     One day Bharata was keeping watch over the fields of his brothers. It was midnight. In the neighbourhood the Caṇḍālas were making merry over the birth of a child to one of the women. Some of them were bringing a man bound by ropes to be given as 'Narabali' to the goddess Kālī. (Narabali is the offering of a human being with his head cut off to propitiate a deity). On the way the man escaped and the disappointed Caṇḍālas were roaming about in search of a substitute when they came across Bharata keeping watch over the fields. Immediately he was bound by ropes and taken before the idol of Kālī. The effulgence of the brahmin astounded Kālī and getting angry for bringing such a pious brahmin for sacrifice she devoured the Caṇḍālas and allowed the brahmin to go free.
     Escaping from there Bharata reached a village walking all the way. That village was being ruled over by a king called Rahūgaṇa and that king was going to see Bhagavān Kapila Maharṣi along the banks of the river Ikṣumatī in a palanquin. The palanquin had not enough bearers and so the brahmin was asked to join the team of bearers. As they were moving the palanquin shook because of the wrong steps kept by Bharata. The king reprimanded Bharata and Bharata then gave the king fitting replies based on the ethics of Vedānta. The erudition of Bharata greatly impressed the king and he stepped down from the palanquin and bowed to Bharata.
     Bharata went from there to the forests singing devotional songs in praise of Viṣṇu and at last attained salvation. (Pañcama Skandha, Bhāgavata).

BHARATA IV A sage and the famous author of Nāṭyaśāstra. He was a critic who lived around the year 400 B.C. His book on Nāṭyaśāstra (Histrionics) is world famous. Kālidāsa in the second act of his drama, Vikramorvaśīya states that this Bharata used to coach the devas in the art of acting. Nāṭyaśāstra is a book comprising thirtyseven chapters dealing with the art of dance and music. He has written in detail about the four Alaṃkāras, Upamā, Dīpaka, Rūpaka and Yamaka and also about the ten requisites of a Kāvya. He has not forgotten to write about the defects and demerits of Kāvya also. Commentaries on Nāṭyaśāstra have been written by lions in the profession: Mitragupta, Harṣavardhana, Śaṅkuka, Udbhaṭa, Bhaṭṭanāyaka and Abhinavagupta. Of these 'Abhinavabhāratī' the commentary written by Abhinavagupta is the only one freely available now.

BHARATA V The Mahābhārata speaks about a few other Bharatas who were sons of Agni. Śamyu is a son of Agni known as Bharata. This Bharata has got another name, Ūrjja. (Śloka 6, Chapter 219, Vana Parva, M.B.). There is an Agni of name Bharata with a son named Bhārata. When this Agni is propitiated one gets healthy and strong and so this Agni is called Puṣṭimān also. (Śloka 7, Chapter 219, Vana Parva, M.B.). There is another Bharata son of an Agni called Adbhuta. It is this Agni that burns dead bodies. As this Agni lives permanently in Agniṣṭoma Yajñas; it gets the name of Niyata also. (Śloka 6, Chapter 222, Vana Parva, M.B.).

BHĀRATA (MAHĀBHĀRATA). An epic written by Vyāsa.
     1) General information. The Mahābhārata is an epic. Bharata is acclaimed as the first emperor of Bhārata. The theme of this great epic is the fight between the two lines of princes belonging to the dynasty of Bharata. That is why the book is called Mahābhārata. The great size of the volume and the greatness of the wisdom contained therein have contributed much to its getting the name, Mahābhārata. Once the devas put the Mahābhārata in one pan of a balance and the Vedas in the other pan. Then the devas were convinced that the Mahābhārata weighed more than all the Vedas put together. (Ślokas 269-271, Chapter 1, Ādi Parva, M.B.).* This book contains over a lakh of verses. There is no subject on earth which is not dealt with in the Mahābhārata. None of the world's epics is so big as Mahābhārata. In size the Mahābhārata is double that of Homer's Iliad and Odyssey put together. The following poem about it is worth mentioning now:
     "yathā samudro bhagavan yathā ca himavān giriḥ / khyātāvubhau ratnanidhī tathā bhāratamucyate //" Mahābhārata is not a mere epic. It is a whole literature in itself containing a philosophy which has been an unfailing and perennial source of spiritual strength to the people of India. Above all it has for its core the Gītā which is perhaps the noblest of scriptures.
     The Mahābhārata comprises eighteen books, each book being called a Parva. There are 2109 chapters in it, the chapters differing in size. Besides, there is an annexe called Harivaṃśa which deals with the life and history of Śrī Kṛṣṇa.
     2) Contents. The contents of each Parva are succinctly given below: The Parvas are so named as to give a hint of their central theme.
     (1) Ādi Parva. (Ādi = beginning). Pāṇḍu and Dhṛtarāṣṭra, king of the Candra dynasty, are brothers. Bhīṣma brought them up. Dhṛtarāṣṭra was born blind and he got a hundred children of his wife Gāndhārī. They were called the Kauravas. Pāṇḍu had two wives Kuntī and Mādrī and got of them five sons called the Pāṇḍavas headed by the eldest Yudhiṣṭhira.
     (2) Sabhā Parva (Sabhā = court). The Pāṇḍavas and Kauravas lived together in the court at Hastināpura. There, the Kauravas entered into a game of dice with Yudhiṣṭhira and through the deceitful tactics engineered by the keen-witted Śakuni, Yudhiṣṭhira was defeated and he lost everything he possessed. The Pāṇḍavas were then compelled to go into exile to the forests for twelve years and spend another year after that incognito. If they were found out during that period of incognito they were to go into exile for another term of twelve years. The Pāṇḍavas accompanied by Pāñcālī left for the forests.
     (3) Vana Parva (Vana = forest). This is one of the longest of Parvas and describes the life of the Pāṇḍavas in the forest Kāmyaka. The well known stories 'Nala Carita' and 'Kirātārjunīya' are told in this Parva'.
     (4) Virāṭa Purva. (Virāṭa = name of a King). The Pāṇḍavas after completing their term of exile in the forests spent the year of their life in incognito at the court of King Virāṭa. Many wonderful events took place during their stay there and this Parva deals in detail about them.
     (5) Bhīṣma Parva (Bhīṣma = The first Generalissimo of the Kauravas). The great Mahābhārata war was fought in the vast expanse of Kurukṣetra lying to the northwest of Delhi. Bhīṣma was the first generalissimo of the Kauravas and Dhṛṣṭadyumna of the Pāṇḍavas. Vyāsa describes the events of the battle classifying it according to the generalissimos of the Kaurava army giving the four generalissimos a Parva each. Bhīṣma fought for ten days and was struck down on the tenth day by an arrow from Arjuna.
     (6) Droṇa Parva (Droṇa = The second Generalissimo). When Bhīṣma fell Droṇa took charge as the supreme commander. This Parva deals with the fight under his command. Droṇa was killed in the end by Dhṛṣṭadyumna.
     (7) Karṇa Parva. (Karṇa = The third generalissimo). This Parva deals with the war under the command of Karṇa. Karṇa fell in the end at the hands of Arjuna.
     (8) Śalya Parva. (Śalya = The fourth and last of the Generalissimos). When Karṇa fell Śalya took over charge of the Kaurava army. As the war was coming to an end most of the big warriors of the Kaurava army were killed. In the end Bhīma and Duryodhana met in a grim fight with maces in which Duryodhana was killed. This Parva deals with the final stage of the battle.
     (10) Sauptika Parva. (Sauptika = pertaining to sleep). This Parva tells us the tragic story of how Kṛpācārya, Kṛtavarmā and Aśvatthāmā who were the only three left with Duryodhana after the great battle went into the camp of the Pāṇḍavas at night and killed all the brave warriors of the Pāṇḍava army, excepting the Pāṇḍavas, who were sleeping in their camp unaware of the foul play lying ahead.
     (11) Strī Parva. (Strī = woman). This Parva deals with the great lamentation in the battlefield, after the war, of Gāndhārī and other women.
     (12) Śānti Parva. Yudhiṣṭhira was crowned king and even at that time Bhīṣma was lying on his bed of arrows awaiting death. Before taking up his duties of the state Yudhiṣṭhira went to where the grandsire lay dying and took his blessing and instruction in dharma. This instruction of Bhīṣmācārya to King Yudhiṣṭhira of the three dharmas, Rājadharma, Āpaddharma and Mokṣadharma is the famous Śanti Parva.
     (13) Anuśāsana Parva. (Anuśāsana = Instruction). Bhīṣma still on his death-bed continues his instructions on several topics, like duty, freedom and fasting, giving entertaining stories to illustrate the essence of his teaching. This Parva is devoted to this.
     (14) Āśvamedhika Parva. (Aśvamedha = yāga conducted by emperors). This Parva deals with the yāga conducted by Yudhiṣṭhira when he became the emperor of Bhārata.
     (15) Āśramavāsika Parva. (Āśramavāsa = life in a hermitage). Dhṛtarāṣṭra, the blind and his wife Gāndhārī accompanied by Kuntī left for the forests and lived there for two years in a hermitage. One day the forest caught fire and the three without trying to escape sat on the ground facing eastwards in yoga posture and calmly gave up themselves to the flames. This is dealt with in this Parva.
     (16) Mausala Parva. (Mausala = Mace). This Parva gives the story of how the Yādavas fought against each other with maces and were destroyed and how Dvārakā sank down into the ocean. It describes the death of Śrī Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma also.
     (17) Mahāprasthānika Parva. (Mahāprasthāna = Death). Dharmaputra entrusts his kingdom to his successor and alongwith his four brothers and wife Pāñcālī sets out on a long journey to Mahāmeru never to return. This journey to death is detailed in this Parva.
     (18) Svargārohaṇa Parva. (Svarga = Heaven). This Parva describes the entry of the Pāṇḍavas and their relatives into Svarga, heaven.
     3) Mode of Narration. Most of the verses in the Mahābhārata are in the Anuṣṭup metre. At certain places other metres also have been used. There are prose pieces also in it. There are twenty notable pieces, three in Ādi Parva, seven in Vana Parva, seven in Śānti Parva and three in Anuśāsana Parva. All the pieces are statements by realised souls. The style of the poetry is simple and the method of presentation lively. At times the imagination of the poet extends up to the horizon. Though there is a flow of spiritualism throughout the matter is purely mundane.
     4) Authorship. Bhagavān Vyāsa is believed to be the author of Mahābhārata. He was a contemporary of the Pāṇḍavas and the Kauravas. Many of the events of the Mahābhārata were personally witnessed by Vyāsa. He took three years to write this book. The following ślokas will support the above:
     "kururāja kulasthānāṃ dṛṣṭaṃ vṛttaṃ ca yatsthitam / tatsarvaṃ bhagavān vyāso varṇayāmāsa bhārate. // (padma purāṇa) tribhirvarṣaiḥ sadotthāyi kṛṣṇadvaipāyano muniḥ / mahābhāratamākhyānaṃ kṛtavānidamuttamam. //" (Śloka 55, Chapter 62, Ādi Parva). The Varāha Purāṇa states that Vyāsa composed the Mahābhārata at a period when the end of Dvāpara yuga merged with the dawn of the Kaliyuga. The Bhāgavata states that Śrī Kṛṣṇa passed away on the first day of Kaliyuga. The Bhāgavata is devoted to admire and praise the life of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. This book also is written by Vyāsa. This śloka found in the first Chapter of Ādi Parva clears the doubt:
     "vāsudevasya māhātmyaṃ pāṇḍavānāṃ ca satyatām / durvṛttaṃ dhārttarāṣṭrāṇāṃ uktavān bhagavānṛṣiḥ. //" The original name of the Bhārata which Vyāsa composed was 'Jaya'. In the first Chapter of Ādi Parva is this śloka to support this statement:
     "nārāyaṇaṃ namaskṛtya naraṃ caiva narottamaṃ/ devīṃ sarasvatīṃ caiva tato jayamudīrayet//" After the death of the Pāṇḍavas and the Kauravas the disciples of Vyāsa, Sumantu, Jaimini, Paila, Śuka and Vaiśampāyana gave this book great publicity. They wrote books based on this story of Bhārata of which only the 'Bhārata' of Vaiśampāyana and the Aśvamedha Parva of Jaimini are now available.
     Vyāsa's Bhārata was first expounded by Vaiśampāyana at the Sarpa-satra of Janamejaya. At the request of Janamejaya, Vaiśampāyana added some more facts to the original work known then as 'Jaya'. Jaya with the accretions came to be known as Bhāratasaṃhitā. Sūta who narrated this story to Śaunaka and others at the forest of Naimiśa added some more matter to the Bhāratasaṃhitā and made it larger. The present Mahābhārata is this expanded edition.
     The following facts prove that the Mahābhārata has thus passed through three stages of evolution:
     1) This book is known by three names: Jaya, Bhāratasaṃhitā and Mahābhārata.
1) "(a) jayo nāmetihāso'yaṃ śrotavyo vijigīṣuṇā (śloka 22, chapter 62, ādi parva). (b) caturviṃśati sāhasrīṃ cakre bhāratasaṃhitām upākhyānairvinā tāvad bhāratam procyate budhaiḥ (śloka 78, chapter 1, ādi parva). (c) refer to the śloka given in para 1."
     2) There is a reference to the three parts of the book in Śloka 66, Chapter 1 of Ādi Parva.
2) "manvādi bhārataṃ kecid āstikādi tathāpare tathopari carādanye viprāḥ samyagadhīyire."
     3) There are three different opinions regarding the total number of ślokas in the Mahābhārata. According to Ugraśravas there are 8800 verses, according to Vyāsa 24000 verses and according to another statement a lakh of verses.
3) "idaṃ śatasahasraṃ tu lokānām puṇyakarmaṇām upākhyānaiḥ saha jñeyamādyaṃ bhāratamuttamam caturvimśati sāhasrīṃ cakre bhāratasaṃhitām upākhyānairvinā tāvad bhārataṃ procyate budhaiḥ aṣṭau ślokasahasrāṇi aṣṭau ślokaśatāni ca ahaṃ vedmi śuko vetti sañjayo vetti vā na vā." (Ādi Parva, Chapter 1).
     4) The narration appears to be of three different kinds, descriptive, philosophical and oratorical, indicative of three different authorships.
     5) Sūta and Vaiśampāyana have made accretions to the original work 'Jaya' of Vyāsa.
     Viewed with these facts we are led to believe that Vyāsa has composed only the very essence of Mahābhārata comprising 8800 ślokas and that work was known as 'Jaya' as referred to in the first invocatory verse of the epic. Vaiśampāyana added a few verses of his own and brought the number to 24,000 and gave the book the name of 'Bhāratasaṃhitā'. It was Sūta who made many more additions and made the book so big as to fetch it the name of 'Mahābhārata'. The epic which is now current among us contains a lakh of verses and it took perhaps centuries to get this transformation of the book from 'Jaya' to 'Mahābhārata'.
     6) Period of publication. The Kali Varṣa starts from 3102 B.C. The great Mahābhārata war was fought at a period when the end of Dvāpara yuga merged into the dawn of Kali yuga as could be gathered from the following verse from the epic:
     "antare caiva samprāpte kalidvāparayorabhūt / samantapañcake yuddhaṃ kurupāṇḍavasenayoḥ. //" (Śloka 13, Chapter 2, Ādi Parva). So it can be deduced that the great war was fought round about 3102 B.C. Dhṛtarāṣṭra lived for eighteen years after the great battle and the Pāṇḍavas ruled the country for 36 years. (Strī Parva, M.B.). It was when Śrī Kṛṣṇa died that the Pāṇḍavas ended their rule and commenced the Mahāprasthāna. So it can be surmised that Śrī Kṛṣṇa lived for 36 years after the war. Śrī Kṛṣṇa died on the first day of Kali yuga, 3102 B.C. Therefore it is clear the Mahābhārata battle was fought in 3138 B.C. There are indications in other purāṇas to support this theory. There was that rare phenomenon of a Saptagraha yoga (Combination in astronomical position of seven planets) while King Parīkṣit, son of Arjuna, was ruling the country.** This happened in a month of Māgha (January) and a probe into the dates of such previous occurrences revealed that a similar one had happened in the month of Māgha in the years 3177 and 477 B.C. (The next one is to happen in 2223 A.D.). This phenomenon repeats itself in every hundred years and so it is to be believed that one of the kind happened in 3077 B.C. precisely during the period of Parīkṣit. It is therefore confirmatory to the statement that the great war occurred in 3138 B.C.
     The Pāṇḍavas ruled the country for 36 years after the war and Vyāsa wrote this divine epic after the death of the Pāṇḍavas. Vyāsa took three years to complete his work. Therefore it can be well concluded that Vyāsa wrote the epic in 3100 B.C. The Pāṇḍavas commenced their Mahāprasthāna after entrusting the administration of the state into the hands of Parīkṣit. This must have happened in 3102 B.C. Parīkṣit ruled the country for 60 years and so his son Janamejaya became King in 3042 B.C. It was after two years of his becoṃing King that he conducted the Sarpasatra and it was at this Sarpasatra that Vaiśampāyana first expounded 'Jaya' (Mahābhārata) to the sages assembled there.
     This fixing of the date of Mahābhārata is based on the conclusions arrived at by the pandits of Bhārata, but foreign chronologists differ from us. They argue that it was in the 10th century B.C. that the Mahābhārata battle took place on the strength of the following:
     The theme of the Mahābhārata is a fight between Kurus and Pāñcālas. After the war the two join and there is a statement in the Yajurveda of a people formed by the merger of the two. Therefore the great war should have happened in the 10th century B.C. It was a period of hero-worship and songs on the heroic deeds of the Kurus and Pāṇḍavas were sung and handed over from one generation to the other and gradually those songs took shape in the form of the Mahābhārata.
     There is another school of thought. In the Mahābhārata, Brahmā is given great prominence. But in Vedic times Brahmā was not counted at all. During the golden period of the Buddhists Brahmā had a conspicuous hold on Hinduism. Therefore it should be deduced that the Mahābhārata was written during the 6th century B.C. Then there were about 8,000 verses in the Mahābhārata.
     Towards the second stage of Mahābhārata the epic grew in size bringing into its fold about 24,000 ślokas. It was at this stage that the Mahābhārata got a vaiṣṇavite colour and Śrī Kṛṣṇa was adored as an incarnation of Viṣṇu. Megasthenes who visited India in 300 B.C. records that the majority of Hindus were vaiṣṇavites at that period. There are references in certain parts of the Mahābhārata to Greeks and Buddhists. Therefore a set of foreign chronologists conclude that those portions of the Mahābhārata could have been written only after Buddha and after the attack on Bhārata by the Greeks i.e. by 300 B.C.
     The third stage of the Mahābhārata is its present form and it was at this stage that it included new philosophy in it. The Dharmasaṃhitā of Manusmṛti became popular in the fifth century A.D. and therefore the third stage of the Mahābhārata must have started before that, in the 3rd century A.D.
*) "purā kila suraiḥ sarvaiḥ sametya tulayā dhṛtam caturbhyaḥ sara{??}asyebhyo vedebhyo hyadhikaṃ yadā tadā prabhrti loke'smin mahābhāratamucyate mahatve ca gurutve ca dhriyamāṇaṃ yaśo'dhikam mahatvād bhāravatvāc ca mahābhāratamucyate."
**) (a) Saptarṣayo maghāyuktāḥ kāle pārikṣite śatam (Matsya purāṇa 271. 46). (b) Te tu pārīkṣite kāle maghāsvāsan dvijottama (Visnu purāna 4, 24, 106).

