Monier-Williams: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary (1872)

Based on Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London : 1872

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Sanskrit passages
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description:multibyte sequence:
long a ā
long A Ā
long i ī
long I Ī
long u ū
long U Ū
vocalic r
vocalic R
long vocalic r
vocalic l
vocalic L
long vocalic l
velar n
velar N
palatal n ñ
palatal N Ñ
retroflex t
retroflex T
retroflex d
retroflex D
retroflex n
retroflex N
palatal s ś
palatal S Ś
retroflex s
retroflex S
long e ē
long o ō
l underbar
r underbar
n underbar
k underbar
t underbar

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A WORK of the kind here submitted to the students of Sanskṛt must be left to prove its usefulness by actual experiment. Nevertheless the plan of the present Dictionary is so novel that I must crave permission to introduce it with a longer explanation than might otherwise be needed. To conduce to greater clearness I propose distributing my prefatory statements under the following separate heads:

1. Reasons for undertaking a New Sanskṛt Dictionary.

2. Plan and Arrangement of the Present Work.

3. Extent of Sanskṛt Literature comprehended.

4. Alphabet and System of Transliteration employed.

5. Principal Sources drawn upon in the Process of Compilation.

6. Aids and Encouragements received.

7. Defects and Inconsistencies acknowledged.

Reasons for undertaking a New Sanskṛt Dictionary.

In the forefront must be placed the growing importance assigned by philologists to the oldest branch of the great Indo-European speech-stem, of which English is a modern offshoot. An intricate language destined to occupy the foremost rank throughout Europe as an instrument of linguistic training needs greater facilities for its acquisition. Some may smile at the idea of any Oriental language acquiring greater weight as an instrument of training among Occidental peoples whose vigorous mental faculties require a more suitable discipline for their development. Be it remembered, however, that Sanskṛt is, in one sense, the property of Europe as well as of India. Its relationship to some of our own languages is as close as to some of the Hindū dialects. It is a better guide than either Greek or Latin to the structure, historical connection, and correlation of the whole Indo-European family. It is a more trustworthy authority in the solution of recondite philological problems. Its study involves a mental discipline not to be surpassed.

Not even the most superficial observe can possibly be blind to the educational movement now spreading everywhere. Perhaps, however, some of us, trained under the old system, are carcely yet alive to the forces which are at work for infusing new blood (if I may be allowed the phrase) into the whole body of our teaching. Not only must Greek and Latin be taught more thoroughly and scientifically, if they are to hold their own as the best trainers of thought and enforcers of accuracy*, but modern languages and modern literature can no longer be thrust aside or only employed to fill up the gaps in our system of instruction. All the nations of the civilized world are being drawn into closer intercommunion. The rapid advance of science in England, Germany, France, and Italy has forced natural science upon us as a neceassary element of all mental culture, making also an interchange of thought between these countries indispensable. Eastern languages too, both Semitic and Āryan, are pressing peremptorily on the attention of our Universities**. Hebrew and Armaic must now be studied by all our younger clergy, if they are to hold their own in the conflict of theological parties or present a bold front towards sceptical assailants. A knowledge of Arabic is essential to a right understanding of the literature, religion, and social institutions of the millions of our Muslim fellow-subjects. Some of the dialects of India must be mastered by all who have communication with the tens of millions of our Hindū brethren. Lastly, all the branches of the two great stems of speech are now proved to be so closely interdependent, and the permutations of sounds in passing through the varying organs of varying types of the human family are shewn to obey such curiously definite laws, that a new science has been established***. This science has for its field of investigation not any one particular language, but the whole area of human speech, and as it inquires into the laws governing the living organs of utterance as well as the living organic growth of the actual sounds themselves, may be said to trench not only on Ethnology, but even on Biology. This 'science of language' might with more propriety be called 'Glossology' than Philology. In its method of investigation it has much in common with the natural sciences, and though its analogy to these ought not to be strained beyond a mere analogy, yet as a veritable science dealing with one of the grandest distinctive attributes of human nature, it can no more be left out of any modern educational programme than any of the natural sciences properly so called. With the 'Glossologist' every spoken word is like a plant or animal in the hands of a Biologist; its birth, growth, transformations, and decay must all be accounted for: its whole structure dissected limb by limb; every appendage traced to its appropriate use and function; its deepest internal constitution analyzed.
*) Thoroughness in our teaching of Greek and Latin will never be effected until we lead our pupils to look more into the intinate internal constitution of these languages in their correlation to each other and to the other members of the Āryan family. To this end Sanskṛt is indispensable. French again will never be taught as it ought to be till our boys are made to understand its connection with Latin in every part of its grammatical structure. I hail such an excellent work as the 'Historical Grammar of the French Tongue by Auguste Brachet', translated by the Rev. G.W. Kitchin, as an evidence that we are beginning to realize the defects in our present system of linguistic training.
**) See the notes on the Semitic and Āryan languages at pp. viii, ix of this Preface. Cambridge is at this moment engaged in establishing both a Semitic and Indian languages Tripos. Although our system of 'Schools' at Oxford is somewhat different, yet, I hope, we shall not be behind the Sister University in our encouragement of these languages.
***) The debt which we English scholars owe to Professor Max Müller for having first introduced us to this science by his wellknown lectures, is too universally acknowledged to require notice here. I am not sure whether twelve lectures on the principles of linguistic science by William Dwight Whitney, Professor of Sanskṛti in Yale College, are quite so well known in this country. If they are not, I here commend them to all interested in the study of language, merely remarking that their excellence is too obvious to require any praise from me.

Will it be denied, then, that Sanskṛt is destined to increasing cultivation, as the one typical scientific language whose structure is a master-key to the structure of all languages, whose very name implies 'Synthesis', and whose literature, commencing with the Ṛg-veda about 1500 B.C., extends in a continuous line for nearly 3000 years, throwing a flood of light on the operation of linguistic laws?

In point of fact the Hindūs may be said to be the original inventors of the 'science of language.' Like the Greeks, they are the only nation who have worked out for themselves the laws of thought and of grammar independently. If their system of logic is inferior to that of Aristotle, they are unequalled in their examination into the constitution of speech. The name Vyākaraṇ, which they give to their grammar, implies 'decomposition' or 'resolution of a compound into its parts', just as Saṃskaraṇa implies the re-composition or re-construction of the same decomposed elements. Every single word in their classical language is referred to a Dhātu or Root, which is also a name for any constitutent elementary substance, whether of rocks or living organisms. In short, when we follow out their grammatical system in all the detail of its curious subtleties and techincalities, we seem to be engaged, like a Geologist, in splitting solid substances, or, like a Chemist, in some elaborate process of analysis.

[Page vii]
Having said so much in support of an effort to facilitate and generlize the study of Sanskṛt, I have now to state my reasons for having addressed myself to a task like the present.

It may not be generally known that the late Professor H.H. Wilson once intended the compilation of a Dictionary not wholly dissimilar in character and plan to that here offered to the students of Sanskṛt and its cognate languages. This I have heard from himself was what he intended by the last words of the Preface to his second edition, in which he stated that it would be his wish as Boden Professor to offer to the cultivators of Sanskṛt 'other and better assistance.'

It is perhaps also not known that he actually made some progress in carrying out this intention, though eventually debarred from its prosecution by his other numerous literary labours. He therefore, about the year 1852, when I had completed the printing of the English-Sanskṛt Dictionary compiled by me for the East-India Company, made over a large manuscript volume, containing the commencement of his new work, to me, with a request that I would continue it on the plan sketched out by himself. At the same time he generously presented me with a copious selection of examples and quotations made by Pandits at Calcutta, under his direction, from a considerable range of Sanskṛt literature. It has become necessary for me to state theses circumstances at the risk of being charged with egotism, because the publication of the first part of Professor Goldstücker's Dictionary has made Orientalists aware that Professor Wilson entrusted the printing of a third edition of his Dictionary to that learned scholar, whose recent death is felt by all Sanskṛtists to be an irreparable loss*. From what I have now notified, however, it will, I trust, be quite understood that the work committed to me by one who was first my master, and afterwards my wisest guide and truest friend, was not a new edition of his Dictionary, but an entire remodelling of his scheme of lexicography, consisting of a re-arrangement of all the words under Roots, according to native principles of etymology, with addition of the examples collected as above described. Having already completed the English-Sanskṛt part of a Dictionary of my own, I naturally undertook as a sequel the work thus assigned me, especially as the plan commended itself to my own judgement and precdilections. Moreover, I actually carried on the task for a considerable period between the intervals of other undertakings. Soon, however, it began to be manifest that the third edition of Professor Wilson's Dictionary was assuming, under Professor Goldstücker's editorship, almost interminable proportions, so as to become no longer a new edition of a previous Lexicon, but rather a many-volumed Encyclopaedia of Sanskṛt learning, which no one scholar, however persistent, could hope to carry beyond the letter A. At the same time the Sanskṛt-German Wörterbuch of Professors Böhtlingk and Roth, though conducted by two of the most energetic scholars of the day, and put forth with singular perseverance, appeared to be expanding into vast dimensions, so as to be quite beyond the compass of ordinary English students. These circumstances having forced themselves upon my observation, I suddenly determined to abandon the design of a wholly Root-arranged Dictionary--which could only be useful, like the works above-named, to the highest class of scholars--and to commence a work on a more practical plan, which, although raised as far as my powers went, to the level of modern scholarship, so as to be a sufficiently trustworthy aid in studying the chief departments of literature, including the Veda, should yet be procurable at a moderate cost, and not extend beyond the limits of one compact volume. This leads me therefore to
*) It is stated in a notice of the late Professor Goldstücker's life, which appeared in a recent number of a well-known scientific periodical, that many thousands of notes and references for the new edition of Wilson's Sanskṛt Dictionary and other works, the result of an unremitting study of the MSS. treasures at the India House &c., are left behind by Professor Goldstücker. With reference to this matter, I ought in justice to the present learned and courteous librarian of the India Office, as well as in justice to my own Dictionary, to put on record, that soon after his appointment, Dr. Rost offered to allow me also the use of any of these MSS. treasures if I would name any likely to be useful to myself. Knowing, however, that about eighty MSS., including those I needed most, were doing good service at the house of Professor Goldstücker, aiding him day by day in the elaboration of his Dictionary, I did not feel justified in interrupting the prosecution of so large a work for the sake of any advantage that might have accrued to my own less weighty performance. Moreover, I felt that I could not in justice interrupt the continuity of Professor Goldstücker's labours, when I had the use of the Wilsonian Collection belonging to the Bodleian, which, however inferior to those at the India Office in the departments required by a lexicographer, were still freely placed at my command by our own learned and obliging librarian, the Rev. H. O. Coxe.

Plan and Arrangement of the Present Work.

Those who appreciate the value of Sanskṛt in its bearing on the philosophy of language will understand my motive in endeavouring so to arrange this lexicon as to exhibit most effectively that peculiarity of construction which distinguishes the highest type of the great Indo-European line of speech. Such persons will comprehend without much explanation the plan pursued by me throughout these pages in the collocation of words connected by mutual affinities. For the benefit, however, of younger students, I now proceed briefly to point out the one grand distinctive peculiarity of the Āryan dialects which the arrangement of the present Dictionary is intended to demonstrate--a peculiarity separating them by a sharp line of demarcation from the other great family of human speech usually called Semitic*.
*) I use the term 'Semitic' out of deference to established usage, though it leads to some confusion of ideas, because if 'Semitic', or mroe properly 'Shemitic', be used for the languages of the descendants of Shem, then 'Japhetic' (instead of 'Āryan') should be used for the descendants of Japhet. We cannot, however, give up the epithet Āryan (from the Sanskṛt ārya, 'noble') for our own Indo-European languages, suited as it certainly is to that noblest of all families of speech. The Rev. F.W. Farrar suggests adopting the term 'Syro-Arabian' as well as Semitic for the other family. Still the name Semitic may well be applied to Hebrew, Aramaic [including perhaps one set of cuneiform inscriptions, Chaldee and Syriac], and Arabic, because in the tenth chapter of Genesis, Shem is represented as father of Elam (who peopled Elymais), Assur (Assyria), Lud (Lydia), Aram (Syria), and of Arphaxad, grandfather of Eber, from whom came the Hebrews--or Trans-Euphratian race, the name Hebrew really meaning 'one who lives beyond a river'--and Joktan, father of Sheba, father of Himyar, whence came the Arabians. Mr. Farrar states in his useful lectures that the Semitic nations may number about 40 millions, compared with about 400 millions of the Indo-Europeans. Among Semitic races come the people of Abyssinia. These have special languages of their own, viz. the Ethiopic or Geez, which is their sacred and literary language only, and the spoken dialects called Tigre, Tigriña, for the north and north-east, and Amharic, for the centre and south; the former being nearer to Ethiopic than the latter, and all being connected with the Semitic, as derived through the ancient Himyaritic Arabic of South Arabia (Yaman).

Happily it is now a familiar fact to most educated persons that the Indo-European or Aryan languages (of which Sanskṛt is the eldest sister*, and English one of the youngest) proceeded from a common but nameless and unknown parent, whose very home in Asia cannot be absolutely fixed, though the locality may conjecturally be placed somewhere in the region of Bokhāra, near the river Oxus. From this centre radiated, as it were, eight principal lines of speech; first, the two Asiatic lines, 1. Indian, 2. Īrānian, (the former eventually comprising Sanskṛt, Pāli, Prākṛt, and the modern Prākṛts or spoken languages of the Hindūs, such as Hindī, Marāṭhī, Gujarātī, Bengālī, &c.; the latter comprising (a) Zand, old Persian, Pahlavī, modern Persian, and Puṣtū; (b) Armenian); and then the six European lines, viz. 1. Keltic, 2. Hellenic, 3. Italic, 4. Teutonic, 5. Slavonic, 6. Lithuanian, each branching into various sub-lines or ramifications as exhibited in the present languages of Europe**. Now, if the question be asked, What most striking feature distinguishes all these languages from the Semitic? My answer is, that the main distinction lies in the character of their roots or radical sounds; for although both Āryan and Semitic forms of speech are called 'inflective'***, it should be well understood that the inflectiveness of the root in the two cases implies two wholly different processes.
*) Though the younger sisters sometimes preserve older forms.
**) As this is the first Oriental Dictionary put forth by any English scholar which attempts to introduce abundant comparisons between the various members of the Indo-European family, I here append a brief account of the Āryan cognate languages beginning with the Indian. 1. By Pāli or Pālī is meant one of the oldest forms of the ancient provincial Hindū-ī language of which Sanskṛt is the learned form, (see p. xiii of Preface.) It must have been spoken either in Magadha or in some district not far from Oude, where Buddha flourished, and being carried by the Buddhists into Ceylon became their sacred language, and is preserved in their canonical scriptures called Tri-piṭaka. Prākṛt is the name given to other and later provincial forms of Sanskṛt, which were the precursors and parents of the present Hindū dialects, Hindī, Marāṭhī, &c., see note, p. xvii. These latter may be called modern Prākṛts. 2. Now as to the Īrānian: (a) Zand or Zend (old Bactrian) is to old Persian and Pahlavī what Sanskṛt is to Pāli and Prākṛt. It is that ancient language of Persia in which the sacred books are written, called Zand Avastā, belonging to the Pārsīs (or fugitives from Persia scattered on the coast of India, and still believers in the religion founded by Zardusht or Zoroaster). Old Persian is a name given to the dialect preserved in one set of cuneiform inscriptions, about contemporaneous with Zand. Pahlavī (sometimes written Pehlevī) is a later Īrānian dialect, which once possessed an extensive literature. A more recent Īrānian dialect is Pārsī or Pāzand, leading to the modern Persian which sprang up in Perisia not long after the Muhammadan conquest (about A.D. 1000), the earliest form of which, as represented in the Ṣāh-nāmah of Firdausī, has little admixture of Arbic, while the later is flooded with it. Puṣtū is the present language of Afghānistān. (b) Armenian is of course the language of Armenia; it has two forms the old Armenian or literary language, which is dead, and the modern Armenian, said to be split into four dialects containing many Turkish words. Connected with these is the Ossetic of the Ossetes, a Caucasian tribe. We now come to the six European lines: 1. The Keltic or Celtic (of the [greek] Herod. II. 33) is the oldest of the Āryan family in Europe, and as it has had the longest life, so it presents the greatest divergence from Sanskṛt: it has been driven into a corner of the continent, viz. Brittany, by Romanic French, and into the extremities of Cornwall, Wales, Ireland, and the Highlands of Scotland by Germanic English: it has two lines, (a) the principal Keltic or Gaelic (of the Galli), comprising the Irish, Highland-Scotch, and Manx, of which the Irish is most interesting in relation to Sanskṛt; (b) the Kymric form of Keltic, including Welsh, Cornish (now extinct), and Armorican, which last is the name given to the language of Brittany. 2. The Hellenic comprises ancient Greek with its dialects (most interesting in its close affinity to Sanskṛt, and most important in its bearing on the original of the New Testament, though far less remarkable in its bearing on other European languages than Latin), and modern Greek usually called Romanic (infinitely nearer to the ancient Greek than the Romanic languages are to Latin). 3. The Italic comprises, of course, Latin with its Romanic (or Roamance) offspring, viz. Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Wallachian, and Provencal; and includes some old Italian diatlects, such as the Oscan of the Samnites in southern Italy, Umbrian spoken in north-eastern Italy and Sabine. 4. The Teutonic comprises (a) Gothic, which is the Sanskṛt of the Teutonic languages, especially of Low German; it was spoken by the ancient Gothic peoples who belonged to the Germanic race, and were divided into eastern and western Goths; a part of the latter being allowed by the Romans to settle in the province of Moesia, near the mouth of the Danube, became converts to Christinity, and happily their bishop Ulfilas fixed their language by translating nearly all the Bible; a remnant of his translation has been preserved, otherwise this dialect, sometimes called Moeso-Gothic, would have been lost, and with it a most important key to Teutonic philology: (b) German, divided into two branches, viz. 1st, Low German, which is subdivided into four, viz. Saxon (sometimes called Old Saxon), leading to Anglo-Saxon and English; Frisian, once largely spoken by the Frisian tribes (Lat. Frisii) who dwelt on the north-west coast of Germany, and closely connected with English; Dutch, current of course in Holland; Flemish, spoken in that part of Belgium called Flanders; 2ndly, High German, subdivided into old, middle, and new, the last bringing us to modern German: (c) Scandinavian, divided into four, viz. Norse, i. e. old and new Icelandic (nearly alike and most valuable as preserving the original structure of the whole Scandinavian group), Swedish, Norwegian, and Danish, the two latter only differing in pronunciation. 5. The Slavonic comprises (a) old Slavonic or old Bulgarian, being to the Slavonic what Gothic is to the Teutonic, and similarly preserved in a translation of the Bible made by Cyril: (b) Russian, divided into Russian proper, Little Russian: (c) Polish, with other less noticeable Slavonic dialects, viz. Polabian, Bohemian, Sorbian, Servian, Kroatian, and Slovenian. 6. The Lithuanian is sometimes regarded as a branch of the Slavonic line, to which it is more nearly related than to the Teutonic; it is interesting as coming nearer to Sanskṛt in some of its forms than any other member of the Āryan family, and as having a dual, like the Gothic, and seven cases; it is still spoken by a limited number in Russian and Prussian provinces on the coast of the Baltic, but is disappearing before Russian and German; a more modern form of it is Lettish, spoken in Livonia: another kindred dialect is Old Prussian, once spoken in north-eastern Prussia, but now extinct.
***) As distinguished from 'monosyllabic', like the Chinese; and 'agglutinative', like the Drāviḍian, Turkish, and other members of an immense class of languages in which the termination is easily separable from the body of the word. These are still called by some Tūrānian (from Tūr, eldest, son of Farīdūn, to whom he assigned Turkistān, thence called Tūrān).

Let me first briefly advert to the Semitic form. A Semitic root then may be described as a kind of hard frame-work consisting generally of three consonants which resemble three sliding but inflexible upright limbs, moveable hither and thither to admit on either side the intervenient vowels and certain merely ancillary consonants, usually called 'servile.' These subservient letter are, it is true, of the utmost importance to the diverse colouring of the radical idea, and the perfect precision of their operation is noteworthy, but their presence within and without the rigid frame of the root is, so to speak, almost overpowered by the ever prominent consonantal skeleton. In illustration of this we may take the Arabic triliteral root KTB, using capitals for these radical consonants to indicate their prominence; the third pers. sing. past tense is KaTaBa, 'he wrote', and from the same three consonants, by means of various vowels and servile letters, are developed a number of other forms, of which the following are specimens: KaTB, writing; KāTiB, a writer; maKTūB, written; taKTīB, causing to write; muKāTaBat, corresponding by letter; iKTāB, dictating; taKāTuB, writing to one another; mutaKāTiB, one who keeps up a correspondence; maKTaB, the place of writing, a writing-school; KiTāB, a book; KiTBat or KiTāBat, inscription*.
*) For a further insight into these Arabic formations, the student is referred to a chapter on the use of Arabic words in my 'Practical Hindūstānī Grammar', published by Longman & Co.

[Page x]
An Āryan root on the other hand, as best typified by a Sanskṛt radical, is generally a single monosyllable, which may be compared to a malleable substance capable of being drawn out to express every modification of an original conception. And this malleability, as it were, arises chiefly from the circumstance that the vowel is recognized as a constituent part of the radical, blending with its very substance, and even sometimes standing alone as itself the only root. Sanskṛt exhibits better than any other member of the Aryan line of speech this characteristic root-expansibility. More than this, it exemplifies better than any other that excessive root-accretiveness (if I may use the term) by which not only terminations and prefixes are grafted upon or welded into the original monosyllabic stock, but affix is affixed to affix, prefix is prefixed to prefix, derivative is derived from derivative, compound is compounded with compound in an almost interminable chain. In illustration of this the student is referred to such roots as 1. kṛ, p. 245; 1. bhū, p. 714; 1. śru, p. 1026; 1. sthā, p. 1145 of this volume.

Hence it becomes evident that the original plan of Professor Wilson, by which every single word would have been represented in regular sequence, growing, as it were, from its own parent stem, would have realized the true conception of a perfect Sanskṛt Dictionary. Verily if Greek lexicography has been occasionally so treated, much more has Sanskṛt, the great type of linguistic constructiveness, a right so to be.

I have now to show how far the present work satisfies this ideal. It is sometimes calculated, that there are about two thousand distinct roots in this language. If it be supposed that there are about eighty thousand distinct words growing out of these two thousand roots, a Dictionary on the usual alphabetical plan must have consisted of a series of eighty thousand monographs, each independent of the other; and, indeed, such a Dictionary might have been thought most agreeable to the common notion of a really practical work. It seemed to me, however, that a Dictionary so planned would have afforded little effective aid to the study of Sanskṛt, in its connection with comparative philology. On the other hand, it must be confessed that the idea of taking root by root, and writing, as it were, two thousand biographies, each giving a connected history of a distinct family allied together by a common pedigree was a philological dream too unpractical to be wholly realized. Some middle course, therefore, satisfying the requirements both of philology and of ordinary practice seemed most to be desired, and the following publication, though not answering the perfect philological ideal, is intended as an attempt at combining a partial root-arrangement with a convenient alphabetical order suited to ready reference.