BHĀRATA II (Bhāratavarṣa. India).
     The purāṇas describe the Earth to be constituted of seven continents: Jambūdvīpa, Plakṣadvīpa, Śālmalīdvīpa, Kuśadvīpa, Krauñcadvīpa, Śākadvīpa and Puṣkaradvīpa. Of these India is Jambūdvīpa.
     The Bhāratavarṣa was constituted of nine islands at that time in the following positions: In the centre was Ilāvṛta and to the east was Bhadravarṣa. To the south-east was Hiraṇyaka and to the south was Bhārata. To the southwest was Hari and to the west was Ketumāla. To the north-west was cambaka and to the north was Kuruvarṣa. Beautiful Kiṃpuruṣa varṣa stood to the north-east of Ilāvṛta. There was neither the passage of time nor the fear of ageing or death in any of these continents excepting Bhāratavarṣa.
     This Bhāratavarṣa itself is a group of nine islands each separated from the other by oceans and thus made not easily accessible between each other. Indradvīpa, Kaśerumān, Tāmraparṇa, Gabhastimān, Nāgadvīpa, Kaṭāha, Siṃhala and Vāruṇa are the eight others and the ninth is this island of Bhāratavarṣa. This island is called Kumāra also. On the eastern boundary of this island live Kirātas, on the western side, Yavanas, on the southern boundary Āndhras and on the north Turuṣkas. In the Centre live the Brāhmins, Kṣatriyas, Vaiśyas and Śūdras. The eight sacred mountains of this place are Mahendra, Malaya, Sahya, Śuktimān, Ṛkṣaparvata, Vindhya and Pāriyātra. There are several other mountains also in Madhyapradeśa. They are: Kolāhala, Vaibhrāja, Mandara, Durddhara, Vātadhūma, Vaidyuta, Maināka, Sarasa, Tuṅgaprastha, Nāgagiri, Govardhana, Ujjayanta, Puṣpagiri, Arbuda, Raivataka, Ṛṣyamūka, Gomanta, Citrakūṭa, Kṛtasmara, Śrīparvata and Koṅkaṇa. This place is inhabited by Āryas and Mlecchas. The rivers which they use for drinking water are the following:
     Sarasvatī, Pañcarūpā, Kālindī, Hiraṇvatī, Śatadru, Candrikā, Nīla, Vitastā, Irāvatī, Kuhū, Madhurā, Hārarāvi, Uśīrā, Dhātakī, Rasā, Gomatī, Dhūtapāpā, Bahudā, Dṛṣadvatī, Nisvarā, Gaṇḍakī, Citrā, Kauśikī, Vadhūsara, Sarayū and Lohitya. All these rivers originate from the base of Himavān. Those originating from Pāriyātra are: Vedaśmṛti, Vedasvanī, Vṛtraghnī, Sindhu, Parṇāśā, Nandinī, Pāvanī, Mahī, Śarā, Carmmaṇvatī, Lūpi, Vidiśā, Veṇumatī, Citrā and Oghavatī. Those flowing down from the Ṛkṣaparvata are: Śoṇa alias Mahānada, Narmadā, Surasā, Kriyā, Mandākinī, Daśārṇa, Citrakūṭā, Devikā, Citrotpalā, Tamasā, Karatoyā, Piśācikā, Pippalaśreṇī, Vipāśā, Vañjjulāvatī, Satsantajā, Śuktimatī, Cakriṇī, Tridivā, Vasu, Valguvāhinī. From the base of Vindhya flow down the following rivers: Śivā, Payoṣṇī, Nirvindhyā, Tāpī, Veṇā, Niṣadhāvatī, Vaitaraṇī, Sinībāhu, Kumudvatī, Toyā, Revā, Mahāgaurī, Durggyā and Antaśśivā. Those originating from the base of Sahya are the following great rivers: Godāvarī, Bhīmarathī, Kṛṣṇā, Veṇyā, Saridvatī, Viṣamādrī, Suprayogā, Vāhyā, Kāverī, Dugdhodā, Nalinī, Vārisenā, and Kalasvanā. Those arising from Śuktimān are the following: Kṛtamālā, Tāmravarṇī, Vañjjulā, Utpalāvatī, Śunī and Sudāmā. All these rivers are very sacred and are considered to be absolvers of sins, mothers of the universe and wives of oceans. There are bad rivers also besides these.
     The Madhyapradeśa comprises the following states: Matsya, Kuśūdra, Kuṇḍala, Pāñcāla, Kosala, Vṛka, Śaka, Barbara, Kaurava, Kaliṅga, Vaṅga, Aṅga and Marmaka. The states lying to the north are the following: Ābhīra, Śāṭhyadhānaka, Bāhlīka, Vātadhāna, Abhīra, Kālatoyada, Aparānta, Śūdra, Pahlava, Kheṭaka, Gāndhāra, Yavana, Sindhu, Sauvīra, Bhadraka, Śātadrava, Lalittha, Pārāvata, Mūṣika, Māṭhara, Urukadhāra, Kekaya, Daṃśana, Kāmboja, Darada, Aṅga, Lokika, Veṇa, Tuṣāra, Bāhya, Todara, Ātreya, Bhāradvāja, Prasthala, Daśeraka, Lambaka, Tāvakārāma, Cūdika, Taṃgaṇa, Alasa, Ālibhadra, Kirāta, Tāmasa, Haṃsamārga, Supārśva, Gaṇaka, Kūlūta, Kurhika, Cūrṇa, Ūrṇapāda, Kukkuṭa, Māṇḍavya and Pāṇavīya. Those lying to the east are the following:
     Aṅga, Vaṅga, Madgurava, Antarggiri, Bahirggiri, Pravaṃga, Vāṃgeya, Māṃsāda, Baladantika, Brahmottara, Prāvijaya, Bhārgava, Āṅgeya, Marṣaka, Prāgjyotiṣa, Vṛṣaddhra, Videha, Malla, Tāmraliptaka, Magadha and Ānanda. The states lying to the south are the following: Puṇḍra, Kerala, Cola, Kulya, Jānuka, Mūṣikāda, Kumārāda, Mahāśaka, Mahārāstra, Māhiṣika, Kaliṅga, Ādīra, Vaiśikya, Āraṇya, Śabara, Pulinda, Vindhyaśaileya, Vidarbha, Daṇḍaka, Paurika, Sārika, Aśmaka, Bhogavardhana, Naimika, Kuntala, Āndhra, Udbhida and Nalakāraka. The western states are: Śūrppāraka, Vāridhāna, Durga, Cālīkaṭa, Pulīya, Sunīla, Tāmasa, Tāpasa, Kāraskara, Bhūmi, Nāsikānta, Sunarmmada, Dārukaccha, Sumāheya, Sārasvata, Vātsiya, Surāṣṭra, Āvantya and Ārbuda. The follwoing states lie adjacent to Vindhya: Kārūsa, Ekalavya, Mekala, Utkala, Uttamarṇa, Daśārṇa, Gopta, Kikarava, Tosala, Kosala, Traipura, Khelliśa, Turaga, Tuṃbara, Vahela, Niṣadha, Anūpa, Tuṇḍikera, Vītihotra and Avanti.
     There are a few more states which lie attached to mountains: Nirāhāra, Haṃsamārga, Kupatha, Taṃgaṇa, Khaśa, Kaṭha, Prāvaraṇa, Ūrṇa, Āplaṣṭa, Suhūhuka, Trigartta, Kirāta, Tomara, Saśikha and Adrika. (Chapter 13, Vāmana Purāṇa).
     (See the map of Paurāṇika Bhārata).

BHĀRATASAṂHITĀ Another title of the Mahābhārata. (See Bhārata I).

BHĀRATĪ A famous river mentioned in the Purāṇas. It is stated in Verse 25, Chapter 222 of the Vana Parva that Agni (fire) originated in this river.

BHARATI Daughter of the Agni called Bharata. (Śloka 9, Chapter 219, Vana Parva, M.B.).

BHĀRAVI A Sanskrit poet who flourished in the 6th century A.D. He is the author of the mahākāvya called Kirātārjunīya. Raghuvaṃśa, Kumārasambhava, Kirātārjunīya, Śiśupālavadha and Naiṣadha are the five Mahākāvyas in Sanskrit with established reputation. In the Ehole records of A.D. 634 Bhāravi is held up in praise along with Kālidāsa.* The theme of Kirātārjunīya is Śiva, in the guise of a hunter, attacking Arjuna immersed in penance. Bhāravi's literary style is simple and sweet. In the use of similes he is second only to Kālidāsa. Among his books only Kirātārjunīya has been found out yet.
*) Yenāyoji na veśma sthiram arthavidhau vivekinā jinaveśma/ Sa jayatāṃ ravikīrtiḥ kavitāśrita-Kālidāsa-Bhāravikīrtiḥ.//

BHARGA I Grandson of Divodāsa, a King of the Pūru line. Divodāsa got a son named Pratardana. Bharga and Vatsa were the sons of Pratardana. (Chapter 278, Agni Purāṇa).

BHARGA II A synonym of Śiva.

BHARGA(M) A village of ancient India. (Śloka 51, Chapter 9, Bhīṣma Parva, M.B.).

BHĀRGAVA One who belongs to the Bhṛgu dynasty. (See Bhṛgu).

BHĀRGAVA(M) A city in ancient India. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 50).

BHARMYAŚVA A famous king of Pāñcāla Deśa. He had five heroic sons headed by Mudgala. (Navama Skandha, Bhāgavata)

BHARTṚHARI A famous Sanskrit poet.
     1) Birth. He was the son of Vidyāsāgara, a great brahmin scholar, who lived in Pāṭalīputra. There is a legend about the birth of Bhartṛhari in Uttara Bhārata.
     Vidyāsāgara while young learnt the Vedas from his guru. But he was not satisfied with that study and wanted to learn more about all śāstras and so he started on a tour to find out a guru who would teach him all he wanted. On his way he met several great scholars but none came up to his standard of a guru. One day tired after a long journey he reached a mountain valley. Washing his hands and feet in a nearby river and quenching his thirst he went and sat down under a banyan tree to rest. The cool breeze sent the tired brahmin to sleep and he slept.
     A Brahmarākṣasa who was living on the top of the banyan tree when it became midday descended from the tree to perform the sacred rites of the day and found a man lying asleep. By the sacred thread on his body the Brahmarākṣasa surmised that the man was a brahmin and woke him up. Waking up Vidyāsāgara found to his surprise the bearded Brahmarākṣasa standing before him and after mutual enquiries Vidyāsāgara told him of his mission. The Brahmarākṣasa told him thus: "Boy, let your name Vidyāsāgara (ocean of learning) be true in your life. I am acquainted with many śāstras and I shall teach you everything I know. But there are certain conditions for the same which you have to observe. You must live with me for six months and should fast during that period behaving yourself as one under a vow. I shall, however, teach you a mantra which would help you to remain unaffected by hunger, thirst or sleep. If you are prepared to accept these terms and become my disciple I shall quench your thirst for knowledge. Vidyāsāgara willingly agreed to his terms and became his student.
     Both of them then climbed on the banyan tree and the Brahmarākṣasa sat in his usual place on a branch on the tree and Vidyāsāgara on a branch just below it. The instructions started and continued for six months. Vidyāsāgara never felt thirst or hunger during that period. When the teaching was complete the Brahmarākṣasa bade farewell to his disciple and departed leaving his body behind.
     Vidyāsāgara then got down from the tree and performed the obsequies of his guru. Vidyāsāgara while he was learning used to note down the instructions of the guru on the leaves of the banyan tree. It had come to a huge bundle on completion. Taking the bundle along with him Vidyāsāgara left for his country. By the time he left the forest area the power of the mantra faded and Vidyāsāgara began to feel the pangs of hunger and thirst. By dusk he reached Kaliṅga and there he came to the door of a dancing girl named Mandākinī. The door was locked as the owner was away in a Śiva temple nearby. Exhausted by the journey, hungry and thirsty, Vidyāsāgara lay down on the doorstep and soon fell asleep with the leaf-bundle as a pillow. Mandākinī when she returned from the temple at about ten at night saw a brahmin sleeping on the doorstep, tired and exhausted. She soon asked her servants to get him inside and sent for a doctor. By the clever treatment of the doctor and the expert nursing of Mandākinī, Vidyāsāgara survived. When he was fit for travel he started to go but Mandākinī objected and requested him to marry her. Vidyāsāgara did not agree to it and she took him to the King and told him all that had happened. Finding Vidyāsāgara to be one with great erudition and good manners he decided that Vidyāsāgara should marry his daughter (a Kṣatriya), daughter of his minister (a brahmin), daughter of Kulapati (a vaiśya), and also Mandākinī (a Śūdra). There was an injunction in those days that a brahmin should marry a Śūdra only after having married from all the higher castes. The decision of the King surmounted this difficulty for Vidyāsāgara to marry the śūdra girl, Mandākinī. Marriages were all conducted in order. The King's daughter bore the name Kalāvatī, the minister's Mālatī and Kulapati's Sumaṅgalī. Each delivered a son. The brahmin boy was named Vararuci, the Kṣatriya boy, Vikramāditya, the Vaiśya boy, Bhaṭṭi and the Śūdra boy, Bhartṛhari.
     2) Kingship. When the King of Kaliṅga became old he gave the kingdom to Vidyāsāgara and when Vidyāsāgara died all his other sons made Bhartṛhari the King. Bhartṛhari gave his father on his death-bed a promise that he would see that no sons were born to him.* So though Bhartṛhari married three wives he was careful enough not to produce any children by them.
     3) Bhartṛhari becomes a sannyāsī. Bhartṛhari was living happily with his wife when one day a yogī of divine disposition came to his house and giving him a ripe mango said: "If you eat this mango you will never become old. It is because you who are perfect in education and fortune should live long for the benefit of the people that I am giving you this." So saying he gave the mango and left the place. When the sannyāsī left him Bhartṛhari thought thus: "After some years my wife would become old and die. What is the use of my remaining alive after she is gone. So this mango should be given to her. Let her live long." He, therefore, gave the mango to his wife explaining to her the greatness of the fruit. That wife whom poor Bhartṛhari accepted to be very loving and chaste had a lover. He was none other than the horsegroom of her husband and that prostitute thought thus: "Of what use is my life when my lover is dead. Let him live for ever". So thinking she sent for her lover and giving him the mango explained to him the greatness of the thing. But the horse-groom was well devoted to his wife and desiring that his wife should remain young always he gave it to her. The groom's wife was a servant-maid of the palace and it was at the time of her departure from the palace after her day's work that she was given the mango by the horse-groom and so she carried it home in her hand. Bhartṛhari who was returning from somewhere to the palace saw the woman carrying the mango and questioned her and knew how she got it. On coming to the palace he sent for the horse-groom and though at first the horse-groom tried to shield the queen, he was compelled to tell the truth in the end. The truth pained him much "Phew! It was this wretched and unfaithful woman whom I was believing to be very chaste and loving. Woman can never be believed. Look, she has fallen in love with an uglylooking servant of mine and unless he was her lover she would not have given this mango to him. It is better that this matter is not pursued any further now. We will decide about the future course of action later". Thinking thus, he sent away the horse-groom and went to his bed-chamber and lay there immersed in thoughts. The horse-groom immediately informed the queen of everything that took place and the queen felt sorry that her secret had come to light. She knew that besides the punishment that her lover would get her name would also be blackened and so decided to kill her husband before the affair became public. At once she made an oṭṭaṭa (flat bread made of wheat or rice) with poison in it and bringing it to the bed-room told her husband thus with much pretended affection. "It will take some time for your lunch to be ready. Let not you lie with an empty stomach. Eat this now". So saying she placed the bread in the hands of Bhartṛhari and left the room.
     Bhartṛhari suspected foul play and mused "This bread has been prepared by her with poison to kill me. It is better to give up living with her. There is no doubt about it. Of the four āśramas the fourth, Sannyāsa, is the best. It is pleasant and sorrowless. Therefore gradually that āśrama should be accepted". Thinking thus he came out from his room with the bread and placed it hidden somewhere in the lower end of the roof of the house remarking "Oṭṭappam Vīṭṭeccuṭum" (The oṭṭaṭa will burn the house). Then taking an earthern bowl for begging he left the house unnoticed by any. The moment Bhartṛhari left the house the house caught fire and everything in it was burnt to ashes.
     Bhartṛhari renouncing all and changing himself into the robes of a sannyāsī went about living by begging. After some time he decided that he would never beg but would eat only that which others gave him voluntarily. He had by that time reached a big temple** in south India where in one of the entrances to the temple, the east one, was sitting the famous sannyāsī Paṭṭanatt Pillayār. Bhartṛhari, therefore, went and sat at the western entrance with his bowl before him. Whatever food fell into the bowl was eaten by him. Sometimes for days together he went without food. But he never was sick or felt weak.
     One day a beggar went to the eastern gate and asked Paṭṭanatt Pillayār for alms. Pillayār said, "I am also a beggar like you. I have nothing in my hand to give you. But there is a man sitting in the western gate. He is a rich man and he may give you something". The beggar went to Bhartṛhari and asked for alms. Bhartṛhari also expressed his helplessness in the matter. But then the beggar said "The man sitting at the opposite entrance told me that you were a rich man." Bhartṛhari smiled. He knew then why Paṭṭanatt Pillayār said so. A man who has renounced everything need not keep even a bowl to beg. The bowl was a luxury and a sign of wealth. Bhartṛhari threw away the bowl and remained at the temple entrance till the end of his life. It was while sitting there that he wrote his famous poems.
     4) His well-known works are: (1) The Nīti Śataka (2) The Śṛṅgāra Śataka (3) The Vairāgya Śataka and (4) The Subhāṣitas.
*) There is a belief that if a son is born to a Śūdra who was himself born of a brahmin the brahmin father would go to hell.
**) This temple is believed to be the Chidaṃbaraṃ Temple.

BHARTṚSTHĀNA(M) A very holy place in ancient India. It is said that even those who merely visited this place would get the benefit of performing an Aśvamedha yajña. The place got its importance because Lord Subrahmaṇya lived there. (Śloka 76, Chapter 84, Vana Parva, M.B.)

BHĀRU A daughter of Dakṣaprajāpati. The prajāpati, at one stage begot sixty girls of Vairiṇī and gave them to Kaśyapa, who distributed them among several Devas. Bhāru was the woman so given to the Viśvadevatās. (Hari Vaṃśa, Chapter 3).

BHARUKA A king of the Solar dynasty. He was the son of Sudeva and father of Bāhuka. (Navama Skanda, Bhāgavata).

BHARUKAKṢA(M) A village of ancient India. Śūdras lived there. At that time of the Rājasūya of Dharmaputra these Śūdras brought gifts to the King. (Chapter 51, Sabhā Parva).

BHĀRUṆḌA A particular kind of bird found in the Kingdom called Uttarakuruvarṣa. These birds carry in their strong beak corpses to their caves and eat them. (Bhīṣmaparva, Chapter 7, Verse 12).

BHĀRYĀ Wife. Bhīṣma points out the sanctified importance of Bhāryā (wife) as follows:--
     Without her even the palace will prove itself to be just a forest. She will be a great support (to the husband) in the matter of dharma (duty) artha (wealth) and Kāma (enjoyment of material comforts). (These three precede the ultimate state of Mokṣa (salvation) and the wife will be a great support in fulfilling the conditions during the first three stages.) While on tour in foreign places she will remain faithful to him and instil confidence in him. Bhāryā is great wealth to man.
     In his forlorn life on earth the wife is of great help to man. To him, who is suffering from diseases and is otherwise in distress there is no remedy (medicine) like a good wife. There is no relative like a wife. In the matter of practising dharma there is no other support to match the wife. If one has no good wife to take care of domestic affairs one will be driven to the forest; the home will be like a forest. (Śānti Parva, Chapter 144).

BHĀSA A very prominent dramatist in Sanskrit. As Bāṇa and Kālidāsa have noticed him in their works, it may safely be assumed that Bhāsa lived in an earlier period. Since Pratimā nāṭaka and Abhiṣeka nāṭaka, which are universally admitted to have been composed by Bhāsa, depend for their themes on the Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, it is clear that Bhāsa lived after Vālmīki. Kālidāsa's period has not yet been fixed beyond doubt. It is almost settled that Bāṇa lived sometime between the sixth and seventh centuries A.D. Prof. Keith has been of the view that Vālmīki lived before the 4th century B.C. In the light of all such factors it could be presumed that Bhāsa lived in the period between the 4th century B.C. and 6th century A.D.
     Though Bhāsa has so many glories to his credit he does not fully match Kālidāsa, and this might have been the reason why Indians did almost forget Bhāsa with the advent of Kālidāsa on the literary arena.
     We are not in a position to name with unerring definiteness the works of Bhāsa. The general belief is that he has written nearly twenty three dramas. In 1922, Pandit Gaṇapati Śāstrī unearthed from various sources thirteen dramas of Bhāsa. Three out of them, viz. Pratijñāyaugandharāyaṇa, Śvapnavāsavadatta and Avimāraka owe their themes to the Bṛhatkathā, while Pratimā nāṭaka and Abhiṣeka nāṭaka have Rāmāyaṇa as their basic inspiration. Out of the eight remaining dramas six, viz. Madhyama vyāyoga, Pañcarātra, Dūtavākya, Dūtaghaṭotkaca, Karṇabhāra and Ūrubhaṅga owe their themes to the Mahābhārata, while the last two dramas, Bālacarita and Cārudatta are dependent for their themes on anecdotes about Śrī Kṛṣṇa and on yakṣa stories.
     Though Dr. Gaṇapati Śāstrī has strongly contended that all the above thirteen dramas were written by Bhāsa himself, his view has not yet received universal acceptance. Whatever that be, it is an admitted fact that Svapnavāsavadatta is by far the best among the thirteen dramas. It is a continuation of the story of Pratijñāyaugandharāyaṇa. The wedding of king Udayana and Vāsavadattā is the subject matter of Svapnavāsavadatta.
     With his killing of the Rākṣasa 'Avi' the Sauvīra king comes to be known as Avimāra, and Avimāra's falling in love with Kuraṅgī, daughter of Kuntibhoja forms the theme of the drama, Avimāraka. In Pratimā nāṭaka is told the story narrated in Rāmāyaṇa from Ayodhyākāṇḍa to Paṭṭābhiṣeka. Abhiṣeka nāṭaka codifies the stories in the Kiṣkindhā Kāṇḍa and Sundara Kāṇḍa of the Ṛāmāyaṇa and describes the coronations of Sugrīva and of Śrī Rāma. Though the characters in Pañcarātra are borrowed from Mahābhārata the story is entirely Bhāsa's. Madhyama vyāyoga, Dūtavākya, Dūtaghaṭotkaca, Karṇabhāra and Ūrubhaṅga are one-act plays. These five plays have as their basis some of the anecdotes in the Mahābhārata. In Cārudatta is treated the love story of Cārudatta and Vasantasenā.
     Indisputable evidence is still lacking to credit Bhāsa with the authorship of all the thirteen plays referred to above.

BHĀSAS (See Bhāsī).

BHĀSAKARṆA A military captain of Rāvaṇa. Hanumān killed him in fight. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Sundara Kāṇḍa 46, 47).

BHĀSĪ Daughter of Tāmrā, Dakṣa's daughter. Kaśyapa prajāpati married the following daughters of Dakṣa: Aditi, Diti, Danu, Kālikā, Tāmrā, Krodhavaśā, Manu and Analā, Tāmrā had five daughters, viz. Krauñcī, Bhāsī, Śyenī, Dhṛtarāṣṭrī and Śukī. And, the sons of Bhāsī are the Deva sect called the Bhāsas. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Āraṇya Kāṇḍa, Canto 14).

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BHĀSKARA One of the Dvādaśādityas born of Kaśyapa prajāpati and Aditi. (Anuśāsana Parva, Verse 150).

BHĀSKARĀCĀRYA A master astronomer of ancient India. It was he who declared, much earlier than western experts, that the earth is round in shape.

BHĀSKARI An old maharṣi of India. He accompanied the Ṛṣis who visited Bhīṣma on his bed of arrows. (Śānti Parva, Chapter 47, Verse 12).

BHASMA (Sacred ash). To know a story about the greatness of Bhasma see under the word Durjaya.

BHASMĀSURA A demon. There is no mention about this demon in any of the Sanskrit purāṇas but 'Śivalīlāmṛta' in Marāṭhi contains the following story about him.
     Bhasmāsura was born of the Bhasma dust (ashes) on the body of Śiva. Pleased at the great devotion of the demon towards him Śiva asked him to name any boon he wanted. Bhasmāsura said that he wanted the power to burn to ashes anybody on whose head he placed his hand. Bhasmāsura became arrogant with the boon and he became a nightmare to the whole world. Then Mahāviṣṇu appeared before him in the form of Mohinī, an attractive dancer and alluring him by her charm started on a dance called Muktanṛtya. During the course of this dance Bhasmāsura was forced to place his hand on his own head and the moment his head touched his head he was burnt to ashes.

BHĀSVARA One of the two attendants presented by Sūrya to Subrahmaṇya; the other was named Subhrāja. (Śalya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 31).

BHAṬṬANĀRĀYAṆA A sanskrit poet who flourished near about A.D. 700. Veṇīsaṃhāra, a drama in six acts is the only composition of his found out, yet. He is also known by another name, Mṛgarājalakṣma. Certain scholars opine that he might have lived before Bāṇa and after Vāmana.

BHAṬṬANĀYAKA A literary critic who flourished in the 10th century A.D. in India. He composed a critical study on the science of dance (Nāṭya) named Hṛdayadarpaṇa based on the Nāṭya śāstra of Bharata. But, the book has not been found out, yet. Contesting the dhvanivāda (the rhetorical theory that in poetry suggested or implied meaning is superior to the explicit meanning) of Ānandavardhanācārya, he established the rasavāda (that sentiment is supreme in poetry). Abhinavagupta also has supported the rasavāda. Hence, it may be inferred that Bhaṭṭanāyaka lived in the period after Ānandavardhana and anterior to Abhinavagupta. Bhaṭṭanāyaka's theory is that Abhidhā, Bhāvakatvaṃ and Bhojakatvaṃ should be the three excellences of good poetry.

BHAṬṬI A sanskrit poet who lived in the 7th century A.D. His most important composition is the Mahākāvya, Rāvaṇavadha, which has become very popular and famous by the name Bhaṭṭikāvya. This mahākāvya deals with the story of Rāmāyaṇa in its twentytwo Kāṇḍas (cantos). The kāvya is believed to have been composed at Valabhī in obedience to the request of King Śrīdharasena.

BHAUMA I The fourteenth Manu. In the time of this Manu, the person called Śuci will be Indra. Under his control there will be five groups of Devas. These groups are called Cākṣuṣas, Pavitras, Kaniṣṭhas, Bhrājikas and Vāpāvṛddhas. The Saptarṣis (seven sages) of that Manvantara are Agnibāhu, Śuci, Śukra, Māgadha, Agnīdhra, Yukta and Jita. At that time, the sons of Manu who will be protecting the earth will be Ūru, gaṃbhīrabuddhi and other Kings. (Viṣṇu Purāṇa, 3rd Part, Chapter 2).

BHAUMA II Another name of Narakāsura. (See the word Narakāsura).

BHAUMA III A Rākṣasa born to Siṃhikā by Vipracitti. Paraśu-Rāma killed him. (Brahmāṇḍa--3-6-18-22).

BHAUTYA See the word Manvantara.

BHAVA I One of the eleven Rudras. He was the son of Sthāṇu and grandson of Brahmā. (Chapter 66, Ādi Parva, M.B.).

BHAVA II A sanātana Viśvadeva. (Chapter 60, Ādi Parva, M.B.).

BHAVA III One of the sons born to Kaśyapa of Surabhi.

BHĀVA(M) I A famous forest mentioned in the Purāṇas. Bhāva was near the Veṇumanda mountain, which was close to Dvārakā. (Sabhā Parva, Chapter 38).

BHĀVA One of the twelve Devas born to Bhṛguvāruṇi Ṛṣi of his wife Divyā.

BHAVABHŪTI A Sanskrit poet who lived in the 7th century A.D. His important works are the three dramas, Mālatīmādhava, Mahāvīracarita and Uttararāmacarita. Bhavabhūti was a brahmin of the Kaśyapagotra. He was the son of one Nīlakaṇṭha and one Jātukarṇī. He was a great devotee of Śiva and he got his name Bhavabhūti later because of this. His original name was Nīlakaṇṭha. Bhavabhūti was born in Padmapura in the state of Vidarbha. But Bhavabhūti spent most of his life in the palace of Yaśodharmā, king of Kannauj.
     Bhavabhūti's first drama is believed to be Mahāvīracarita. There are seven acts in this. The theme is based on the story of Śrī Rāma. But there are some variations from the original Rāmāyaṇa in this drama. Bhavabhūti states that even at the time of the svayaṃvara of Sītā, Rāvaṇa was a suitor. There is an opinion among certain critics that Bhavabhūti did write only up to the 46th verse in the fourth act and the rest was written by another poet named Subrahmaṇya.
     Mālatīmādhava is a drama of ten acts. It is a love-story of Mālatī and Mādhava. Mālatī was the daughter of the minister of Ujjayinī and Madhava was the son of the minister of Vidarbha. It was while Mādhava was having his education in Ujjayinī that he came to love Mālatī. It was Kāmandakī who was a classmate of both the ministers and who became a sannyāsinī later who pulls the strings of this love story. The king of Ujjayinī wanted Mālatī to marry Nandana, a friend of his. But Mālatī did not love him. Yet afraid of getting the displeasure of the King, Mālatī's father decided to give her in marriage to Nandana. In despair Mādhava was about to commit suicide when from the temple nearby Mādhava heard an agonised weeping. He rushed to the site of the sound and found to his bewilderment the gruesome sight of Mālatī being dragged for sacrifice by a sorceress named Kapālakuṇḍalā helped by her guru Aghoraghaṇṭa. Mādhava killed Aghoraghaṇṭa and saved Mālatī. Disappointed Kapālakuṇḍalā swore that she would seek revenge on Mādhava and disappeared. Mālatī went back to her palace. At this time Madayantikā, sister of Nandana and Makaranda, a friend of Mādhava became lovers. Once Madayantikā was attacked by a tiger in a Śiva temple and Makaranda saved her from the wild beast, and they became lovers thereafter. The proposal to give Mālatī in marriage to Nandana was still pending then. The marriage day was fixed and a day before that by a clever ruse played by the keenwitted Kāmandakī Mālatī and Mādhava eloped together. Makaranda, friend of Mādhava, was disguised and dressed in bridal robes and Nandana little suspecting the trick played on him married the substitute. Before they went to the bridal chamber for the night Nandana's sister came to see her new sister-in-law and the moment she put her eyes on her she understood who it was and that night they also eloped. Thus poor Nandana was left alone.
     Kapālakuṇḍalā by her sorcery separated Mālatī from Mādhava but luckily Saudāminī a disciple of Kāmantakī saved her from Kapālakuṇḍalā. Later Mālatī married Mādhava with the permission of the King. This is the story of Mālatī-Mādhava.
     Uttararāmacarita is a play of seven acts. The theme is the story of Rāma after his return to Ayodhyā after the exile. It begins with the renouncement of Sītā by Rāma and ends with the vanishing of Sītā.
     All these three dramas used to be enacted during the festival of 'Kālapriyanātha' at Ujjayinī. The predominant emotion in Mahāvīracarita is 'Vīra', in Mālatī-Mādhava, 'Sṛṅgāra' and in Uttararāmacarita 'Karuṇa'. In expressing and elaborating the emotion of 'Karuṇa' Bhavabhūti excels Kālidāsa. The one draw-back which keeps him second to Kālidāsa is his lack of humour and wit. The sanskrit poet Dhanapāla in his book' 'Tilakamañjari' speaks about Bhavabhūti thus:
     "spaṣṭabhāvarasā citraiḥ padanyāsaiḥ pravarttitā / nāṭakeṣu naṭastrīva bhāratī bhavabhūtinā //"

BHAVADĀ A follower of Skandadeva. (Chapter 45, Śalya Parva).

BHAVANMANYU A king of Pūruvaṃśa. He had five sons: Bṛhatkṣatra, Nara, Garga, Mahāvīrya and Jaya. (Chapter 19, Aṃśa 4, Viṣṇu Purāṇa).

BHĀVANIKĀ A companion of princess Mṛgaṃkāvatī. (See Śrīdatta).

BHAVATI The word prescribed by Manu to be used while addressing women. Not all women should be addressed like that. All women who are not your relatives and the wives of others should be addressed using any one of the following words: Bhavati, Subhage or Bhagini.
     "parapatnī tu yā strī syād asambaddhā ca yonitaḥ / tāṃ brūyād bhavatītyevaṃ subhage bhaginīti ca. //" (Manusmṛti, Chapter 2).

BHĀVAYAVYA A muni, whose glories are sung in the Ṛgveda. He married Romaśā, daughter of Bhṛhaspati. Once she approached her husband with the request for coition, and the husband laughed at her. (Ṛgveda, Maṇḍala 19, Anuvāka 19, Sūkta 127).

BHĀVINĪ A female attendant of Subrahmaṇya. (Śalya Parva, Chapter 44, Verse 11).

BHAVIṢYA PURĀṆA This purāṇa contains the instructions given by the god Sūrya to Manu. There are about fourteen thousand books in this purāṇa and they deal with almost all subjects on earth including such important ones like, Sṛsṭi (creation), Kālamāna (time), Garbhādhāna (conception), Godāna (gift of cows), Āśramadharmas (duties of a hermit) Liṅga Śāstra (science of sex), Viṣacikitsā (treatment of poisoning) and Āyurveda (Medical science). (Chapter 272, Agni Purāṇa).

BHAVIṢYARĀMĀYAṆA The part after Uttararāmāyaṇa. Uttararāmāyaṇa states about Bhaviṣyarāmāyaṇa being sung by Kuśa and Lava in the presence of Śrī Rāma.

BHĀVUKA A king of the solar dynasty. He was the son of Ravīya and father of Cakroddhata. (Bhāgavata, Navama Skandha).

BHAVYA I A son of Dhruva. He got of his wife Śambhu two sons, Śiṣṭi and Bhavya. (Chapter 13, Aṃśa 1, Viṣṇu Purāṇa).

BHAVYA II A clan of devas in Raivatamanvantara. Parimiti, Priyaniścaya, Mati, Mana, Vicetasa, Vijaya, Sujaya and Syoda are some of the prominent devas of the clan. (Brahmāṇḍa Purāṇa, 2.36, 71-72).

BHAVYA III One of the Saptarṣis (seven sacred saints) of Dakṣasāvarṇi Manvantara.

BHAYĀ A demoness, sister of Kāla who presides over the land of death. She was married to Heti, son of Brahmā and brother of Praheti. Vidyutkeśa was their son and he married Sālakaṇṭakā, daughter of Sandhyā. (Uttara Rāmāyaṇa).

BHAYA(M) Hiṃsā is the wife of Adharma. They got a son named Anṛta and a daughter named Nikṛti. From them were born Bhaya, Naraka, Māyā and Vedanā. Of these Māyā produced Mṛtyu, destroyer of matter. Vedanā got of her husband Raurava son named Duḥkha. From Mṛtyu were born Vyādhi, Jarā, Śoka, Tṛṣṇā and Krodha. (Chapter 20, Agni Purāṇa). Another version about the birth of Bhaya is found in Śloka 54, Chapter 66 of Ādi Parva, M.B. Adharma married Nirṛtī and to them were born Bhaya, Mahābhaya and Mṛtyu, three sons of demoniac disposition. These three sons led a sinful life.

BHAYAṄKARA I A prince of the country of Sauvīra. He was a dependant of Jayadratha. It was this Bhayaṅkara who followed Jayadratha with his flag when he was trying to kidnap Pāñcālī. Arjuna killed him. (Chapter 265 and 271, Vana Parva, M.B.).

BHAYAṄKARA II A sanātana Viśvadeva. (Chapter 91, Anuśāsana Parva, M.B.).

BHAYAṄKARĪ A follower of Subrahmaṇya. (Śloka 4, Chapter 46, Śalya Parva, M.B.).

BHEDĪ A female attendant of Subrahmaṇya (M.B. Śalya Parva, Chapter 46, Verse 13).

BHELA A disciple of Punarvasu Ātreya who was an Āyurveda ācārya. He was a contemporary of Agniveśa and has composed a work on Āyurveda, entitled 'Bhelasaṃhitā'.

BHERĪSVATĀ A female attendant of Subrahmaṇya. (M.B. Śalya Parva, Chapter 46, Verse 26).