In unison with this design, the roots of the language--always brought prominently before the eye by large Nāgarī type--will be found treated more exhaustively in the present work, both as regards the meanings given and the forms exhibited, than in any other Sanskṛt-English Dictionary yet published*. It is evident that a great many of these roots, or Dhātus, as they are called by native lexicographers, are not really elementary radicals, but compounds or developments of simpler elements. I have not always ventured to pronounce categorically as to which of two or more roots is the simplest form, but when roots are evidently allied, their connection is conspicuously indicated in the following pages. Thus I hope to have drawn attention to a point which English scholars have hitherto greatly overlooked**.
*)I cannot sufficiently acknowledge my debt to Westergard's Radices. The copy I have had for about thirty years tells a tale of constant reference. Indeed we have to thank Danish, quite as much as German scholars, for what they have done towards promoting linguistic culture.
**) The number of distinct radical forms in Wilkins' collection is 1750, but as many forms having the same sound have different meanings, and are conjugated differently, they are held to be distinct roots, and the number is thereby swelled to 2490. Probably, the real number of elementary radicals in Sanskṛt might be reduced to a comparatively small catalogue. Some roots containing dentals have been cerebralized or vice versa, and both forms are allowed to co-exist, as bhan and bhaṇ, dhan and dhaṇ; others whose initials are aspirated consonants have passed into other aspirated consonants or retained only the aspirate; and all forms co-exist in bhṛ, dhṛ, dhvṛ, hvṛ, &c. Again, such a root as svad is probably nothing but a compound of su and root ad, and such roots as stubh, stumbh, stambh are plainly mere modifications of each other.

[Page xi]
Furthermore, the plan now first carried out of arranging all verbs formed from roots by prefixing prepositions in their proper alphabetical order and at the head of their own deriviatives, will be noted as a marked feature of originality and individuality. The labour entailed by the simple process of thus re-arranging the verbs in a languages sor rich in prepositions, can only be understood by other lexicographers*. But even this re-arrangement has not caused so much difficulty as the attempt to exhibit what may be termed the kinship of words, by distributing the greater part of the vocabulary of the language in families, or rather, if I may so express myself, in family-groups**. These groups are, as far as possible, collected under roots or leading words, which stand, as it were, at the head of the family, and are always distinguished from the rest by Nāgarī type in the manner more fully explained in the table of directions at the end of the Preface. Such a re-distribution of the vocabulary has often necessitated the separation of roots and homonyms under two, three, or more heads, each with its train of derivatives, subderivatives, and associated words, which in other Dictionaries would be brought together under one article***. An abundant return, however, has been reaped, if philological precision has been thus promoted, and facility afforded for viewing synoptically and comparing together the etymological history of the words so collocated.
*) Why should not Sanskṛt lexicons have been brought into harmony with Greek in this respect long ere this? Greek is almost as free in its use of prepositions, e. g. [greek]
**) Even in English this might advantageously be done, as, for example, it would be very instructive to see such words as share, shire, shore, shears, &c. arranged under 'shear', to cut off, separate. Richardson in his great Dictionary has to a certain extent carried out this idea. See on this subject 'Archbishop Trench on the Study of Words.'
***) See, for example, the roots 1. su, 2. su, 3. su, 4. su, at p. 1117, and 1. kāla, 2. kāla, at pp. 224, 225.

Besides the obvious advantage of this arrangement to the philologically-minded student, great saving of space has been thus effected; all necessity for repeating derivations under each head being thus avoided, and the power gained of leaving many meanings to be inferred from one or other member of a group, instead of constantly reiterating them. For it must be borne in mind that all the series included under the same heading in Nāgarī type are to be regarded as cohering; so that all derivatives, whether primary or secondary, and all compound words following in regular sequence, may be studied in their mutual bearing and correlation both as illustrating each other and as contributing to throw light on the modifications of meaning evolved from the radical idea. These meanings, too, have not been thrown together in a heap, as they have been hitherto in some Oriental Dictionaries, but an attempt has been made to set them forth according to their logical development. The further advantage gained in space by the free use of Roman type will be explained under Section 4.

Conspicuously, again, in an enumeration of the more noteworthy features of the present publication, should certainly be placed the introduction of abundant comparisons from cognate languages, which no other Lexicon published by English scholars has, I believe, hither to attemtpted to the same extent. I must at once distinctly notify that for these comparisons I have not trusted to my own judgment, but have followed the authority of the eminent German scholars whose names will be mentioned subsequently.

Another distinctive characteristic of this Dictionary consists in the articles on mythology, literature, religion, and philosophy, which will be found scattered everywhere throughout its pages. By consulting Professor Aufrecht's catalogues, Dr. Ballantyne's works, Dr. Fitz-Edward Hall's writings, Dr. Muir's Sanskṛt Texts, Professor M. Müller's Ancient Sanskṛt Literature, Dr. Weber's Indische Studien, Wilson's Viṣṇu-Purāṇa, some Oriental Articles in Chambers'Encyclopaedia--written, I believe, by the late Professor Goldstücker,--and my own collection of notes, I have been able to furnish the student with much valuable information on many subjects not hitherto treated of in any Dictionary. Let him observe, for instance, what is written under the words Viṣṇu, Śiva, Veda, Manas, Sāman, Soma, Sāṅkhya, Sauptika-parvan. It will be doubtless said that too many names of persons, places, and books are introduced. In excuse I have to plead that greater liberty ought to be allowed to a Sanskṛt Dictionary in this respect than to Greek and Latin Lexicons, because Oriental alphabets have no capital letters. As to the names of books, it may often be useful to have attention drawn to works, still unprinted, ascertained to exist either in Europe or India.

It may perhaps be objected that there are too many compound words; but again it may be urged that a Sanskṛt Dictionary must not be tried by ordinary laws in this respect, for here again Sanskṛt stands eminently forth as the grand typical representative of the whole Āryan line of speech, which is throughout distinguished by its love of composition. To exclude compounds from a Sanskṛt Lexicon, would be, so to speak, to 'Unsanskṛtize' it. Not only are there certain compounds quite peculiar to Sanskṛt, but in the grammar composition almost takes the place of syntax, and the various kinds of compound words are classified and defined with greater subtlety and minuteness than would be possible in any other known language of the world. When a student is in doubt whether to translate compounds like indra-śatru as Bahuvrīhis or Tatpuruṣas, the Dictionary is surely bound to aid in clearing up his perplexities. Moreover, as few examples are given or passages quoted in the present work, a limited admission of compounds, under certain restrictions, serves to illustrate the use of a leading word; for to such words, let it be observed, they have always been subordinated. After I had formulated my plan, and a large portion of the work was in type, the Sanskṛt Dictionary of Professor Benfey appeared*, and I was glad to find that, working independently, I had devised a system supported in some of these particulars by that philologist. All must agree that as Sanskṛt exceeds every other language in its infinite capacity for composition, no Sanskṛt Lexicon, if it admits compounds at all, ought to treat them as if they were independent enties entitled to a separate existence of their own.
*) The Sanskṛt-French Dictionary of M. Emile Burnouf, which also appeared after much of my work was in type, is an independent working out of some ideas similar to my own.

Nevertheless I could never have followed Professor Benfey in placing compound words under their last member. This method, however philosophical, seems to sacrifice at the shrine of logical propriety what I have set before myself as a paramount consideration in arranging my own Dictionary--facility of reference. For a further explanation of points of detail the student is referred to the table of directions at the end of the Preface. I now therefore pass on to my third point.

Extent of Sanskṛt Literature comprehended.

I have sometimes been gravely asked by men learned in all the classical lore of Europe, Has Sanskṛt any literature? Such a question proves the urgent need for a work like the present, which aims at facilitating and making more general the study of a language closely allied to our own, and still more closely connected with the spoken dialects of our great Indian Empire--a language, therefore, about whose history every well-educated Englishman ought surely to know something.

Conscious, then, as my present office has made me of the gerneral ignorance prevalent on Indian subjects, I may be excused if I preface this part of my Introduction by stating precisely what I conceive to me implied by the words Sanskṛt and Sanskṛt literature. By Sanskṛt, then, is not meant any really spoken language of India or even, I hold, any once generally spoken language. What the word Sanskṛt properly represents is, I conceive, a certain form of the language brought by the Indian branch of the great Āryan race into India, the ancient spoken language of the Hindūs being more suitably styled Hindū-ī, just as its principal later development is called Hindī*. For in fact that happened in India which has come to pass in all civilized countries. The spoken vernacular of the people has separated into two lines, the one elaborated by the learned, the other popularized and variously provincialized by the unlearned**. In India, however, from the greater exclusiveness of the educated few, the greater ignorance of the masses and the desire of a bigoted priesthood to keep the key of knowledge in their own possession, this separation became more marked, more diversified, and progressively intensified. Hence, the very grammar which with other nations was regarded only as a means to an end, came to be treated by Indian Paṇḍits as the end itself, and was subtilized into an intricate science, fenced round by a bristing barrier of technicalities. The language, too, elaborated pari passu with the grammar, rejected the natural name of Hindū-ī, or 'the speech of the Hindūs', and adopted an artificial designation, viz. Sanskṛta, or 'the perfectly constructed speech', to denote its complete severance from the common tongue (called by contrast Prākṛta), and its exclusive dedication to literary and religious purposes. This of itself is a remarkable circumstance; for although something similar has happened in Europe, yet we do not find that Latin and Greek ceased to be called Latin and Greek when they became the language of the learned, any more than we have at present two names for the common and literary languages of modern nations. These remarks will perhaps conduce to a right appreciation of the nature of a literature which, although elaborated by a learned caste, is still the only real literature of the Hindū race, the vernaculars having hitherto produced little worthy of consideration.
*) I use the word Hindū-ī as a convenient term for the ancient Bhāṣā of the Āryan settlers in the neighbourhood of the Sindhu or rather of the Hapta Hendu = sapta sindhavas. It may be thought that this Bhāṣā was identical with the language of the Vedic hymns. But even Vedic Sanskṛt represents a considerable amount of elaboration scarcely compatible with the notion of a vernacular dialect (as, for example, in the use of complicated grammatical forms like Intensives). Pāṇini, in distinguishing between the common language and the Vedic, uses the terms Bhāṣā and Loka.
**) Of course the provincialized Prākṛts, though not, as I conceive, derived directly from the learned language, borrowed largely from the Sanskṛt after it was thus elaborated.

Sanskṛt literature, it should be remembered, embraces two distinct periods, Vedic and postVedic. The former, beginning with the Ṛg-veda, and extending through the other three Vedas (viz. the Yajur-veda, Sāma-veda, and Atharva-veda), with their Brāhmaṇas, Upaniṣads, and Sūtras, is most valuable to philologists as presenting them with the nearest approach to the original Āryan language, its earlier works being composed in an ancient form of Sanskṛt, which is to the later what Chaucer's writings are to modern English. The latter commencing with the Code of Manu, with its train of subsequent important law-books, and extending through the six systems of philosophy*, the vast grammatical literature, the immense epics**, the lyric, erotic, and didactic poems, the Nīti-śāstras, moral tales and apothegms, the dramas, the various treatises on mathematics, rhetoric, prosody, music, medicine, &c., brings us at last to the eighteen Purāṇas with their succeeding Upa-Purāṇas, and the more recent Tantras, all of which are worthy of study as the great repositories of the modern mythologies and popular creeds of India. No one person, indeed, with the limited powers of mind and body, can hope to master more than one or two departments of so vast a range, in which scarcely a subject can be named, with the single exception of Historiography, not furnishing a greater number of treatises than any other language of the ancient world. In some subjects too, especially in poetical descriptions of nature and domestic affection, Indian work do not suffer by a comparison with the best specimens of Greece and Rome, while in the wisdom, depth, and shrewdness of their moral apothegms they are unrivalled. More than this, the learned Hindūs had probably made great advances in astronomy, algebra, arithmetic, botany, and medicine, not to mention their admitted superiority in grammar, long before any of these sciences were cultivated by the most ancient nations of Europe. Hence it has happened that I have been painfully reminded during the progress of this Dictionary that a Sanskṛt lexicographer ought to aim at a kind of quasi omniscience. Nor will any previous classical education, such at least as has been hitherto usual, enable him to explain correctly the scientific expressions which--not borrowed from the Greeks--are liable to be brought before him. To pretend therefore that the present work, although probably containing nearly three times as much matter as any other Sanskṛt Dictionary yet published (excepting of course the great Thesaurus of Professors Böhtlingk and Roth, and that of Rādhākānta-deva), is competent to satisfy the student in every branch of Sanskṛt literature, would manifestly display either ignorance or conceit. Perhaps the departments in which it must be admitted to be weakest are those of the Veda and philosophy with their respective native commentaries. Still an attempt has been made to supply what has hitherto been almost entirely neglected by English lexicographers.
*) The systems of philosophy are properly only three: 1. the Nyāya by Gautama, which is the most practical, and contains the Hindū system of logic; 2. the Sāṅkhya by Kapila, which is dualistic, asserting the separate existence of soul and matter; 3. the Vedānta by Vyāsa or Bādarāyaṇa, which asserts the unity of all being: but of each of these respectively there are branches, viz. (a) the Vaiśeṣika by Kaṇāda; (b) the Yoga by Patañjali; (c) the Pūrva-mīmāṃsā by Jaimini.
**) Some idea of the extent of Sanskṛt literature may be gained by comparing the two great epic or heroic poems called the Mahā-bhārata and Rāmāyaṇa with the Iliad and Odyssey, as I have attempted to do in the small volume called 'Indian Epic Poetry', published by Messrs. Williams and Norgate. The Mahā-bhārata, printed at Calcutta, contains 107,389 verses, each verse being supposed to consist of two lines. See also my edition of the 'Story of Nala', published at the Clarendon Press.

In truth, I have felt that no modern Lexicon ought to exclude Vedic words, important as these are in their philological bearings. I must nevertheless plainly confess that the interpretation of these words is often so doubtful--often so purely tentative--that I have been sorely perplexed in my efforts to furnish the student with trustworthy renderings. Of course with the Veda, as with every other profoundly obscure subject, there is a natural craving for an infallible guide. At the same time no priestly infallibility is here thought to be attainable; for although the great Brāhman and Ācārya, Sāyaṇa, lived about five hundred years ago at Vijaya-nagara, an ancient Indian capital and seat of learning, yet this eminent authority has been altogether put out of court by modern philological critics. When, however, it is found that modern scholars themselves frequently differ as much from each other as they do from that once trusted and certainly most learned Brāhman, it seems hopeless to expect security from error in any particular sect or section of modern critics and philologists. Notwithstanding these perplexities, I cannot express too strongly my appreciation of what German scholars have effected in this difficult field of research, and my gratitude for the aid received from the interpretations of Professors Böhtlingk and Roth. The authority of these scholars has been generally followed by me, though I have been careful to give, in addition, the renderings of Sāyaṇa (according to Professor Max Müller's edition*), feeling, as I do, rather enthusiastically that this great native commentator, even if he occasionally misleads, ought never to be ignored.
*) It should be mentioned, however, that for the latter part of the Ṛg-veda I have not had the advantage of Professor Max Müller's editorial skill. The first volume of his edition of this work, with Sāyaṇa's commentary, was brought out under the patronage of the East India Company in 1849. Three other volumes have since appeared, completing as far as the end of the eighth Maṇḍala. For the remainder I have been obliged to trust to an imperfect MS. of Sāyaṇa's commentary in the Wilsonian Collection belonging to the Bodleian Library. This is the only Ṛg-veda MS. of any value that I have had it in my power to employ, as I have not been able to consult the excellent MSS. belonging to the India Office Library, which others had a greater right to use than myself. I am informed that a fifth volume of the Ṛg-veda is about to appear.

The foregoing sketch of the nature of Sanskṛt literature will, I trust, explain the impossibility of covering its vast area by any Dictionary in one volume. It will also explain my non-admission into my pages of the ample store of examples made over to me by my predecessor, the late Professor H.H. Wilson. These would, at least, have swelled out my one compact volume to an inconvenient size, if they had not expanded it into two. For the same reason I have been obliged, as a rule, to forego authenticating my meanings by more than a few scattered references either to passages in the literature or to the modern authorities on which I have depended for guidance. In this I had better ground for abstention than my predecessor, seeing that the great work of Professors Böhtlingk and Roth, the completion of which may be looked for in a few years, will provide advanced scholars with abundant examples and references to every department of the literature. I should and that as my main object has been to facilitate and generalize the study of a difficult language, I have of course abstained from complicating the typography of this volume by placing accents on Vedic words*. For a knowledge of these the scholar must again apply to the great German Wörterbuch.
*) See the note on Vedic accents, p. xix of this Preface.

I come in the next place to a feature in the present publication which, as the four Governments of Indian have liberally patronized this work, demands an ample explanation.

Alphabet and System of Transliteration employed.

I fear the great Indian Paṇḍits, if they deem this Dictionary worthy of their notice, will be somewhat surprised that a work intended as an aid to the study of their literature should exhibit their venerable Sanskṛt clothed in a modern European dress*. Let me then crave leave to remind them that the Romanized character employed in these pages will be found, if its history be investigated, to be neither modern nor European, and may possibly turn out to be even more ancient than their sacred Nāgarī, and even more suited to the expression of their sacred Sanskṛt.
*) Though some Sanskṛt books--such as Profiessor Aufrecht's Ṛg-veda--printed in the Roman character are much used by European scholars, it si doubtful whether these have obtained even a limited circulation in India. I trust, therefore, that when this volume falls into the hands of any great Paṇḍit, to whom one of our Indian Governments may present it, he will not consider that I am degrading Sanskṛt like the man who pollutes cow's milk by putting it into a dog's skin. nahi pūtaṃ syād go-kṣīraṃ śva-dṛtau dhṛtam; cf. Muir's Sanskṛt Texts, vol. ii. p. 53, note 97. Of course I know that many native books are printed in which Sanskṛt words are transliterated by Roman letters, but my desire is to see some standard texts accurately printed in this character and circulated throughout India. At present the loose and careless way in which the Roman alphabet is applied tends to bring the whole system into disrepute. This is exemplified in writing the names of places and persons as well as in books. A little work called the Durga-puja [sic] by Pratapachandra Ghosha has just been received by me from Calcutta. It contains much useful information, but here we have Sanskṛt words transliterated without any attempt at exactness, e. g. Devi, Durga, puja, Purana, ashtami, Krshna, Savitri, and numberless others.

After all, we English are not only Eastern in our origin, but in many of our most important surroundings. First, we have received our religion and our Bible through an Eastern people; next, our language is certainly Asiatic in its affinities; thirdly, we are known to have derived our invaluable decimal notation, commonly called the ten Arabic numerals, from India through the Arabs; lastly, the written symbols which I am now employing, and by which this useful vernacular of ours is, as it were, materialized and sent to the ends of the earth, are certainly Asiatic too.

The East is, we must candidly own, the first source of all our light. We cannot, indeed, localize in Asia the precise spot whence issued the springs of that grand flow of speech which spread in successive waves--commencing with the Keltic--over the whole area of Europe; but the local source of the first alphabet, without which each of these waves of speech must have been in the end swallowed up and lost in its successor, is well known to have been Phoenicia. The great centre of the commerce of antiquity naturally gave birth to what was felt to be indispensable to the intercommunion of national as well as individual life. By the very necessities of trade Phoenicia invented the first, so to speak, locomotive power which enabled language, embodied in a kind of material form, to be in a manner exported to distant countries and bartered, like any other commodity, for language imported in return.

Probably the first Phoenician graphic signs were, like the Chinese, of an ideographic character, but of this there is said to be no certain evidence. However that may be, it is tolerably clear that the first Phoenician graphic system, about which we know anything, had not advanced beyond the second stage of alphabetic progress. It was, in fact, essentially syllabic, and even to this day the Semitic alphabets coming immediately from it--viz. the Hebrew, Syriac, and Arabic--are very little better than syllabic systems. Such an alphabet then, though well suited to Eastern calligraphic tastes, was manifestly imperfect. It provided chiefly for consonants, as if they were the lords of sound, instead of its dependents, and often its impediments. The real want for civilized nations, eager for intercommunication, was a phonetic alphabet, by which neither ideas nor consonants, but rather sounds should be symbolized. As therefore vowels are the only real representatives of sound, and indeed the very life of the word which without them would be a mere hard and helpless skeleton, it was essential to an effective phonetic system of graphic symbols that vowels should have at least as prominent a position in a written word as their attendant consonants. This was very soon felt by the Greeks, who no sooner received a consonantal alphabet from Phoenicia than they began to remedy its defects, and forthwith invented a system by which the vowel sounds were properly symbolized and distributed side by side with their consonantal fellows --not as mere appendages, but as close companions. The Greek expansion of the Phoenician alphabet was still further developed by the more practical Romans, and by them spread everywhere throughout Europe*.
*) The Romans, however, having no proper aspirated consonantal sounds, rejected the Greek [greek] and to represent these unhappily originated the clumsy th, ph, ch, writing also ps for [greek]

Now, although the Semitic origin of Indian alphabets has not yet been satisfactorily proved, it is still probable that the Eastern branch of the Āryan stock which settled down in India, derived their first idea of symbolizing language by written marks indirectly from Phoenicia through some neighbouring country whose system was borrowed from Semitic models*. They appear also, like the Greeks, to have felt the defects of a syllabic or merely consonantal method, and just as they worked out for themselves their own theory of grammar, so they elaborated for themselves their own 'vowelized' system of writing. Note, however, how the subtle-minded Hindūs, working out their own ideas in their own philosophical way, have produced an alphabet, not only free from the defects of the Semitic, but so overdone in its abundance of vowel symbols and its theory of the mutual relationship of vowels and consonants, that this very elaboration becomes practically a serious hindrance.
*) According to Mr. Edward Thomas (Prinsep's Indian Antiquities, vol. ii. p. 42), the theory by which Professor Weber has sought to establish a Phoenician origin for the Indian alphabets is untenable. There are, however, two sets of Buddhist inscriptions, and that of Kapurdigiri is decidedly traceable to a Phoenician source. Those on the rock of Girnar (Giri-nagara) in Kattywar, Gujarāt, which are said to be most important in their relation to the present Indian alphabets, are not so clearly traceable. Mr. Thomas appears to have good ground for thinking that many of the Nāgarī letters were derived from the Drāviḍians of the South.

Let me for the benefit of those who may use this Dictionary for philological purposes, without having acquired a complete familiarity with the Nāgarī letters, briefly point out the most conspicuous merits and demerits of the European and Indian systems.

From what I have before advanced, it will, I think, be clear that it ought to be a fixed rule in all good alphabets, 1st, That every vowel, short and long, should be properly symbolized and admitted to close companionship with its consonant, no vowel symbol being ever allowed to stand for any other vowel sound but its own. For example, the 'a' sound of 'ka' should be properly symbolized; it should not be supposed to inhere in 'k;' nor should it be represented by a mere dot or stroke, above or below the 'k', as if it were a simple appendage to the consonant, as in Semitic alphabets. Nor should the symbol 'a' be allowed to stand for different vowel sound short and long, as in 'tape', 'tap', 'tall', 'tar', 'mortar', in every one of which the vowel ought to be variously symbolized. 2ndly, That every simple consonant should have one single fixed symbol, and never more than one. For example, the symbol 'k' should not be interchangeable with 'c' to express the same consonantal power as in 'cap' and 'keep.' 3rdly, That modifications of any particular simple vowel or consonantal power should not be represented by two letters, but by some modification of a single symbol. For example, the long form of the vowels a, i, u should not be denoted by two letters, as in our word 'hoop', but by some mark or stroke placed over these vowels (so that 'hoop' should be written 'hūp'). Similarly, the aspiration of k, t, p, ought not to be represented by two letters as in kh, th, ph, but by some mark attached to k, t, p; thus such a word as phala should be written pala, and dhana, dana; or perhaps according to the Anglo-Saxon method with a horizontal stroke above, as in d for the dh sound of the.

Tried by these rules, the Nāgarī alphabet shows itself in many respects superior to the old Roman alphabet, and certainly to our use or abuse of the Roman symbols commonly called the English alphabet. But tried by the same rules, it will be found, I believe, inferior to the Indo-Romanic system, by which name I call the modification of Sir William Jones' method of applying the Roman alphabet to the languages of India, adopted in the present Dictionary.