BHĪMA Bhīmasena, one of the five Pāṇḍavas.*
     1) Genealogy. (See genealogy of Arjuna).
     2) Birth and childhood. King Vicitravīrya of Candra vaṃśa (lunar dynasty) had two sons called Dhṛtarāṣṭra and Pāṇḍu. The Kauravas (Duryodhana etc.) were sons born to Dhṛtarāṣṭra of his wife Gāndhārī, and the Pāṇḍavas were the sons of Pāṇḍu and his wives Kuntī and Mādrī. Dharmaputra, Bhīma and Arjuna were the sons of Kuntī, and Nakula and Sahadeva of Mādrī.**
     Kuntī directed a mantra gifted to her by Durvāsas towards Vāyubhagavān (the wind-god) and the result was the birth of Bhīma. Hence he is called Vāyu-putra (son of the wind-god). At the time of his birth a celestial voice announced that the boy would grow up to be the strongest among the strong. (Ādi Parva, Chapter 122, Verse 14). On the tenth day after birth the child Bhīma fell from his mother's lap on a rock. Bhīma was not injured in any manner by that fall, although it crushed the rock into power. (This story is told in the southern texts of the Mahābhārata in Chapter 132 of Ādi Parva). The naming ceremony of the child was performed by the Maharṣis, who stayed at Śataśṛṅga. Kaśyapa Maharṣi, family priest of Vasudeva performed the ceremonies like wearing of the sacred thread. Bhīma learned fighting with the gadā (club or mace) from Śuka, the famous Rājarṣi.
     The Kauravas and the Pāṇḍavas spent their childhood in Hastināpura. Droṇācārya taught them fighting with weapons. The Kauravas and the Pāṇḍavas often engaged themselves in children's games. In all such games Bhīma used to hurt and defeat the Kauravas, and to this fact the unending hatred of the Kauravas towards Bhīma owed its origin. Once they administered poison to Bhīma who fell down unconscious, and then they threw him into the depths of the Gaṅgā (Ganges). Going deeper and deeper in the waters Bhīma, at last, reached the Nāgaloka, where the nāgas (serpents) bit him which neutralized the effects of the poison in his body. There he got acquainted with a nāga called Āryaka, who introduced him to Vāsuki, king of the nāgas, and Vāsuki presented him with much wealth and other costly gems. But, what use was all this wealth to Bhīma? Then Vāsuki agreed to give him a divine drink, which would give the user of it the strength of thousand elephants. Bhīma drank at one draught eight pot-fulls of that divine drink, and thus became tremendously strong. But, he had to wait in Nāgaloka for eight days so that the drink might be thoroughly assimilated, and on the ninth day the nāgas saw him off in all pomp and splendour. Bhīma returned to his mother and brothers and consoled them, who were terribly anxious at his absence.
     When the training of the princes in the use of weapons was over a competition or test was conducted. Duryodhana and Bhīma entered into a 'club-fight', and when Karṇa tried to intervene in the fight his nobility was questioned by Bhīma. Duryodhana then insulted Bhīma. Arjuna agreed to present King Drupada before Droṇācārya as gurudakṣinā to him. In the fierce war the Pāṇḍavas fought with Drupada, Bhīma annihilated the elephant division of the latter's army. And, afterwards Bhīma underwent higher training in club-war at the hands of Balabhadrarāma. (Ādi Parva, Chapter 136, Verse 4).
     3) The Pāṇḍavas left Hastināpura. As enmity between the Kauravas and the Pāṇḍavas began growing stronger and stronger, Duryodhana, with his father's permission, removed the Pāṇḍavas to vāraṇāvata and settled them there. They were put up there in a palace specially made of lac. The Pāṇḍavas divined the secret of it and escaped from the fire, when the palace was set fire to. Verse 10, Chapter 147 of the Ādi Parva states that it was Bhīma, who set fire to the palace. Escaping thus through a tunnel the Pāṇḍavas travelled a great distance in the forest. Kuntī and four of her sons got tired by the exertions of the travel and were forced to sit down for rest on the way. Bhīma, continued the journey carrying the mother and his four brothers on his shoulders. With their entry into Hiḍiṃba forest the weakness left them, and they became their former selves.
     4) Hiḍiṃba killed. Kuntī devī and four sons slept under the shade of a tree at dusk, and Bhīma kept guard over them. There dwelt in the forest a Rākṣasa called Hiḍiṃba with his sister, Hiḍiṃbī. Hiḍiṃba looked around that particular day from the top of a tree, and detecting Bhīma his mouth watered. He deputed Hiḍimbī to bring Bhīma over to him. Hiḍiṃbī approached Bhīma, whose fine figure kindled feelings of love in her. She desired to have him as husband. Hiḍiṃbī having not returned even after a long time Hidiṃba went over to the spot, and there finding Hiḍiṃbī in love-talks with Bhīma he got terribly angry. He wanted to kill Hiḍiṃbī. Bhīma, who could not suffer the killing of a woman in his presence rushed against Hiḍiṃba, The noise of the fight awakened the other Pāṇḍavas from sleep, and at the instance of Arjuna, Bhīma killed Hiḍiṃba. Thus rendered helpless and forlorn Hiḍiṃbī again craved Bhīma for love. On the suggestion of Kuntī, whose heart melted at the sight of Hiḍiṃbī's helplessness Bhīma took her as his wife. But, one condition was stipulated for their enjoying the honey-moon. The condition was that they might enjoy honey-moon, from dawn to dusk in the sky and on mountain tops, Hiḍiṃbī, who was endowed with magic powers carrying Bhīma with her. And, after dusk Bhīma was to be returned to Kuntī. Accordingly Bhīma and Hiḍiṃbī spent one year, and to them was born a son called Ghaṭotkaca. Promising that he shall return when wanted, Ghaṭotkaca with his mother went into the forest. The Pāṇḍavas also left for the village called Ekacakrā. (Ādi Parva, Chapters 147-154).
     5) Killing of Baka and the wedding of Pāñcālī. While at Ekacakrā Bhīma killed the Rākṣasa called Baka and freed the people of the village from their distress. Afterwards the Pāṇḍavas attended the Svayamvara (free choice of the husband by woman) of Pāñcālī, who became their wife. There Bhīma defeated Śalya in fight. And, the Pāṇḍavas duly returned to Hastināpura. (For details see Baka, Pāñcālī and Arjuna).
     6) Again to forest. On their return to Hastinapura the Pāṇḍavas took their residence in the palace built by Maya. There Maya presented a magnificent club to Bhīma. (Sabhā Parva, Chapter 3, Verse 18). It was Śrī Kṛṣṇa, lord of Dvārakā who served as the right hand of the Pāṇḍavas. Jarāsandha, who was then King of Magadha fought with Kṛṣṇa eighteen times and got defeated. Yet he did not yield, and at last Kṛṣṇa decided to do away with him. Kṛṣṇa, Arjuna and Bhīma, in disguise, set out for Magadha. They entered Jarāsandha's palace and challenged him to a duel. Bhīma and Jarāsandha clashed, and at the instance of Kṛṣṇa Bhīma rent the latter in two and threw him on the ground. Though Jarāsandha was alive again, Bhīma rent him in two and threw away the two parts to two places. (M.B. Sabhā Parva, Southern Text, Chapter 24).
     The main impediments and thorns in their way thus having been removed, Dharmaputra decided to perform Rājasūya. Bhīma was deputed to conquer all the kingdoms in the eastern part of India. Bhīma achieved the object and returned with great wealth to Indraprastha. Though Bhīma got ready to kill Śiśupāla, who alone refused to acknowledge the suzerainty of Yudhiṣṭhira, he also yielded on the tactful advice of Bhīṣma. The Rājasūya Yajña went off quite successfully. It was Bhīma, who, after the Yajña was over, took Bhīṣma and Yudhiṣṭhira to Hastināpura. Afterwards, in the contest in the game of dice played between Dharmaputra and Duryodhana, the Pāṇḍavas lost everything. The Kauravas brought Pāñcālī into the assembly hall and attempted to strip her naked in public. Bhīma who got enraged at this shouted that the hands of Yudhiṣṭhira who played dice should be burnt in fire. (Ādi Parva, Chapter 68, Verse 6). And, Bhīma took then and there the terrible pledge that he would, with his hands stained by blood from the chest of Duśśāsana, who tried to rip Pāñcālī naked, tie up Pāñcālī's hair which got untied in the scuffle. He also swore that he would break the thigh of Duryodhana. In uncontrollable rage Bhīma also shouted that he would turn into ashes all those who took part in the game of dice. Bhīma took also the vow that all the Kauravas would be killed.
     According to the terms and conditions laid down with regard to the contest in the game of dice the Pāṇḍavas went into the Kāmyaka forest to live there for twelve years and then to live incognito for one year.
     7) Life in forest and life incognito. There lived in Kāmyaka forest a Rākṣasa called Kirmīra, brother of Bala, whom Bhīma had killed on an earlier occasion. Kirmīra, who was awaiting an opportunity to avenge the murder of his brother, now clashed with Bhīma in the forest. Bhīma did very easily kill him. (For details see Kirmīra).
     Thus the Pāṇḍavas spent their days once again in the Kāmyaka forest under the spiritual leadership of sage Dhaumya. They thought about their lost kingdom. Should they go to war against the Kauravas or should they spend the rest of their lives in the exercise of dhārmic injunctions? At one time Bhīma advised Yudhiṣṭhira against war; but on another occasion he pleaded vehemently in favour of war. It was during this time that Arjuna went to the Himālayas to please Śiva by penance and get from him the Pāśupatāstra. (Arrow called Pāśupata). The Pāṇḍavas naturally got nervous and upset at the rather long absence of Arjuna; Bhīma was more anxious and sorry than the others. Then the Pāṇḍavas set out in search of Arjuna, and travelled upto Mount Gandhamādana. Then the party got so tired that they could not proceed any further. Pāñcālī fell down fainting. Then Bhīma remembered Ghaṭotkaca, who appeared before his father (Bhīma) at once. As directed by Bhīma Ghaṭotkaca mounted the Pāṇdavas on his shoulders and the journey continued. They reached the Āśrama of Naranārāyaṇas, and rested there for six days. One day the wind blowing from the northeast dropped near Pāñcālī a Saugandhika flower. And, Bhīma set out in the north-east direction to fetch saugandhika flowers for Pāñcālī, who felt a special liking for them.
     Walking and walking Bhīma entered Kadalīvana. Hanūmān, his skin wrinkled and hair grey due to old age, was living in this forest. He obstructed the path of Bhīma. Hanūmān awoke from sleep and raised his tail with a terrific sound. Bhīma walked upto the place whence the sound was heard.*** (Vanaparva, Chapter 146). In the clash that ensued between Hanūmān and Bhīma the former came out victorious. Hanūmān, however, congratulated Bhīma and directed him on the path to the saugandhika forest.
     Bhīmasena reached the saugandhika forest, which was being guarded by the Rākṣasas called Krodhavaśas. Bhīma overcame them, collected the flowers and returning with them stayed in the Badarikāśrama with his brothers and Pāñcālī. Here it was that Bhīma killed Jaṭāsura. (For details see Jaṭāsura II).
     Four years were thus spent; yet Arjuna had not returned. The Pāṇḍavas continued their journey northward. On the 17th day they came to the Āśrama of Vṛṣaparvā in the Himālayas. They were duly received by the maharṣi, who directed them in their onward journey. Continuing the journey they reached the Āśrama of Ārṣṭiṣeṇa whence, after crossing various mountain peaks and still walking they reached Kubera's Alakāpurī when a Yakṣa called Maṇimān obstructed their further progress. Bhīma killed Maṇimān and the other Yakṣas who rushed to his support. Finally Kubera himself saw Bhīma and blessed the Pāṇḍavas.
     While they were returning from Kubera's palace Bhīma was caught by a python. But, it was really Nahuṣa transformed into a python on account of a curse. Bhīma killed it and it assumed its original form as Nahuṣa. (See Agastya, Para 8). By this time Arjuna had obtained Pāśupatāstra from Śiva and he duly returned to his brothers, and the Pāṇḍavas continued their journey in the forest.
     Meantime, knowing that the Pāṇḍavas were put up in Dvaitavana, the Kauravas started for their dwelling place in a procession led by Duryodhana with the army and camped nearly two furlongs away from a pool in Dvaitavana. While thus camping Duryodhana clashed with a Gandharva called Citrasena, who with a number of his comrades came to the pool for water games, and in the encounter the latter made Duryodhana prisoner. Bhīmasena who witnessed the scene very much laughed at Duryodhana. But, Arjuna intervened and set free Duryodhana and others.
     The Pāṇḍavas again entered the Kāmyaka forest, and it was at that time that Jayadratha abducted Pāñcālī. Bhīma killed Koṭikāsya who acted on behalf of Jayadratha. (See Koṭikāsya). Moreover Bhīma captured Jayadratha, got his head shaved clean and declared that he was a slave of Dharmaputra. It was here at Dvaitavana that Dharmadeva tested the Pāṇḍavas, who had gone to a nearby pool to fetch water; all the Pāṇḍavas except Yudhiṣṭhira died at the pool, but were brought back to life again. (See Dharmaputra, Para 7). The twelve years' forest-life of the Pāṇḍavas now came to an end.
     According to the advice of Dharmadeva the Pāṇḍavas selected the Virāṭa palace for their life incognito, Bhīmasena assuming the name Vallava (Valala). And, here Bhīma killed in a duel Jīmūta, the pugilist. (See Jīmūta II). It was also here that Bhīma killed Kīcaka and the Upakīcakas. (See Kīcaka). On another occasion, at the instance of Yudhiṣṭhira Bhīma took Sudharmā, King of Daśārṇa to Yudhiṣṭhira captive; but he was later set free. Next year the Pāṇḍavas defeated Duryodhana in the fight in connection with the theft of the cows of the Virāṭa King, and then they declared that their forest life and life incognito were over.
     8) Bhīma in the great war. Even after the return of the Pāṇḍavas after the forest life and life incognito the Kauravas refused to give them half of the kingdom. So, both the parties began preparations for war. Given hereunder is the main incident relating to Bhīma from this period to the Svargārohaṇa (going to Heaven) of the Pāṇḍavas after relinquishing the kingdom in favour of Parīkṣit, including their victory in war and the administration of the country.
     (1) Sañjaya described to Dhṛtarāṣṭra the prowess and achievements of Bhīma. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 50).
     (2) Śrī Kṛṣṇa before leaving for the Kaurava assembly for compromise talks asked for the views of Bhīma about the whole problem, and Bhīma opined that peace was preferable to war. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 74).
     (3) When Śrī Kṛṣṇa admonished Bhīma he opted for war and waxed eloquent about his heroism and prowess. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 76).
     (4) Bhīma wanted Śikhaṇḍī to be appointed chief of the army. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 161).
     (5) Bhīma sent back with an insulting reply Ulūka, who was sent by Duryodhana to the Pāṇḍavas with a message. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 163).
     (6) Bhīma questioned Dharmaputra who, when the armies had taken position on opposite sides, went on foot to the Kaurava assembly without bow and arrows. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 48, Verse 17).
     (7) The world shuddered at the war cry of Bhīma. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 44, Verse 8).
     (8) On the first day of the war Bhīma fought a duel with Duryodhana. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 19).
     (9) In the fight with the Kaliṅgas Bhīma killed Śakradeva. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 54, Verse 24).
     (10) Bhīma killed Bhānumān. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 54, Verse 39).
     (11) He killed Satyadeva and Śalya, who guarded the chariot wheels of Śrutāyus, King of Kaliṅga. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 54, Verse 76).
     (12) Killed Ketumān. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 54, Verse 77).
     (13) Annihilated the elephant division of the Kaurava army, and rivers of blood flowed. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 54, Verse 103).
     (14) Defeated Duryodhana. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 58, Verse 16).
     (15) Fought against Bhīṣma. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 63, Verse 1).
     (16) Fought against the whole lot of Kauravas, and in this fight eight sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra viz. Senāpati, Jarāsandha, Suṣeṇa, Ugra, Vīrabāhu, Bhīma, Bhīmaratha and Sulocana were killed. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 64, Verse 32).
     (17) Fought a fierce war against Bhīṣma. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 72, Verse 21).
     (18) Fought with Duryodhana. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 72, Verse 17).
     (19) Defeated Duryodhana the second time. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 79, Verse 11).
     (20) Defeated Kṛtavarmā. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 82, Verse 60).
     (21) Killed Bhīṣma's charioteer. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 88, Verse 12).
     (22) Killed eight more sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. (Chapter 88, Verse 13, Bhīṣma Parva).
     (23) Struck by the arrow of Bhīma, Droṇācārya fell down unconscious. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 94, Verse 18).
     (24) Killed nine more sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 96, Verse 23).
     (25) Defeated Bālhīka. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 104, Verse 18).
     (26) Fought a duel with Bhūriśravas. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 110, Verse 10).
     (27) Killed ten mahārathīs (heroes in chariot war) of the Kaurava army. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 113).
     (28) Dhṛtarāṣṭra applauded the prowess of Bhīma. (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 10, Verse 13).
     (29) Bhīma fought with Viviṃśati. (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 14, Verse 27).
     (30) Defeated Śalya in club fight. (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 15, Verse 8).
     (31) Fought with Durmarṣaṇa. (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 25, Verse 5).
     (32) Killed Aṅga, king of the Mleccha tribe. (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 26, Verse 17).
     (33) Fought with the elephant of Bhagadatta, was defeated and ran away. (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 26, Verse 19).
     (34) Attacked Karṇa and killed fifteen warriors of his. (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 32, Verse 32).
     (35) Fought with Viviṃśati, Citrasena and Vikarṇa. (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 96, Verse 31).
     (36) Fought with Alambuṣa and came out victorious. (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 106, Verse 16).
     (37) Fought with Kṛtavarmā. (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 114, Verse 67).
     (38) Consoled Yudhiṣṭhira who was in great perplexity. Droṇa Parva, Chapter 126, Verse 32).
     (39) Defeated Droṇa again. (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 127, Verse 42).
     (40) Killed Kuṇḍabhedi, Suṣena, Dīrghalocana, Vṛndāraka, Abhaya, Raudrakarmā, Durvimocana, Vinda, Anuvinda, Suvarmā and Sudarśana. (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 127, Verse 60).
     (41) Threw off Droṇācārya along with his chariot eight times. (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 128, Verse 18).
     (42) Defeated Karṇa in fight. (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 122).
     (43) Killed Duśśala. (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 129).
     (44) Defeated Karṇa again. (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 131).
     (45) Killed Durjaya, son of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 133, Verse 13).
     (46) Killed Durmukha, son of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 134, Verse 20).
     (47) Killed Durmarṣaṇa, Dussaha, Durmada, Durdhara (Durādhāra) and Jaya. (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 135, Verse 30).
     (48) Defeated Karṇa again. (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 136, Verse 17).
     (49) Killed Citra, Upacitra, Citrākṣa, Cārucitra, Śarāsana, Citrāyudha and Citravarman. (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 136, Verse 20).
     (50) Killed Śatruñjaya, Śatrusaha, Citra (Citrabāṇa) Citrāyudha (Agrāyudha) Dṛḍha (Dṛḍhavarman) Citrasena (Ugrasena) and Vikarṇa. (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 137, Verse 29).
     (51) Defeated Karṇa again. (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 139, Verse 9).
     (52) Destroyed many bows of Karṇa. (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 139, Verse 19).
     (53) To capture Karṇa bereft of his arrows, Bhīma jumped into his chariot. (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 139, Verse 74).
     (54) Bhīma tumbled to the ground unconscious at the blows of Karṇa. (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 139, Verse 91).
     (55) Gave directions to Arjuna to kill Karṇa. (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 148, Verse 3).
     (56) Killed the prince of Kaliṅga by thrashing and kicking him. (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 155, Verse 24).
     (57) Killed Jayarāta, Dhruva, Durmada and Duṣkarṇa by pushing and beating them. (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 155).
     (58) Rendered the great hero Somadatta unconscious by thrashing him with his club. (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 157, Verse 10).
     (59) Killed Bālhīka. (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 157, Verse 11).
     (60) Killed Nāgadatta, Dṛḍharatha (Dṛḍhāśvan) Mahābāhu, Ayobhuja (Ayobāhu) Dṛḍha (Dṛḍhakṣatra) Suhastha, Virajā, Pramāthī, Ugra (Ugraśravas) and Anuyāyi (Agrayāyi). (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 157, Verse 16).
     (61) Killed Śatacandra. (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 157, Verse 23).
     (62) Killed Gavākṣa, brother of Śakuni, as also Śarabha, Vibhu, Subhaga and Bhānudatta. (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 157, Verse 23).
     (63) Defeated Duryodhana again. (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 166, Verse 43).
     (64) Engaged himself in a fierce fight with Halāyudha. (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 177).
     (65) Got defeated in the fight with Karṇa. (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 188, Verse 10).
     (66) Killed the elephant named Aśvatthāmā and spread the false news that Aśvatthāmā (son of Droṇa) was killed. (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 190, Verse 15).
     (67) Fought against nārāyaṇāstra. (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 199, Verse 45).
     (68) In the fight with Aśvatthāmā Bhīma's charioteer was killed. (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 199, verse 45).
     (69) Killed Kṣemadhūrti, the King of Kalāta. (Karṇa Parva, Chapter 12, Verse 25).
     (70) Fought with Aśvatthāmā and fell down unconscious by the blows dealt by him. (Karṇa Parva, Chapter 15).
     (71) Killed Bhānusena, son of Karṇa. (Karṇa Parva, Chapter 48, Verse 27).
     (72) In the next fight killed Vivitsu, Vikaṭa, Śama, Kratha (Krathana) Nanda and Upananda. (Karṇa Parva, Chapter 51, Verse 12).
     (73) Defeated Duryodhana again. (Karṇa Parva, Chapter 61, Verse 53).
     (74) Taking upon himself all the responsibilities of the war deputed Arjuna to guard Dharmaputra. (Karṇa parva, Chapter 65, verse 10).
     (75) Defeated Śakuni. (Karṇa Parva, Chapter 81, Verse 24).
     (76) Fought fiercely with Duryodhana. (Karṇa Parva, Chapter 82 and 83).
     (77) Killed Duśśāsana in accordance with his (Bhīma's) old pledge and drank the blood from his (Duśśāsana's) chest. (Karṇa Parva, Chapter 83, Verse 28).
     (78) Killed ten sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra, viz. Niṣaṅgī, Kavacī, Pāśī, Daṇḍadhara, Dhanurgraha, Alolupa, Śala, Śandha (Satyasandha) Vātavega and Suvarcas. (Karṇa Parva, Chapter 84, Verse 2).
     (79) Next, single-handed Bhīma killed 25000 infantry men. (Karṇa Parva, Chapter 93, Verse 28).
     (80) Defeated Kṛtavarmā (Śalya Parva, Chapter 11, Verse 45).
     (81) Did club-fight with Śalya. (Śalya Parva, Chapter 12, Verse 12).
     (82) Defeated Duryodhana again. (Śalya Parva, Chapter 16, Verse 42).
     (83) Killed the charioteer and horses of Śalya. (Śalya Parva, Chapter 17, Verse 27).
     (84) Killed another 25,000 infantry men, single-handed. (Śalya Parva, Chapter 19, Verse 49).
     (85) Killed 11 sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra, viz. Durmarṣaṇa, Śrutānta (Citrāṅga) Jaitra, Bhūribala (Bhīmabala) Ravi, Jayatsena, Sujāta, Durviṣaha (Durviṣāha). Durvimocana, Duṣpradharṣa (Duṣpradharṣaṇa) and Śrutarvā.
     (86) After that killed Śudarśaṇa, son of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. (Śalya Parva, Chapter 27, Verse 49).
     (87) In the club fight that ensued between Duryodhana and Bhīma, Duryodhana's thigh was broken by the blows with Bhīma's club. (Śalya Parva, Chapter 58, Verse 47).
     (88) Then Bhīma kicked Duryodhana on the head. (Śalya Parva, Chapter 59, Verse 4).
     (89) Bhīma rushed forward to get hold of Aśvatthāmā, who was then sitting with Vyāsa on the Gaṅgā shore. Bhīma challenged him. (Sauptika Parva, Chapter 13, Verse 16).
     (90) Consoled Pāñcālī by giving to her Aśvatthāmā's gem. (Sauptika Parva, Chapter 16, Verse 26).
     (91) Bhīma apologised to Gāndhārī. (Śtrī Parva, Chapter 15).
     (92) Bhīma made Yudhiṣṭhira to retract from his intention to renounce the world and become a Sannyāsin. (Śānti Parva, Chapter 19).
     (93) Yudhiṣṭhira installed Bhīma, as crown prince. (Śānti Parva, Chapter 41, Verse 9).
     (94) Yudhiṣṭhira settled Bhīma down in the palace of Duryodhana killed in war. (Śānti Parva, Chapter 44, Verse 6).
     (95) As directed by Vyāsa, Nakula and Sahadeva were put in-charge of protecting the Kingdom. (Aśvamedha Parva, Chapter 72, Verse 19).
     (96) It was Bhīma who, along with the brahmins, measured the yajñabhūmi, in connection with Yudhiṣṭhira's Aśvamedhayajña. (Aśvamedha Parva, Chapter 88, Verse 6).
     (97) During one of those days Babhruvāhana visited Bhīma, who sent the former back loaded with money and foodgrains. (Aśvamedha Parva, Chapter 88, Verse 6).
     (98) It was Bhīma who held the umbrella to Śrī Kṛṣṇa in the chariot on his way back from the company of the Pāṇḍavas to Dvārakā. (Aśvamedha Parva, Southern Text, Chapter 92).
     (99) Bhīma opposed Dhṛtarāṣṭra's demand for money to perform the rituals of those who had died in war. (Āśramavāsika Parva, Chapter 11, Verse 7).
     (100) After Dhṛtarāṣṭra, Kuntī and Gāndhārī retired into the forest Bhīma visited them once. (Āśramavāsika Parva, Chapter 23).
     8) Bhīma's conceit put down. While, after the great war, the Pāṇḍavas and Śrī Kṛṣṇa were discussing several matters all the Pāṇḍavas except Bhīma said they owed their success in war to Kṛṣṇa. But, Bhīma, in all haughtiness claimed the credit for victory to his personal prowess. With the object of putting down this conceit on the part of Bhīma, Śrī Kṛṣṇa, with Bhīma seated along with him on Garuḍa, set out on a journey to the south. After crossing the sea and Mount Subela Śrī Kṛṣṇa, pointing out to Bhīma a lake twelve yojanas wide and lying near Laṅkā, asked him to find out the source of the lake and return with the information. Though Bhīma walked some distance he could not find out its source. Not only that, all the warriors there jointly attacked Bhīma, and finding himself impotent to counter the attack he ran back to Śrī Kṛṣṇa for refuge. Then Śrī Kṛṣṇa with his ring clipped and threw away the lake, and said to Bhīma as follows:--"This is the skull of Kumbhakarṇa killed by Śrī Rāma in the Rāma-Rāvaṇa war. The warriors who attacked you are the asuras called 'Sarogeyas'." These words of the lord put down Bhīma's conceit, and he apologised to Kṛṣṇa. (Skanda Purāṇa, 1.2.66).
     9) Death. After entrusting matters of administration of the country to Parīkṣit the Pāṇḍavas set out on their great journey. Yudhiṣṭhira walking in the front, they started for Kailāsa. During the course of their journey Pāñcālī, Sahadeva, Nakula and Arjuna one after the other fell down dead. Bhīma asked Yudhiṣṭhira the reason for the deaths and he was given suitable answers by the latter. At last when Bhīma too was about to fall down and die he asked the reason thereof, and Yudhiṣṭhira replied that Bhīma's over-eating was the reason. Afterwards when Dharmaputra entered Heaven he found his brothers had already their seats there. (See Arjuna, Para 31).
     10) Other information. (1) Bhīma had a son named Sutasoma by Pāñcālī. (Ādi Parva, Chapter 95, Verse 75).
     2) A son called Sarvaga was born to Bhīma of Balandharā, daughter of the King of Kāśī. (Ādi Parva, Chapter 95, Verse 97).
     3) The following names are found used in the Mahābhārata as synonyms for Bhīma. Acyutānuja, Anilātmaja, Arjunāgraja, Arjunapūrvaja, Vallava, Bhīmadhanvā, Jaya, Kaunteya, Kaurava, Kuśaśārdūla, Mārutātmaja, Māruti, Pāṇḍava, Pārtha, Pavanātmaja, Prabhañjanasuta, Rākṣasakaṇṭaka, Samīraṇasuta, Vāyuputra, Vāyusuta, Vṛkodara.
*) Since much information about Bhīma is given under the captions Dharmaputra, Arjuna, Nakula, Sahadeva and Pāñcālī only a brief description of Bhīma is attempted under the present heading.
**) The Pāṇḍavas were not in fact direct issues of Pāṇḍu. For details see Kuntī.
***). When raised, Hanūmān's tail was as high in the sky as the flag of Indra, and produced a thunderous sound. As though the mountains were vomitting through their mouth, the sound produced by the raising of the tail shook the mountains. Drowning the trumpeting of excited elephants the sound reverberated all around the mountains. Hearing the sound Bhīma, his whole body horripilated entered the forest in the direction of the sound. In the middle of Kadalīvana, on a mighty rock, Bhīma saw Hanūmān.

BHĪMA II The Mahābhārata makes mention of another Bhīma, son of King Parīkṣit and brother of Janamejaya. (Ādi Parva, Chapter 3, Verse 1). It was this Bhīma who, at the yajña conducted at Kurukṣetra attacked, without reason, the son of Saramā, a dog of the Devas.

BHĪMA III A Deva gandharva delivered by Munī, the wife of Kaśyapa prajāpati. (Ādi Parva, Chapter 65, Verse 42). He took part in the birthday celebrations of Arjuna. (Ādi parva, Chapter 122, Verse 55).

BHĪMA IV Yet another Bhīma, grandson of King Avikṣit of the Lunar dynasty and son of Parīkṣit is mentioned in Chapters 94 and 95 of Ādi Parva. His mother was Suyaśā. He married Kumārī, daughter of Kekaya Rāja and they had a son called Pratiśravas.

BHĪMA V Father of Divodāsa, king of Kāśi. (Udyogaparva, Chapter 117, Verse 1).

BHĪMA VI A Śūdra who attained Svarga as on his head fell water with which the feet of a brahmin were washed. The following story about him occurs on page 619 of the Padmapurāṇa.
     In the dvāpara yuga there lived a Śūdra called Bhīma, who engaged himself in the profession of Vaiśyas. An outcaste from practices pertaining to Śūdras he enjoyed life with a Vaiśya woman. He was a terrible fellow, who had killed many brahmins, and also enjoyed the wives of many elderly people including his teachers. He was a robber as well. Once he went to a brahmin house, and with the object of robbing his wealth spoke to him in a pathetic tone as follows:--"Respected sire, you will please listen to my grievance. You appear to be kindhearted. Please give me some rice, or else I will die this very moment."
     Brahmin:--"Oh hungry guest! There is no one here to cook food. I shall give you daily some rice, which you may cook yourself. I have neither father, mother, son, brothers, wife nor any other relatives. All of them are dead and gone. The unfortunate fellow that I am, I am staying here alone. No servants or others here." Bhīma:--"Oh revered brahmin! I too am a lonely person. I shall live here for ever serving you. I am a Śūdra."
     These words of Bhīma pleased the brahmin so much that he cooked some food quickly and served the Śūdra with it. He stayed with the brahmin from that day onwards. His idea was to rob the brahmin of his wealth at some convenient time and get away. But, since he used to pour on his head everyday the water with which the brahmin's feet were washed he got redemption from all his sins.
     One night a thief got into the brahmin's room to steal his earnings. Seeing the thief Bhīma rushed at him to give him a good thrashing. But, the thief, in the twinkling of an eye, cut off Bhīma's head and escaped from the scene. At once there came down the attendants of Lord Viṣṇu to lead Bhīma to Vaikuṇṭha. A divine chariot drawn by Rājahaṃsas (swans) also came down. Bhīma got into the chariot and reached the abode of Viṣṇu.