The fact of the matter is, that Hindū grammarians have so overdone the true theory of the necessary vocalization of consonants, that they declare it impossible for any consonant to stand alone without its associated vowel, not only in a single word, but in a whole sentence, unless, indeed, the consonant come at the end of all, when the mark, called a Virāma or stop, must be employed. Moreover, the dependent position of a consonant is so insisted on that every simple consonant must perforce possess an inherent vowel by a necessary condition of its own existence, so that when it is written without vowel or stop the vowel 'a' must always be pronounced after it. Hence, such a word as 'bind', would have to be pronounced 'binada', unless a conjunct symbol be employed, compounding n and d into one letter, the use of the Virāma or stop, except at the end of a sentence, being an infraction of orthographic laws. Thus it arises that an immense assortment of conjunct consonants is needed. More than this, the excessive claboration of their vowel-system by the Hindūs necessitates the introduction of two new vowels, and . Again, each of the fourteen vowels (except a) has two symbols, according as it is initial or non-initial, and the form of some of these obliges them to be printed before the letter after which they are pronounced and in various awkward places, thereby exposing them to fracture, and increasing the general complication. So that with unusually numerous vowel-symbols, with thirty-five consonants and an almost indefinite number of intricate conjunct consonants, the number of distinct types necessary to equip a perfect Sanskṛt fount amounts to about 500 (see the table opposite to page 1).

Now will any one maintain, that in these days of railroads, electric telegraphs, cheap printing, and the Suez canal, such an overstraining of alphabetical precision can be maintained much longer for the expression of any language belonging to the same family as our own, and in any country forming an integral part of the British Empire? Indeed Sanskṛt ought to be made a potent instrument for uniting England more closely with India, and a powerful means for exciting more real sympathy and fellow-feeling between Englishmen and their Indian fellow-subjects; but on this very account it requires every facility to be conceded to its acquisition, and every contrivance to be adopted for harmonizing it with those kindred European tongues whose structure it is above all capable of illustrating.

Be it remebered that we are not expecting either absurdities or impossibilities. We are not so foolish as to suppose that the Hindūs will ever abandon their own national forms of speech. On the contrary, we expect that they will tenaciously adhere to them, even as their brethren of Wales hold to their own separate and distinct branch of the same speech-stem. But because we cannot change the organs of speech or fuse the twenty-two languages* of India into one common tongue, are we therefore not to do what we really can to promote intercourse and communion between kindred races united under one government and descended from the same ancestors? If our great Indian Paṇḍits are made familiar with our graphic systems, will they not be more likely to study our language and literature, to benefit by our knowledge, and to use our numerous appliances for economizing time, labour, and money? In short, is it fatuous to expect our fellow-subjects to imitate us in adopting a common system of symbols for a common line of cognate languages?--a system, be it thoroughly understood, not to be confounded with our English 'free and easy' abandonment of all system in our treatment of the Roman alphabet--but a system capable of complete adjustment to the expression of Āryan sounds, whether Roman, Greek, Welsh, English, or Indian, and probably little more different in form from the present Nāgarī than that Nāgarī is from the characters prevalent in India when Sanskṛt was first committed to writing**. For since the fact is patent, that the further we go back, the more plainly do the Indian alphabets point to a foreign origin, the power of ancient and sacred association cannot certainly be pleaded for the maintenance of the present Nāgarī.
*)Viz. Sanskṛt, with its kindred Hindī, Marāṭhī, Gujarātī, Bengālī, Uriya, Asamese, Panjābī, Gurumukhī, Sindhī, Nepalese, Kaśmīrī, the Singhalese of Ceylon; the Puṣtū of Afghānistān; the five Drāviḍian languages, Tamil, Malayālam, Telugu, Kanarese, Tulu; the half Drāviḍian Brahū-ī; the composite Urdū or Hindūstānī current throughout India; and lastly Burmese.
**) It is certainly remarkable that the whole Vyākaraṇa of Pāṇini, unlike the Greek grammar or [greek] appears to ignore written symbols, as if Sanskṛt was never intended to have any peculiar graphic system of its own. In South India Sanskṛt is written in different characters; and the first inscriptions found on rocks are in Pāli and Prākṛt, not in Sanskṛt. They are referred to the Buddhist sovereigns who possessed political power in India about three centuries B.C. The present form of Nāgarī is thought to be little older than the tenth or eleventh century of our era.

Nor can our Indian brethren shelter themselves under any plea of impossibility, when all the logic of historical facts is against them. Is any nation more tenacious of everything national than the Jews? and yet have they not abandoned their ancient character for a more modern form? Have not also the Arabs and Persians, not to mention the Keltic and Teutonic races, done the same? Have not the Hindūs themselves renounced many of their most ancient usages, and allowed the rigidity of caste to relax under the pressure of steam and other European forces. Even in the very matter of alphabets the facts of their own history are also against them, for if they deny the foreign origin of their venerated Nāgarī, they have confessedly adopted the modern Persianized Arabic alphabet--a consonantal, if not a purely syllabic system--to express Hindūstānī. Now, Hindūstānī, notwithstanding its flood of Arabic and Persian words, is as much a form of Hindī--the language of 'pakka' Hindūstān--as English with its flood of Norman French is of Anglo-Saxon. Surely then all must admit that Hindūstānī, at least, has a far better right to the Indo-Romanic alphabet derived from kindred British rulers, than it has to be saddled with the consonantal system of foreign Muslim invaders. For that system, be it noted, is wholly Semitic in its essential features, and therefore quite unsuited to the fundamental Āryan structure of a Persianized Āryan dialect.

If after what I have thus advanced, our great Indian Paṇḍits remain, as I fear some of them will, unconvinced, let any ordinary scholar who consults the pages of this work say whether they do not derive much of their typographical clearness from certain apparently trifling, but really important contrivances, possible in our Indo-Romanic, impossible in the usual Nāgarī type. One of these, of course, is the power of leaving spaces between the words of the Sanskṛt examples given. Will any student say that such an example as sādhu-mitrāṇy akuśalād vārayanti does not gain in clearness by being properly spaced*? Again, the power of using capitals and what are called italics (to say nothing of 'Egyptian' and other forms of European type) is manifestly an advantage to be placed to the credit of Indo-Romanic typography. Who will deny the gain in clearness by the ability to make a distinction between smith and Smith--brown and Brown--bath and Bath? And will any one examine the pages of this Dictionary, and then compare those of the Śabda-kalpa-druma, without admitting the advantage gained in the power of employing italic type? Lastly, the power of applying the hyphen to separate long compounds in a language where compounds prevail more than simple words** will surely be appreciated by all. I can only say, that without that most useful little mark, the present volume must have lost much of its clearness, and probably half its compactness, for besides the obvious advantage of being able to indicate the difference between such compounds as su-tapa and suta-pa, which could not be done in Nāgarī type, it is manifest that even the simplest compounds like sad-asad-viveka, sv-alpa-keśin, would have required without its use an extra line to explain their analysis***.
*) What should we think of an English Dictionary which, disdaining to aid our overtried vision by any typographical contrivances at the supposed sacrifice of euphonic propriety, should insist on presenting the corresponding example in proper phonetic conjunction thus--'goodfriendsguardfromevil?'
**) Forster gives an example of one compound word consisting of 152 syllables. I rather think this might be matched by even longer specimens from Campū composition.
***) At any rate, it is to be hoped that the hyphen will not be denied to Sanskṛt for the better understanding of the more complex words, such, for example, as vaidika-manu-ādi-praṇīta-smṛ-titvāt, karma-phala-rūpa-śarīra-dhāri-jīva-nirmitatvābhāva-mātreṇa, taken at hap-hazard from Dr. Muir's Texts. We may even express a hope that German scholars and other Europeans, who speak forms of Āryan speech, all of them equally delighting in composition, may condescend more frequently to the employment of the hyphen for some of their own Sesquipedalia Verba, thereby imitating the practical Englishman in his Parliamentary compounds, such, for example, as habeas-corpus-suspension-act-continuanceIreland-bill.

Notwithstanding all my advocacy of the Indo-Romanic graphic system, it is still my duty to point out that so long as the natives of India continue to use their own alphabets so long is it incumbent upon us Englishmen who study Sanskṛt in its bearing upon the Indian vernaculars, to master the Nāgarī character. Under any circumstances there must be a long transition period during which the Indian and Romanic systems will co-exist, and however the struggle between them may terminate, the end is not likely to be witnessed by the existing generation. For this reason the Nāgarī alphabet is by no means ignored in these pages. On the contrary, it is pressed into the service of the Romanic, and made to minister to a most useful purpose, being employed to distinguish the leading word of a group in a manner best calculated to strike the eye and arrest the attention.

Fairness, moreover, demands that a few of the obvious defects of the system of transliteration adopted in this volume should be specified. In certain cases it confessedly offends against philosophical exactness; nor does it always consistently observe the rules stated in a preceding paragraph. The vowels and ought to be represented by some one symbol--such as that used by many German scholars--though ṛ, ṝ seem to me somewhat unsuitable for vowel sounds. So again the aspirated consonants ought not to be represented by a second letter attached to them. In the case of ch employed by Sir W. Jones for c and chh for ch, the inconvenience appeared to me so great that in the third edition of my Sanskṛt Grammar, I ventured to adopt c for c, the pronunciation, however, being the same as ch in church, which might therefore be written curc. Had I dared to innovate further, I should have written k for kh, t for th, p for ph; and so with the other aspirated consonants, c being then employed for c. The fact, of course, is that an aspirated consonant is merely a consonant pronounced with an emphatic emission of the breath, much as an Irishman would pronounce p in penny, and to indicate this, a stroke placed on one side or over the letter seems more appropriate than the mark of the Greek hard breathing adopted by Bopp, which may well be used alone to utter a vowel, but is scarcely suitable to emphasize a consonant*.
*) A hint might be taken from Anglo-Saxon d, as before observed, especially if be used for long vowels. The mark is perhaps too much like that required for accentuation. I hope, however, that the system of accentuating classical Sanskṛt will never be allowed. Why complicate a subject already sufficiently intricate by introducing another element of perplexity which native scholars themselves do not sanction? Let accentuation be kept for the Veda; and in Vedic words a more upright and conspicuous stroke might, in my opinion, be used with advantage.

I also prefer the symbol for the cerebral sibilant. Should a second edition of this Dictionary be ever called for, some of these improvements may possibly be adopted. With regard to the letter w, I have discarded it, and retained only v, because the Nāgarī only possesses one character for the labial semivowel, viz. va, and to transliterate this or any other single Oriental character by two Roman representatives must certainly lead to confusion. As to the German method of using k, kh for c, ch, and g, gh for j, jh, the philological advantage gained by thus exhibiting the phonetic truth of the interchange of gutturals and palatals, appears to me outweighed by the disadvantage of representing sounds differing so greatly in acutual pronunciation by similar symbols.

Notwithstanding the shortcomings and inconsistencies thus fairly acknowledged, I have no hesitation in asseting that the Romanic system expanded by the marks and signs now generally agreed upon and still further to be improved hereafter, may be adapted to the Āryan, languages of India quite as completely and appropriately as to the Āryan languages of Europe.

Having felt obliged by the form in which this Dictionary is printed to dwell thus at length on a point of vast importance both to the general cultivation of Sanskṛt and the diffusion of knowledge in our Eastern Empire, I must now be permission to record my sense of the great assistance this cause has received from the energetic efforts of one who has ever been a true friend to the natives of India, Sir Charles E. Trevelyan. He was the first Indian officer of eminence who appreciated the real bearing of this matter upon native education, and the first writer who in his able minute, dated Calcutta, January 1834*, cleared away the confusion of ideas with which the subject was then perplexed by many prejudiced persons and even by some scholars. He also was the first to awaken an interest in the question throughout England about thirteen years ago, aided as he was by the able advocacy of 'the Times' newspaper. To him and to 'the Times' I owe the first impressions which corrected my own prejudices. Since then, many Oriental books printed on a plan substantially agreeing with Sir W. Jones' Indo-Romanic system have been published, both by eminent scholars in Europe and by missionaries in India**, and the form in which the present Sanskṛt Dictionary is now put forth affords, I trust, another evidence of the reality of the movement and of its gradual advance.
*) This will be found at p. 3 of the 'Original Papers illustrating the History of the Application of the Roman Alphabet to the Languages of India', edited by me at the request of Sir Charles Trevelyan in 1859, and published by Messrs. Longman. I commend this volume to every one interested in the diffusion of education among the natives of our Indian Empire.
**) Amongst other publications the Ṛg-veda itself, edited by Professor Aufrecht, has been printed and published in the Roman character; also part of the Kathā-sarit-sāgara by Dr. Hermann Brockhaus. Dr. Muir in his Sanskṛt Texts has also extensively used the Indo-Romanic system, as well as Dr. Weber in the Indische Studien, where some of the Upaniṣads are so transliterated. Let any one compare Professor Aufrecht's one compact and cheap octavo volume with the six massive quartos to which the Ṛg-veda will extend, now being edited in the native character. Even if the Romanized edition had the commentary, it would probably not extend beyond two moderate octavo volumes. With regard to the series of valuable Hindūstānī works printed in the Anglo-Hindūstānī character by missionaries in India, a full account of them will be found in Sir Charles Trevelyan's 'Original Papers' referred to in a previous note. The whole Bible has been beautifully printed in this form, and carried through the press by the Rev. R. Cotton Mather; also a glossary to part of the Bible by his son Mr. Cotton Mather.

Principal Sources drawn upon in the Process of Compilation.

I have now to enumerate the various works consulted by me in compilling this Dictionary. My only reason for not indicating these authorities in the body of the various articles as they have been written, has been that the volume--which even now has outgrown the dimensions originally fixed--would have thereby lost much of its convenient compactness, and could not have been produced at a moderate cost. The eye, too, would have been confused in passing from one meaning to another. Justice, however, requires that before commencing my enumeration, I should specially record my debt to particular authorities most frequently consulted and relied upon. I do so with a deep consciousness that nothing I am about to state can add to the celebrity of any one of the eminent scholars to whom I owe most. Indeed, it is impossible for me to express adequately my sense of obligation to the great work of Professors Böhtlingk and Roth. Although I have referred to every other dictionary, glossary, and vocabulary, including those of Professor Benfey and Westergard and the eight-volumed Encyclopaedia of Rādhākāntadeva, commonly called the Śabda-kalpa-druma*, and although I have striven to weigh and verify for myself all the words and meanings given by my fellow lexicographers, yet I have always considered an appeal to the St. Petersburg Wörterbuch as the most satisfactory available means for deciding doubtful questions.
*) A fine copy of this valuable work, now very difficult to procure in its perfect state, was searched for, some years ago, at Calcutta and most kindly presented to me by my friend Mr. Walter Scott Seton-Karr, Foreign Secretary to the Governments of Lord Lawrence and Lord Mayo, and Vice-Chancellor of the Calcutta University.

Naturally, I have kept Professor H.H. Wilson's Dictionary on my working-table, and have constantly had recourse to its pages. Indeed, I must own that I commenced by looking to my predecessor's labours as my chief authority. And let me here assert most emphatically, not only that, considering the condition of Sanskṛt scholarship when it was compiled, Professor Wilson's was a wonderful production, but that, like many other scholars, I could never have learnt Sanskṛt at all without its aid. Nevertheless, sincerity obliges me to confiess, what other lexicographers may perhaps admit to be not without a parallel in their own mental history, that my mind has had to pass through a kind of painful discipline involving a gradual weakening of faith in the performances of my fellow men, not excepting those of my own venerated teacher. I began, indeed, with much confidence in the thought that one man existed on whom I could lean as an almost infallible guide; but as the work grew under my hands and my sensitiveness to error sharpened, I discovered to my surprise that I was compelled to reject much of his teaching as doubtful. Moreover, the truth must be told, that as I advanced further my trustfulness in others, besides my old master, began to experience occasional disagreeable and unexpected shocks; till now that I am arrived at the end of my work, I find myself left with my confidence in the accuracy of human beings generally--certainly not excepting myself--rather painfully disturbed. Nevertheless, I am bound thankfully to acknowledge that my faith in the general scholarlike exactness of the great German authorities already named has never been materially shaken. I ought also to make particular mention of Dr. John Muir's 'Sanskṛt Texts', which have been constantly referred to by me, and have been found by experience to be invaluable, both for their general accuracy and for the judgment the author has displayed in his interpretation of Vedic words.

To these acknowledgments of special obligations I now subjoin an alphabetical list of all the principal works (not including of course all the mere texts and manuscripts) consulted by me, or in any way drawn upon for information, during the progress of my labours.
Andrew's (E. A.) Latin-English Dictionary.
Asiatic Researches.
Asiatic Society's (Royal) Journal.
Aufrecht's (Th.) Catalogue of Sanskṛt MSS. in the Bodleian Library, Oxford.
--Catalogue of Sanskṛt MSS. in the Library of Trinity College, Cambridge.
--Halāyudha's Vocabulary.
Ballantyne's (James) various lectures on Hindū Philosophy, and translations of some of the Aphorisms.
--translation of the Sāhitya-darpaṇa.
Banerjea's (K.M.) Hindū Philosophy.
Banerjea's Kumāra-sambhava (with notes).
Benfey's Chrestomathie (with vocabulary).
--Sāma-veda (with vocabulary).
--Sanskṛt-English Dictionary.
--Sanskṛt Grammar.
Böhtlingk's (and Roth's) Sanskṛt-Wörterbuch.
Böhtlingk's Indische Sprüche.
--edition of Pāṇini's Grammar.
--edition of Vopa-deva's Grammar.
--(and Rieu's) Hemacandra's Glossary.
Bombay edition of the Mahā-bhārata.
--of the Rāmāyaṇa.
Bopp's Glossary (first and second editions).
--Comparative Grammar (Eastwick).
Bosworth's (Dr. J.) Anglo-Saxon Dictionary and Grammar.
Brockhaus' (Hermann) Kathā-sarit-sāgara.
Burgess' translation of the Sūryasiddhānta.
Burnouf's (Eugene) Bhāgavata-Purāṇa (books I-III, translated by Burnouf).
Burnouf's (Emile) Sanskṛt-French Dictionary.
Chambers' Encyclopaedia.
Colebrooke's Amara-kosha.
--Indian Algebra.
--Essays on the Religion and Philosophy of the Hindūs.
Cowell's (E. B.) Kusumāñjali (with translation).
Cowell's (E. B.) translation of the Vikramorvaśī.
--edition of Elphinstone's History of India.
Curtius' (Georg) Grundzüge der Griechischen Etymologie.
Farrar's (F. W.) Families of Speech.
Foucaux's (Ph. Ed.) Episodes of the Mahā-bhārata.
Goldstücker's (Theodor) Sanskṛt-English Dictionary (parts I-VI).
Griffith's (Ralph T. H.) Specimens of Old Indian Poetry.
Hall's (Fitz-Edward) edition of the Sūrya-siddhānta.
--Contribution towards an Index to the Bibliography of the Indian Philosophical Systems.
--translation of Nīlakaṇṭha's Rational Refutation of the Hindū Philosophical Systems.
--edition of Wilson's Viṣṇu-Purāṇa.
Haughton's (Graves C.) Bengālī Dictionary.
Haug's (Martin) Aitareya-Brāhmaṇa (with translation.)
Hilpert's (J.D.) German Dictionary.
Johnson's (Francis) Hitopacdeśa (first and second editions, with translation and vocabulary).
--Selections from the Mahā-bhārata (with vocabulary).
--Megha-dūta (1st and 2nd editions, with vocabulary).
Jones' (Sir William) translation of Manu.
Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society.
Lassen's Sanskṛt Anthology (with glossary).
Liddell's and Scott's Greek-English Lexicon.
Ludvig's Infinitiv im Veda.
Molesworth's (James T.) Murathee Dictionary.
Moor's Hindū Pantheon.
Müller's (Max) Ancient Sanskṛt Literature.
--Chips from a German Workshop.
--Hymns to the Maruts.
--Lectures on the Science of Language.
--Sanskṛt Grammar.
Muir's (John) Original Sanskṛt Texts (five volumes).
Prinsep's (James) Indian Antiquities (edited with notes and addenda by Edward Thomas).
Rādhākānta-deva's Śabda-kalpa-druma.
Rājendralāla-Mitra's notices of Sanskṛt MSS.
Regnier's Etude sur l'diome des Vedas.
Rieu's (and Böhtlingk's) Hemacandra.
Röer's (E.) Upaniṣads (with translations).
--(and Montriou's) Hindū Law.
Roth's (and Böhtlingk's) Sanskṛt-Wörterbuch).
Roth's Nirukta.
--(and Whitney's) Atharva-veda-saṃhitā.
Schlegel's (A.G.) Rāmāyaṇa.
Scott's and Liddell's Greek-English Lexicon.
Stenzler's edition of the Raghu-vaṃśa.
Tāranātha Tarkavācaspati's Dhāturūpādarśa.
Thompson's (J. C.) Bhagavad-gītā (with translation).
Thornton's Gazetteer.
Troyer's Rāja-taraṅgiṇī.
Vigfusson's (G.) Cleasby's Icelandic Dictionary.
Weber's (Albrecht) Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā.
--Indische Studien.
--Indische Streifen.
Westergaard's Radices Linguae Sanscritae.
Whitney's (W. D.) Atharva-veda-prātiśākhya.
--(and Roth's) Atharva-veda-saṃhitā.
--Language and the Study of Language (twelve lectures).
Wilson's (H.H.) Glossary of Indian Terms.
--Sanskṛt-English Dictionary.
--Sanskṛt Grammar.
--Theatre of the Hindūs.
--translation of the Ṛg-veda (vols. I-IV).
--translation of the Viṣṇu-Purāṇa.
Yates' (W.) octavo edition of Wilson's Sanskṛt Dictionary with addenda (partly edited by J. Wenger).
Zeitschrift der Deutschen morgenländischen Gesellschaft.

Aids and Encouragements received.

My first acknowledgements are due to the Delegates of the Clarendon Press, without whose kind patronage this work could never have been published. It does not become me to commend the efforts these gentlemen are making for the furtherance of education, except so far as to say that they fitly represent the mind and wishes of the University of Oxford. Nor does the Clarendon Press itself need any monument of my rearing. Let those who desire proofs of its efficiency look around and note the series of valuable educational books constantly issuing from its founts, models of clear and accurate typography, in almost every department of science.

Perhaps, however, I may be permitted to mention specially the name of one who has recently left us, but who was a member of the Press-Delegacy when the publication of this Dictionary was undertaken, the late Master of Balliol and now Dean of Rochester, Dr. Robert Scott. He has been one of my kindest friends and wisest counsellors ever since the day I went to him for advice during my first undergraduate days at Balliol, on receiving an appointment in the Indian Civil Service. It is not too much, I think, to aver that without his support, encouragement, and sympathy,--all the more prized as coming from an experienced fellow-labourer, able to estimate the difficulties of a less experienced disciple,--I could not have persevered in this work to it termination.

My next acknowledgments must be tendered to the Representatives of the Governments of Bengal, Madras, Bombay, and the North-West Provinces of India, as well as of the India Office, for the substantial aid received from them in the patronage they have accorded to this undertaking.

I have in the third place to express in the most cordial manner my thanks to each and all of the gentlemen who have aided me in the compilation of this Dictionary.