BHĪMA VII Father of Damayantī. (See Damayantī).

BHĪMA VIII One of the hundred sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. He was killed by Bhīma, one of the Pāṇḍavas. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 64, Verse 86).

BHĪMA IX Verse 17, Chapter 94 of Ādi Parva, Mentions about one Bhīma born to King Īlin of his wife Rathandharī. This Bhīma had four brothers, viz., Duṣyanta, Śūra, Pravasu and Vasu.

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BHĪMA X One of the five attendants given to Subrahmaṇya by the Deva called Aṃśa. Parigha, Vaṭa, Dahati and Dahana were the other four. (Śalya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 34).

BHĪMA XI A king of ancient time. He sits in yama's assembly worshipping yama. There are hundred kings in yama's assembly, having the name Bhīma. (Sabhā Parva, Chapter 8, Verse 24). It is on account of the penance of the hundred Bhīmas that the difficulties of people are lifted. (Vana Parva, Chapter 3, Verse 11). These one hundred persons were kings in ancient days. Owing to several adversities they left their kingdoms for the assembly of yama. (Śānti Parva, Chapter 227, Verse 49).

BHĪMA XII A yādava king, the father of Andhaka. This Bhīma was a contemporary of Śrī Rāma. He conquered Madhurāpurī founded by Śatrughna after killing the Daitya called Madhu.

BHĪMA XIII A friend of Rāvaṇa, king of Laṅkā. It was on the top of Bhīma's house that Hanūmān rested for the first time after arriving at Laṅkā. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Sundara Kāṇḍa, Canto 6).

BHĪMABALA I (BHŪRIBALA). One of the hundred sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra killed by Bhīma. (Śalya Parva, Chapter 26, Verse 14).

BHĪMABALA II One of the five Vināyakas born from the asura called Pāñcajanya. These Vināyakas cause difficulties and obstructions to the yajñas of Devatās. (Vana Parva, Chapter 221, Verse 11).

BHĪMABHAṬA A gandharva. The following story has reference to his past life.
     On the death of Śrutadhara, king of Ekalavyanagara the younger of his two sons, Satyadhara drove out of the kingdom the elder brother, Śiladhara. Thus ousted from his kingdom Śīladhara did due penance and got from Śiva the boon that Satyadhara be killed while he himself be made a gandharva. Owing to the blessing of Śiva Satyadhara died, and he was born again as Samarabhaṭa, son of Ugrabhaṭa, King of Rādhānagara, and Śīladhara was born as Bhīmabhaṭa, brother of Samarabhaṭa. On the death of Ugrabhaṭa Bhīmabhaṭa, after killing Samarabhaṭa ascended the throne. And, on one of those days, he was transformed into a wild elephant as the result of the curse of a muni. But, he iremembered his previous existence, and, though turned into elephant could speak like men. Bhīmabhaṭa became a gandharva because he received and treated well once a traveller and related to him his (Bhīmabhaṭa's) own story. (Kathāsaritsāgara Śaśāṃkavatīlaṃbaka).

BHĪMAJĀNU A king in ancient India. He remained in the assembly of yama serving the latter. (Sabhā Parva, Chapter 8, Verse 21).

BHĪMĀKṢA A Rākṣasa, who used to attack the kingdoms of Kāśi and Kosala often. Finally the above kings jointly encountered him. He was killed by King Haryaśvan. (Brahmāṇḍa Purāṇa).

BHĪMARATHA I A king of the family of Viśvāmitra. His father was Ketumān and Divodāsa his son. (Bhāgavata, Navama Skandha).

BHĪMARATHA II One of the hundred sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra killed in the war by Bhīma. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 64, Verse 36).

BHĪMARATHA III A hero who fought on the Kaurava side. It was this Bhīmaratha who stood at the centre of the garuḍa vyūha (army formation in the form of the bird garuḍa, Kite) set up by Droṇa. (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 20, Verse 12). He killed Śālva, the Mleccha king and a supporter of the Pāṇḍavas. (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 25, Verse 26). When Yudhiṣṭhira was king at Indraprastha Bhīmaratha sat in Pāṇḍava assembly as a comrade of the Pāṇḍavas. (Sabhā Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 26).

BHĪMARATHĪ (BHĪMĀ). A river in the South extolled in the purāṇas. Sins of those who bathe in this river will vanish. On its shore is a sacred place called Paṇḍharapura. (Vana Parva, Chapter 88, Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 9).

BHĪMAŚARA One of the hundred sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. (Ādi Parva, Chapter 67, Verse 99).

BHĪRU A son born to Maṇibhadra and his wife Puṇyajanī.

BHĪṢAṆA Son of Baka. From the day his father was killed by Bhīma Bhīṣana was impatiently waiting for revenge. When the Pāṇḍavas began the Aśvamedha yajña he obstructed it at a place near Ekacakra. Arjuna fought and killed him. (Jaimini Aśvamedha Parva, Chapter 22).

     1) Genealogy. From Viṣṇu were descended in the following order--Brahmā-Atri-Candra-Budha-Purūravas-Āyus-Nahuṣa-Yayāti-Pūru-Janamejaya-Prācinvā-Pravīra-Namasyu-Vītabhaya-Śuṇḍu-Bahuvidha-Saṃyāti-Rahovādi-Raudrāśva-Matināra-Santurodha-Duṣyanta-Bharata-Suhotra-Suhotā-Gala-Gardda Suketu-Bṛhatkṣetra-Hasti-Ajamīḍha-Ṛkṣa-Samvaraṇa-Kuru-Jahnu-Suratha-Viḍūratha-Sārvabhauma-Jayatsena-Ravyaya-Bhāvuka-Cakroddhata-Devātithi-Ṛkṣa-Bhīma-Pratīpa-Śantanu-Bhīṣma.
     2) Birth and Boyhood. Bhīṣma's name in his boyhood was Devavrata. He was the eighth son of Śantanu, a king of the lunar dynasty and Gaṅgādevī. This boy was the human embodiment of Dyau, one of the Aṣṭavasus. Śantanu, his father was the re-birth of another king, Mahābhiṣeka. The story concerning this, as given in the Mahābhārata is as follows:--
     King Mahābhiṣeka after his death, attained Viṣṇuloka. Once he went to visit Brahmā at Satyaloka. At that time Gaṅgādevī was also present in Brahmā's assembly. In that pious atmosphere, a gentle breeze began to blow and Gaṅgādevī's clothes were slightly deranged. Just at that moment, Mahābhiṣeka took a stealthy glance at her and she also returned that glance. This was noted by Brahmā who turned both of them into human beings by a curse. Gaṅgādevi begged pardon and Brahmā lifted the curse and blessed her that the Aṣṭavasus would come to the earth to be born as her sons and that afterwards she could come back to Heaven. After that Gaṅgādevī was born as a mortal woman in the world under the name Gaṅgā and she spent her days in the forests near the Gaṅgā river valleys.
     In those days the ruler of the Lunar dynasty was a king named Pratīpa. Having no children, he went to the bank of the river Gaṅgā and performed tapas there. Gaṅgādevī who was moving about in the forests nearby, saw the King deeply absorbed in his tapas. She approached him and sat on his right thigh. She wanted the King to be her husband. He explained to her that the right thigh is the proper seat of a daughter-in-law and so she would become his son's wife in due course. In course of time, Pratīpa had a son, Śantanu, born to him. When Śantanu grew up into a young man, one day he went for a hunt to the Gaṅgā-valley and there he met Gaṅgādevī. He fell in love with her at first sight and courted her. Gaṅgādevī agreed to become his wife on condition that he should not say anything to displease her and if he violated that condition she would leave him. The king accepted the condition and they became man and wife.
     At about that time, the wife of Dyo, one of the Aṣṭavasus, happened to see the sacrificial cow of the sage Vasiṣṭha and wished to have it. She expressed her desire to her husband, Dyo. Dyo, with the other seven vasus went and took away by force, Vasiṣṭha's cow. Vasiṣṭha in his anger cursed the Aṣṭavasus to be born as mortals. They repented and begged pardon from Vasiṣṭha. The sage told them that all of them would be born as the sons of Gaṅgādevī and all except Dyo, who actually stole the cow, would return to Heaven at the time of birth itself. As for Dyo, he would continue to live in the world for a long time, as an adventurous hero.
     Gaṅgādevī became pregnant and gave birth to her first child. She carried the child to the river Gaṅgā and threw it into the river. Śantanu who followed her up to the river bank, did not say anything against her, remembering his promise.
     Seven children were born to her and she threw all of them into the river in this way. When she gave birth to the eighth child, Śantanu insisted that he would not allow her to throw away that child into the river. As he had violated the condition, the angry Gaṅgādevī left the palace with her child. She named it Devavrata and brought him up in the forest. The sage Vasiṣṭha and Gaṅgādevī taught him all branches of knowledge. Thirtytwo years later, the king went to the same forest for hunting. He saw a handsome boy stopping the flow of the river Gaṅgā. Getting interested in the boy, the King approached him. But by that time he had disappeared. The King prayed to Gaṅgādevī to give back the child. She appeared with the child and after handing over the child to him vanished. The king returned to the palace with the child. (M.B. Ādi Parva, Chapters 95-100).
     3) The name Bhīṣma. Devavrata was anointed, as heir-apparent. One day King Śantanu reached the forest near the Gaṅgā river valley, for hunting. As he was hunting, absorbed in the beauty of the forest scenery, he felt the perfume of musk filling the air in the forest. He wondered from where it could come. He went on and on trying to find out the source of this smell until he reached the cottage of a fisherman. The fisherman had a daughter named Satyavatī. It was from her that the fragrance of musk spread all around.* The king fell in love with her at first sight. He asked the fisherman to give the girl in marriage to him. But the brave fisherman did not yield to the king's demand immediately. He laid down several conditions, one of which was that Satyavatī's sons should succeed to the throne of Śantanu. The king was in a fix. Devavrata was the eldest son and heir-apparent. To deny kingship to his sons would be highly improper. Unable to find a solution to this difficult problem, the king returned to the palace, much depressed and gloomy. There he avoided all company and took to his bed, passing his time in sadness and solitude.
     When Devavrata knew about his father's condition, he called the Ministers and asked them about it. They told him everything in details. At once, without informing even his father, Devavrata went to the fisherman's cottage on the bank of the river Gaṅgā and begged for Satyavatī on behalf of his father. The fisherman repeated his former condition. Devavrata agreed that Satyavatī's son shall be given the right of Kingship. The fisherman pointed out that disputes were likely to arise between Devavrata's sons and Satyavatī's children regarding the right of succession to the throne. At once Devavrata stood up and made a solemn pledge that he would remain a bachelor for life. The fisherman gave Satyavatī to Devavrata to be taken to the King. Devavrata took her to the palace and presented her to his father. The King, when he came to know of the part played by his son in the matter, rose from his bed and embraced Devavrata with tears of joy and gratitude. The gods showered flowers on the scene. Because he had taken such a solemn oath, it was declared that henceforth he would be known by the name "BHĪṢMA". The loving father Śantanu also gave him a boon that Bhīṣma would die only when he wished. (M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 100).
     4) Affairs of the Kingdom in crisis. Two sons named Vicitravīrya and Citrāṅgada were born to Satyavatī by Śantanu, who died shortly afterwards. As desired by Satyavatī, Bhīṣma crowned the boy Citrāṅgada as king. Although Citrāṅgada's reign was a prosperous one, it could not last long. Once a Gandharva named Citrāṅgada attacked him at Kurukṣetra and after a battle which lasted for three years, the Gandharva Citrāṅgada killed the King Citrāṅgada. It was Bhīṣma who performed the funeral rites of the King Citrāṅgada. After that Vicitravīrya was crowned King.
     It was at that time that the Svayaṃvara of the three daughters of the King of Kāśī, Aṃbā, Aṃbikā and Aṃbālikā, was held. Bhīṣma thought that it would be good if Vicitravīrya married them. So Bhīṣma attended that function. The presence of Bhīṣma who was an old man, at the Svayaṃvara, frightened the girls. The other kings who were present, stopped him from entering the place, since he had taken an oath to remain a lifelong bachelor. The old Bhīṣma stood up and spoke at length about the eight different forms of marriage and after defeating several kings like Śālva, he seized the three daughters of the King of Kāśi and took them with him in his chariot to Hastināpura. Preparations were made for the marriage of Vicitravīrya with the three princesses. Then Ambā approached Bhīṣma and told him that she had already dedicated her heart to the king of Śālva. Bhīṣma generously allowed her to return home. (For the rest of Ambā's story, see the word "Ambā".
     Vicitravīrya married Ambikā and Ambālikā. He ruled over the country for seven years at the end of which he died of consumption. The dynasty faced a crisis, as there was no one to succeed him. Satyavatī approached Bhīṣma with a suggestion to beget children by Vicitravīrya's wife. But Bhīṣma stood firmly on his solemn oath to continue as a life-long bachelor. (M.B. Ādi Parva, Verse 100-104).
     5) Bhīṣma's Wire Pulling. After that Satyavatī summoned Vyāsa to Hastināpura and sons were born to Ambikā, Ambālikā and their maid by him. Ambikā gave birth to Dhṛtarāṣṭra, Ambālikā gave birth to Pāṇḍu and the maid gave birth to Vidura. They grew up and Dhṛtarāṣṭra married Gāndhārī and Pāṇḍu married Kuntī and Mādrī. Duryodhana and his brothers were born to Dhṛtarāṣṭra, while the Pāṇḍavas were born to Pāṇḍu. Pāṇḍu died at the Śataśṛṅga vana and Mādrī observed satī by jumping into his funeral pyre and burning herself alive. After that, the Kauravas and Pāṇḍavas who lived in the palace at Hastināpura, split up into two blocs. When the palace made of lac was destroyed by fire, the Pāṇḍavas went into the forest and came back to the country after their marriage with Pāñcālī. They ruled over the country with Indraprastha as their capital. In the gambling contest between Dharmaputra and Duryodhana, the Pāṇḍavas lost their kingdom and everything and so they went to the forest again. They lived for twelve years in the forest and spent one year incognito in the palace of the King of Virāṭa. At that time the Pāṇḍavas reappeared in the battle which took place as a result of the theft of King Virāṭa's cows by the Kauravas. Duryodhana asserted that he would not give so much land to the Pāṇḍavas as to put a dot with a needle. With the failure of Śrī Kṛṣṇa's mediation, the Kauravas and Pāṇḍavas encamped on the opposite sides of the field of Kurukṣetra, preparing for a grim battle.
     Bhīṣma was the chief protagonist in all these events relating to the Kauravas and Pāṇḍavas. At every stage in the story we see Bhīṣma's influence. The main events in which this superman who used to give shelter to Kauravas and Pāṇḍavas alike, played a decisive role, are given below:--
     (1) Bhīṣma sent a messenger to Subala, king of Gāndhāra, to ask for the hand of Gāndhārī, to be married to Dhṛtarāṣṭra. (M.B. Ādi Parva, Chapter 109, Verse 11).
     (2) He went to the palace of Śalya, king of Madra and secured Mādrī to be married to Pāṇḍu. (M.B. Ādi Parva, Chapter 112).
     (3) He brought about the marriage between Vidura and the daughter of Devaka. (M.B. Ādi Parva, Chapter 113, Verse 2).
     (4) The Maharṣis who were the inhabitants of Śatasṛṅga told Bhīṣma about the birth of the Pāṇḍavas. (M.B. Ādi Parva, Chapter 125, Verse 22).
     (5) Bhīṣma offered 'Jalāñjali' (worship with holy water) to Pāṇḍu at his death. (M.B. Ādi Parva, Chapter 126, Verse 27).
     (6) He performed the death anniversary of Pāṇḍu. (M.B. Ādi Parva, Chapter 127, Verse 1).
     (7) He engaged Droṇācārya to teach archery to the princes. (M.B. Ādi Parva, Chapter 130, Verse 77).
     (8) He burst into tears and wept bitterly on hearing that Pāṇḍavas were burnt to death in the palace of lac and was about to offer them 'Jalāñjali'. Just then, Vidura came to him and secretly informed him that the Pāṇḍavas were not dead. (M.B. Ādi Parva, Chapter 149, Dākṣiṇātya Pāṭha).
     (9) He advised Duryodhana to give half the kingdom to the Pāṇḍavas. (M.B. Ādi Parva, Chapter 202).
     (10) He had taken part in Dharmaputra's Rājasūya Yajña. Dharmaputra had entrusted to Bhīṣma, the arrangements for that yajña. (M.B. Sabhā Parva, Chapter 35, Verse 6).
     (11) He advised Yudhiṣṭhira to give the highest place of honour in that yajña to Śrī Kṛṣṇa. (M.B. Sabhā Parva, Chapter 36, Verse 28).
     (12) Bhīṣma ridiculed Śiśupāla (Sabhā Parva, Chapter 33).
     (13) Śiśupāla insulted Bhīṣma. (Sabhā Parva, Chapter 41).
     (14) Bhīṣma stopped Bhīma who rushed out to kill Śiśupāla. (Sabhā Parva, Chapter 42, Verse 13).
     (15) It was Bhīṣma who narrated the life story of Śiśupāla. (Sabhā Parva, Chapter 43).
     (16) In the battle against Śiśupāla, Bhīṣma selected powerful Kings to help Śrī Kṛṣṇa. (Sabhā Parva, Chapter 44, Verse 41).
     (17) Once Bhīṣma asked the sage Pulastya about the value and importance of pilgrimage. (Vana Parva, Chapter 82, Verse 4).
     (18) Bhīṣma advised Duryodhana to be on friendly terms with the Pāṇḍavas. (Vana Parva, Chapter 253, Verse 4).
     (19) In the battle which was fought by Kauravas against King Virāṭa, Bhīṣma arranged the regiments in order, after sending Duryodhana to Hastināpura. (Virāṭa Parva, Chapter 52, Verse 16).
     (20) A grim fight took place between Arjuna who went to help the Virāṭa army and Bhīṣma. At last, it was the charioteer who removed Bhīṣma, (who had fallen down unconscious) from the battlefield. (Virāṭa Parva, Chapter 64).
     (21) When the Kauravas were contemplating to fight against the Pāṇḍavas who had returned after their incognito life, Bhīṣma ridiculed Karṇa and praised Arjuna. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 21, Verse 16).
     (22) At that time, he explained to Duryodhana, the greatness of Śrī Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 49, verse 2).
     (23) Duryodhana proposed to bind the hands and feet of Śrī Kṛṣṇa who was expected to come as the envoy of the Pāṇḍavas. Hearing this, Bhīṣma in great anger, walked out of the council hall. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 88, Verse 19).
     (24) Bhīṣma strongly advised Duryodhana to make a treaty of peace with the Pāṇḍavas. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 125, Verse 2).
     (25) He declared that he would not kill the Pāṇḍavas but would kill 10,000 soldiers of the Pāṇḍavas everyday. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 156, Verse 21).
     (26) As desired by Duryodhana, Bhīṣma declared the Rathīs and Mahārathīs who belonged to the Kaurava side. (Udyoga Parva, Chapters 165-168).
     (27) Bhīṣma described all the Mahārathīs of the Pāṇḍava side to Duryodhana. (Udyoga Parva, Chapters 169172).
     (28) Bhīṣma told Duryodhana that Śikhaṇḍī and the Pāṇḍavas should not be killed. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 172, Verse 20).
     (29) Bhīṣma offered pūjā to Paraśurāma. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 123, Verse 27).
     (30) Aṃbā who was allowed by Bhīṣma to marry her lover, King Śālva, was rejected by him and returned to Bhīṣma again. But he did not accept her. Although Paraśurāma pleaded with him on behalf of Aṃbā, Bhīṣma did not marry her. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 178, Verse 32).
     (31) In connection with Ambā's case, a duel was fought on the field of Kurukṣetra between Bhīṣma and Paraśurāma. Bhīṣma started the duel after asking for the permission of Paraśurāma. Pleased with the fight, the Vasus presented to Bhīṣma, the Prasvāpana arrow. But he did not use that arrow against Paraśurāma, since the gods and Nārada prevented him from doing so. At the request of the gods, pitṛs and Gaṅgādevī, Bhīṣma stopped the fight and prostrated at the feet of Paraśurāma. (Udyoga Parva, Chapters 178-185).
     (32) Bhīṣma narrated to Duryodhana the story of Ambā who was re-born as Śikhaṇḍī. (Udyoga parva, Chapters 188-192).
     (33) Bhīṣma himself told Duryodhana that he had the strength to annihilate all the Pāṇḍavas. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 193, Verse 14).
     (34) Before the beginning of the battle, Yudhiṣṭhira went to Bhīṣma and asked for his permission to start it. Bhīṣma granted him permission and blessed him. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 43, Verse 44).
     6) Bhīṣma in Bhārata Yuddha.
     (1) On the first day of the battle a duel took place between Bhīṣma and Arjuna. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 8).
     (2) In the battle Bhīṣma killed Śveta, the son of king Virāṭa. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 48, Verse 3).
     (3) There was again a terrible fight with Arjuna. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 52).
     (4) Sātyaki killed Bhīṣma's charioteer. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 64, Verse 114).
     (5) Seeing that the army of the Kauravas was being scattered in all directions by the violent strokes of Arjuna Bhīṣma ordered to stop the second day's battle. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 55, Verse 42).
     (6) Bhīṣma challenged Śrīkṛṣṇa for the fight. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 59, Verse 96).
     (7) Fought again with Arjuna. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 60, Verse 25).
     (8) Bhīṣma gave orders to Droṇācārya and Duryodhana to save Bhagadatta who fell in danger. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 64, verse 64).
     (9) Bhīṣma told Duryodhana that Arjuna and Kṛṣṇa were the incarnations of Nara and Nārāyaṇa. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapters 65-68).
     (10) Bhīṣma praised the greatness of Brahmapūta Stotra. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 68, Verse 2).
     (11) Seeing Śikhaṇḍī rushing forward to oppose him, Bhīṣma put an end to the battle. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 69, Verse 29).
     (12) A terrible fight took place between Bhīṣma and Bhīmasena. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 70).
     (13) There was again a fight with Arjuna. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 71).
     (14) Bhīṣma wounded Bhīmasena and defeated Sātyaki. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 71, Verse 21).
     (15) Bhīṣma wounded King Virāṭa. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 73, Verse 2).
     (16) Duryodhana who was frightened by Bhīmasena's deeds of valour, was encouraged by Bhīṣma. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 80, Verse 8).
     (17) He deprived Dharmaputra of his chariot. (Bhīṣma parva, Chapter 86, Verse 11).
     (18) When Bhīmasena killed Bhīṣma's charioteer, the horses turned round and ran away, dragging the chariot with them. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 88, Verse 12).
     (19) He ordered Bhagadatta to fight with Ghaṭotkaca. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 95, Verse 17).
     (20) He swore that all except Śikhaṇḍī would be killed. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 98, Verse 4).
     (21) Sātyaki and Bhīṣma fought again. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 104, Verse 29).
     (22) Bhīṣma killed 14,000 Mahārathīs who belonged to the Cedi, Kāśi and Karūṣa countries. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 106, Verse 18).
     (23) Bhīṣma explained to Dharmaputra, the method by which he (Bhīṣma) could be killed. (Bhīṣma parva, Chapter 107, verse 76).
     (24) He declared that he would not fight with Śikhaṇḍī, who was neither man nor woman. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 108, Verse 43).
     (25) He allowed Yudhiṣṭhira to launch an attack on himself (Bhīṣma). (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 115, Verse 13).
     (26) Bhīṣma, shot by Arjuna's arrow, fell down unconscious. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 117, Verse 64).
     (27) Bhīṣma who recovered and rose again, killed Śatānīka, brother of King Virāṭa. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 118, Verse 27).
     (28) Bhīṣma routed the Pāṇḍava army most disastrously. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapters 118, 119).
     (29) He considered the misery of life and the sweetness of death. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 119, Verse 34).
     (30) Bhīṣma who was wounded by Arjuna's arrows, described to Duśśāsana, the heroism of Arjuna. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 119, Verse 56).
     (31) Arjuna shot his arrow at Bhīṣma and made him fall down from his chariot. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 119, Verse 87).
     (32) He told Haṃsa that he would remain alive until the sun came to Uttarāyaṇa. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 119, Verse 104).
     (33) Bhīṣma who fell and lay on a bed of arrows begged for a pillow to the Kings. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 120, Verse 34).
     (34) When he found that they were not paying any heed to his entreaties, he asked for a pillow to Arjuna. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter, 120, Verse 28).
     (35) He exhorted the Kings to put an end to the battle. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 120, Verse 51).
     (36) Bhīṣma begged for water to Arjuna. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 121, Verse 18).
     (37) He advised Duryodhana to end the battle. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 121, Verse 38).
     (38) As Karṇa wished for 'Vīrasvarga' (Heaven for the valiant) Bhīṣma permitted him to fight. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 122, verse 34).
     (39) Vyāsa sent Dharmaputra to Bhīṣma to learn the mysteries of "Dharma" from Bhīṣma before his (Bhīṣma's) death. (Śānti Parva, Chapter 37, Verse 5).
     (40) Bhīṣma said that Śrī Kṛṣṇa was more competent to give advice on "Dharma" than himself. (Śānti Parva, Chapter 52, Verse 2).
     (41) When the frightened and ashamed Yudhiṣṭhira approached him, Bhīṣma cheered him up. (Śānti Parva, Chapter 14, Verse 19).
     (42) Bhīṣma explained to Yudhiṣṭhira, with the help of various examples and illustrations, "Rājya Dharma", "Āpaddharma", and "Mokṣa Dharma". (Śānti Parva, Chapter 56, to Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 165).
     (43) After giving his advice to Yudhiṣṭhira Bhīṣma gave him permission to enter Hastināpura. (Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 166, verse 50).
     (44) He gave advice to Dhṛtarāṣṭra regarding his duties and responsibilities. (Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 167, Verse 30).
     (45) He asked for Śrī Kṛṣṇa's permission to renounce his body. (Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 167, Verse 37).
     (46) With Śrī Kṛṣṇa's permission, Bhīṣma renounced his body. (Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 168, Verse 2).
     (47) The Kauravas performed the funeral rites and Jalāñjali (purification by sprinkling water) of Bhīṣma (Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 168, Verse 10).
     (48) Gaṅgādevī lamented that Śikhaṇḍī, who was neither man nor woman, killed Bhīṣma. (Anuśāsana Parva, 168, Verse 21).
     (49) Vyāsa and Śrī Kṛṣṇa told Gaṅgādevī that Bhīṣma died by Arjuna's arrow. (Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 168, Verse 30).
     (50) On a later occasion Vyāsa invoked into the river Gaṅgā, those who died in the battle and among them Bhīṣma was also present. (Āśramavāsika Parva, Chapter 32, verse 7).
     (51) After his death, Bhīṣma remained in Heaven as Dyau, one of the Aṣṭavasus. (Svargārohaṇa Parva, Chapter 5, Verse 11).
     Other names of Bhīṣma. Āpageya, Āpagāsuta, Bhāgīrathīputra, Bhārata, Pitāmaha, Bharatarṣabha, Bharatasattama, Bhīṣmaka, Śāntanava, Śantanuputra, Śantanusuta, Śantanuja, Devavrata, Gaṅgāsuta, Gāṅgeya, Jāhnavīputra, Kaurava, Kauravanandana, Kauravya, Kuruśārddūla, Kuruśreṣṭha, Kurūdvaha, Kurukulaśreṣṭha, Kurukulodvaha, Kurumukhya, Kurunandana, Kurupati, Nadīja, Prapitāmaha, Sāgaragāsuta, Satyasandha, Tāladhvaja, Vasu are other names of Bhīṣma used in the Mahābhārata.
*) Satyavatī's original name was Kālī. The fisherman got her from the stomach of a fish. (See the word Adrikā). Since she had the smell of fish she got the name of "Matsyagandhī." She used to assist a fisherman in his work as a ferryman in the river Gaṅgā. Once the sage Parāśara happened to get into her boat and he fell deeply in love with her. The sage removed the smell of fish from her and gave her the perfume of musk instead. By this mystic power he created a mist at noon and under its cover, he had a sexual union with her. As a result of it the child Kṛṣṇa (Vyāsa) was born. The child immediately left the mother to perform tapas in the forest after promising to return to her whenever she wished for his presence. Although she gave birth to a child, Parāśara blessed that she would again remain a virgin. The whole episode remained a secret. As usual, Satyavatī returned to the fisherman's cottage in the evening and continued to live with him. It is at this stage that Śantanu was attracted by the perfume of musk and came to the cottage where he met Satyavatī.