No one but those who have taken part in similar labours can at all realize the amount of tedious toil--I might almost say drudgery--involved in the daily routine of small details, such as verifying references and meanings, making indices and lists of words, sorting and sifting an ever-increasing store of materials, revising old work, arranging and re-arranging new, correcting and re-correcting proofs, writing and re-writing and interlineating 'copy', till reams upon reams of paper have been filled, putting the eye-sight, patience, and temper of compilers, readers, and compositors to a severe trial. I mention these matters, not to magnify the labours undergone, but to show that I could not have prosecuted them persistently singlehanded. This statement may also give an idea of what I owe to the presevering co-operation of my kind assitants, whose names in the chronological order of their services are as follow: the Rev. J. Wenger, who is now I believe engaged in valuable literary work connected with the Baptist Mission in Calcutta; Dr. Franz Kielhorn, who is now Superintendant of Snaskṛt Studies in Deccan College, Poona; Dr. Hermann Brunnhofer (whose assitance was not of very long duration); Mr. A. E. Gough, M. A., of Lincoln College, Oxford, now Professor of Sanskṛt at the Government College, Benares; lastly, Mr. E. L. Hogarth, M. A., of Brasenose College, and formerly Head Master of the Government Provincial School at Calicut, who has been my constant and painstaking assistant for about three years and a half, continuing with me to the termination of the work. I must also thank my old friend Professor Francis Johnson, who was one of my first instructors in Sanskṛt when a student at Haileybury, and afterwards my colleague as Professor, for the kind interest he has shown in my labours, and the aid I have received from him at various times, including recently a list of words collected by himself in preparing a new volume of Selections from the Mahā-bhārata, shortly to be published.

Finally, I must express my gratitude for the extreme care with which the reading of my often intricate manuscript has been conducted by the Oriental Reader, and the printing of the whole book executed by the Managers of the Clarendon Press.

Defects and Inconsistencies acknowledged.

When some one pointed out to Dr. Johnson the imperfections of his great Dictionary, he is said to have retorted on his critics that mere fault-finding was often an indication of ignorance. His work was too large, he affirmed, not to take in errors, and the quicksightedness to these was a symptom of the dulness which could not comprehend the merit of the performance as a whole. Without imitating this convenient way of disposing of criticism in my own case, I may yet request leave to inform any mere chidrānveṣin, of whom it may be said chidraṃ nirūpya sahasā praviśati, that no one can be more keenly alive to the flaws and defects of this volume than I am myself. No one, indeed, can be more desirous to criticize it, with a view to its improvement in a future edition.

If any real scholars--always considerate and temperate even if severe--having had practical experience of lexicography, will aid me in my efforts to attain greater accuracy, I shall be thankful. From them I do not fear but rather court criticism. Such critics will quite understand how a compiler's sense of responsibility may grow with the growth of a work like this, putting him out of conceit with his own performance, and filling him with earnest cravings after an accuracy more than human. Such critics will appreciate the difficulties besetting the production of so many closely printed pages abounding with countless dots and diacritical marks. Nor will they be surprised at inequalities of execution and occasional inconsistencies in a work representing efforts spread over numerous years. Nor will they need to be reminded that occasional distractions, trials of health and weariness of spirit, are incident not only to a human compiler but to his human assistants. Indeed it is no disparagement to those who have contributed to the detail of this work to assume that a compilation which has passed through many different hands must reflect the infirmities of all. No other apology will here be attempted for its errors and inadvertencies; nor do I ask that the blame be laid at the door of any one but myself, who alone am responsible. Some explanation, however, of a few intentional inconsistencies and almost unavoidable defects is here appended.

In the first place, there has not been absolute consistency in the collocation of words connected by a common etymology. I have not bound myself in this respect by any fixed rules. Hence some words are given in the usual alphabetical order of the Nāgarī type which might be expected to fall under a previous classification in the Indo-Romanic order. Facility of reference has been my only guide in this matter.

Again, in the arranging of a whole chain of words etymologically allied, some formations have been placed under compounds which ought properly to have a separate line assigned to them. Others again have separate lines which ought more consistently to come under compounds. For example, abstract nouns formed with the affixes and tva, and possessive adjectives formed with vat, mat, &c. are placed in the order of the compounds, when they are really not compounds at all. Still it is plain that such a word as svāmi-tā, 'ownership', is really equivalent to svāmi-bhāva, and such a word as śrī-mat, 'possessed of fortune', to śrī-yukta. In these cases my motive for sacrificing absolute consistency has rather been to gain space. Other liberties indulged in with regard to the use of the hyphen are noticed in the table of directions following the Preface.

With regard to the nominative cases of adjectives and of a few participles--such as those of Parasmai-pada Intensives--and even of a few substantives, I fear this Dictionary cannot always be quite trusted; though it may perhaps be conceded that I have improved upon my predecessor in this respect. In point of fact it has not been possible to settle with certainty the nominative cases, especially in the feminine forms, of all adjectives. The German Wörterbuch avoids exhibiting the nominative cases of adjectives and participles, and rarely gives their feminines, leaving also the nominative cases of substantives to be inferred from their gender. Although I studied Pāṇini's chapter on feminine formations with great care, I was unable to discover either in his Grammar or in any other Grammar or Dictionary a solution of all my difficulties. My rule has been to give the nominative cases both of substantives and adjectives in all their genders wherever there was ground for certainty or for a reasonable inference, and in other rare cases to exhibit only the crude base. Sometimes I have merely given the nominative case masculine of adjective, omitting the feminie when that alone appeared doubtful, and leaving the neuter to be inferred; but throughout the Dictionary the omission of a nominative case has been quite an exception. Thus I have endeavoured to increase the usefulness of this publication even at the risk of occasionally misleading.

Another point requires a few words of explanation. I shall probably be told that meanings and synonyms are needlessly multiplied; but before the book is hastily censured on this score, let it be fairly tested by a repeated and extended application to various branches of the literature. I can with truth affirm that having myself constantly put these pages to a trial during their progress through the press, so far from having to regret any superfluity or surplusage, I have too often had to lament sins of omission, and have frequently discovered, when too late, that some one meaning has been rejected, because thought to be a mere synonym, when this very apparent synonym was really the precise word required to suit a particular passage.

With reference to the philological comparisons given throughout this work, I fear that occasional inconsistencies and violations of orthography will be found. For indeed I do not pretend to even a limited knowledge of some of the numerous languages compared, and my private library has not furnished the means of verifying all the words. It should be noted that I have not generally indicated the cognate English words with the Anglo-Saxon, because these are selfevident, and will generally be found among the meanings. As to other comparisons, I can only say that when I commenced my compilation, Bopp was considered the chief authority in comparative philology. I have not generally adopted what more modern scholars substitute for his teaching, because some of these later writers have themselves yet to undergo the full test of an extended criticism, which may not always support their opinions. Besides trusting to Bopp, I have generally followed Professors Benfey and Curtius, and I request that the comparisons given be accepted on the authority of these three scholars, subject to the understanding that more recent views have been propounded on many points.

Most of the errors and omissions hitherto discovered, whether typographical or caused by my own want of knowledge, have, I trust, been corrected and supplied in the supplementary matter at the end of the volume.

With these explanations I close my present labours, profoundly conscious of their imperfection, but full of thankfulness that my life has been spared to bring them, such as they are, to a completion. MONIER WILLIAMS. OXFORD, May 1872.

[Page xxvi]

THERE are two alphabetical orders: 1. that in the Nāgarī; 2. that in the Indo-Romanic type.

Roots are always in large Sanskṛt type.

Verbs formed by prefixing prepositions to roots are arranged in the alphabetical order of the prepositions so affixed, e. g. anu-kṛ must not be looked for under the root kṛ, as in other Sanskṛt Dictionaries, but in its own alphabetical order, as in Greek lexicons, and at the head of its own group of derivatives. See p. 32, col. 1.

All the Sanskṛt words in Indo-Romanic type arranged in alphabetical order under a leading word--which leading word is always either a root in large Nāgarī type or some other word in small Nāgarī type--must be regarded as mutually connected. They must be supposed to form a family of words bound together by a common origin or dependent on each other by some tie of relationship. The derivation or etymology is generally given in a parenthesis after the leading word in Sanskṛt type, and this etymology is supposed to apply to all the group which follows, until a new classification of words in introduced by a new word in Nāgarī type. Other derivations are sometimes noticed when authorities differ in explaining the etymology of particular words.

The Nāgarī type is thus employed to strike they eye and direct it to the leading word in each group. By this means also a repetition of the etymology is avoided.

All the meanings of a word belonging to a group are not always given in full, if they may be manifestly gathered from its other members; this applies especially to participles and participial formations, e. g. the meaning 'charged with', which belongs to ā-ropita, p. 128, col. 3, may readily be inferred from ā-ropa, which stands above it in the same classification.

Again, all the derivatives from a Radical or Verb at the head of a family are not always given when they may be readily supplied; this applies especially to participles, and occasionally to verbal nouns, e. g. under vi-hiṃs at the head of a group, p. 952, it is easy to supply vi-hiṃsana, am, n. the act of injuring.

Observe, that meanings which appear to be mere amplifications of preceding meanings are separated by a comma, whereas those which do not clearly run into each other are divided by a semicolon. All remarks upon meanings and all descriptive and explanatory statements are given between (); comparisons, between [].

Compound words are always arranged in alphabetical order under the first word in the compounds, a hyphen marking the division of each member of the compound, and when the final and initial vowel of two members of a compound blend, the separation of these vowels is denoted by a hyphen in brackets, (see, for example, kṛtodaka for kṛta-udaka, p. 248, col. 1, line 4.) For greater clearness, some words are thus treated, which are formed by Taddhita affixes, supposed to be added to the whole word, and which therefore ought not strictly to have a hyphen at all.

Compound words divided by a hyphen or hyphens have no etymology given because the employment of the hyphen makes their several elements manifest at once, so that it is always easy to refer to the separate members of the compound for the several etymologies, e. g. an-oka-śāyin is manifestly separable into an + oka + śāyin, to each of which it is easy to refer for an explanation of the several etymologies.

When no etymology of a simple word is exhibited its derivation is either unknown or too doubtful to deserve recording.

The nominative cases of all nouns, substantive and adjective, and of all participles, are given immediately after the crude base, except in the cases explained at the end of the preceding Preface. Thus guru, us, vī, u, means that the adjective guru makes in its nominative case masc. fem. and neut., gurus, guruvī, guru; similarly vividvas, ān, uṣī, at (P. 919, col. 2), stands for nom. masc. fem. and neut., vividvān, vividuṣī, vividvat.

Under roots and verbs the 3rd pers. singular of the various tenses is given, other forms being noticed in parentheses. The names of the tenses are generally left to be inferred, except when an unusual tense, like the Precative, is given, and the form of the 1st Future can always be inferred from the Infinitive: thus the Infinitive being veditum, the 1st Future 3rd pers. sing. will be veditā; similarly from dagdhum will be inferred 1st Future 3rd pers. sing. dagdhā.

When words really dissimilar appear similar either in Roman or Nāgarī type, the figures 1, 2, 3, &c. are placed before them; see, for example, 1. sa, 2. sa, 3. sa, 4. sa, 5. sa; 1. suta-pa, 2. su-tapa; 1. sam-āna, 2. samāna; 1. saha, 2. saha; 1. sv-ap, 2. svap.

It is believed that few common words or meanings likely to be met with in the classical literature have been omitted in this work; nevertheless the Supplement at the end of the volume should occasionally be consulted: thus in the two pages, 623, 624, one or two words and the common meaning 'affix', belonging to praty-aya, have accidently dropped out, but are supplied in the supplementary pages.


[In the progress of a work extending over several years it has been found almost impossible to preserve uniformity in the use of symbols, but it is hoped that most of the inconsistencies are noticed in the following table.]
A. = Ātmane-pada; the long mark over the A. has been omitted for convenience in printing.
abl. or abl. c. = ablative case.
acc. or acc. c. = accusative case.
accord. = according.
Ādi-p. = Ādi-parvan of the Mahā-bhārata.
adj. = adjective.
Aeol. = Aeolic.
alg. = algebra.
Angl. Sax. = Anglo-Saxon.
anom. = anomalous, irregular.
Aor. = Aorist.
Arab. = Arabic.
arithm. = arithmetic.
Arm. or Armor. = Armorican or the language of Brittany.
Armen. = Armenian.
astrol. = astrology.
astron. = astronomy.
Atharva-v. = Atharva-veda, edited by Roth and Whitney.
Bhāgavata-P. = Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, Burnouf's edition, or Bombay edition for the later books.
Bhaṭṭi-k. = Bhaṭṭi-kāvya, Calcutta edition.
Boh. or Bohem. = Bohemian.
B.R. = Böhtlingk and Roth.
Br. = Brāhmaṇa.
Bret. = Breton.
Buddh. = Buddhist.
c. = case.
Cambro-Brit. = the language of Wales.
Caus. = Causal.
cf. = confer, compare.
chap. = chapter.
cl. = class.
Class. = Classical.
col., cols. = column, columns.
comm. = commentator or commentary.
comp., comps. = compound, compounds.
compar. = comparative degree.
Cond. or Condit. = Conditional.
cons. = consonant.
dat. or dat. c. = dative case.
defect. = defective.
Desid. = Desiderative.
dimin. = diminutive.
Dor. = Doric.
du. = dual number.
ed. or edit. = edition.
e. g. = exempli gratia.
Eng. = English.
Ep. or ep. = Epic, i. e. such works as the Mahā-bhārata, Rāmāyaṇa, &c.
epith. = epithet.
esp. = especially.
etym. = etymology.
explet. = expletive.
f. or fem. = feminine.
fr. = from.
Fut. = Future.
Gael. = Gaelic.
gen. or gen. c. = genitive case.
gend. = gender.
geom. = geometry.
Germ. = German or High-German.
Goth. = Gothic.
Gr. = Greek.
Gram. = A Practical Sanskṛt Grammar by Monier Williams, third edition, published at the Clarendon Press.
gram. = grammar.
Hib. = Hibernian or Irish.
Hind. = Hindī.
Icel. = Icelandic.
i. e. = id est.
impers. = impersonal, i. e. used impersonally.
Impf. = Imperfect tense.
Impv. = Imperative.
ind. = indeclinable, either an indeclinable participle or an adverb or a case used adverbially.
Inf. or infin. = Infinitive mood.
inst. or inst. c. = instrumental case.
Intens. = Intensive.
Ion. = Ionic.
Island. = the German form of Icelandic.
Kirāt. or Kirātārj. = Kirātārjunīya.
Kumāra-s. = Kumāra-sambhava.
Lat. = Latin.
lat. = latitude.
Lett. = Lettish.
lit. = literally.
Lith. = Lithuanian.
loc. or loc. c. = locative case.
long. = longitude.
m. or masc. = masculine gender.
Mahā-bh. &c. = Mahā-bhārata, Calcutta edition.
mathem. = mathematics.
medic. = medicine.
Megh. = Megha-dūta, Johnson's second edition.
Mod. = Modern.
MS., MSS. = manuscript, manuscripts.
N. = Name.
n. or neut. = neuter gender.
Naigh. = Naighaṇṭuka.
neg. = negative.
Nir. = Nirukta.
Nom. or nom. = Nominal verb.
nom. or nom. c. = nominative case.
num. or numb. = number.
obs. = obsolete.
occ. = occasionally.
Osc. or Osk. = Oscan or Oskan.
Osset. = Ossetic (see p. ix).
P. = Parasmai-pada.
p. = page.
-p. = parvan or section of the Mahā-bhārata.
Pāṇ. = Pāṇini.
Part. or part. = Participle.
Pass. = Passive voice.
patron. = patronymic.
Perf. = Perfect tense.
Pers. = Persian.
Pers. = person.
phil. = philosophy.
pl. or plur. = plural number.
poet. = poetry, poetic license.
Pol. = Polish.
Pot. = Potential.
Pr. = proper.
Prāk. = Prākṛt.
Prep. = Preposition.
Pres. = Present tense.
priv. = privative.
pronom. = pronominal.
Pruss. = Prussian.
q. v. = quod vide.
Raghu-v. = Raghu-vaṃśa.
Reflex. = Reflexive or used reflexively.
Ṛg-v. = Ṛg-veda.
rt., rts. = root, roots.
Russ. = Russian.
Śabda-k. = Śabda-kalpa-druma.
Sabin. = Sabine or Sabellian (old Italic dialect).
Sāma-v. = Sāma-veda.
Sans. = Sanskṛt.
Sax. = Saxon.
Sāy. = Sāyaṇa or according to Sāyaṇa.
Schol. = Scholiast or Commentator.
scil. = scilicet.
Scot. = Scotch or Highland-Scotch.
sing. = singular number.
Slav. = Slavonic or Slavonian.
subst. = substantive.
superl. = superlative degree.
s.v. = sub voce.
Them. = Thema or base.
Umbr. = Umbrian.
Uṇādi-s. = Uṇādi-sutras (Aufrecht's edition).
usu. = usually.
Vājasaneyi-s. = Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā.
Vārt. or Vārtt. = Vārttika.
Ved. = Vedic or Veda.
Viṣ.-Pur. = Viṣṇu-Purāṇa.
voc. or voc. c. = vocative case.
=, equal, equivalent to, the same as, explained by.
+ plus.
&c. = et cetera.
- denotes that a vowel or syllable is to be noted as short.
-- that a vowel or syllable is long.
- that the rest of a word is to be supplied, e. g. -ri-in- after karīndra is for kari-indra.

[Page xxviii-a]

a -- a in mica, rural.
ā ā in tar, father (tār, fāther).
i ī i in fill, lily.
ī i ī in police (polīce).
u u in full, bush.
ū ū ū in rude (rūde).
ṛ ṛ ṛ in merrily (merṛly).
ṝ ṝ ṝ in marine (maṝne).
ḷ ḷ ḷ in revelry (reveḷ).
ḹ ḹ ḹ in the above prolonged.
e e e in prey, there.
ai ai in aisle.
o o in go, stone.
au au in Haus (German).
ṃ or ṃ either the true Anusvāra, sounded like n in French mon, or the symbol of any nasal.
ḥ symbol for the sibilant called Visarga.

Equivalents and Pronunciation.
k k in kill, seek.
kh kh in ink-horn (inkhorn).
g g in gun, get, dog.
gh gh in log-hut (loghut).
ṅ in sing, king, sink (siṅk).
c c in dolce (in music).
ch ch in church-hill (curchill).
j j in jet, jump.
jh jh* in hedge-hog (hejhog)
*)Sometimes printed in the form jh, see pp. 147, 354.
ñ ñ in single (siñj).
ṭ in true (ṭrue).
ṭh ṭh in ant-hill (anṭhill).
ḍ in drum (ḍrum).
ḍh ḍh in red-haired (reḍhaired).
ṇ in none (ṇoṇe).
t t in water (in Ireland).
th th in nuthook (more dental).
d d in dice (more like th in this).
dh dh in adhere (but more dental).
n n in not, nut, in.
p p in put, sip.
ph ph in uphill.
b b in bear, rub.
bh bh in abhor.
m m in map, jam.
y y in yet, loyal.
r r in red, year.
l l in lull, lead.
L ḷ in (sometimes for ḍ ḍ in Veda).
Lh ḷh in (sometimes for ḍh ḍh in Veda).
v v in ivy (but like w after cons.).
ś ś in sure, session (śure, sesśion).
sh in shun, bush.
s s in saint, sin, hiss.
h h in hear, hit.

Note--The conjunct consonants are too numerous to be exhibited above, but the most common will be found at the end of 'A Practical Sanskṛt Grammar by Monier Williams.' published by the Delegates of the Clarendon Press, third edition. For the correct pronunciation of the aspirated consonants, kh, ch, ṭh, th, ph, &c., see p. xix of the preceding Preface.


a, ā; i, ī; u, ū; ṛ, ṝ; ḷ, ḹ; e, ai; o, au;--ṃ or ṃ, ḥ;--k, kh; g, gh; ṅ;--c, ch; j, jh; ñ;--ṭ, ṭh; ḍ, ḍh; ṇ;--t, th; d, dh; n;--p, ph; b, bh; m;--y, r, l, ḷ, ḷh, v;--ś, sh, s;--h.

Observe-- represents the true Anusvāra in the body of a word before the sibilants and h, as in aṃśa, aṃsa, aṃhati: ṃ as the symbol of any nasal will often be found at the end of a word, as in dānaṃ ca; but may also represent Anusvāra, when final m is followed by initial sibilants and h, and in words formed with preposition sam, like saṃ-śaya, saṃ-hata: in the word Sanskṛt the second s is not initial, but introduced into the body of the word, so that we might properly write Saṃskṛt. Visarga as a substitute for final s is a distinctly audible aspirate, so that the at the end of devaḥ must be clearly heard.


a 1. a, the first letter of the alphabet; the first short vowel inherent in consonants.
     akāra a-kāra, as, m. the letter or sound a.

a 2. a, ind. an interjection of pity (Ah!).

a 3. a (before a vowel an), a prefix corresponding to Gr. [greek] Lat. in, Goth. and Germ. un, Eng. in or un, and having a negative or privative or depreciative sense; e. g. eka one, an-eka not one; anta end, an-anta endless; paśyat seeing, a-paśyat not seeing. Sometimes this prefix denotes comparison. It is occasionally an expletive.

a 4. a, the base of some pronouns and pronom. forms; (substituted for idam, in asya, atra, &c.)

a 5. a, the augment prefixed to the root in the formation of the imperfect, aorist, and conditional tenses, by some considered as connected with 3. a, and by others as connected with 4. a.

a 6. a, as, m., N. of Viṣṇu (especially as the first of the three sounds in the sacred syllable om), also of Brahmā, Śiva, and Vaiśvānara; (am), n. Brahma.

aṛṇin a-ṛṇin, ī, inī, i, free from debt.

aṃś aṃś, cl. 10. P. aṃśayati, -yitum, to divide, distribute; also occasionally A. aṃśayate; also aṃśāpayati.

aṃśa aṃśa, as, m. a share, portion, part, party; partition, inheritance; a share of booty; earnest money; a fraction; the denominator of one; a degree of lat. or long.; N. of an Āditya; the shoulder or shoulder-blade, more usually spelt aṃsa, q. v. [cf. Old Germ. ahsala; Mod. Germ. achsel; Lat. axilla.].
     aṃśakaraṇa aṃśa-karaṇa, am, n. act of dividing.
     aṃśabhāj aṃśa-bhāj, k, k, k, one who has a share, an heir, a co-heir.
     aṃśavat aṃśa-vat, ān, m. a species of the Soma plant.
     aṃśasavarṇana aṃśa-savarṇana, am, n. reduction of fractions.
     aṃśasvara aṃśa-svara, as, m. the key-note.
     aṃśahara aṃśa-hara, as, ā or ī, am, or aṃśa-hārin, ī, iṇī, i, one who takes a share, a sharer.
     aṃśāṃśa aṃśāṃśa (-śa-aṃ-), as, m. part of a portion (of a deity), a secondary incarnation.
     aṃśāṃśi aṃśāṃśi, ind. share by share.
     aṃśāvataraṇa aṃśāvataraṇa (-śa-av-), am, n. descent of parts of the deities; partial incarnation; title of sections 64--67 of the first book of the Mahā-bhārata.

aṃśaka aṃśaka, as, ā or ikā, am, having a share; m. f. a co-heir, a relative; m. a share; n. a day.

aṃśana aṃśana, am, n. the act of sharing or dividing.

aṃśanīya aṃśanīya or aṃśayitavya, as, ā, am, divisible.

aṃśayitṛ aṃśayitṛ, tā, trī, tṛ, a divider, sharer.

aṃśala aṃśala. See aṃsala next col.

aṃśita aṃśita, as, ā, am, divided, shared.

aṃśin aṃśin, ī, inī, i, a sharer, co-heir.

aṃśu aṃśu, us, m. a filament, especially of the Soma plant; end of a thread; a minute particle; a point or end; a garment, decoration; a ray, light, the sun; N. of a Ṛṣi or of a prince.
     aṃśujāla aṃśu-jāla, am, n. a collection of rays, a blaze of light.
     aṃśudhara aṃśu-dhara, as, m. the bearer of rays, the sun.
     aṃśupaṭṭa aṃśu-paṭṭa, am, n. a kind of cloth.
     aṃśupati aṃśu-pati, is, or -bhartṛ, tā, m. the lord of rays, the sun.
     aṃśumat aṃśu-mat, ān, atī, at, fibrous, rich in filaments; radiant, luminous; pointed; (ān), m. the sun, the moon; N. of various persons, especially of a prince of the solar race, son of A-samañjas, grandson of Sagara; (), f. the celestial river Yamunā; a plant, Hedysarum Gangeticum.
     aṃśumatiphalā aṃśumati-phalā, f. a plant, Musa Paradisiaca.
     aṃśumālā aṃśu-mālā, f. a garland of light, halo.
     aṃśumālin aṃśu-mālin, ī, m. the sun.
     aṃśuvāṇa aṃśu-vāṇa, as, m. having rays for arrows, the sun.
     aṃśuhasta aṃśu-hasta, as, m. having rays in his hand, the sun.

aṃśuka aṃśuka, am, n. a leaf; cloth; fine or white cloth; muslin, an upper garment; a mantle.