BHĪṢMAKA King of Vidarbha and born in the Bhoja dynasty, Bhīṣmaka was the father of Rukmiṇī, the wife of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. He had five sons. A friend of Bhīṣma, he conquered and ruled over a fourth of the world. He defeated the Krathas, Pāṇḍyas and Kaiśikas. He was very much devoted to Jarāsandha. (Sabhā Parva, Chapter 14, Verse 21). Sahadeva, who was on a triumphal tour in connection with the Pāṇḍava's aśvamedha yajña fought and defeated Bhīṣmaka at Bhojakaṭanagara. Bhīṣmaka was also called Hiraṇyaroma. (Sabhā Parva, Chapter 31, Udyoga Parva, Chapter 158, Śānti Parva, Chapter 4).

BHĪṢMA PARVA A sub parva in the Mahābhārata.

BHĪṢMASVARGĀROHAṆA PARVA A sub division of Anuśāsana Parva. Chapters 167 and 168 of Anuśāsana Parva are included in this.

BHĪṢMAVADHA PARVA A sub Parva of Bhīṣma Parva. It comprises Chapters 43-122 of the Bhīṣma Parva.

BHOḤ A term used for greeting elders. When saluting an elderly person, the term "Bhoḥ" is used as a suffix to his name.
     For example:
     "somaśarmā nāma aham asmi bhoḥ. bhoḥ śabdaṃ kīrtayedante svasya nāmnābhivādane / nāmnāṃ svarūpa bhāvo hi bhobhāvo ṛṣibḥiḥ smṛtaḥ //" (Manusmṛti, Chapter 2, verse 124)

BHOGAVĀN A mountain--Mahābhārata, Sabhā Parva, Chapter 30, Verse 12 says that in the course of his triumphant over-running of the eastern lands, Bhīmasena conquered this mountain also.

BHOGAVATĪ I Nāgaloka or Pātāla. When Sugrīva sent monkeys in all directions in search of Sītā, he gave instructions to them to go and search for her in Bhogavatīpura. Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, 41st Sarga, Kiṣkindhākāṇḍa describes the place as the city infested with serpents (nāgas) and guarded by them. Vāsuki, King of serpents, lives there.

BHOGAVATĪ II Gaṅgā of Pātāla. (M.B. Sabhā Parva, Dākṣiṇātya Pāṭha, Chapter 38).

BHOGAVATĪ III A place of holy bath at Prayāga. It is better known as Vāsuki tīrtha. Mahābhārata Vana Parva, Chapter 85 says that a bath at this tīrtha is as efficacious as an Aśvamedha yajña.

BHOGAVATĪ IV Another name for the river Sarasvatī. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 24, Verse 20).

BHOGAVATĪ V A female attendant of Subrahmaṇya. (M.B. Śalya Parva, Chapter 46, Verse 8).

BHOJA I A king of the ancient country named Mārttikāvata. In Mahābhārata Ādi Parva, Chapter 185, Verse 6, we see that this king had attended the Svayaṃvara of Draupadī. He was slain by Abhimanyu at the battle of Kurukṣetra. (M.B. Droṇa Parva, Chapter 48, Verse 8).

BHOJA II A king of Yaduvaṃśa. Mahābhārata, Śānti Parva, Chapter 166, Verse 79 says, that he died under the stroke of the sword of Mahārāja Uśīnara. Bhojavaṃśa takes its source from this king.

BHOJA III A king who became renowned as a Sanskrit scholar. It is believed that he lived from 1018 to 1054 A.D. His capital city was Dhārā. Bhoja is credited with the authorship of two scholarly books entitled, "Sarasvatīkaṇṭhābharaṇa" and "Sṛṅgāraprakāśa". Of these, the first is a compendious volume in five chapters, dealing with the merits and defects of poetry, figures of speech, etc. Bhoja observes that besides the four styles (in poetry) laid down by Rudraka, there are two more styles, namely, "Avanti" and "Māgadhī".

BHOJA IV A follower of Sudās. In Ṛgveda, 3rd Maṇḍala, 58th Anuvāka, 7th Sūkta we find that this Bhoja had given help to sage Viśvāmitra in performing his Aśvamedha yāga.

BHOJA V A king of Kānyakubja. Once this king Bhoja met a woman with a fantastic shape. Her body was of human shape while her face was that of a female deer. When the king asked her about her strange shape, she related her past history as follows:--"In my previous birth, I was a female deer. On one occasion the whole of my body except my face, was plunged in a river and those parts of the body under the water were transformed into human shape. From that day, I have been changed into this form."
     On hearing her story, the king took her to the holy river and immersed her again in it. She was at once transformed into an actual woman and the king married her. (Skanda Purāṇa, 7-2-2).

BHOJĀ An exquisitely beautiful virgin of the country, Sauvīra. Mahābhārata Droṇa Parva, Chapter 10, Verse 33 says that Sātyaki abducted her and made her his wife.

BHOJA(Ṃ) (BHOJAVAṂŚA). This is a branch of Yaduvaṃśa. (M.B. Ādi Parva, Chapter 217, Verse 18).

BHOJAKAṬA The capital of Vidarbha. Once Sahadeva, one of the Pāṇḍavas conquered this city. It was at this place that Śrī Kṛṣṇa defeated Rukmī, the brother of Rukmiṇī at the time of Rukmiṇī's Svayaṃvara. The original name of Bhojakaṭa was "Kuṇḍinapura". (M.B. Sabhā Parva, Chapter 31 and Udyoga Parva, Chapter 158).

BHOJIKA A Brāhmaṇa. (See the word Pāṭalīputra).

BHOJYĀ A Bhoja princess. She was abducted by Jyāmagha of the Yādava family and married to his son, Vidarbha. (See Jyāmagha).

BHOṢA A word meaning a comic, stupid or eccentric person. Bhoṣas are of eight kinds. Those who feel derided, those who babble, those who are obstinate, sophists, those who indulge in hollow laughter, those who pretend to be blind, those who pretend to be deaf, and those who try to assert their self-importance--these are the eight classes of "Bhoṣas".

BHRAMARA A prince of the land of Sauvīra. He was a comrade of Jayadratha. M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 265 describes how Bhramara walked behind the chariot of Jayadratha with banner in his hand, when the latter abducted Pāñcālī. Bhramara was killed by Arjuna.

BHRĀMARĪ A Rākṣasī who was the follower of Jaṃbhāsura. As directed by Jaṃbhāsura, she took birth in the house of Kaśyapa to kill Gaṇeśa. One day she treacherously gave poisoned sweets to Gaṇeśa. Gaṇeśa detected her treachery and fisted her to death. (Gaṇeśa 2-21).

BHRĀSAKARṆA A Rākṣasa. He was the son of Ketumatī, by the Rākṣasa, Sumālī. They had ten sons-Prahasta, Akaṃpana, Vikaṭa, Kālakāmukha, Dhūmrākṣa, Daṇḍa, Supārśva, Saṃhrāda, Prākvāṭa, and Bhrāsakarṇa and four daughters--Vekā, Puṣpotkaṭā, Kaikasī and Kuṃbhīnasī. (Uttara Rāmāyaṇa).

     1) General. A sage, the son of Brahmā. He was the founder of Bhṛgu vaṃśa. Members of the Bhṛgu vaṃśa are called 'Bhārgavas.' Bhṛguvaṃśa has been reputed for many of its members who were Ṛṣis of great sanctity and grandeur.
     2) Birth.
     "utsaṃgād nārado jajñe dakṣo 'ṃguṣṭhāt svayaṃbhuvaḥ / prāṇādvasiṣṭhaḥ saṃjāto bhṛgustvacaḥ karātkratuḥ"*
     From these lines we see that Bhṛgu was born from Brahmā's skin (tvak). But in M.B. Ādi Parva, 5th Chapter, we find another version regarding his birth. In that passage we read that Bhṛgu was born from "Vahni" (fire). In the light of these two statements, we may examine Bhṛgu's birth.
     Bhṛgu had two incarnations. The first time he was born from Brahmā's skin. In course of time, the sage Bhṛgu became famous. In the Dakṣayāga, this sage was present as one of the Ṛtviks (officiating priests). On that occasion, Satīdevī who was in rage and grief because her husband (Śiva) was not invited to the yāga, committed suicide by jumping into the sacrificial fire. Hearing about this, Śiva was enraged and the monster spirits who emerged from his matted locks caught hold of the Ṛtviks. Bhāgavata caturtha skandha says that the Bhūta named Nandīśvara, who emerged from Śiva's locks, caught hold of Bhṛgu and killed him.
     Therefore the Bhṛgu who was born from Brahmā's skin must be considered as having died at Dakṣayāga. Bhṛgu was born again in Vaivasvata Manvantara. This second birth was at the famous Brahmayajña of Varuṇa. He was reborn from fire, as Brahmā's son. This child who was born from Brahmā's semen which fell in the sacrificial fire, was brought up by Varuṇa and his wife Carṣaṇī. Consequently Bhṛgu is referred to as "Varuṇaputra" and "Carṣaṇīputra" in some Purāṇas. Since he was born at Varuṇa's yāga he is sometimes called "Vāruṇī Bhṛgu".
     3) Bhṛgu Vaṃśa. (Bhṛgu family). Each birth of Bhṛgu gave rise to a separate family. They are given below separately:--First birth: Bhṛgu and his wife Khyāti had a daughter Lakṣmī and three sons, Dhātā, Vidhātā and Kavi. Mahāmeru's daughters, Āyati and Niyati became the wives of Dhātā and Vidhātā, respectively. Two sons, Prāṇa and Mṛkaṇḍu were born to those two couples. Mārkaṇḍeya was born to Mṛkaṇḍu and from Mārkaṇḍeya was born Vedaśiras. Prāṇa had a son, Dyutimān who had a son Rājavān. From that Rājavān, Bhṛgu Vaṃśa multiplied. The family tree of this first Bhṛgu Vaṃśa is given below:--(See Viṣṇu purāṇa, Part I, Chapter 10).
     Bhṛgu     Khyāti
     Dhātā = Āyati     Vidhātā = Niyati     Kavi     Lakṣmī = Viṣṇu
     Prāṇa     Mṛkaṇḍu
     Dyutimān     Mārkaṇḍeya
     Rājavān     Vedaśiras
     Second Birth: The second Bhṛgu Vaṃśa is the family which took its origin from the second birth of Bhṛgu as the son of Varuṇa. Varuṇa's son, Bhṛgu married the woman, Pulomā. They had six children who were, Bhūta, Cyavana, Vajraśīrṣa, Śuci, Śukra, and Savana. By his first wife Bhūtā, he had his sons, "Ekādaśa Rudras" (eleven Rudras) and "Rudra Pārṣadas" (Attendants of Rudra) and by his second wife Sarūpā he had a crore of Rudras. Cyavana had two wives, Sukanyā and Āruṣi. Aurva, a son was born to Āruṣi. From Aurva was born Ṛcīka, from Ṛcīka Jamadagni and from Jamadagni, Paraśurāma. Cyavana had a son, Pravati, by his wife Sukanyā. Ruru or Śunaka was the son of Pravati by the Apsarā Ghṛtācī. Ruru and his wife Pramadvarā had a son, Śaunaka. Śuka, the son of Bhṛgu had two sons, Caṇḍa and Alarka and a daughter, Devayānī. This is the second Bhṛgu Vaṃśa.** The family tree is given below.
     Vāruṇi Bhṛgu--Pulomā
     Bhūta=Bhūtā=Sarūpā     Vajraśīrṣa     Śuci     Śukra     Savana.
     Rudras     Koṭi     Aurva     Caṇḍa     Alarka     Devayānī
     Rudra     Rudras     Ghṛtācī--Pravati
     Pāṛṣadas     Ṛcīka
     Pramadvarā = Ruru     Jamadagni (Śunaka)
     4) Bhṛgu cursed Mahāviṣṇu. Once a terrible war broke out between Devas and Asuras. In that war, not only were the Asuras defeated but many of them were also killed. Diti, the mother of the Asuras, with tears in her eyes, complained to Bhṛgupati. Pulomā, Mother of Śukra, promised to find a remedy for this somehow. She at once went to the forest and started a tapas for the annihilation of the Devas. As the tapas gained force, the Devas were alarmed and they sought the protection of Mahāviṣṇu. Mahāviṣṇu used his Vajrāyudha (Vajra weapon) against Bhṛgu's wife, Pulomā. Under the stroke of Vajra she fell down, a headless corpse. The enraged Maharṣi Bhṛgu cursed Mahāviṣṇu to be born as a mortal in this world and to suffer the pangs of separation from his wife. When the curse was pronounced against Mahāviṣṇu, he directed his weapon Cakra against the Maharṣi. Bhṛgu fied in panic and at last begged pardon and prayed for shelter to Mahāviṣṇu himself in the ocean of milk. Viṣṇu withdrew his Cakra. Bhṛgu himself restored Pulomā to life. To fulfil the condition of Bhṛgu's curse, Viṣṇu agreed to incarnate in the world as Śrī Rāma, the son of Daśaratha and to experience the pain of separation from his wife. (Uttara Rāmāyaṇa).
     5) Bhṛgu kicked Viṣṇu. Long ago all the Maharṣis joined together to perform a yāga on the bank of the river Sarasvatī. A dispute arose among them as to who was the most mighty among the Trimūrtis. Some of them voted for Brahmā, others declared that Viṣṇu was more mighty than the other two, while a third group stood for Śiva's superiority. They unanimously elected Bhṛgu to ascertain and find out the truth of the matter.
     Bhṛgu set out to Devaloka. First he went to Brahmā's assembly. There, in the presence of Brahmā who was seated in the midst of many Munis, Bhṛgu took his seat on a stool. Brahmā was provoked by this act of disrespect. Bhṛgu left the place without a word and went to Śiva's place. Śiva rose from his seat and approached him to embrace and welcome him. Bhṛgu, shrank back saying, "Do not touch me?" Śiva became angry and was about to hit him with his trident when Pārvatī stopped him.
     Bhṛgu then turned his steps to Vaikuṇṭha, the abode of Mahāviṣṇu. There he saw Mahāviṣṇu in a deep slumber. Seeing Mahāviṣṇu whose task is the preservation of the world, sleeping like an irresponsible person, Bhṛgu gave him a kick on his breast. Viṣṇu who sprang up suddenly, saw Bhṛgu standing before him. He begged pardon of the sage. He declared that he would carry Bhṛgu's footprint permanently on his chest as a sign of his repentance for having shown disrespect to the Maharṣi. This foot-print still remains on Viṣṇu's chest and is known by the name "Śrīvatsa". In this way, the Munis came to the conclusion that Mahāviṣṇu is the noblest of the Trimūrtis. (Bhāgavata, Daśama Skandha).
     6) The origin of Bhṛgu Tīrtha. There is a sacred spot called, "Bhṛgu Tīrtha" on the western side of Daśāśvamedha. It is here that Bhṛgu once offered tapas to Śiva. Owing to the austerity of his tapas, his hair became matted and discoloured. His body was completely covered with earth heaped up by termites. When Śiva was still not propitiated, Pārvatī interceded with him on behalf of Bhṛgu, Śiva agreed to bless Bhṛgu.
     Śiva sent his bull to the place where Bhṛgu was sitting. The bull in the course of its gambols broke up and destroyed the earthen covering on his body which was made by the termites. Bhṛgu became angry and chased the bull. But he was stunned by the sight of the bull rising up to heaven through the air. A divine light spread there. Śiva appeared before him and asked him what boon he wanted. Bhṛgu prayed that the place where he was doing tapas should become a holy spot. Śiva granted his prayer and from that day, the place became famous under the name "Bhṛgu Tīrtha". Brahmā and other Devas and the Kinnaras still worship this Bhṛgu Tīrtha. All sin is removed by a mere sight of this sacred Tīrtha. Those who bathe in the holy water of this place attain Heaven and they will not be born again. Even by hearing about the greatness and glory of this Bhṛgu Tīrtha, one will be cleared of all sins and find an easy way to Śivaloka. (Padma Purāṇa, Chapter 20).
     7) Other details. (1) It was Bhṛgu who gave the boon for having progeny to Sagara, King of the solar dynasty. Sagara, with his two wives, Keśinī and Sumati, performed tapas at Bhṛgu prasravaṇa in the Himālayas. After a hundred years, Bhṛgu, who was pleased, blessed the king that he would have numerous children by one wife and one son who would be progenitor of a vaṃśa, by the other wife. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Bālakāṇḍa, 38th Sarga).
     (2) Once when some Munis went to Dvārakā, Sāmba and other Yādavas mocked them and the Munis cursed them. Bhṛgu was one of those Munis. (See the word Sāmba).
     (3) Paraśurāma, after exterminating the Kṣatriya kings, went to the Āśrama of Bhṛgu, the founder of the family and received his blessings. (Brahmāṇḍa Purāṇa, Chapter 62).
     (4) Bhṛgu Maharṣi was a prominent member in Yudhiṣṭhira's assembly. (M.B. Chapter 4, Verse 16).
     (5) He was also a member of Indra's assembly. It was by Bhṛgu's brilliance that Indra's glory was heightened. (M.B. Sabhā Parva, Chapter 7, Verse 29).
     (6) Bhṛgu was a member of Brahmā's assembly also. (M.B. Sabhā Parva, Chapter 11, Verse 19).
     (7) Once Bhṛgu blessed his son Ṛcīka and his daughterin-law Satyavatī that they would have children. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 116, Verse 35).
     (8) Śrī Kṛṣṇa who went as the messenger of peace to Hastināpura, travelled in Dakṣiṇāvarta, along with the sage Bhṛgu. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 83, Verse 27).
     (9) Bhṛgu entered the scene of battle between the Kurus and Pāṇḍavas and tried to persuade Droṇācārya to withdraw from the fight. (M.B. Droṇa Parva, Chapter 190, Verse 34).
     (10) Once Bhṛgu lectured on the origin of the earth, Philosophy of life, etc. (M.B. Śānti Parva, Chapter 128).
     (11) Bhṛgu explained to Bharadvāja how the Pañcabhūtas except the sky originated (Śānti Parva, Chapter 183).
     (12) Bhṛgu discussed in a logical manner, the principle of life and the transmigration of the soul. (Śāntiparva, Chapter 187).
     (13) He made a critical examination of the merits and defects of racial discrimination. (Śānti Parva, Chapter 187).
     (14) Once Bhṛgu bestowed Brahminhood on a King named Vītahavya. (M.B. Anuśāsana. Parva, Chapter 30, Verse 57).
     (15) He got the name "Bhṛgu" because he was born out of fire. (M.B. Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 85, Verse 105).
     (16) It was Bhṛgu who gave the necessary advice to Agastya to depose Nahuṣa from Indra's post.
     (17) There is a story that Nahuṣa kicked Agastya on the head while the latter was carrying Nahuṣa's palanquin and that Bhṛgu, who was hiding in Agasty's locks of hair, cursed Nahuṣa and changed him into a python. (M.B. Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 100).
*) Nārada was born from Brahmā's lap, Dakṣa from his Aṃguṣṭha, Vasiṣṭha from his Prāṇa, Bhṛgu from his skin and Kṛatu from his arm.
**) Devī Bhāgavata, Saptama Skandha says that Bhṛgu had married two daughters of Dakṣa. Mahābhārata Anuśāsana Parva Chapter 85, Verse 127 says that Bhrgu had seven sons, namely Cyavana Vajraśīla, Śuci, Aurva, Śukra, Vareṇya, and Savana.