[Page 0001-b]
aṃśula aṃśula, as, ā, am, radiant; (as), m., N. of the sage Cāṇakya.

aṃśya aṃśya, as, ā, am, divisible.

aṃs aṃs, cl. 10. P. aṃsayati, &c., = aṃś.

aṃsa aṃsa, as, m. (fr. rt. am), the shoulder, shoulder-blade; N. of a king; a share, see aṃśa; (au), m. du. the two shoulders or angles of an altar [cf. Goth. amsa; Gr. [greek] Lat. humerus, ansa].
     aṃsakūṭa aṃsa-kūṭa, as, m. a bull's hump, the protuberance between the shoulders of the Indian ox.
     aṃsatra aṃsa-tra, am, n. armour to protect the shoulder; a bow.
     aṃsadhrī aṃsa-dhrī, f. a cooking vessel(?).
     aṃsaphalaka aṃsa-phalaka, as, m. upper part of the spine.
     aṃsabhāra aṃsa-bhāra or aṃse-bhāra, as, m. a yoke or burden put upon the shoulder.
     aṃsabhārika aṃsa-bhārika or aṃse-bhārika, as, ī, am, or aṃsa-bhārin or aṃse-bhārin, ī, iṇī, i, bearing a yoke.

aṃsala aṃsala, as, ā, am, lusty, strong.

aṃsya aṃsya, as, ā, am, belonging to the shoulder.

aṃha aṃh (allied to aṅgh), cl. 1. A. aṃhate, hitum, to go, set out, commence; to approach: cl. 10. P. aṃhayati, to send; to speak; to shine. [The rt. aṃh seems to have had originally another meaning, viz. to press together, strangle; = Gr. [greek]]

aṃhati aṃhati, is, f. (probably fr. the preceding rt., said to be here a substitute for han), anxiety, distress, trouble, illness [cf. Lat. ango]; a gift, (in this sense also aṃhatī, f.)

aṃhas aṃhas, n. (said to be connected with rt. am), anxiety, trouble; sin [cf. agha, āgas; Gr. [greek]].
     aṃhasaspati aṃhasas-pati, is, m., Ved. lord of the perplexity, i. e. an intercalary month.
     aṃhasvat aṃhas-vat, ān, atī, at, sinful.
     aṃhomuc aṃho-muc, k, k, k, Ved. delivering from distress.

aṃhiti aṃhiti, is, f. a gift, donation. See aṃhati.

aṃhu aṃhu, us, us, u, Ved. strait, narrow; (us), m., N. of an Asura; (u), n. anxiety, distress; Pudendum Muliebre [cf. Gr. [greek] Goth. aggvus; Lat. angustus, anxius, &c.].
     aṃhubhedī aṃhu-bhedī, f. having a narrow slit, having the pudendum divided.

aṃhura aṃhura, as, ā, am, straitened, distressed; sinful.

aṃhūraṇa aṃhūraṇa, as, ā, am, distressing, sinful; (am), n. sin, distress.

aṃhoyu aṃhoyu, us, us, u, Ved. troublesome; freed from sin.

aṃhri aṃhri, is, m. a foot, the root of a tree [cf. aṅghri].
     aṃhripa aṃhri-pa, as, m. a tree (foot-drinker).
     aṃhriskandha aṃhri-skandha, as, m. a part of the foot between the ancle and the heel.

ak ak, cl. 1. P. akati, akitum, to move tortuously, like a snake [cf. Gr. [greek] Lat. angulus]. Compare rt. ag.

aka aka, as, ā, am, moving tortuously; (am), n. pain, trouble, sin (also derived from a, not + ka, happiness).

akaca a-kaca, as, ā, am, destitute of hair, bald; (as), m., N. of Ketu, the dragon's tail or descending node, the symbol of which is a headless trunk.

akaṇṭaka a-kaṇṭaka, as, ā, am, free from thorns, troubles, difficulties, or enemies.

akatthana a-katthana, as, ā, am, not boastful.

akathya a-kathya, as, ā, am, unspeakable; not to be uttered or mentioned.

akaniṣṭha a-kaniṣṭha, as, ā, am, not the youngest; elder, superior; (as), m. a deified Buddhist saint, Buddha.
     akaniṣṭhaga akaniṣṭha-ga, as, m. Buddha.

akanyā a-kanyā, f. no virgin.

[Page 0001-c]
akapīvat akapīvat, ān, m., N. of a Ṛṣi.

akampita a-kampita, as, ā, am, unshaken, firm; (as), m., N. of a Jaina saint, a pupil of the last Tīrtha-kara.

akampya a-kampya, as, ā, am, not to be shaken.

akara a-kara, as, ā or ī, am, handless, maimed; exempt from tax or duty, privileged; not acting; (ā), f. Emblic Myrobalan, Phyllanthus Emblica.

akaraṇā a-karaṇa, am, n. absence of action.

akaraṇi a-karaṇi, is, f. non-accomplishment, failure, disappointment (used in imprecations, e. g. tasyākaraṇir evāstu, may he experience a failure !).

akaraṇīya a-karaṇīya, as, ā, am, not to be done.

akaruṇā a-karuṇa, as, ā, am, merciless, relentless.
     akaruṇatva akaruṇa-tva, am, n. harshness, cruelty.

akarkaśa a-karkaśa, as, ā, am, not hard, not rugged, soft, tender.

akarṇā a-karṇa or a-karṇaka, as, ā, am, without ears, deaf.

akarṇya a-karṇya, as, ā, am, not fit for the ears; not in the ears.

akarṇādhāra a-karṇadhāra, as, ā, am, without a helmsman, destitute of a pilot.

akartana a-kartana, as, m, a dwarf (?).

akartṛ a-kartṛ, tā, m. not an agent; an inferior agent.
     akartṛtva akartṛ-tva, am, n. condition of an inferior agent, a subordinate station.

akarman a-karman, ā, ā, a, without work, idle; inefficient; disqualified for performing essential rites, destitute of good works; (in grammar) intransitive; (a), n. absence of work; absence of essential observances; improper work, crime.
     akarmabhoga akarma-bhoga, as, m. renunciation of self-righteousness; enjoyment of freedom from the fruits of action.
     akarmānvita akarmānvita (-ma-an-), as, ā, am, unoccupied, disqualified; criminal.

akarmaka a-karmaka, as, ā, am, (in grammar) intransitive.

akarmaṇya a-karmaṇya, as, ā, am, improper to be done; unfit for work; inefficient.

akala a-kala, as, ā, am, not in parts, entire.

akalka a-kalka, as, ā, am, free from sediment; pure; sinless; (ā), f. moonlight.
     akalkatā akalka-tā, f. honesty.

akalkana a-kalkana or a-kalkala, as, ā, am, free from pride, modest, honest.

akalpa a-kalpa, as, ā, am, not subject to rules, uncontrolled; incomparable; unable, weak.

akalpita a-kalpita, as, ā, am, not manufactured, not artificial, not pretended; natural, genuine.

akalmaṣa a-kalmaṣa, as, ā, am, sinless, faultles.

akalmāṣa a-kalmāṣa, as, m., N. of a son of the fourth Manu.

akalya a-kalya, as, ā, am, unwell, ill, sick.

akalyāṇa a-kalyāṇa, as, ā, am, not prosperous, inauspicious; (am), n. adversity.

akava a-kava, as, ā, am (fr. 1. ku, q. v.), Ved. not contemptible, not bad.
     akavāri a-kavāri (-va-ari), is, is, i, Ved. not contemptible as an enemy, or to his enemies, or in his enemies; not having weak enemies.

akavaca a-kavaca, as, ā, am, Ved. without a coat of mail.

[Page 0002-a]
akavi a-kavi, is, is, i, Ved. unwise.

akasmāt a-kasmāt, ind. without a why or a wherefore, accidentally, suddenly.

akāṇḍa a-kāṇḍa, as, ā, am, 'without a trunk', causeless, unexpected.
     akāṇḍapātajāta akāṇḍa-pāta-jāta, as, ā, am, dying as soon as born.
     akāṇḍaśūla akāṇḍa-śūla, am, n. sudden attack of colic.

akāṇḍe a-kāṇḍe, ind. causelessly, unexpectedly.

akātara a-kātara, as, ā, am, not downhearted, cheerful, hearty.

akāma a-kāma, as, ā, am, without desire or affection, without intention; unintentional, reluctant; (in grammar) the Sandhi which causes the dropping of a final r before a succeeding r; (as), m. absence of desire or affection.
     akāmakarśana a-kāma-karśana, as, m., Ved. not disappointing desires.
     akāmatas akāma-tas, ind. unintentionally, unwillingly.
     akāmatā akāma-tā, f. freedom from desire or affection or intention.
     akāmahata a-kāma-hata, as, ā, am, not smitten with desire or affection; free from desire, calm.

akāmin a-kāmin, ī, inī, i, the same as a-kāma.

akāya a-kāya, as, ā, am, incorporeal.

akāraṇa a-kāraṇa, as, ā, am, causeless; (am), n. absence of a cause; ind. causelessly.
     akāraṇotpanna a-kāraṇotpanna (-ṇa-ut-), as, ā, am, produced spontaneously.

akārin a-kārin, ī, iṇī, i, inactive, not performing.

akārṇāveṣṭakika a-kārṇaveṣṭakika, as, ī, am, not adapted for ear-rings. See karṇa-veṣṭaka.

akārya a-kārya, as, ā, am, not to be done, impracticable, improper; (am), n. a criminal action.
     akāryakārin akārya-kārin, ī, iṇī, i, an evil-doer; one who neglects his duty.

akārṣṇya a-kārṣṇya, am, n. absence of blackness.

akāla a-kāla, as, m. a wrong or bad or inauspicious time; (as, ā, am), unseasonable.
     akālakuṣmāṇḍa a-kāla-kuṣmāṇḍa, as, m. a pumpkin produced out of season; a useless birth.
     akālakusuma akāla-kusuma, am, n. a flower blossoming out of season.
     akālaja akāla-ja or akāla-jāta or a-kālotpanna (-la-ut-), as, ā, am, born or produced at a wrong time, unseasonable.
     akālajaladodaya akāla-jaladodaya (-da-ud-) or akāla-megho-daya (-gha-ud-), as, m. unseasonable rise or clouds; a mist.
     akālavelā akāla-velā, f. unseasonable or unusual time.
     akālasaha akāla-saha, as, ā, am, unable to bide one's time.

akālya a-kālya, as, ā, am, unseasonable.

akiñcana a-kiñcana, as, ā, am, without anything, utterly destitute, poor; disinterested; (am), n. that which is nothing, or worth nothing.
     akiñcanatā a-kiñcana-tā, f. voluntary poverty (as the duty of a Jaina ascetic).

akiñcaniman a-kiñcaniman, ā, m. destitution, poverty.

akitava a-kitava, as, m. no gambler.

akilviṣa a-kilviṣa, as, ā, am, sinless, faultless.

akīrtti a-kīrtti, is, f. bad repute.
     akīrttikara akīrtti-kara, as, ā, am, disreputable.

akuṇṭha a-kuṇṭha, as, ā, am, not blunted or worn out; fresh, vigorous, fixed.
     akuṇṭhadhiṣṇya a-kuṇṭha-dhiṣṇya, am, n. heaven.

akuṇṭhita a-kuṇṭhita, as, ā, am, = akuṇṭha above.

akutas a-kutas, ind. (usually found in composition), not from anywhere or any cause.
     akutaścala a-kutaś-cala, as, m. not moveable from any cause; a title of Śiva.
     akutobhaya a-kuto-bhaya, as, ā, am, not afraid or threatened from any quarter, secure.

akutra a-kutra or a-kutrā, ind., Ved. nowhere, i. e. astray.

akutsita a-kutsita, as, ā, am, unreproached.

akudhryañc a-kudhryañc, an, dhrīcī, ak (ku-dhri for kudha for kuha = kutra), Ved. going nowhere, coming to nothing; (Sāy.) fruitless, worthless.

akupya a-kupya, am, n. 'not base metal', gold or silver; any base metal, (see 3. a at end.)

akumāra a-kumāra, as, m. not a boy; an epithet of Viṣṇu.

akula a-kula, as, ā, am, not of a good family, low; (as), m., N. of Śiva; (ā), f., N. of Pārvatī.
     akulatā akula-tā, f. lowness of family.

akulīna a-kulīna, as, ā, am, not of a good family.

akuśala a-kuśala, as, ā, am, inauspicious, evil; not clever; (am), n. evil, an inauspicious or evil word.

akusīda a-kusīda, as, ā, am, not wishing for interest or gain; (also a-kuśīda.)

akusuma a-kusuma, as, ā, am, destitute of flowers or blossoms.

akuha a-kuha, as, m. no deceiver.

akūpāra a-kū-pāra, as, ā, am, (probably fr. akū for a-ku, not bad, not contemptible, and pāra, opposite shore or limit), having a good issue or effect; unbounded; (as), m. the sea; the sun; the king of tortoises, who upholds the world; any tortoise or turtle.

akūvāra = a-kūpāra a-kūvāra = a-kū-pāra above.

akūrca a-kūrca, as, ā, am, guileless; (as), m. Buddha.

akṛcchra a-kṛcchra, as, am, m. n. absence of difficulty; facility.

akṛcchrin a-kṛcchrin, ī, iṇī, i, free from trouble.

akṛta a-kṛta, as, ā, am, undone, unperformed; not made, uncreated; not prepared, not ready, incomplete; one who has done no works; (am), n. an unperformed act; an unheard-of action or crime; (ā), f. a daughter not placed on a level with sons.
     akṛtakāram akṛta-kāram, ind. as has not been done before.
     akṛtajña akṛta-jña, as, ā, am, ungrateful.
     akṛtajñatā akṛta-jña-tā, f. ingratitude.
     akṛtabuddhi akṛta-buddhi, is, is, i, having an unformed mind.
     akṛtabuddhitva akṛtabuddhi-tva, am, n. ignorance.
     akṛtavraṇa akṛta-vraṇa, as, m., N. of an expounder of the Purāṇas.
     akṛtātman akṛtātman (-ta-āt-), ā, ā, a, having an unformed mind; not yet identified with the supreme spirit.
     akṛtārtha akṛtārtha (-ta-ar-), as, ā, am, having one's object unaccomplished unsuccessful.
     akṛtāstra a-kṛtāstra (-ta-as-), as, ā, am, unpractised in arms.
     akṛtainas a-kṛtainas (-ta-en-), ās, ās, as, innocent.
     akṛtodvāha akṛtodvāha (-ta-ud-), as, ā, am, unmarried.

akṛtin a-kṛtin, ī, inī, i, unfit for work, clumsy.
     akṛtitva akṛti-tva, am, n. unfitness for work.

akṛtya a-kṛtya, as, ā, am, not to be done, criminal; (am), n. crime.
     akṛtyakārin akṛtya-kārin, ī, iṇī, i, evil-doer.

akṛtta a-kṛtta, as, ā, am, uncut, unimpaired.
     akṛttaruc akṛtta-ruc, k, k, k, possessing unimpaired splendor.

akṛtrima a-kṛtrima, as, ā, am, inartificial, unfeigned, natural.

akṛtsna a-kṛtsna, as, ā, am, incomplete.

akṛpa a-kṛpa, as, ā, am, merciless, unkind.

akṛpaṇa a-kṛpaṇa, as, ā, am, not miserly.

akṛśa a-kṛśa, as, ā, am, not slender or emaciated; strong, full.
     akṛśalakṣmī a-kṛśa-lakṣmī, īs, īs, i, enjoying full prosperity.
     akṛśāśva a-kṛśāśva (-śa-aś-), as, m., N. of a king of Ayodhyā.

akṛṣīvala a-kṛṣīvala, as, ā, am, not agricultural.

akṛṣṭa a-kṛṣṭa, as, ā, am, unploughed, untilled; not drawn.
     akṛṣṭapacya akṛṣṭa-pacya, as, ā, am, ripening in unploughed land, growing wild.

akṛṣṇakarman a-kṛṣṇa-karman, ā, ā, a, free from black deeds, guiltless, virtuous.

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aketana a-ketana, as, ā, am, houseless.

aketu a-ketu, us, us, u, Ved. shapeless, unrecognisable; (Sāy.) unconscious.

akeśa a-keśa, as, ā, am, destitute of hair.

akoṭa a-koṭa, as, m. the Areca or Betelnut palm, ('without a bend.')

akopana a-kopana, as, ā, am, not irascible.

akovida a-kovida, as, ā, am, unwise, stupid, ignorant.

akauśala a-kauśala, am, n. want of dexterity or skill; evil [cf. a-kuśala].

akkā akkā, f. a mother. [Supposed to be a term of foreign origin; cf. Lat. Acca.]

akta 1. akta, as, ā, am (part. of rt. añc or añj in the sense 'to go'), gone.

akta 2. akta, as, ā, am (part. of rt. añj), smeared over; diffused; bedaubed, tinged, characterized. It is often the last part of a compound word; as, raktākta, tinged with red or blood; (am), n. oil, ointment.

aktā aktā, f., Ved. night.

aktu aktu, us, f. (m. ?), Ved. ointment; tinge, ray, light, star (?); dark tinge, darkness, night.

aktos aktos, aktubhis, ind., Ved. at night.

aktvā aktvā (ind. part. of rt. añj), having besmeared.

akna akna, as, ā, am (fr. rt. añc), bent.

akra 1. akra, as, ā, am, Ved. violent [Lat. acer?].

akra 2. a-kra, as, ā, am (fr. 3. a and rt. 1. kṛ ?), Ved. inactive, bootless.

akratu a-kratu, us, us, u, Ved. destitute of will or energy; powerless, foolish; (Sāy.) without sacrifices.

akrama a-krama, as, m. want of order, confusion.

akravihasta a-kravi-hasta, as, ā, am, Ved. not having bloody hands; (Sāy.) not having niggardly hands, not close-fisted.

akravyāda a-kravyāda, as, ā, am, or a-kra-vyād, t, t, t, not carnivorous, not eating flesh.

akrānta a-krānta, as, ā, am, unpassed, unsurpassed, unconquered; (ā), f. the Egg plant.

akriya a-kriya, as, ā, am, without works; inactive, torpid; abstaining from religious rites; good for nothing; (ā), f. inactivity; neglect of duty.

akrīḍat a-krīḍat, an, antī, at, not playing.

akrūra a-krūra, as, ā, am, not cruel, gentle; (as), m., N. of Kṛṣṇa's paternal uncle and friend.

akrodha a-krodha, as, m. suppression of anger, one of the chief virtues among Hindūs; (as, ā, am), free from anger.

akrodhana a-krodhana, as, ā, am, free from anger; (as), m., N. of a prince, son of Ayutāyu.

aklama a-klama, as, m. freedom from fatigue.

aklikā aklikā, f. the Indigo plant.

akliṣṭa a-kliṣṭa, as, ā, am, untroubled; undisturbed; unwearied.
     akliṣṭakarman akliṣṭa-karman, ā, ā, a, or akliṣṭa-kārin, ī, iṇī, i, unwearied in action.
     akliṣṭavrata akliṣṭa-vrata, as, ā, am, unwearied in keeping religious vows.

akleśa a-kleśa, as, m. freedom from trouble.

akledya a-kledya, as, ā, am, incapable of moisture, not to be wetted.

akṣ akṣ (probably not a simple rt., perhaps a kind of old Desid. form of rt. 1. ), cl. 1. P. akṣati, cl. 5. akṣṇoti, ānakṣa, akṣiṣyati, akṣyati, ākṣīt, akṣitum or aṣṭum, to reach; to pass through, penetrate, pervade, embrace; to accumulate (to form the cube ?): Caus. akṣayati,  yitum, ācikṣat, to cause to pervade: Desid. aci-kṣiṣati or acikṣati.

akṣa 1. akṣa, as, m. (fr. rt. 1. or aj?), an axle, axis, pivot, (in this sense also am, n.); a wheel, car, cart; pole of a car; the beam of a balance or string which holds the pivot of the beam; a snake; terrestrial latitude; the lower part of the temples [cf. Lat. axis; Gr. [greek] Old Germ. ahsa; Mod. Germ. Achse; Lith. assis].
     akṣakarṇa akṣa-karṇa, as, m. the hypotenuse, especially of the triangle formed with the gnomon of a dial and its shadow; (in astronomy) argument of the latitude.
     akṣaja akṣa-ja, as, m. a diamond; a thunderbolt; a N. of Viṣṇu.
     akṣadhur akṣa-dhur, ūr, f. the yoke attached to the fore part of the pole of a car.
     akṣadhūrtila akṣa-dhūrtila, as, m. a bull, an ox, i. e. yoked to the pole of a cart.
     akṣapīḍā akṣa-pīḍā, f., N. of a plant.
     akṣabhāga akṣa-bhāga, as, m. a degree of latitude.
     akṣabhāra akṣa-bhāra, as, m. cart-load, carriageload.
     akṣāṃsa akṣāṃsa (-ṣa-aṃ-), as, m. a degree of latitude.
     akṣāgra akṣāgra (-ṣa-ag-), am, n. the end of an axle; the anterior end of the pole of a car; an axle.
     akṣāgrakīla akṣāgra-kīla or -kīlaka, as, m. a linchpin; the pin which fastens the yoke to the pole.
     akṣānah akṣā-nah, t, t, t, Ved. tied to a cart or its pole.

akṣa 2. akṣa, as, m. (said to be from rt. 1. , a die for playing with; a cube; a seed of which rosaries are made (in compound words, like indrākṣa, rudrākṣa); a shrub producing that seed (Eleocarpus Ganitrus); a weight called karṣa, equal to 16 māṣas; Beleric Myrobalan (Terminalia Belerica), the seed of which is used as a die; (am), n. sochal salt; blue vitriol (from its crystallized shape).
     akṣakuśala akṣa-kuśala, as, ā, am, skilled in dice.
     akṣaglaha akṣa-glaha, as, m. gambling, playing at dice.
     akṣajña akṣa-jña, as, ā, am, skilled in gambling.
     akṣatattva akṣa-tattva, am, n. science of dice.
     akṣatattvavid akṣatattva-vid, t, t, t, skilled in the principles of gambling.
     akṣadevana akṣa-devana, am, n. gambling, dice-playing.
     akṣadevin akṣa-devin, ī, m. a gamester.
     akṣadyū akṣa-dyū, ūs, m. a gambler, a dice-player.
     akṣadyūta akṣa-dyūta, as, m. a gambler, a dice-player; (am), n. gambling.
     akṣadyūtika akṣa-dyūtika, am, n. dispute at play.
     akṣadrugdha akṣa-drugdha, as, ā, am, hated by, i. e. unlucky at dice.
     akṣadhara akṣa-dhara, as, ā or ī, am, one who has dice; (as), m. a plant, Trophis Aspera; see sākhota.
     akṣadhūrta akṣa-dhūrta, as, m. a gamester, a gambler, i. e. a dice-rogue.
     akṣanaipuṇa akṣa-naipuṇa or -naipuṇya, am, n. skill in gambling.
     akṣaparājaya akṣa-parā-jaya, as, m. loss in gambling.
     akṣapāta akṣa-pāta, as, m. cast of dice.
     akṣapātana akṣa-pātana, am, n. act of casting dice.
     akṣapriya akṣa-priya, as, ā, am, fond of dice, or (perhaps) favoured by the dice, lucky.
     akṣamada akṣa-mada, as, m. intoxicating passion for dice.
     akṣamātra akṣa-mātra, am, n. dice, anything as big as dice; the twinkling of an eye, a moment of time.
     akṣamālā akṣa-mālā, f. a rosary, a string or necklace of beads, especially of the seeds of the Eleocarpus; a N. of Arunḍhatī, wife of Vasiṣṭha, from her wearing a rosary; (as, ā, am), or akṣa-mālin, ī, inī, i, wearing a rosary of seeds.
     akṣarāja akṣa-rāja, as, m. the king of dice, the die called Kali.
     akṣavat akṣa-vat, ān, atī, at, having dice, relating to dice, gambling; (), f. a game of dice.
     akṣavāma akṣa-vāma, as, m. an unfair gambler.
     akṣavid 1. akṣa-vid, t, t, t, skilful in gambling.
     akṣavṛtta akṣa-vṛtta, as, ā, am, what has occurred in gambling.
     akṣaśauṇḍa akṣa-śauṇḍa, as, ā, am, fond of gambling.
     akṣasūtra akṣa-sūtra, am, n. a string or rosary of Eleocarpus seeds.
     akṣastuṣa akṣa-stuṣa, as, m. Beleric Myrobalan.
     akṣahṛdaya akṣa-hṛdaya, am, n. innermost nature of dice, perfect skill in gambling.
     akṣahṛdayajña akṣahṛdaya-jña, as, ā, am, perfectly skilled in gambling.
     akṣāvapana akṣāvapana (-ṣa-āv-), am, n. a dice-beard.
     akṣāvāpa akṣāvāpa or akṣātivāpa (-ṣa-at-), as, m. the keeper of the dice, or of a gambling table.

akṣaka akṣaka or akṣika, as, m. the tree Dalbergia Oujeinensis.

akṣa 3. akṣa, am, n. (fr. rt. 1. aś?), an organ of sense, an object of sense; (as), m. the soul; knowledge, religious knowledge; the law; a lawsuit; a person born blind; N. of Garuḍa, of a son of Rāvaṇa, of a son of Nara, &c.
     akṣadarśaka akṣa-darśaka, as, m. a judge, i. e. one who sees lawsuits; also akṣa-dṛś, k.
     akṣapaṭala akṣa-paṭala, am, n. court of law; depository of legal document.
     akṣapāṭa akṣa-pāṭa, as, m. an arena, a wrestling ground, place of contest.
     akṣapāṭaka akṣa-pāṭaka or akṣa-pāṭika, as, m. a judge, i. e. arranger of a lawsuit.
     akṣapāda akṣa-pāda, as, m. a follower of the Nyāya or logical system of philosophy; N. of the Ṛṣi Gotama.
     akṣavāṭa akṣa-vāṭa, see akṣa-pāṭa. --2. akṣa-vid, t, t, t, versed in law.

akṣa 4. akṣa, am, n. the eye, especially substituted for akṣi at the end of adjective compounds, the fem. being akṣī [cf. Gr. [greek] for [greek] Lat. oculus; Germ. Auge; Russ. oko].

akṣaṇā a-kṣaṇa, as, ā, am, inopportune.

akṣata a-kṣata, as, ā, am, not crushed; uninjured, unbroken, whole; (as), m. Śiva; thrashed and winnowed rice which has been dried in the sun; barley; (as, am), m. n. an eunuch; (ā), f. a virgin; N. of a plant, Karkaṭaśriṅgī or Kankaḍaśriṅgī; (am), n. and (ās), m. pl. whole grain, fried grain.
     akṣatayoni akṣata-yoni, is, f. a virgin, an unblemished maiden.

akṣatra a-kṣatra, as, ā, am, destitute of the Kshatriya caste, apart from the Kshatriya caste.

akṣan akṣan, substituted for akṣi, the eye, in the weakest cases, see Gram. 122 [cf. Goth. augan].

akṣaṇvat akṣaṇ-vat, ān, atī, at, having eyes.

akṣama a-kṣama, as, ā, am, unable to endure, impatient; incompetent.
     akṣamā a-kṣamā or akṣa-ma-tā, f. impatience, envy; incompetence.

akṣaya a-kṣaya, as, ā, am, exempt from decay, undecaying; (as), m., N. of the twentieth year in the cycle of Jupiter; (ā), f. the seventh day of a lunar month, if it fall on Sunday or Monday; the fourth, if it fall on Wednesday.
     akṣayaguṇa akṣaya-guṇa, as, ā, am, possessing imperishable qualities; (as), m. Śiva.
     akṣayatā akṣaya-tā, f. or akṣaya-tva, am, n. imperishableness.
     akṣayatṛtīyā akṣaya-tṛtīyā, f. a festival, the third day of the bright half of Vaiśākha, which is the first day of the Satya-yuga, and secures peremanency to actions then performed.
     akṣayapuruhūta akṣaya-puruhūta, as, m. Śiva.
     akṣayamati akṣaya-mati, is, m., N. of a Bodhi-sattva.
     akṣayaloka akṣaya-loka, as, m. the undecaying world, heaven.
     akṣayālalitā akṣayā-lalitā, f. festival observed by women on the seventh day of the second half of Bhādra.

akṣayin a-kṣayin, ī, iṇī, i, undecaying; (iṇī), f., N. of Śiva's wife.

akṣayya a-kṣayya, as, ā, am, undecaying.

akṣara a-kṣara, as, ā, am, imperishable; unalterable; (as), m. a sword; Śiva; Viṣṇu; (am), n. a syllable; the syllable om; a letter; a vowel, a sound; a word; speech; Brahma; final beatitude; abiding merit, religious austerity; sacrifice; right, justice; the sky; water; a plant (Achyranthes Aspera).
     akṣaracañcu akṣara-cañcu or akṣara-cuñcu, us, or akṣa-ra-caṇa or akṣara-cana, as, m. a writer, scribe.
     akṣaracchandas akṣara-cchandas, as, n. metre regulated by the number and quantity of syllables.
     akṣarajananī akṣara-jananī, f. a reed or pen.
     akṣarajīvaka akṣara-jīvaka or akṣara-jīvika, as, or akṣara-jīvin, ī, m. a scribe.
     akṣarajur akṣa-ra-jur, ūr, m. a sage, one who knows and enjoys Brahma.
     akṣaratūlikā akṣara-tūlikā, f. a reed or pen.
     akṣaranyāsa akṣara-nyāsa or akṣara-vinyāsa, as, m. array of syllables or letters, writing; scripture; the alphabet.
     akṣarapaṅkti akṣara-paṅkti, is, is, i, containing five syllables; (is), f., N. of a metre of four lines, each containing one dactyl and one spondee; also called paṅkti or haṃsa.
     akṣarabhāj akṣara-bhāj, k, k, k, Ved. entitled to a share in the syllables (of a prayer).
     akṣaramukha akṣara-mukha, as, m. having the mouth full of syllables, a student, scholar.
     akṣaravinyāsa akṣara-vinyāsa, see akṣara-nyāsa.
     akṣaraśas akṣara-śas, ind. syllable by syllable.
     akṣaraśūnya akṣa-ra-śūnya, as, ā, am, inarticulate.
     akṣarasaṃsthāna akṣara-saṃsthāna, am, n. scripture, writing.
     akṣarāṅga akṣarāṅga (-ra-aṅga), am, n. part of a syllable.

akṣaraka akṣaraka, am, n. a vowel.

akṣarya akṣarya, as, ā, am, relating to syllables or letters.

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akṣānti a-kṣānti, is, f. impatience, jealousy, intolerance.

akṣāra a-kṣāra, as, ā, am, free from factitious salt; (as), m. natural salt.
     akṣāralavaṇa akṣāra-lavaṇa or akṣārālavaṇa, am, n. natural salt; food that may be eaten at a season unfit for performing religious duties.

akṣi akṣi, n. (fr. rt. 1. or añj? Instr. akṣṇā, Dat. akṣṇe &c., fr. akṣan, substituted for akṣi in the weakest cases. At the end of comp. akṣa is substituted, see 4. akṣa), the eye; the number two; (ī), du., Ved. the sun and moon [cf. Lith. aki-s].
     akṣikūṭa akṣi-kūṭa or akṣi-kūṭaka, am, n. the eyeball, the pupil of the eye.
     akṣigata akṣi-gata, as, ā, am, visibly present, seen; hated.
     akṣigola akṣi-gola, as, m. the eyeball.
     akṣijāha akṣi-jāha, am, n. the root of the eye.
     akṣitārā akṣi-tārā, f. the pupil of the eye.
     akṣipakṣman akṣi-pakṣman, a, n. the eyelash.
     akṣipaṭala akṣi-paṭala, am, n. a coat of the eye.
     akṣipat akṣi-pat, t, t, t, Ved. (falling into the eyes), hurtful; (t), ind. as much as could fall into the eyes, a little.
     akṣibhū akṣi-bhū, ūs, ūs, u, visible, perceptible, manifest, present.
     akṣibheṣaja akṣi-bheṣaja, am, n. a medicament for the eyes, collyrium, &c.; (as), m. a tree, Red Lodh.
     akṣibhruva akṣi-bhruva, am, n. the eyes and eyebrows together.
     akṣimat akṣi-mat, ān, atī, at, provided with eyes.
     akṣiloman akṣi-loman, a, n. the eyelash.
     akṣivikūṇita akṣi-vikūṇita, am, n. a glance, a look with the eyelids partially closed.

akṣika akṣika or akṣīka, as, m. the tree Dalbergia Oujeinensis. See akṣaka.

akṣiṇī akṣiṇī, f. (fr. 3. akṣa ?), one of the eight conditions or privileges attached to landed property.

akṣita a-kṣita, as, ā, am, undecayed, uninjured; undecaying; (am), n. water.
     akṣitāvasu akṣitā-vasu, us, m., Ved. epithet of Indra (possessed of undecaying wealth).
     akṣitoti akṣitoti (-ta-ūti), is, m., Ved. epithet of Indra (granting permanent help).

akṣiti a-kṣiti, is, f. imperishableness; (is, is, i), imperishable.

akṣiyat a-kṣiyat, an, atī, at, Ved. not inhabiting, destitute of a dwelling, unsettled; (Sāy.) not decreasing (in riches).

akṣiva akṣiva or akṣīva, as, m. a plant, Guilandina or Hyperanthera Moringa; (am), n. sea salt.

akṣīka akṣīka, as, m. See akṣika.

akṣīva a-kṣīva, as, ā, am, not intoxicated, sober. See also akṣiva.

akṣu akṣu, us, m., Ved. a kind of net.

akṣuṇā a-kṣuṇṇa, as, ā, am, unbroken, uncurtailed, unconquered; inexperienced, inexpert.
     akṣuṇṇatā a-kṣuṇṇa-tā, f. uncurtailed condition; inexperience.

akṣudra a-kṣudra, as, ā, am, not small.

akṣudh a-kṣudh, t, f., Ved. satiety.

akṣudhya a-kṣudhya, as, ā, am, not liable to hunger.

akṣetra a-kṣetra, as, ā, am, destitute of fields, uncultivated; (am), n. not a proper field, a bad field; not a proper geometrical figure.
     akṣetrajña akṣetra-jña, as, ā, am or akṣetra-vid, t, t, t, destitute of spiritual knowledge.

akṣetrin a-kṣetrin, ī, iṇī, i, having no fields.

akṣaitrajñya akṣaitrajñya, am, n. spiritual ignorance.

akṣoṭa akṣoṭa, as, m. a walnut (Pistacio nut ?); N. of a tree, Pīlu; of another tree, Aleurites Triloba. Also spelt akṣoḍa, akṣoḍaka, ākṣoṭa, ākṣoḍaka, ākhoṭa.

akṣobha a-kṣobha, as, ā, am, unagitated, unmoved; (as), m. the post to which an elephant is tied; freedom from agitation, imperturbability.

akṣobhya a-kṣobhya, as, ā, am, immoveable, imperturbable; (as), m., N. of a Buddha; an immense number, said by Buddhists to be 100 vivaras.

akṣauhiṇī akṣauhiṇī, f. an army consisting of ten anīkinīs, or 21, 870 elephants, 21, 870 chariots, 65, 610 horse, and 109, 350 foot. (The anīkinī consists of 27 vāhinīs; and 27 being the cube, akṣa, of 3, it is probable that akṣauhiṇī is a compound from akṣa and vāhinī.)

akṣṇa akṣṇa, am, n. (fr. rt. 1. ), Ved. time (= a-khaṇḍa Schol. to Uṇ-sūtras).

akṣṇayā akṣṇayā (probably the Instr. of an obs. word akṣṇā, fr. añc), ind., Ved. circuitously (like a wheel), in a tortuous way; wrongly.
     akṣṇayādruh akṣṇa-yā-druh, -dhruk, k, k, Ved. seeking to injure in a tortuous manner.
     akṣṇayāvan akṣṇa-yāvan, ā, arī, a, Ved. going across; (Sāy.) going through, penetrating.

akhaṭṭa akhaṭṭa, as, m., N. of a tree, Buchanania Latifolia.

akhaṭṭi akhaṭṭi, is, m. childish whim.

akhaṇḍa a-khaṇḍa, as, ā, am, not fragmentary, entire, whole; (am), n. time (?). a-khaṇḍā dvādaśī is the twelfth day of the first half of the lunar month Mārgaśirṣa.

akhaṇḍana a-khaṇḍana, am, n. not breaking; leaving entire; non-refutation, admission; (as), m. time.

akhaṇḍita a-khaṇḍita, as, ā, am, not reduced to pieces, unbroken, undivided, unimpaired; unrefuted.
     akhaṇḍitartu akhaṇ-ḍitartu (-ta-ṛtu), us, us, u, bearing fruit every season.
     akhaṇḍitotsava akhaṇḍitotsava (-ta-ut-), as, ā, am, ever festive.

akhara a-khara, as, ā, am, not hard, soft.

akharva a-kharva, as, ā, am, not short, not stunted, not small, not dwarfish.

akhāta a-khāta, as, ā, am, not dug (by man); unburied; (as, am), m. n. a natural pond or lake, a pool before a temple.

akhādya a-khādya, as, ā, am, uneatable.

akhidra a-khidra, as, ā, am, unwearied.
     akhidrayāman a-khidra-yāman, ā, ā, a, Ved. unwearied in course.

akhila a-khila, as, ā, am, without a gap, complete, whole.
     akhilātman akhilātman (-la-āt-), ā, m. the universal spirit, Brahma.

akhilena akhilena, ind. completely.

akheṭika akheṭika or ākheṭika, as, m. a dog trained to the chase.

akhedin a-khedin, ī, inī, i, not wearisome; unwearied.
     akheditva akhedi-tva, am, n. continuous flow (of speech); one of the vāgguṇas of the Jainas.

akhkhala akhkhala, ind., Ved. an exclamation of joy.
     akhkhalīkṛ akhkhalī-kṛ, cl. 8. P. -karoti, -kartum, Ved. to utter the exclamation akhkhala.

akhyāta a-khyāta, as, ā, am, not famous, unknown, obscure; infamous.

akhyāti a-khyāti, is, f. want of fame; infamy, bad repute.
     akhyātikara akhyāti-kara, as, ā, am, disreputable.

ag ag, cl. 1. P. agati, āga, agitum, to move tortuously, wind: Caus. agayati, yitum, to cause to move tortuously [cf. rt. aṅg].

aga 1. aga, as, m. a snake; the sun; a water-jar.

aga 2. a-ga, as, ā, am (fr. rt. gam), unable to walk; unapproachable; (as), m. a mountain, a tree; (in arithm.) seven.
     agaja aga-ja, as, ā, am, produced on a mountain, or from a tree; (am), n. bitumen.
     agātmajā agātmajā (aga-āt-), f., N. of Pārvatī, the daughter of Himālaya.
     agāvaha agāvaha (aga-āv-), as, m., N. of a son of Kṛṣṇa and of others.
     agaukas agaukas (aga-ok-), ās, m. a lion; a bird; the śarabha, a fabulous animal with eight legs.

agaccha a-gaccha, as, ā, am, not going; (as), m. a tree.

agaṇita a-gaṇita, as, ā, am, uncounted.
     agaṇitalajja agaṇita-lajja, as, ā, am, disregarding shame.

agata a-gata, as, ā, am, not gone; unfrequented; (am), n., Ved. not coming, non-return (?).

agati a-gati, is, f. want of resort or resource, necessity.

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agatika a-gatika or a-gatīka, as, ā, am, destitute of resort or of resources.
     agatikagati agatika-gati, is, f. the resort of one who has no resort, a last resource.

agada a-gada, as, ā, am, free from disease, healthy, salubrious; free from judicial affliction; (as), m. freedom from disease, health; a medicine, medicament, drug; the science of antidotes.
     agadaṅkāra agadaṅ-kāra, as, ī, m. f. a physician, ('who makes well.')

agadya agadya, nom. P. agadyati, to have good health.

agadita a-gadita, as, ā, am, untold.

agama a-gama, as, ā, am, not going, unable to go; (as), m. a mountain, a tree [cf. 2. a-ga].

agamya a-gamya or a-gantavya, as, ā, am, unfit to be walked in, or to be approached; inaccessible (physically or metaphorically), inapproachable; unattainable, incomprehensible, unsurpassable.
     agamyarūpa aga-mya-rūpa, as, ā, am, of unsurpassed form, nature, or beauty.
     agamyāgamana agamyā-gamana, am, n. illicit sexual intercourse.
     agamyāgamanīya agamyāgamanīya, as, ā, am, relating to illicit intercourse.
     agamyāgāmin agamyā-gāmin, ī, inī, i, practising illicit intercourse.

agarī a-garī, f. a kind of grass, commonly called Deotar, Andropogon Serratus [cf. garī].

agaru agaru, us, u, m. n. Agallochum, Amyris Agallocha.

agarva a-garva, as, ā, am, free from pride.

agarhita a-garhita, as, ā, am, undespised, unreproached, blameless.

agavyūti a-gavyūti, is, is, i, Ved. without good pasturage for cattle, barren.

agasti agasti, is, m. (said to be fr. 2. a-ga, a mountain, and asti, fr. rt. 2. as, thrower), N. of a Ṛṣi, author of several Vedic hymns, (he is said to have been the son of both Mitra and Varuṇa by Urvasī; to have been born in a water-jar; to have been of short stature; to have swallowed the ocean, and compelled the Vindhya mountains to prostrate themselves before him; to have conquered and civilized the South; to have written on medicine, &c.); the star Canopus, of which Agastya is the regent; a plant, Sesbana (or Aeschynomene) Grandiflora.
     agastidru agasti-dru, us, f. a plant, Sesbana Grandiflora.

agastayas agastayas, m. pl. the descendants of Agastya.

agastī agastī, f. a female descendant of Agastya.

agastīya agastīya, as, ā, am, relating to Agasti.

agastya agastya, a, m. = agasti, N. of Śiva.
     agastyagītā agastya-gītā, ās, f. pl. Agastya's hymns, forming part of the Ādivārāha-Purāṇa.
     agastyacāra agastya-cāra, as, m. the course of Canopus.
     agastyasaṃhitā agastya-saṃhitā, f. Agastya's collection (of law).
     agastyodaya agastyodaya (-ya-ud-), as, m. the rise of Canopus; the seventh day of the second half of Bhādra.

agā a-gā, ās, m. f., Ved. not going.

agādha a-gādha, as, ā, am (see gādha), very deep, unfathomable, bottomless; (as, am), m. n. a hole, chasm; (as), m., N. of one of the five fires at the Svāhākāra [cf. Gr. [greek] and Goth. goths, fr. the crude form goda].
     agādhajala agādha-jala, as, ā, am, having deep water; (as), m. a deep lake.

agāra a-gāra, as, am, m. n. house, apartment [cf. ā-gāra].

agina agina, as, m. the sun (?). See agira.

agira agira, as, m. (fr. rt. ag), the sun; fire; a Rākṣasa.

agiraukas a-giraukas, ās, ās, as (fr. a + girā, Instr. of gir and okas), Ved. not to be stopped by threatening shouts (lit. 'having no station by speech'), epithet of the Maruts.

agu a-gu, us, us, u (fr. go with a), Ved. destitute of cows, or of rays; poor; destitute of hymns, wicked; (us), m., N. of Rāhu or the ascending node.

ago a-go, aus, aus, u, Ved. destitute of cows.
     agotā ago-tā, f. want of cows.