BHṚGUTĪRTHA A place made sacred by the performance of tapas by Bhṛgu. (For more details see the 6th para under Bhṛgu).

BHṚGUTUṄGA A peak on which the sage Bhṛgu performed tapas. Ṛcīka had lived there with his wife and children. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Bālakāṇḍa, 61st Sarga).

BHṚṄGĪ A Maharṣi who was a devotee of Śiva. Once he went to Kailāsa and began to go round Śiva to pay homage to him. But since Pārvatī and Śiva were sitting together as one body, he could not go round Śiva separately. He did not have much reverence for Pārvatī. So he took the form of a female beetle (Bhṛṅgī) and bored his way through a hole made in the place where their bodies were united and thus went round Śiva alone. Pārvatī was angry at this slight shown to her and cursed him to become physically weak. His legs became so weak that they were unable to support his body. So he prayed to Śiva again and he blessed him with a third leg. In this way Bhṛṅgī became a Maharṣi with three legs. (Maharṣis).

BHṚŚUṆḌI A fisherman. He used to earn his living by theft.
     Once when the Mahaṛṣi Mudgala was passing through a forest, Bhṛśuṇḍi stopped him. But in the presence of the Brahmanic effulgence of the Mahaṛṣi, the fisherman was dazed. Mudgala took pity on Bhṛśuṇḍi and advised him to worship Lord Gaṇeśa.
     From that time Bhṛśuṇḍi gave up his evil ways, and accepting the advice of Mudgala, started the worship of Gaṇeśa with single-minded devotion. As a result of it, an elephant's trunk began to grow from the middle of his forehead. Bhṛśuṇḍi who thus acquired a shape closely resembling Gaṇeśa, was visited by Indra, mistaking him for Gaṇapati. (Gaṇeśa: 1.67).

BHŪ(Ḥ) In the creation of the world, the Lord broke the beginningless "Aṇḍa" (the primal egg or seed) and from it the sound "Oṃ" emerged. The first sound of it was "BHŪḤ"; the second was "BHUVAḤ"; and the third was "SVAḤ". So the combination "Bhūr Bhuvaḥ Svaḥ" was formed. Then came the most adorable and superlative effulgence of the creator (Savitā). That radiance dried up all water. A little of the water became a highly viscous substance. This viscous matter gradually solidified and became the earth. Where the aṇḍa originally was became the source of that supreme effulgence. As it was the first radiant light, it came to be called Āditya (ādi=first). The great procreator Brahmā seemed to emerge from the centre of the aṇḍa. The garbhajala (the water contained in the aṇḍa) became the oceans and rivers of the world. (Vāmana Purāṇa, Chapter 43).

BHUJAKETU A king who fought on the side of Duryodhana in the Bhārata Yuddha.

BHUJAṄGA A son of Kadrū by Kaśyapa prajāpati.

BHUJYU A Rājaṛṣi (royal sage), the son of Tugra. King Tugra sent his son with an army across the sea to conquer the enemies in a distant island. When the boat in which they sailed had reached mid-ocean, it was caught in a storm and wrecked. The prince and the soldiers sank into the sea. At that time the prince prayed to the Aśvins who saved Bhujyu from drowning and carried him back to the palace in boats and chariots travelling through the air. This story is given in the Ṛgveda where the adventures of Aśvins are described. (Ṛgveda, 1st Maṇḍala, 17th Anuvāka, 116th Sūkta.).

BHŪKAMPA (Earthquake). The cause of earthquake according to ancient belief is given below:-The earth is being supported and held in its position by an elephant called Virūpākṣa. When he feels the burden too heavy he shakes his head and earth tremors follow. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Bālakāṇḍa, 40th Sarga).

BHŪLIṄGA(M) A bird which lived on the opposite side of the Himālayas. The cry of this bird resembles "MĀ SĀHASA".* But this bird lived by pecking at and eating the flesh between the teeth of a lion. Śiśupāla mentioned this bird as an example to illustrate that Bhīṣma's advice was at variance with his practice. The bird exhorts people not to act in a rash way (Mā Sāhasa) and at the same time acts rashly.
*) Mā Sāhasa = Do not act rashly.

BHŪMANYU I A king who was the grandson of King Duṣyanta and the son of Bharata. From Mahābhārata Ādi Parva, Chapter 94, Verse 19, we see that he was born by the blessing of Bharadvāja. His mother was Sunandā, daughter of Sarvasena, King of Kāśi. When Bhūmanyu grew up, his father Bharata entrusted him with the affairs of the Kingdom. Bhūmanyu had six sons by his wife Puṣkariṇī; they were Diviratha, Suhotra, Suhotā, Sukavi, Suyaju, and Ṛcīka. In Mahābhārata, Ādi Parva, Chapter 95, Verse 33, we see that he had another son Suhotra by a woman Vijayā, a Dāśārha maid.

BHŪMANYU II There is another Bhūmanyu, grandson of Kuru, a King of the Lunar dynasty and son of Dhṛtarāṣṭra, mentioned in Mahā Bhārata, Ādi Parva, Chapter 94, Verse 59.

BHŪMANYU III A Deva Gandharva. He participated in the celebrations connected with Arjuna's birth. (M.B. Ādi Parva, Chapter 91, Verse 35).

BHŪMI I The earth.
     1) General. The Purāṇas maintain that Bhūmi has a Devī (goddess). The births of Bhūmi and its basic goddess are in two different ways.
     The Mahābhārata, (Dākṣiṇātya Pāṭha) says that the goddess Bhūmi was the daughter of Brahmā and that she was married by Mahāviṣṇu. The earth on which we live is the Mṛtpiṇḍa of which the basic deity is this Bhūmidevī. Of the many versions given in the Purāṇas regarding the origin of earth, three are given below:--
     1) Long ago, towards the end of the age of floods, the earth was in a liquid state. At that time, Śiva cut open his thigh and let fall a drop of blood in the water. It assumed the form of an "aṇḍa" (egg). Śiva took that aṇḍa and split it. A man came out of it. From him was made Nature (Prakṛti) for the creation of the Universe. One half of the broken aṇḍa became sky and the other half became the earth. (Kathāsaritsāgara, Kathāpīṭhalaṃbaka, 2nd Taraṅga).
     (2) Mahāviṣṇu lay on the surface of water which spread everywhere in the beginning. A lotus sprang up from the navel of Viṣṇu and from its top Brahmā was born. Liquid matter began to flow out of Viṣṇu's ears on both sides. From it were born two Rākṣasas named Madhu and Kaiṭabha. They persecuted Brahmā. Mahāviṣṇu woke up and killed Madhu and Kaiṭabha. The thick fat of these Rākṣasas hardened into the earth. (Devī Bhāgavata, Navama Skandha).
     3) In the beginning Mahāviṣṇu (Mahāvirāṭ Puruṣa) spread everywhere. In every pore of that Mahāvirāṭ who was lying on the surface of the water, there was a Brahmāṇḍa. In course of time that Virāṭ obtained mind. That mind stood connected with each of the pores equally. Later from it were formed the "Pañcamahābhūtas". From their combination was formed the Bhūta called "Mahā Pṛthvī". It was cut into many pieces and each of the pieces was deposited in each pore. It was these Pṛthvī pieces which became "Bhūmis" at the time of creation. At the time of the floods, these Bhūmis sank again into those pores as before. In each of these Brahmāṇḍas, there are the earth, mountains, forests, oceans, the seven islands, Himavān, Meru, Sun, Moon, Stars and other planets. Also, each of them has its own Brahmā, Viṣṇu, Śiva and other Devas. Since all the different Bhūmis in all the Brahmāṇḍas had been formed artificially, they all perish in the floods. (Devī Bhāgavata, Navama Skandha).
     3) Bhūmi Devī (Goddess Earth) is the wife of Mahā Viṣṇu. In Varāha Kalpa (Age of the Pig) the Asura Hiraṇyākṣa carried the Earth and Submerged it under water. At once Mahā viṣṇu appeared in the form of a Pig and lifted up the Earth on its horns. When the Earth floated on the surface of water like a lotus leaf, Bhūmi Devī who was pleased, stood up in her charming figure. Mahāviṣṇu fell in love with her and with the brilliance of a crore of suns, had sexual union with her for the period of one Devavarṣa. It is from that time that Bhūmi Devī became Mahāviṣṇu's wife. As a result of their union, a son named Maṅgala was born to them.
     Ghaṭeśa is the son of Maṅgala. Maṅgala has another name, Covva. After the birth of Maṅgala, at the behest of Lord Viṣṇu, all people began to offer worship to Bhūmidevī. Mahāviṣṇu himself first worshipped her by reciting the mantra--"Om Hrīṃ-Śrīṃ-Krīṃ-Vasudhāyai Svāhā". After that this mantra became popular for worshipping Bhūmidevī. (Devī Bhāgavata, Navama Skandha).
     Narakāsura was Bhūmidevī's son by Hiraṇyākṣa, the Asura. When Hiraṇyākṣa, in the form of a pig, carried Bhūmidevī on his horns to Pātāla, the horns came in contact with Bhūmidevī and she became pregnant. In Bhāgavata, Daśama Skandha we read that Narakāsura was born as the result of this contact. (See the word Naraka I).
     Sītā was the daughter of Bhūmidevī, born on another occasion. Sītā was married by the Kosala King Śrī Rāma. When she was abandoned by her husband, she was at last accepted by Bhūmidevī within her own self. (See the word Sītā).
     4) Bhūmi and Prahlāda. Since Bhūmidevī had been the wife of the Asura Hiraṇyākṣa she has also been called the mother of the Asura clan. Hiraṇyākṣa's brother was Hiraṇyakaśipu. Prahlāda, the son of Hiraṇyakaśipu, was a devotee of Viṣṇu. The father did not like the son's devotion to Viṣṇu. So he persecuted Prahlāda in various ways. Once he threw down Prahlāda from the top of a high building. At that time Bhūmi devī appeared there and received him in her arms. (Brahmāṇḍa Purāṇa, Chapter 24).
     5) Bhūmidevī and Pṛthu. Once the Emperor Pṛthu turned Bhūmidevī into a cow and milched all resources from her. (For details, see the word Pṛthu).
     6) Pārvatī's curse. Once Pārvatī and Śiva indulged in their sexual act for many years. The earth began to shake to its foundations. The gods approached Śiva with a request to refrain and he agreed. Śiva's semen was discharged and fell on the earth. Pārvatī who was angry at this, cursed Bhūmidevī as follows:--"You Bhūmidevī! You will assume many forms and become the wife of many. Since you have prevented me from giving birth to a son, no children will be born to you in future." (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Bālakāṇḍa, 36th Sarga).
     7) Other details.
     (1) Narakāsura has another name, "Bhauma". (M.B. Sabhā Parva, Dākṣiṇātya Pāṭha, Chapter 38).
     (2) Bhūmidevī prayed to Śrī Kṛṣṇa and obtained Vaiṣṇavāstra for her son Narakāsura. (M.B. Droṇa Parva, Chapter 29, Verse 30).
     (3) When Paraśurāma was carrying on the annihilation of Kṣatriyas, Bhūmidevī induced the sage Kaśyapa to entreat Paraśurāma to stop his massacre of Bhūpālas. (Protectors of Bhūmi=Kṣatriyas). (M.B. Śānti Parva, Chapter 79, Verse 44).
     (4) Once she (Bhūmidevī) described to Śrī Kṛṣṇa, the greatness of Brahminhood. (M.B. Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 34, Verse 22).
     (5) At another time she explained to Śrī Kṛṣṇa the nature of Gṛhasthāśramadharma, (Duties of a householder). (M.B. Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 97, Verse 5).
     (6) On one occasion, when King Aṅga touched her, Bhūmidevī lost her own form and vanished. At that time, Kaśyapa prajāpati paralysed her. (M.B. Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 152, Verse 2).
     (7) Paraśurāma gifted the whole earth to the sage Kaśyapa. From that time Bhūmidevī has been called "Kāśyapī" (daughter of Kaśyapa). (M.B. Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 154, Verse 7).

BHŪMI II Wife of Dhruva. This Bhūmi devī, the daughter of Śiśumāra had two sons named Kalpa and Vatsala, by Dhruva. (Bhāgavata, Caturtha Skandā).

BHŪMI III Another Bhūmi, who was the wife of a king named Bhūmipati is mentioned in M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 117, Verse 14).

BHŪMIÑJAYA A warrior who fought on the side of the Kauravas. He took his position in the centre of the "Garuḍa Vyūha" (Name of a phalanx) formed by Droṇa. (M.B. Droṇa Parva, Chapter 20, Verse 13).

BHŪMIPĀLA A Kṣatriya king of ancient India. He was born from a portion of an Asura called Krodhavaśa. (M.B. Ādi Parva, Chapter 67, Verse 61).

BHŪMIPARVA A subdivision of Bhīṣmaparva in Mahābhārata. Chapters 11 and 12 of Bhīṣma Parva are included in this.

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BHŪMIPATI A king of ancient India. There is a reference to this King in M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 117; Verse 14.

BHŪMIŚAYA A king in ancient India. M.B. Śānti Parva, Chapter 166, verse 75 says that King Amūrtarayas gave a sword to Bhūmiśaya who gifted it to Bharata, the son of Duṣyanta.

BHŪPATI A viśvadeva. (M.B. Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 91, Verse 32).

BHŪRI I A king of the Kuru dynasty. Somadatta, king of the Kuru dynasty had three sons, Bhūri, Bhūriśravas and Śala.* In M.B. Ādi Parva, Chapter 185, we read that they had attended the Svayaṃvara of Draupadī and in Sabhā Parva, Chapter 94 it is said that they had taken part in Yudhiṣṭhira's Rājasūya. In Droṇa Parva, Chapter 166, we read that this King Bhūri was slain by Sātyaki during the war between Kauravas and Pāṇḍavas. After death, Bhūri obtained a place with the Viśvedevas. (M.B. Svargārohaṇa Parva, Chapter 5, Verse 16).
*) In Agnipurāṇa, Chapter 278, we see another statement that Śantanu, king of the Lunar dynasty, had three sons, Devāpi, Bālhīka and Somada and of them Bālhika had four sons, Somadatta, Bhūri, Bhūriśravas and Śala.

BHŪRI II A son of the sage Śuka. Vyāsa's son, Śuka married Pīvarī, the daughter of Pitṛs. She had four sons by Śuka, who were named Kṛṣṇa, Gauraprabha, Bhūri and Devaśruta, and a daughter named Kīrti. (Devī Bhāgavata, Prathama Skandha).

BHŪRIBALA (BHĪMABALA). One of the hundred sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. Mahābhārata Śalya Parva, Chapter 26, Verse 14 says that at the battle of Kurukṣetra he was slain by Bhīmasena.

BHŪRIDYUMNA I A king in the assembly of Yama. He attained Heaven (Svargaloka) by virtue of his having performed godāna (gift of cow). (M.B. Sabhā Parva, Chapter 8, Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 76).

BHŪRIDYUMNA II A Maharṣi. This sage once went to Hastināpura as a messenger of peace. On the way he met with Śrī Kṛṣṇa whom he reverently worshipped by doing "Pradakṣiṇā".

BHŪRIDYUMNA III He was the only son of Vīradyumna, a King. Bhūridyumna was lost somewhere in the forest. (M.B. Śānti Parva, Chapter 127, Verse 14)

BHŪRIHAN A Rākṣasa. He was a king in ancient times. (M.B. Śānti Parva, Chapter 277, Verse 51).

BHŪRIKĪRTI A king. He had two daughters, Campikā and Sumati who were married by Lava and Kuśa respectively. (Ānanda Rāmāyaṇa, Vivāha Kāṇḍa).

     (1) General. He was the son of Somada, a king of Kuruvaṃśa (Kuru dynasty).
     (2) Other details. Bhūriśravas had two brothers named Bhūri and Śala. They were all present at the Svayaṃvara of Draupadī. (M.B. Ādi Parva, Chapter 185, Verse 14).
     (3) He once described to Duryodhana, the heroic qualities of the Pāṇḍavas and advised him to maintain peaceful relations with them. (M.B. Ādi Parva, Chapter 199, Dākṣinātya Pāṭha).
     (4) He took part in Yudhiṣṭhira's Rājasūya yajña with his father and brothers. (M.B. Sabhā Parva, Chapter 34, Verse 8).
     (5) In the war between Kauravas and Pāṇḍavas, he arrived with an "Akṣauhiṇī" (A division of the army) in order to give help to Duryodhana. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 19, Verse 16).
     (6) Bhīṣma once remarked that Bhūriśravas deserved to be counted among the Rathīs and Yūthapatis. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 165, Verse 29).
     (7) On the first day of the battle at Kurukṣetra Bhūriśravas fought a duel with Śaṃkha. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 35).
     (8) He fought with Sātyaki (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 63, Verse 33).
     (9) He killed the ten sons of Sātyaki. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 74, Verse 25).
     (10) Defeated Dhṛṣṭaketu in battle. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 84, Verse 35).
     (11) He fought a duel with Bhīmasena. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 11, Verse 44).
     (12) A duel was fought with Śikhaṇḍī. (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 43, Verse 45).
     (13) Bhūriśravas fell down under the stroke of Sātyaki. (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 142, Verse 59).
     (14) Arjuna cut off the left arm of Bhūriśravas. (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 141, Verse 72).
     (15) Enraged by Arjuna's action, Bhūriśravas squatted on the ground to attain Svarga (Heaven). (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 143, Verse 33).
     (16) Sātyaki killed Bhūriśravas. (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 143, Verse 54).
     (17) After death Bhūriśravas became a Viśvadeva. (Svargārohaṇa Parva, Chapter 5, Verse 16).
     (18) Some of the other names of Bhūriśravas given in Mahābhārata are:--Bhūridakṣiṇa, Śalāgraja, Kaurava, Kauraveya, Kauravya, Yūpaketana, Yūpaketu, Śārdūla, Kuruśreṣṭha, Kurūdvaha.

BHŪRITEJAS A king in ancient India. He was born from a portion of the Asura Krodhavaśa, according to Mahābhārata, Ādi Parva, Chapter 67, Verse 63).

BHUŚUṆḌA A dispassionate and large-hearted crow. The residence of this crow was a Kalpavṛkṣa standing on a beautiful peak surrounded by luxuriant vegetation in the north-eastern corner of Mahāmeru. There were numerous bird-nests on the southern branch of that Kalpavṛkṣa. In one of them lived this centuries-old bird.
     Once when the sage Vasiṣṭha went to Devaloka, he happened to hear about this crow. He went to see Bhuśuṇḍa in its nest. The crow recognised Vasiṣṭha at once. They exchanged greetings. The sage opened the conversation as follows:--"Oh, King of birds! when were you born? How did you become a great soul? How old are you? Have you recollections of the past? Who was the prophet who suggested this residence for you?"
     The bird calmly replied as follows:--"If you are interested in hearing my past history I shall tell you. Lord Śaṅkara the Almighty lives in this world. He has numerous attendant spirits. Besides these spirits who have hoofs on their head, hands in the hoofs, teeth in the hands and stomach in the face, and who have faces resembling those of monkeys, camels, and elephants, he has also hordes of Mātṛs in his retinue. The Mātṛs, attended by spirits continue their dance in the presence of the Lord. Mountain peaks, the sky, the different worlds, deep pits, cremation grounds, etc. are their haunts. Chief among these Mātṛs are eight sisters named, Jayā, Vijayā, Jayantī, Aparāhitā, Siddhā, Raktā, Alambuṣā and Ulpalā. They have other followers also. Alambuṣā's vehicle is the crow named Caṇḍa. All these Mātṛs assembled together on one occasion to celebrate a festival in the sky. There was a display of many kinds of entertainments at that time. Disputations in spiritual matters, music, dancing, drinking and other forms of hilarious activities were freely indulged in. In another part of the sky, their vehicles were also enjoying themselves with similar celebrations of drinking, dancing, and merry-making. The swans who were the vehicles of Brāhmīdevī were dancing in one place, intoxicated by drink. Caṇḍa, the crow, who was Alambuṣā's vehicle, also joined their company. Completely absorbed in their delirious raptures, the intoxicated swans indulged so freely in their amorous pleasures with Caṇḍa that they became pregnant. At last when the merry-makings ended and all of them dispersed, the swans became aware of their plight and informed Brāhmī about it. The gracious goddess (Brāhmī) told them that in their present state they were unable to discharge their duties in drawing her chariot and so they were allowed to go and enjoy themselves wherever they liked. After this she entered into a trance. The swans in the fullness of time, gave birth to twentyone sons. We, the twentyone brothers, are those children. We and our mothers went to Brāhmīdevī and offered worship to her for a long time. As a result, the Devī woke up from her trance and pleased with us, gave us her blessing. After that, we went to our father (Caṇḍa) and off red our devoted services to him and prostrated before him and Alambuṣādevī. They blessed us. We asked our father to suggest a most suitable place for a secluded life. This Kalpa Vṛkṣa is the secluded place recommended by him. We paid obeisance to our father and Alambuṣādevī and came to settle down here. Many ages have passed since then. Now your visit and holy presence here, have liberated me from all worldly bonds and ennobled my life. My twenty brothers lived for many Kalpas and yugas at the end of which, convinced of the meaninglessness of worldly life, renounced their bodies and attained Śivaloka.
     On hearing this, Vasiṣṭha asked Bhuśuṇḍa to tell him more about his past life. Bhuśuṇḍa resumed his story:-"Long long ago, the whole earth was full of big rocks, without trees, forests or mountains. After a great flood the surface of the earth was covered with ashes. In one caturyuga (a period equal to the length of the four yugas, Kṛta, tretā, dvāpara and Kali) the earth was filled with forest trees and in another Caturyuga, mountain ranges appeared. I have seen an age in which Brāhmaṇas were drunkards, Śūdras were virtuous and women of noble families committed adultery. You have now been born in the eightieth "Janma" as the son of Brahmā. You were born once from the sky, at another time from water, then from the mountain and again from fire. I can remember this earth sinking into the ocean five times and Lord Viṣṇu taking the form of a tortoise, lifting it up, above the water. I have seen the ocean of milk being churned twelve times. I know that Hiraṇyākṣa had taken the earth three times to Pātāla (underworld). The Lord has incarnated six times as Bhārgava Rāma. Incarnation of Buddha has taken place in six Kaliyugas. Tripuradahana (burning of the Tripurāsuras) has taken place thirty times. Dakṣa yāga was broken up twice. Lord Śiva has slain ten Indras. He fought seven times with Śrī Kṛṣṇa for the sake of Bāṇa. I also remember another epic entitled "Rāmāyaṇa", containing one lakh of verses and dealing with metaphysical problems. I have seen the customs of Kṛtayuga being followed in Kaliyuga and the customs of Kaliyuga being followed in Kṛtayuga."
     Having heard the whole story, Vasiṣṭha gave his blessing to Bhuśuṇḍa and left the place. (Jñāna Vāsiṣṭha, Bhu uṇḍopākhyāna).

BHŪTADHĀMĀ An Indra. This Indra is different from the actual Indra. There is reference to this Indra in Mahābhārata, Ādi Parva, Chapter 96, Verse 28.

BHŪTAJYOTI A king who was the father of Vasu and son of Sumati.

BHŪTAKARMĀ A warrior who fought on the side of the Kauravas in the battle at Kurukṣetra. He was killed by Śatānīka, the son of Nakula. (M.B. Droṇa Parva, Chapter 22, Verse 25).

BHŪTĀLAYA(M) A famous village in the purāṇas. It was a resort of thieves and robbers. Dead bodies were often thrown into the river which was flowing through this village. Mahābhārata, Vana Parva, Chapter 129, verse 9 says that it was against Śāstras to bathe in this river.

BHŪTAMATHANA A warrior of Subrahmaṇya. (M. B. Śalya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 69).

BHŪTASANTĀPANA One of the sons of Hiraṇyākṣa. (Bhāgavata, Saptama Skandha).

BHŪTAŚARMĀ A warrior who fought on the side of the Kauravas against the Pāṇḍavas. He had taken his position in the "Garuḍavyūha" (name of a phalanx) formed by Droṇācārya. (M.B. Droṇa Parva, Chapter 20, Verse 6).

BHŪTAS (A set of beings created by Rudra).
     1) General. A Mānava class or sect in ancient India. In the Purāṇas, this Mānava sect is classified into four subdivisions. (1) Dharmapraja (2) Īśvarapraja (3) Kāśyapīyapraja (4) Pulahapraja.
     2) Birth. In the Brahmāṇḍa Purāṇa there is the following story about the birth and shape of Bhūtas:--
     Bhūtas are one of the subdivisions of Pulaha's creations. Long ago, Brahmā asked the Rudra, Nīlalohita, to perform the function of creation. Accordingly he begot thousands of Bhūtas in the womb of his wife Satī. All the issues were the exact replica of his own figure. Lean limbs, long ears, thick hanging lips, red eyes, bushy eyebrows, long, pointed and protruding teeth, long nails, matted dirty hair etc. were the grotesque features of these Bhūtas. These music-haters used serpents as their Yajñopavītas (sacred threads). These spirits who loitered in Śiva's assembly were, as a rule, naked and carried skulls on their heads. But at times they wore fantastic dress with elephant skin. Their chief weapons were, trident, bow, sword, etc.
     3) Bhūta Chief. In the Purāṇas, Rudra is acknowledged as the Bhūta chief. That is why Rudra is known by such names as "Bhūtanāyaka", "Gaṇanāyaka", "Rudrānucara", "Bhavapariṣada" etc. But since the common name Rudra is used for the ruler (king) of all the Bhūtas, Vāmana Purāṇa declares that Rudra is not an individual. Both Vāmanapurāṇa and Matsyapurāṇa represent Vīrabhadra and Nandikeśvara as two Rudras who are the masters of Bhūtas. (Matsyapurāṇa 181, 2; Vāmanapurāṇa 4, 17).
     In Vāmana Purāṇa, the number of Bhūtas is given as 11 crores. Śkanda, Sākha, Bhairava are the chief among them. Under them are innumerable Bhūtas. Ashes and Khatvāṃga etc. are their weapons. The emblem on the banner is a cow or a bird. That is how the Gaṇanāyakas have got the titles like "Mayūradhvaja", "Mayūravāhana". (Vāmana Purāṇa 67, 1-23).
     4) War with Asuras. In the war between Śiva and Andhakāsura, the Bhūtas fought on the side of Śiva. It was Vināyaka, the master of the Bhūta hordes who first came into conflict with the Asura. In that battle Andhaka defeated Vināyaka. After that, Nandi, another leader of the Bhūtas, attacked Andhaka jointly with Vināyaka and defeated him. At last, Andhaka approached Śiva himself for protection, and Śiva received him and appointed him as commander of one of his hordes of Bhūtas. It is this Andhakāsura who later became famous under the name of Bhṛṅgi.
     In this way, the Bhūtas had fought many battles with the Asuras, joining the party of the Devas. But at the time of Dakṣa's yajña, they joined the party of the Asuras and opposed the Devas.
     Although the Bhūtas won all the battles they fought both on the side of the Devas and on the side of the Asuras, in the end they had to leave north India and to come and settle down in south India. By the time of Vaivasvata manvantara they had already become South Indians.

BHŪTIVARMĀ A Rākṣasa who was the friend of Kāṇabhūti. (Kathāsaritsāgara).

BHUVANA I A Mahaṛṣi who visited Bhīṣma when he was lying on the verge of death. (M.B. Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 26, Verse 81).

BHUVANA II A sanātana Viśvadeva. There is a reference to him in M.B. Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 91, Verse 35.).

BHUVANA II A sanātana Viśvadeva. There is a reference to him in M.B. Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 91, Verse 35.).

BHUVANĀ Bṛhaspati's sister. She was married to Prabhāsa, one of the Aṣṭavasus. A son named Viśvakarmā was born to them. (Brahmāṇḍa Purāṇa, 3-3-2129).

BHUVANEŚA See the word Bhadraśravas.

BĪBHATSU One of the ten names of Arjuna. He got this name because he desisted from doing loathful acts. "I will never resort to loathful deeds in war. Therefore the devas and men call me Bibhatsu". (Mahābhārata, Virāṭa Parva, Chapter 44, Stanza 18).

BIḌĀLA A minister of Mahiṣāsura. (Devī Bhāgavata).

BIḌĀLOPĀKHYĀNA See the word Ḍiṃḍika.

BIḌAUJAS A son born to Aditi by the blessings of Viṣṇu. (Padma Purāṇa, Bhūmikāṇḍa, Chapter 3).

BILVA (VILVA) A devotee of Viṣṇu. There is a story in Skanda Purāṇa about Bilva who lived as a Vaiṣṇavite first and then was converted to a Śaivite.
     In the beginning Brahmā created many things among which Vilva (tree) (Crataeva religiosa) also was created. Under that tree an anonymous man began to live. Brahmā gave him the name Vilva. Being pleased at the behaviour and devotion of Bilva, Indra asked him to turn the wheel of administration of the earth. Accepting the offer Bilva requested Indra to give him the Vajra (diamond) for the smooth running of the administration of the earth. Indra told him that vajrāyudha (diamond-weapon) would be at his disposal, when he thought about it, if the occasion required it.
     Once Kapila a Śaivite reached the palace of Bilva. After a long conversation both became fast friends. One day there was a debate between Bilva and Kapila as to whether penance or Action (doing one's duty) was appreciable. In this discussion Bilva lost the equilibrium of his mind and thinking of the diamond-weapon of Indra cut off the head of Kapila. In Kapila there was the power of penance as well as the power of Śiva. So through Śiva Kapila got immortality. In the meanwhile Bilva went to Viṣṇu and got a boon that every living thing in the earth should fear him. But the boon was futile. This was a turning point for Bilva. The mind of Bilva changed to devotion for Śiva. He concentrated his attention on the worship of Śivaliṅga at the forest of Mahākāla. One day Kapila came by that way and was greeted by Bilva with honour and regard, and they again became fast friends.

BILVAKA A famous serpent born to Kaśyapa prajāpati of his wife Kadrū. (Mahābhārata, Ādi Parva, Chapter 35, Stanza 12).

BILVAKATĪRTHA A holy place in Haradvāra. It is mentioned in Mahābhārata, Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 25, Stanza 13 that those who bathe in this holy Bath will attain heaven.

BILVAPĀṆḌURA A serpent. The father of this serpent was Kaśyapa and mother, Kadrū. (M.B. Ādi Parva, Chapter 35, Stanza 12).

BILVAPATRA A serpent born in the family of Kaśyapa prajāpati. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 103, Stanza 14).

BILVATEJA A serpent born in the family of Takṣaka. This serpent was burnt to death by falling in the sacrificial fire of Janamejaya. (M.B. Ādi Parva, Chapter 57, Stanza 9).

BINDUGA A Brāhmaṇa who lived in the village of Bāṣkala. Being a frequenter of the houses of harlots and of various other mean habits, he had led his wife Cañcalā also to lead an immoral life. Once Binduga called his wife and told her thus: "You may continue the life of a harlot; but all the money acquired must be handed over to me." Thus they continued their lives and after their death both were reborn as devils in the mountain of Vindhya. In the midst of their life as devils, once it chanced for Cañcalā to hear the Śiva Purāṇa recited and she got her shape of devil changed. She requested Pārvatī to change the shape of her husband also. Pārvatī sent her attendant Tumburu to Binduga to tell him the story of Śiva and thus he also got his form changed. (Śiva Purāṇa Māhātmya).

BINDUMATĪ The queen of the great King Māndhātā. Bindumatī was the daughter of the King Śaśabindu. Purukutsa and Mucukunda were the two sons born to her from Māndhātā. (Devī Bhāgavata, Skandha 7).

BINDUSARAS A holy place famous in the Purāṇas. The following information is obtained from the Purāṇas about this holy place.
     (1) Bindusaras lies on the north of the Mount Kailāsa. (Mahābhārata Sabhā Parva, Chapter 3, Stanza 2).
     (2) It was at Bindusaras that Bhagīratha did penance to bring down Gaṅgā to the earth (Sabhā Parva, Chapter 3, Stanza 10).
     (3) Devendra performed hundred sacrifices at this place. (Mahā Bhārata, Sabhā Parva, Chapter 3).
     (4) Once Śiva performed a sacrifice at Bindusaras. (Śabhā Parva, Chapter 3).
     (5) Śrī Kṛṣṇa did penance here for several years to get righteousness. (Sabhā Parva, Chapter 3, Stanza 11).
     (6) At this place, Maya, the asura gave Arjuna the famous conch known as Devadatta and to Bhīmasena the famous club of Vṛṣaparvā. (Sabhā Parva, Chapter 3).

BODHA A king. In the Mahābhārata, Sabhā Parva, Chapter 14, Stanza 20, mention is made that this King fled to South India with his brothers and relatives fearing the attack of Jarāsandha.

BODHA(M) A place in ancient India. It is famous in the Purāṇas. Mention is made about this place in Mahābhārata. Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 9, Stanza 39.

BODHĀYANA An individual of the lineage of teachers. (See the word Guruparaṃparā).

BODHISATTVA A good-natured husband generally quoted in Sanskrit works. The following is the story given about him in Kathāsaritsāgara, Taraṅga 9.
     Once there lived a wealthy Vaiśya, who had a son named Bodhisattva. When the childhood of the boy was at an end his mother died. The Vaiśya married again and got his son also married. Because of the ear-buzzing of his wife, the Vaiśya drove his son out of the house. Bodhisattva left the house of his father, with his wife. By and by they reached a desert. Not a drop of water was to be had. There was not even the shoot of a grass. It was a sandy place with nothing else in sight. He walked for seven days carrying his wife on his shoulders. His wife grew weary and worn with hunger and thirst. Seeing that she was about to die he gave her his flesh and blood. The wicked woman took them and saved herself from death. On the eighth day they reached the jungles of a hilly place full of fruit-trees and with a river with grassy banks, flowing down to the valley. With fruits and cool water he appeased the hunger and thirst of his wife. Then he got down to the river to take a bath. He saw a man with his limbs cut off, coming afloat. Now and then he was producing pitiable sounds. The kind son of the Vaiśya, without minding his weakness due to fast for the last seven days, swam to the man and brought him to the bank of the river. He did all services possible for him. Then he asked him who had cut off his limbs. He replied that his enemies had done so, with the intention that he might die suffering severe pain for a long time. The Vaiśya's son stood still for a little while. Then he took his bath. With his wife he lived in the forest doing penance. The wounds of the man he saved had been healed. The Vaiśya's son, one day, went out to the forest to gather fruits and roots for their food. At that time his wife grew lustful and had coition with the man without limbs. Gradually she began to dote on him. She decided to kill her husband who was an impediment on her way. She pretended to be ill. The Vaiśya's son began to treat her. One day she took her husband to the edge of a very deep well and said: "See, there is a divine herb at the bottom of this well. I will be cured if I could eat it. This is what a goddess told me in a dream yesternight". Hearing this her husband made a rope, and tied it to a tree. Then he began to go down the well by the rope. She cut the rope and the man fell into the well. There was a passage from the well to the river. The current took him through that passage to the river. He got out of the river, and sat under a tree thinking of the wickedness of women. There was a city close by. At that time the King of the city was dead and there was no heir left. The subjects of the city brought an elephant and said, "whom ever this elephant takes and places on his back shall be our king". They sent the elephant out. The elephant was pleased at the virtuous character of the son of the Vaiśya. So taking him, as if he was God, placed him on its back and walked to the city. The people gathered round him and anointed him as their King. The son of the Vaiśya became King. He never even thought of women who are generally fickle and wicked.
     The wicked wife of the Vaiśya's son took the limbless man on her shoulder and wandered about saying, "The enemies of my husband have put him in this plight. Because of my conjugal fidelity I carry him thus and earn our daily bread. Please give us alms". In this manner she spent her days in begging. Thus wandering from place to place she reached the city where the Vaisya's son was the King. The people, seeing her loyalty to her husband, honoured her and spoke highly of her. Hearing that a very loyal wife had reached his city the King sent for her. The King recognized her instantly. But she did not know him. The King reminded her of her deeds of the past one by one and began to tease and scold her. Finally when she understood that the King was her husband she was dumb-founded. The amazed ministers looked at each other. The King revealed everything to them. The ministers disfigured her and drove her away.

BODHYA A famous teacher-priest. Once there was a discussion between Nahuṣa and Bodhya on Philosophy. The summary of what Bodhya said is as follows:--
     Before I advise others, I do it myself first. I am the teacher of none. I take the world as my teacher. I learned the lessons of harmlessness from snakes, disappointment from Piṅgala the harlot, self-sacrifice from animals, concentration from the archer, and loneliness from a maid who is a spinster. (M.B., Śānti Parva, 171, 56, 61).
     This hermit came to the King Yayāti and taught him philosophy and ethics. The whole of the Chapter 171 of Mahābhārata, Śānti Parva, comprises the exhortations of this hermit, which are known by the famous name Bodhya-Gītā (Song of Bodhya).

BRADHNĀŚVA A king. Agastya once approached this King to request him for some wealth. (See the word Agastya).

     One of the trimūrtis of the Hindu Pantheon
The trimūrtis are Brahmā, Viṣṇu and Śiva.
     1) General information. God who is the creator of the Universe. It is mentioned in the Purāṇas that Brahmā creates, Viṣṇu preserves and Paramaśiva destroys the universe.
     2) The birth of Brahmā. The birth of Brahmā is from the nave of Viṣṇu. It is mentioned in Devī Purāṇa, Skandha 1, about the birth of Brahmā as follows:-In the beginning Mahāviṣṇu lay on a banian leaf in the shape of a baby and began to think, "Who am I? Who created me? What for? What is my work? Where to work?" and so on. At that time an ethereal voice said:-"Sarvaṃ khalvidamevāhaṃ nānyadasti sanātanam".* Mahāviṣṇu was amazed at this ethereal voice. He did not know whose oracle it was. Still He lay meditating upon the words. Then Mahādevī, with four hands and weapons such as Śaṅkha (conch), Cakra (wheel), Gadā (club), Padma (lotus) and maids who are prosperities and having worn glorious clothes and ornaments, and accompanied by the Śaktis (powers) named Rati, Bhūti, Buddhi, Mati, Kīrti, Dhṛti, Smṛti, Śraddhā, Medhā, Svadhā, Svāhā, Kṣudhā, Nidrā, Dayā, Gatī, Tuṣṭi, Puṣṭi, Kṣamā, Lajjā, Jṛṃbhā and Tandrā, appeared before Mahāviṣṇu, who was struck with wonder. Mahādevī said, "Oh, Viṣṇu, what is there to wonder at? Every time the universe is subjected to creation, preservation and destruction, you are born thus due to the great power of the supreme spirit. It seems that you have forgotten those matters. Know that the supreme power is beyond qualities. We are all with qualities. Your main quality is Sattva. From your nave Brahmā will be born. His attribute is Rajoguṇa (activity, passion or motion). From the middle of the eyebrows of Brahmā, will be born Rudra, whose attribute will be Tāmasaguṇa (darkness). Brahmā, with the power of penance, will acquire the ability of creation and by his attribute of Rajoguṇa will create the world in the colour of blood. You will be the preserver of that world. The same world will be destroyed by Rudra at the end of the Kalpa (world age)".
     Accordingly from the nave of Viṣṇu a lotus grew up and in that lotus flower Brahmā took his form. The same Brahmadeva did penance before Mahāviṣṇu and Jagadambā, who were pleased at his penance and gave him all the boons he wanted. After that Brahmā began the work of creation. He created with his mind the Saptarṣis, (seven sages) and then the Prajāpatis (the lords of emanation). From them all the movables and the immovables in the universe came into existence. (Devī Bhāgavata, Skandha 7).
     In manusmṛti, Chapter 1, the following stanza about the creation of Brahmā occurs.
     "tadaṇḍamabhavad haimam sahasrāṃśusamaprabhaṃ / tasmin jajñe svayaṃ brahmā sarvalokapitāmahaḥ //"
     That egg was as radiant as the Sun, with the colour of gold. Brahmā the great grandfather of ev