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aguṇā a-guṇa, as, ā, am, destitute of qualities or attributes (sometimes said of the supreme being); destitute of good qualities; (as), m. a fault.
     aguṇatā aguṇa-tā, f. absence of good qualities.
     aguṇavat agu-ṇa-vat, ān, atī, at, destitute of qualities, especially of good qualities.
     aguṇavādin aguṇa-vādin, ī, inī, i, faultfinding, censorious.
     aguṇaśīla aguṇa-śīla, as, ā, am, of a worthless character.

agupta a-gupta, as, ā, am, unhidden, unconcealed; unprotected; not keeping a secret.

aguru a-guru, us, ū or vī, u, not heavy, light; (in prosody) short as a short vowel alone or before a single consonant; (us, u), m. n. the fragrant Aloe wood and tree, Aquiluria Agallocha; the Śiśu tree; the tree which yields Bdellium, Amyris Agallocha.
     aguruśiṃśapā aguru-śiṃśapā, f. the Śiśu tree, (probably distinct words, śiṃśapā being added to explain aguru.)

agūḍha a-gūḍha, as, ā, am, unconcealed, manifest.
     agūḍhagandha agūḍha-gandha, as, ā, am, having an unconcealed smell; (am), n. Asa Foetida.
     agūḍhabhāva agūḍha-bhāva, as, ā, am, having a transparent disposition.

agṛbhīta a-gṛbhīta, as, ā, am, Ved. not seized or taken, unsubdued.
     agṛbhītaśocis agṛbhīta-śocis, is, is, is, Ved. having inconceivable splendor; (Sāy.) of unsubdued splendor.

agṛha a-gṛha or a-graha, as, m. a houseless man, a Vānaprastha or Brāhman of the third order.

agocara a-gocara, as, ā, am, not obvious, imperceptible by the senses; (am), n. anything that is beyond the cognizance of the senses; Brahma; the not being seen, absence.

agopā a-gopā, ās, ās, am, Ved. without a cowhered, not tended by one.

agorudha a-go-rudha, as, ā, am, Ved. not repulsing the cow; (Sāy.) not repelling or disdaining praise.

agohya a-gohya, as, ā, am, Ved. unconcealable, not to be covered, bright.

agaukas agaukas. See 2. a-ga, col. 1.

agnāyī agnāyī. See p. 6, col. 1.

agni agni, is, m. (fr. rt. aṅg or ag or añj?), fire; sacrificial fire of three kinds, Gārhapatya, Āhavanīya, and Dakṣiṇa; the number three; the god of fire; the fire of the stomach, the digestive faculty; the gastric fluid; bile; gold; N. of various plants, Semicarpus Anacardium, Plumbago Zeylanica and Rosea, Citrus Acida; mystical substitute for the letter r [cf. Lat. igni-s; Lith. ugni-s; Slav. ognj; Goth. auhn'-s; [greek] and [greek] may be related to agni].
     agnāmarutau agnā-marutau, m. du. Agni and Marut.
     agnāviṣṇū agnā-viṣṇū, m. du. Agni and Viṣṇu.
     agnikaṇa agni-kaṇa, as, m. a spark.
     agnikarman agni-karman, a, n. action of fire or of Agni; cauterization.
     agnikārikā agni-kārikā, f. and agni-kārya, am, n. kindling or feeding the sacrificial fire with clarified butter, &c.
     agnikāṣṭha agni-kāṣṭha, am, n. Agallochum.
     agnikukkuṭa agni-kukkuṭa, as, m. a lighted wisp of straw, firebrand.
     agnikuṇḍa agni-kuṇḍa, am, n. a hole or enclosed space for the consecrated fire.
     agnikumāra agni-kumāra, as, m. a particular preparation of various drugs.
     agnikṛta agni-kṛta, as, ā, am, made by fire, offered by fire.
     agniketu agni-ketu, us, m., N. of a Rakshas.
     agnikoṇa agni-koṇa, as, m. the south-east quarter, ruled over by Agni.
     agnikriyā agni-kriyā, f. obsequies or any other religious act performed by means of fire.
     agnikrīḍā agni-krīḍā, f. firework, illumination, &c.
     agnigarbha agni-garbha, as, ā, am, pregnant with fire; (as), m. a gem supposed to contain and give out solar heat, sūryakānta; N. of a plant, Agnijāra; (ā), f., N. of a plant, Mahājyotiṣmatī.
     agnigṛha agni-gṛha, am, n. house or place for keeping the sacred fire.
     agnigrantha agni-grantha, as, m., N. of a work.
     agnicaya agni-caya, as, m. a heap of fire.
     agnicayana agni-cayana, am, n. or agni-citi, is, f. or agni-cityā, f. arranging or preparing the sacred or sacrificial fire-place.
     agnicit agni-cit, ind., Ved. like Agni; (t), m. one who has arranged a sacred fire-place.
     agnicitvat agnicit-vat, ān, atī, at, having householders or inhabitants that have prepared a sacred fire-place.
     agnija agni-ja or agni-jāta, as, ā, am, produced by fire, born of or in fire; digestive; (as), m., N. of Viṣṇu; a medicinal plant, Agnijāra.
     agnijanman agni-janman, ā, m. Skanda, the god of war.
     agnijāra agni-jāra or agni-jāla, as, m. a medicinal plant.
     agnijihva agni-jihva, as, ā, am, having a fiery tongue; (ā), f. a tongue or flame of fire; a tongue of Agni (who is said to have seven tongues); a medicinal plant, Lāngalī.
     agnijvalitatejana agnijvalita-tejana, as, ā, am, having a point hardened in fire.
     agnijvālā agni-jvālā, f. glow or flame of fire; a plant with red blossoms, used by dyers, Grislea Tomentosa; another plant with red blossoms, Jalapippalī.
     agnitap agni-tap, p, Ved. enjoying the warmth of a fire.
     agnitapas agni-tapas, ās, ās, as, hot as fire, glowing.
     agnitapta agni-tapta, as, ā, am, heated by fire, glowing.
     agnitā agni-tā, f. the state of fire.
     agnitejas agni-tejas, ās, ās, as, having the power of fire or of Agni; (ās), m., N. of one of the seven Ṛṣis of the eleventh Manvantara.
     agnitraya agni-traya, am, n. or agni-tretā, f. the three sacred fires, called respectively Gārhapatya, Āhavanīya, and Dakṣiṇa.
     agnitrā agni-trā, ās, ās, am, Ved. protected by Agni.
     agnida agni-da or agni-dāyaka, as, ā, am, supplying with fire, stomachic, tonic, incendiary.
     agnidagdha agni-dagdha, as, ā, am, burnt with fire; burnt on the funeral pile; burnt at once, without having fire put into the mouth, because destitute of issue; (ās), m. pl. a class of Pitṛs or those who on earth maintained the sacred fire.
     agnidatta agni-datta, as, m., N. of a prince.
     agnidamanī agni-damanī, f. a narcotic plant, Solanum Jacquini.
     agnidāyaka agni-dāyaka, see agnida.
     agnidāha agni-dāha, as, m., N. of a disease.
     agnidiś agni-diś, k, f. Agni's quarter, i. e. the south-east.
     agnidīpana agni-dīpana, as, ī, am, stimulating digestion.
     agnidīpta agni-dīpta, as, ā, am, blazing, glowing; (ā), f., N. of a plant, Mahājyotiṣmatī.
     agnidīpti agni-dīpti, is, f. active state of digestion.
     agnidūta agni-dūta, as, ā, am, Ved. having Agni for a messenger.
     agnidūṣita agni-dūṣita, as, ā, am, branded.
     agnideva agni-deva, as, m. Agni; a worshipper of Agni; (ā), f. the third lunar mansion, i. e. the Pleiades.
     agnidevatā agni-devatā, f. the deity Agni.
     agnidevatya agni-devatya or agni-daivata or agni-daivatya, as, ā, am, referring to Agni or to his divinity.
     agnidh agnidh or agnīdh, t, m. (fr. agni-idh), Ved. the priest who kindles the sacred fire.
     agnidhāna agni-dhāna, am, n. the receptacle for keeping the sacred fire.
     agninakṣatra agni-nakṣatra, am, n. the third lunar mansion, the Pleiades.
     agninayana agni-nayana or agni-praṇayana, am, n. bringing out the sacrificial fire.
     agniniryāsa agni-niryāsa, as, m. a medicinal plant, Agnijāra.
     agninunna agni-nunna, as, ā, am, Ved. struck by Agni or lightning.
     agninetra agni-netra, as, ā, am, Ved. having Agni for a guide.
     agnipakva agni-pakva, as, ā, am, cooked with fire.
     agnipada agni-pada, am, n., N. of a plant or a man.
     agniparikriyā agni-parikriyā, f. care of the sacred fire.
     agniparicchada agni-paricchada, as, m. the whole apparatus used in a sacrifice with fire.
     agniparidhāna agni-paridhāna, am, n. enclosing the sacrificial fire with a kind of screen.
     agniparīkṣā agni-parīkṣā, f. ordeal by fire.
     agniparvata agni-parvata, as, m. a volcano.
     agnipuccha agni-puccha, as, am, m. n. end or extinction of the fire, lit. tail of the fire.
     agnipurāṇa agni-purāṇa, am, n., N. of a Purāṇa.
     agnipurogama agni-purogama, as, ā, am, having Agni for a leader.
     agnipraṇayana agni-praṇayana, am, n. bringing out the sacrificial fire.
     agnipraṇayanīya agni-praṇayanīya, as, ā, am, referring to the bringing out that fire.
     agnipratiṣṭhā agni-pratiṣṭhā, f. consecration of fire, especially the nuptial fire.
     agnipraveśa agni-praveśa, as, m. or agni-praveśana, am, n. entering the fire; self-immolation of a widow on the funeral pile of her husband.
     agniprastara agni-prastara, as, m. stone producing fire; flint.
     agnibāhu agni-bāhu or agni-vāhu, us, m. smoke; N. of a son of the first Manu; N. of a son of Priyavrata and Kāmyā.
     agnibha agni-bha, am, n. (shining like fire), gold.
     agnibhu agni-bhu, u, n. water.
     agnibhū agni-bhū, ūs, m. Skanda; N. of a teacher, Kāśyapa, who was taught by Agni; (in arithm.) six.
     agnibhūti agni-bhūti, is, m., N. of a pupil of the last Tīrthakara, being one of the eleven chiefs of the Jaina Ṛṣis.
     agnibhrājas agni-bhrājas, ās, ās, as, Ved. possessing fiery splendour.
     agnimaṇi agni-maṇi,  is, m. the sun-stone or sūryakānta.
     agnimat agni-mat, ān, atī, at, having a fire, enjoying it; maintaining a sacrificial fire, having a good digestion.
     agnimantha agni-mantha, as, ā, am, producing fire by friction; (as), m., N. of a plant, Premna Spinosa.
     agnimanthana agni-manthana, am, n. production of fire by friction.
     agnimanthanīya agniman-thanīya, as, ā, am, referring to such friction.
     agnimaya agni-maya, as, ī, am, fiery.
     agnimāṭhara agni-māṭhara, as, m., N. of an expounder of the Ṛg-veda.
     agnimāndya agni-māndya, am, n. dyspepsia.
     agnimāruti agni-māruti, is, m., N. of Agastya.
     agnimitra agni-mitra, as, m., N. of a prince of the Śunga dynasty.
     agnimindha agnim-indha, as, m. the priest who kindles the sacrificial fire.
     agnimukha agni-mukha, as, m. a deity; a Brāhmaṇa; a tonic medicine; N. of two plants, Semicarpus Anacardium and Plumbago Zeylanica.
     agnimukhī agni-mukhī, f. Semicarpus Anacardium; Gloriosa Superba.
     agnimūḍha agni-mūḍha, as, ā, am, Ved. made insane by Agni or lightning.
     agniyuta agni-yuta, as, m., N. of the author of a hymn in the Ṛg-veda.
     agniyojana agni-yojana, am, n. causing the sacrificial fire to blaze up.
     agnirakṣaṇa agni-rakṣaṇa, am, n. preservation of the sacred (especially the domestic) fire.
     agniraja agni-raja, as, or agni-rajas, ās, m. a scarlet insect.
     agnirahasya agni-rahasya, am, n. mystery of Agni, the title of the tenth book of the Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa.
     agnirāśi agni-rāśi, is, m. a heap of fire, a burning pile.
     agniruhā agni-ruhā, f. a plant, Māṃsarohiṇī.
     agnirūpa agni-rūpa, as, ī, am, fireshaped.
     agniretasa agni-retasa, as, ā, am, sprung from the seed of Agni.
     agnirohiṇī agni-rohiṇī, f. a hard inflammatory swelling in the arm-pit.
     agniloka agni-loka, as, m. the world of Agni.
     agnivat agni-vat, ān, atī, at, having or enjoying a fire, maintaining a sacrificial fire, having a good digestion; (vat), ind. like Agni, fire.
     agnivarcas agni-varcas, ās, m., N. of a teacher of the Purāṇas.
     agnivarṇa agni-varṇa, as, ā, am, having the colour of fire; closely related to fire, hot, fiery; (as), m., N. of a prince, the son of Sudarśana; (ā), f. a kind of strong liquor.
     agnivardhaka agni-vardhaka, as, ā, or ī, am, feeding or exciting fire; tonic; (as), m. a tonic, stomachic.
     agnivallabha agni-vallabha, as, m. a tree, Shorea Robusta; the resinous juice of it.
     agnivāṇa agni-vāṇa, as, m. a fiery arrow, a rocket.
     agnivāsas agni-vāsas, ās, ās, as, wearing a fiery or red garment.
     agnivāha agni-vāha, as, m. the vehicle of fire, i. e. smoke.
     agnivāhu agni-vāhu, us, m. = preceding; N. of two men, see agni-bāhu.
     agnivimocana agni-vimocana, am, m. the ceremony of lowering the sacrificial fire.
     agnivisarpa agni-visarpa, as, m. spread of inflammation, pain arising from an inflamed tumour.
     agniviharaṇa agni-viharaṇa, am, n. removing the sacrificial fire from the Agnīdhra to the Sadas Maṇḍapa.
     agnivīja agni-vīja or agni-vīrya, am, n. gold.
     agnivṛddhi agni-vṛddhi, is, f. improved digestion.
     agniveśa agni-veśa, as, m., N. of an early medical authority.
     agnivaiśya agnivaiśya, as, ā, am, descended from Agniveśa.
     agniśaraṇa agni-śaraṇa or agni-śāla, am, n. or agni-śālā, f. house or place for keeping the sacrificial fire.
     agniśikha agni-śikha, as, ā, am, having a crest of fire, fiery; (as), m. a lamp; a fiery arrow, rocket; an arrow; the Safflower plant; saffron; N. of Vararuci's father; (am), n. saffron, gold.
     agniśikhā agni-śikhā, f. a flame; N. of two plants, Gloriosa Superba and Menispermum Cordifolium.
     agniśuśrūṣā agni-śuśrūṣā, f. careful attention to the sacrificial fire.
     agniśekhara agni-śekhara, am, n. saffron.
     agniśeṣa agni-śeṣa, as, m. appendix to the chapter on Agni in the Taittirīya Saṃhitā.
     agniśrī agni-śrī, īs, īs, i, Ved. visiting Agni or fire.
     agniṣṭut agni-ṣṭut, t, m. (laudatory of Agni), the first day of the Agniṣṭoma sacrifice; one day of the Sattra Pancadaśarātra.
     agniṣṭubh agni-ṣṭubh, p, m. son of the sixth Manu, Cākṣuṣa, by Naḍvalā; see the next.
     agniṣṭoma agni-ṣṭoma, as, m. (praise of Agni), N. of a protracted ceremony or sacrifice, extending over several days in spring, and forming an essential part of the Jyotiṣṭoma; a passage of the Sāma-veda chanted at the Agniṣṭoma; the first day of the Sattra Pancadaśarātra; a species of the Soma plant; N. of the son of the sixth Manu; see agniṣṭubh.
     agniṣṭomayājin agniṣṭoma-yājin, ī, inī, i, one who has performed the Agniṣṭoma.
     agniṣṭha agni-ṣṭha, as, ā, am, placed in, or over, or near the fire; (as), m. an iron frying-pan; in the Aśvamedha sacrifice, the eleventh Yūpa or sacrificial post which, of all the twenty-one, is nearest the fire; (ā), f. the corner of the sacrificial post which, of all the eight, is nearest the fire.
     agniṣvātta agni-ṣvātta or agni-svātta, as, ā, am, tasted by the funeral fire; (ās), m. pl. Manes, especially of those who on earth neglected the sacrificial fire.
     agnisaṃskāra agni-saṃskāra, as, m. the consecration of fire; performance of any rite in which the application of fire is essential, as the burning of the dead body.
     agnisaṅkāśa agni-saṅkāśa, as, ā, am, resplendent like fire.
     agnisañcaya agni-sañcaya, as, m. preparing the sacrificial fire-place, see agnicayana.
     agnisakha agni-sakha, as, m. the wind.
     agnisambhava agni-sambhava, as, ā, am, sprung from fire; (as), m. wild safflower; the result of digestion, lymph.
     agnisahāya agni-sahāya, as, m. the wind; a wild piegon.
     agnisākṣika agni-sākṣika, as, ā, am, taking Agni, or the domestic or nuptial fire, for a witness.
     agnisākṣikamaryāda agnisākṣika-maryāda, as, ā, am, one who, taking Agni for a witness, gives a solemn promise of conjugal fidelity.
     agnisāra agni-sāra, am, n. a medicine for the eyes, a collyrium.
     agnisāvarṇi agni-sāvarṇi, is, m., N. of a Manu.
     agnisiṃha agni-siṃha, as, m., N. of the father of the seventh black Vāsudeva.
     agnisiṃhanandana agnisiṃha-nandana, as, m. the son of Agnisiṃha.
     agnisūtra agni-sūtra, am, n. thread of fire; a girdle of sacrificial grass put upon a young Brāhman at his investiture.
     agnistambha agni-stambha, as, m. the (magical) quenching of fire.
     agnistoka agni-stoka, as, m. a spark.
     agnisvātta agni-svātta, see agni-ṣvātta.
     agnihut agni-hut, t, t, t, or agni-huta, as, ā, am, sacrificed by fire.
     agnihotṛ agni-hotṛ, tā, m., Ved. sacrificing to Agni, or having Agni for a priest; see agni-hotrin.
     agnihotra agni-hotra, as, m., Ved. oblation to Agni; the sacred fire; (am), n. an oblation to Agni, chiefly of milk, oil, and sour gruel;--there are two kinds of Agnihotra, one is nitya, i. e. of constant obligation; the other kāmya, i. e. optional;--the sacred fire; the maintenance of it; the placing the sacrificial fire on the ground prepared for it, see agny-ādhāna; (as, ī, am), Ved. sacrificing to Agni; destined for the Agnihotra, or connected with it.
     agnihotrahavaṇī agnihotra-havaṇī, f. a ladle used for sacrificial libations.
     agnihotrahut agni-hotra-hut, t, Ved. offering the Agnihotra.
     agnihotrāhuti agni-hotrāhuti (-tra-āh-), is, f. invocation connected with the Agnihotra.
     agnihotrin agni-hotrin, ī, iṇī, i, practising the Agnihotra; maintaining the sacrificial fire; one who has prepared the sacred fire-place, or conveyed the sacrificial fire to it.
     agnihotrocchiṣṭa agnihotrocchiṣṭa (-tra-uc-), am, n. that which is left of the Agnihotra.
     agnīdh agnīdh (-ni-idh), t, m. the priest who kindles the fire.
     agnīdhra agnīdhra, as, m. = the preceding; N. of two men, see agni-bāhu.
     agnīdhrī agnīdhrī, f. feeding the sacrificial fire.
     agnīndra agnīndra (-ni-in-), au, m. du., Ved. Agni and Indra.
     agnīndhana agnīndhana (-ni-indh-), am, n. kindling or feeding the fire.
     agnīparjanya agnī-parjanya, au, m. du., Ved. Agni and Parjanya.
     agnīvaruṇa agnī-varuṇa, au, m. du., Ved. Agni and Varuṇa.
     agnīṣoma agnī-ṣoma, au, m. du. Agni and Soma.
     agnīṣomapraṇayana agnīṣoma-praṇayana, am, n. bringing out the fire and the Soma, a ceremony in the Jyotiṣṭoma sacrifice.
     agnīṣomīya agnī-ṣomīya or agnī-ṣomya, as, ā, am, relating or sacred to Agni and Soma.
     agnīṣomīyanirvāpa agnīṣomīya-nirvāpa, as, m. making libations with the cake sacred to Agni and Soma, a ceremony in the Darśapūrṇamāsa sacrifice.
     agnīṣomīyapaśu agnīṣomīya-paśu, us, m. a victim, generally a sheep or goat, sacred to Agni and Soma.
     agnīṣomīyapaśvanuṣṭhāna agnīṣomīyapaśv-anu-ṣṭhāna, am, n. the proceedings with that victim, at the Jyotiṣṭoma sacrifice.
     agnīṣomīyapuroḍāśa agnīṣomīya-puroḍāśa, as, m. cake sacred to Agni and Soma, which must be baked in eleven bowls.
     agnīṣomīyayāga agnīṣomīya-yāga, as, m. one of the three sacrifices of the Pūrṇamāsa.
     agniṣomīyaikādaśakapāla agni-ṣomīyaikādaśa-kapāla (-ya-ek-), as, m. cake sacred to Agni and Soma, see above.
     agnīṣomya agnī-ṣomya, see agnī-ṣomīya.
     agnyagāra agny-agāra or agny-āgāra, as, m. house or place for keeping the sacred fire.
     agnyabhāva agny-abhāva, as, m. lack or loss of the sacred fire; loss of appetite.
     agnyastra agny-astra, am, n. fire serving as a weapon, a rocket, fire-arms (?).
     agnyāgāra agny-āgāra, see agny-agāra.
     agnyātmaka agny-ātmaka, as, ā, am, Ved. having Agni's nature.
     agnyādhāna agny-ādhāna or agny-ādheya, am, n. or agny-āhiti, is, f. placing the fire on the sacrificial fire-place or ground previously prepared.
     agnyālaya agny-ālaya, as, m. a house or place for keeping the sacred fire; a cavity with several compartments, for the several sacred fires.
     agnyāhita agny-āhita, as, m. one who has performed the Agnyādhāna.
     agnyutpāta agny-utpāta, as, m. a fiery portent, meteor, a comet.
     agnyuddharaṇa agny-uddharaṇa, am, n. taking the sacred fire from its usual place, previous to a sacrifice.
     agnyupasthāna agny-upasthāna, am, n. worship of Agni, at the conclusion of the Agnihotra, &c.
     agnyedha agny-edha, as, m. an incendiary.

agnāyī agnāyī, f. the wife of Agni, and goddess of fire; the Tretā-yuga.

agnika agnika, as, m. an insect of scarlet colour, Coccinella.

agnisāt agnisāt, ind. to the state of fire, used in composition with kṛ and bhu, as agnisāt kṛ, to reduce to fire, to subject to fire.

agnīya agnīya, as, ā, am, referring to fire or to Agni, fiery.

agman agman, a, n. conflict, battle; see ajman, with which it is connected.

agra agra, as, ā, am (said to be fr. rt. aṅg, the nasal being dropped), foremost; anterior, first; chief; prominent, best; projecting, supernumerary, excessive; much; (am), n. foremost point or part; tip; front; uppermost part, top, summit, surface; point, and hence, figuratively, sharpness; the nearest end, the beginning; the climax or best part; goal, aim, restingplace; multitude, assemblage; a weight, equal to a pala; a measure of food given as alms; (in astronomy) the sun's amplitude; (am), ind. in front, before, ahead of, chiefly in answer to the question whither? [cf. Gr. [greek]].
     agrakara agra-kara, as, m. the fore part of the hand or arm; the right hand; the fore part of rays, the focal point.
     agrakāya agra-kāya, as, m. the fore part of the body.
     agraga agra-ga, as, m. a leader.
     agragaṇya agra-gaṇya, as, ā, am, that should be counted or regarded as the foremost, best, principal.
     agragāmin agra-gāmin, ī, inī, i, preceding, taking the lead.
     agraja agra-ja, as, ā, am, or agra-jā, ās, ās, am, Ved. born first or earlier; (as), m. the first-born; an elder brother; a Brāhman; Viṣṇu; (ā), f. an elder sister.
     agrajaṅghā agra-jaṅghā, f. the fore part of the thigh.
     agrajanman agra-janman, ā, m. the first-born; an elder brother; a Brāhman; a member of one of the three highest castes; Brahmā.
     agrajātaka agra-jātaka, as, or agra-jāti, is, m. a Brāhman.
     agrajihva agra-jihva, am, n. the tip of the tongue.
     agrajyā agra-jyā, f. (in astron.) the sine of the amplitude.
     agraṇī agra-ṇī, īs, īs, i, taking the lead, foremost, first.
     agraṇīti agra-ṇīti, is, f., Ved. the first offering.
     agradānin agra-dānin, ī, m. a degraded Brāhman who receives presents from Śūdras, or takes things previously offered to the dead.
     agranakha agra-nakha, as, m. the tip of the nail.
     agranāsikā agra-nāsikā, f. the tip of the nose.
     agranirūpaṇa agra-nirūpaṇa, am, n. determining beforehand, predestination, prophecy.
     agraparṇī agra-parṇī, f. cowage, Carpopogon Pruriens.
     agrapāṇi agra-pāṇi, is, or agra-hasta, as, m. the fore part of the hand or arm; the right hand.
     agrapūjā agra-pūjā, f. the first or highest mark or act of reverence.
     agrapeya agra-peya, am, n. precedence in drinking.
     agrabhāga agra-bhāga or agrāṃśa (-ra-aṃ-), as, m. part of the top, &c., fore part; (in astron.) degree of amplitude.
     agrabhuj agra-bhuj, k, k, k, having the precedence in eating.
     agrabhūmi agra-bhūmi, is, f. the place aimed at, goal, object.
     agramahiṣī agra-mahiṣī, f. the principal queen.
     agramāṃsa agra-māṃsa, am, n. the heart; morbid protuberance of the liver.
     agrayāna agra-yāna, am, n. stepping in front to defy the enemy.
     agrayāyin agra-yāyin, ī, inī, i, going before, taking the lead; (ī), m. a leader.
     agrayāvan agra-yāvan, ā, ā, a, Ved. going before.
     agrayodhin agra-yodhin, ī, m. the foremost man or leader in a fight; a champion.
     agralohitā agra-lohitā, f. a kind of pot-herb, red pepper (?).
     agravīja agra-vīja, as, ā, am, (said of a plant) propagating itself by means of the top; (as), m. a viviparous plant, according to Hindū notions.
     agravīra agra-vīra, as, m. the principal hero.
     agrasandhānī agra-sandhānī, f. the register of human actions, kept by Yama.
     agrasandhyā agra-sandhyā, f. early dawn.
     agrasara agra-sara, as, ī, am, going in front, taking the lead; (in Bengālī), going ahead, advancing.
     agrasānu agra-sānu, us, m. the front part of a table land.
     agrasārā agra-sārā, f. a compendious method of counting immense numbers.
     agrasena agra-sena, as, m., N. of Janamejaya's son.
     agrahasta agra-hasta, as, m. = agra-pāṇi, the tip of an elephant's trunk.
     agrahāyaṇa agra-hāyaṇa, as, m. commencement of the year; N. of a Hindū month, commencing about the 12th of November.
     agrahāra agra-hāra, as, m. royal donation of land to Brāhmans; land thus given.
     agrāṃśa agrāṃśa, see agra-bhāga.
     agrāṃśu agrā-ṃśu (-ra-aṃ-), us, m. the end of a ray of light, the focal point.
     agrākṣan agrākṣan, a, or agrākṣi (-ra-ak-), i, n. the fore part of the eye, sharpness of vision.
     agrāṅguli agrāṅguli (-ra-aṅg-), is, m. the tip of the finger.
     agrādvan agrādvan (-ra-ad-), ā, ā, a, having precedence in eating.
     agrānīka agrānīka (-ra-an-), as, am, m. n. the front of an army, vanguard.
     agrāyaṇīya agrāyaṇīya, (-ra-ay-), am, n. title of the second of the fourteen oldest Jaina books.
     agropaharaṇa agropaharaṇa (-ra-up-), am, n. first or principal supply.
     agropaharaṇīya agropaharaṇīya, as, ā, am, that which has to be first or principally supplied.

agratas agratas, ind. in front of, before, in the presence of; at the head, first.
     agrataḥkṛ agrataḥ-kṛ, cl. 8. P. A. -karoti, -kurute, -kartum, to place in front or at the head, to consider most important.
     agrataḥsara agrataḥ-sara, as, ī, am, going in front, taking the lead; (as), m. a leader.

agrima agrima, as, ā, am, foremost; prior, preceding; elder, eldest; principal, best; furthest advanced, first ripe; further; (ā), f. a fruit, Annona Reticulata.

agriya agriya, as, ā, am, foremost, oldest, best; (as), m. elder brother; (am), n. the first fruits, the best part.

agrīya agrīya, as, ā, am, Ved. same as the preceding.

agre agre, ind. (loc. of agra), in front; before; in the presence of; at the head; first; ahead, beyond, further on, i. e. subsequently to.
     agrega agre-ga, as, ā, am, going in front or before; (as), m. a leader.
     agregā agre-gā, ās, or agre-gū, ūs, or agre-ṇī, īs, m. a leader.
     agretvan agretvan (-gra-it-), ā, arī, a, Ved. going in front or before.
     agredidhiṣu agre-didhiṣu, us, m. a man belonging to one of the first three classes, who at his first marriage takes a wife that was married before; (us or ū, ūs), f. a married woman whose elder sister is still unmarried.
     agrepā agre-pā, ās, ās, or agre-pū, ūs, ūs, m. f. having the precedence in drinking.
     agrebhrū agre-bhrū, ūs, m. roaming in front.
     agrevaṇa agre-vaṇa, am, n. the border of a forest.
     agrevadha agre-vadha, as, m. hitting or killing whatever is in front.
     agresara agre-sara, as, ā or ī, am, going in front, preceding, taking the lead.
     agresara agre-sara or agre-sarika, as, m. a leader.

agrya agrya, as, ā, am, foremost, topmost, principal, best, proficient; pointed, i. e. intent, closely attentive; (as), m. an elder or eldest brother; (am), n. a roof.

agrabhaṇā a-grabhaṇa, as, ā, am (fr. grabh, old form of rt. grah), Ved. having nothing which can be grasped.

agraha a-graha, as, m. non-acceptance.
     agraha a-graha or a-gṛha, as, m. a houseless man, i. e. a Vānaprastha, a Brāhman of the third class.

agrāhin a-grāhin, ī, iṇī, i, not taking, (said of a leech) not holding.

agrāhya a-grāhya, as, ā, am, unfit or improper to be received, accepted, perceived, obtained, admitted, trusted; deserving to be rejected or refused.

agrāmya a-grāmya, as, ā, am, not rustic, town-made; not tame, wild.

agru agru, us, m. unmarried; (ū), f. a finger; a river [cf. Zend aghru].

agh agh, cl. 10. P. aghayati, -yitum, to go wrong, sin.

agha agha, am, n. a going wrong; mishap, evil; misdeed, a fault; sin; passion; impurity; pain, suffering; (as, ā, am), evil, bad, sinful, subject to passion, miserable, unclean; (as), m., N. of an Asura, the general of Kaṃsa; (ā), f. the goddess of sin; (ās), f. pl. the constellation usually called Maghā.
     aghakṛt agha-kṛt, t, t, t, doing evil or harm, an evil-doer.
     aghadviṣṭa agha-dviṣṭa, as, ā, am, Ved. hated by the wicked.
     aghanāśaka agha-nāśaka, as, ā, am, or agha-ghna, as, ī, am, or agha-nāśana, as, ī, am, sin-destroying, expiatory; (as), m. an expiator; an epith. of Viṣṇu.
     aghaniṣkṛta agha-niṣkṛta, as, ā, am, freed from guilt.
     aghamaya agha-maya, as, ī, am, sinful.
     aghamarṣaṇa agha-marṣaṇa, as, ā, am, expiatory, usually applied to a particular prayer daily offered by Brāhmans; (as), m., N. of the author of that prayer, son of Madhucchandas.
     aghamalāpaha agha-ma-lāpaha (-la-ap-), as, ā, am, removing the filth of sin.
     aghamāra agha-māra, as, ā, am, Ved. fearfully fatal.
     agharud agha-rud, t, t, t, fearfully howling.
     aghavat agha-vat, ān, atī, at, sinful; [voc. aghavan or aghos, see s. v.]
     aghaviṣa agha-viṣa, as, ā, am, Ved. fearfully venomous.
     aghaśaṃsa agha-śaṃsa, as, ā, am, wicked; sin-destroying; (as), m. a wicked man.
     aghaśaṃsahan aghaśaṃsa-han, ā, m. slaying the wicked.
     aghaśaṃsin agha-śaṃsin, ī, inī, i, Ved. reporting sin.
     aghaharaṇa agha-haraṇa, am, n. removal of guilt.
     aghahāra agha-hāra, as, m., Ved. remover of guilt, pious (?); or, a wicked (notorious) robber (?).
     aghāśva aghā-śva (-gha-aś-), as, m. a bad or vicious horse; N. of a snake.
     aghāsura aghāsura (-gha-as-), as, m. Agha, Kaṃsa's general,
     aghāha aghāha (-gha-ah-), as, m. an inauspicious day, time of impurity from the death of a relative, &c.
     aghaughamarṣaṇa aghaugha-marṣaṇa (-gha-ogha-), as, ā, am, destroying the mass or whole of sin.

aghala aghala, as, ā, am, Ved. evil, sinful.

aghāya aghāya, nom. P., Ved. aghāyati, yitum, to be malicious, to sin, to threaten.
     aghāyu aghāyu, us, us, u, malicious, wicked.

aghaṭamāna a-ghaṭamāna, as, ā, am, incongruous, incoherent.

aghana a-ghana, as, ā, am, not dense or solid, liquid.

agharma a-gharma, as, ā, am, not hot, cool.
     agharmadhāman agharma-dhāman, ā, m. the moon, whose light is supposed to be cool.

aghātin a-ghātin, ī, inī, i, not fatal, not injurious, harmless.

aghārin a-ghārin, ī, iṇī, i, not anointing.

aghṛṇā a-ghṛṇa, as, ā, am, destitute of compassion.
     aghṛṇin a-ghṛṇin, ī, inī, i, not contemptuous, not disdainful.

aghora a-ghora, as, ā, am, not terrific; (as), m. a euphemistic title of Śiva; a worshipper of Śiva and Durgā; (ā), f. the fourteenth day of the dark half of Bhādra, which is sacred to Śiva.
     aghoraghorarūpa aghora-ghora-rūpa, as, m. a name of Śiva ('having a form or nature both not terrific and terrific').
     aghorapathin aghora-pathin, -nthās, or aghora-mārga, as, m. a follower of Śiva.
     aghorapramāṇa aghora-pramāṇa, am, n. a terrific oath.

aghoṣa a-ghoṣa, as, m. (in grammar) the hard sound of a consonant; (as, ā, am), hard-sounding; destitute of cowherds.

aghos aghos, ind. a vocative particle; properly another form for aghavan, voc. of agha-vat, q. v.

aghnat a-ghnat, an, antī, at (fr. rt. han), not killing, not injurious.

aghnya a-ghnya, as, ā, am, improper to be killed; (as), m. Brahmā; a bull; (ā), f. a cow; a cloud (?).

aghreya a-ghreya, as, ā, am (fr. rt. ghrā), improper to be smelled at.

aṅk aṅk, cl. 1. A. aṅkate, ānaṅke, aṅkiṣyate, aṅkitum, to move in a curve; to mark; cl. 10. P. aṅkayati, -yitum, to move in a curve; to mark, stamp, brand; (this rt. is related to añc.)

aṅka aṅka, as, m. (fr. rt. añc, but connected with preceding rt. aṅk), a hook; a curve or bend; the curve in the human, especially the female, figure above the hip, where infants (sitting astride) are carried by Hindū mothers or nurses (hence often equivalent to the English breast or lap); the side or flank; the body; proximity, place; the bend in the arm; any hook or crooked instrument; a curved line; a numerical figure, cipher; a figure or mark branded on an animal, &c.; any mark, line, stroke, ornament, stigma; a number; the number nine; a coefficient; an act of a drama; a drama; a military show or sham-fight; a misdeed, a sin; moving in a curve [cf. Gr. [greek] and Lat. uncus].
     aṅkakaraṇa aṅka-karaṇa, am, n. the act of marking or stamping.
     aṅkatantra aṅka-tantra, am, n. title of a book treating of magical marks or figures.
     aṅkadhāraṇā aṅka-dhāraṇā, f. manner of holding the body, figure.
     aṅkaparivartana aṅka-parivartana, am, n. turning the body, turning on the other side.
     aṅkapādavrata aṅka-pāda-vrata, am, n. title of a chapter in the Bhavishyottara Purāṇa.
     aṅkapāli aṅka-pāli, is, f. or āṅka-pālikā, f. embracing, an embrace.
     aṅkapālī aṅka-pālī, f. an embrace; a nurse; a plant, Piring or Medicago Esculenta.
     aṅkapāśa aṅka-pāśa, as, m. a peculiar concatenation of numerals or numbers.
     aṅkapāśavyavahāra aṅkapāśa-vyavahāra, as, m. the use of that concatenation.
     aṅkapāśādhyāya aṅkapāśā-dhyāya (-śa-adh-), as, m. the study or use of that concatenation.
     aṅkabandha aṅka-bandha, as, m. branding with a mark that resembles a headless body.
     aṅkabhāj aṅka-bhāj, k, k, k, an infant carried on the hip; forced fruit, nearly ripe, early ripe.
     aṅkamukha aṅka-mukha, am, n. the act of a drama which gives a clue to the whole plot.
     aṅkaloḍya aṅka-loḍya, as, m., N. of a plant or its root, ginger, Ciñcoḍa or Ciñcoṭaka.
     aṅkavidyā aṅka-vidyā, f. arithmetic.
     aṅkāṅka aṅkāṅka (-ka-aṅ-), am, n., Ved. water.
     aṅkāvatāra aṅkāvatāra (-ka-av-), as, m. the closing part of a dramatic scene.

aṅkati aṅkati, is, m. wind; fire; Brahmā; a Brāhman who maintains the sacred fire.

aṅkana aṅkana, am, n. the act of marking, stamping, branding, ciphering, writing; (as, ā, am), marking.

aṅkas aṅkas, as, n. tortuous motion, a mark; the body.

aṅkasa aṅkasa, am, n. the flanks (?) or the trappings of a horse.

aṅkita aṅkita, as, ā, am, marked, branded; numbered, counted, calculated.

aṅkin aṅkin, ī, inī, i, having an aṅka, q. v.; (ī), m. a small drum; (inī), f. a number of marks, &c.

aṅkī aṅkī, f. a small drum.

aṅkuṭa aṅkuṭa, as, m. a key.

aṅkupa aṅkupa, am, n., Ved. water.

aṅkura aṅkura or aṅkūra, as, m. a sprout, shoot, blade; a hair; blood; water; a swelling, a tumour.

aṅkuraka aṅkuraka, as, m. a nest.

aṅkurita aṅkurita, as, ā, am, sprouted.

aṅkuśa aṅkuśa, as, am, m. n. a hook, especially an elephant-driver's hook; (ā) or (ī), f. one of the twenty-four Jaina goddesses [cf. Gr. [greek] Germ. Angel].
     aṅkuśagraha aṅkuśa-graha, as, m. an elephant-driver.
     aṅkuśadurdhara aṅkuśa-durdhara, as, m. a restive elephant. aṅkuśita, as, ā, am, urged on by the hook.

aṅkuśin aṅkuśin, ī, inī, i, having a hook, laying hold of with a hook.

aṅkūyat aṅkūyat, an, antī, at, Ved. (fr. a nom. aṅkūya, related to aṅka), moving tortuously (to escape).

aṅkūra aṅkūra, as, m. a sprout. See aṅkura.

aṅkūṣa aṅkūṣa, as, am, m. n. a hook; an ichneumon.

aṅkya aṅkya, as, ā, am, fit or proper to be marked or counted; (as), m. a small drum [cf. aṅkī].

aṅkāra aṅkāra, as, m. diminution in music.

aṅkoṭa aṅkoṭa or aṅkoṭha or aṅkola or aṅkolaka, as, m. a plant, Alangium Hexapetalum.
     aṅkollasāra aṅkolla-sāra, as, m. a poison, probably prepared from the plant called Aṅkola, &c.

aṅkolikā aṅkolikā, f. (a corruption of aṅka-pālikā, q. v.), an embrace.

aṅktvā aṅktvā, ind. (part. fr. rt. añj), having besmeared.

aṅkh aṅkh, cl. 10. P. aṅkhayati, -yitum, to move slowly, to crawl; to cling to, to hold back.

aṅg aṅg, cl. 1. P. aṅgati, ānaṅga, aṅgitum, to walk, go round (connected with rt. ag); cl. 10. P. aṅgayati, -yitum, to walk, go round; to mark (in the last sense connected with rt. aṅk); [cf. Gr. [greek]?].

[Page 0007-b]
aṅgana aṅgana, am, n. walking; place to walk in, yard; see s. v.

aṅga 1. aṅga, ind. a particle implying attention, assent or desire, and sometimes impatience; it may be rendered by well; indeed, true; please; rather; quick. It is often used (changed to aṅgī, q. v.) to form compound words, as aṅgī-kartum, to assent, promise; see under aṅgī [cf. [greek]].

aṅga 2. aṅga, am, n. (said to be fr. rt. am, but rather fr. rt. aṅg), a round limb; a member; the body; a division or department, especially of a science, as the six Vedāṅgas; science; a subdivision, a supplement; (in grammar) the base of a word; (in rhetoric) an illustration; (in the drama) the whole of the subordinate characters; an expedient; a mental organ, the mind; the number six; (as), m. sing. or (ās), m. pl., N. of Bengal proper, near Bhagalpur, or its inhabitants; in the sing. it may denote the name of a king of Aṅga; (as, ā, am), having members or divisions, contiguous.
     aṅgakartana aṅga-kartana, am, n. cutting off a limb.
     aṅgakarman aṅga-karman, a, n. or aṅga-kriyā, f. a supplementary sacrificial act.
     aṅgagraha aṅga-graha, as, m. seizure of a limb, i. e. spasm.
     aṅgaja aṅga-ja, as, ā, am, produced from or on the body; ornamental; produced by a supplementary ceremony; (as), m. a son; hair of the head; love personified; intoxicating passion; drunkenness; a disease; (ā), f. a daughter; (am), n. blood.
     aṅgajanus aṅga-janus, us, m. a son.
     aṅgajāta aṅga-jāta, as, ā, am, produced from or on the body, ornamental, produced by a supplementary ceremony.
     aṅgajvara aṅga-jvara, as, ā, am, Ved. causing fever.
     aṅgadvīpa aṅga-dvīpa, as, m. one of the six minor Dvīpas.
     aṅganyāsa aṅga-nyāsa, as, m. ceremony of touching certain parts of the body.
     aṅgapāli aṅga-pāli, is, f. an embrace.
     aṅgaprāyaścitta aṅga-prāyaścitta, am, n. expiation of bodily impurity, especially that arising from death in a family.
     aṅgabheda aṅga-bheda, as, ā, am, Ved. causing rheumatism.
     aṅgamarda aṅga-marda or aṅga-mardaka, as, m. or aṅga-mardin, ī, m. a servant who has to shampoo his master's body.
     aṅgamarṣa aṅga-marṣa, as, m. pain in the limbs, rheumatism.
     aṅgamarṣapraśamana aṅgamarṣa-praśamana, am, n. alleviation of, or medicine for, rheumatism.
     aṅgayāga aṅga-yāga, as, m. a subordinate sacrificial act.
     aṅgarakta aṅga-rakta, as, m. a plant, Guṇḍārocanī.
     aṅgarakṣaṇī aṅga-rakṣaṇī or aṅga-rakṣiṇī, f. a body-protector, i. e. a coat of mail, cloak, garment.
     aṅgarāga aṅga-rāga, as, m. application of scented unguents or cosmetics to the body, especially after bathing; scented cosmetic.
     aṅgarāj aṅga-rāj, ṭ, or aṅga-rāja, as, m., N. of Karṇa, the king of Aṅga.
     aṅgarājya aṅga-rājya, am, n. the kingdom of Aṅga.
     aṅgaruha aṅga-ruha, as, ā, am, what grows on the body, as hair, wool, down, &c.
     aṅgalipi aṅga-lipi, is, f. written character of Aṅga.
     aṅgaloka aṅga-loka, as, m. the country called Aṅga.
     aṅgaloḍya aṅga-loḍya, as, m. a sort of grass, ginger, or its root, commonly cencrā.
     aṅgavākpāṇimat aṅga-vāk-pāṇi-mat, ān, atī, at, possessing mind (?), speech, and hands.
     aṅgavikṛti aṅga-vikṛti, is, f. change of bodily appearance, collapse; fainting, apoplexy.
     aṅgavikṣepa aṅga-vikṣepa, as, m. gesticulation; a kind of dance with movement of the arms.
     aṅgavidyā aṅga-vidyā, f. knowledge of lucky or unlucky marks on the body.
     aṅgavaikṛta aṅga-vaikṛta, am, n. a wink, nod, sign.
     aṅgasaṃskāra aṅga-saṃskāra, as, m. or aṅga-saṃskriyā, f. embellishment of person, doing what is needed to secure a fine personal appearance, as bathing, perfuming, and adorning the body.
     aṅgasaṃhati aṅga-saṃhati, is, f. compactness, symmetry or strength of the body.
     aṅgasaṅga aṅga-saṅga, as, m. bodily contact, coition.
     aṅgaskandha aṅga-skandha, as, m. a subdivision of a science.
     aṅgasparśa aṅga-sparśa, as, m. bodily contact.
     aṅgahāra aṅga-hāra, as, or aṅga-hāri, is, m. gesticulation.
     aṅgahīna aṅga-hīna, as, ā, am, mutilated; incorporeal; (as), m. Kāmadeva.
     aṅgāṅgi aṅgāṅgi (-ga-aṅ-), ind. (lit. limb and limb), jointly or reciprocally, in consequence of being related, as one limb to another or to the body.
     aṅgāṅgitā aṅgāṅgi-tā, f. intimate relation, as between the limbs, or a limb and the body, or the subordinate and the principal.
     aṅgāṅgibhāva aṅgāṅgi-bhāva, as, m. existence or working of such intimate relation.
     aṅgādhipa aṅgādhipa (-ga-adh-), as, m. Karṇa, the king of Aṅga.
     aṅgānulepana aṅgānulepana (-ga-an-), am, n. anointing the body.
     aṅgāpūrva aṅgāpūrva (-ga-ap-), am, n. effect of a secondary sacrificial act.
     aṅgeśvara aṅgeśvara (-ga-īś-), as, m. the king of Aṅga.
     aṅgeṣṭhā aṅge-ṣṭhā, ās, ās, am, Ved. situated in a member or in the body.

aṅgaka aṅgaka, am, n. a limb, member, body; (ikā), f. a bodice, a jacket.

aṅgin aṅgin, ī, inī, i, having limbs, corporeal, having subordinate parts, principal; having expedients.

aṅgīya aṅgīya, as, ā, am, referring to the Aṅga country.
     aṅgya aṅgya, see s. v.

aṅgaṇā aṅgaṇa, am, n. (a place to walk in), a yard, court, area; see aṅgana below.

aṅgati aṅgati, is, m. (fr. rt. ag), fire; a Brāhman who maintains a sacred fire; Brahmā; Viṣṇu.

aṅgada aṅga-da, as, m. (fr. aṅga + da), N. of a brother of Rāma; of a son of Gada; of an ape son of Bāli; (ā), f. the female elephant of the south (or the north ?); (am), n. a bracelet worn on the upper arm.

aṅgana aṅgana, am, n. (fr. rt. aṅg, q. v.), the act of walking; place to walk in, yard, court, area; (ā), f. a woman with well-rounded limbs; any woman or female; (in astronomy) Virgo; the female elephant of the north.
     aṅganāgaṇa aṅganā-gaṇa, as, m. a number of women.
     aṅganājana aṅganā-jana, as, m. a female person.
     aṅganāpriya aṅganā-priya, as, m. (lit. dear to women), N. of the tree Jonesia Asoca.

aṅgava aṅgava, as, m. (fr. aṅgu?, a corruption of agni), dried or withered fruit.

aṅgas aṅgas, as, n. (fr. rt. añj?), a bird.

aṅgāra aṅgāra, as, m.; (rarely am), n. (said to be fr. rt. ag or aṅg, cf. agni), charcoal, either heated or not heated; (as), m. the planet Mars; N. of a prince of the Maruts; a plant, Hitāvalī; (ās), m. pl., N. of a people and country [cf. Lith. angli-s; Russ. ūgolj; also Germ. Kohle; Old Germ. col and colo; Engl. coal].
     aṅgārakuṣṭhaka aṅgāra-kuṣṭhaka, as, m. a plant, Hitāvalī.
     aṅgāradhānī aṅgāra-dhānī or aṅgāra-dhānikā, f. a portable fire-place.
     aṅgāraparipācita aṅgāra-pari-pācita, am, n. roasted food.
     aṅgāraparṇa aṅgāra-parṇa, as, m. an epith. of Citraratha, the chief of the Gandharvas.
     aṅgārapātrī aṅgāra-pātrī, f. a portable fire-place.
     aṅgārapuṣapa aṅgā-ra-puṣapa, as, m. a plant, Iṅgudī; Vulg. Ingua.
     aṅgāramañjarī aṅgāra-mañjarī or aṅgāra-mañjī, f. a shrub, Cesalpinia Banducella.
     aṅgāravallarī aṅgāra-vallarī or aṅgāra-vallī, f., N. of various plants; Galedupa Arborea; Ovieda Verticallata; Bhārgī; Guñjā.
     aṅgāraśakaṭī aṅgāra-śakaṭī, f. a portable fire-place or wheels.
     aṅgārasetu aṅgāra-setu, us, m., N. of a prince, father of Gāndhāra.
     aṅgārāvakṣayaṇa aṅgārā-vakṣayaṇa (-ra-av-), am, n. vessel or receptacle for extinguishing coals.

aṅgāraka aṅgāraka, as, m. charcoal; heated charcoal; the planet Mars; Tuesday; N. of a prince of Sauvīra; also of a Rudra; N. of two plants, Eclipta (or Verbesina) Prostrata, and white or yellow Amaranth; (am), n. a medicated oil in which turmeric and other vegetable substances have been boiled.
     aṅgārakadina aṅgāraka-dina, as, am, m. n. a festival of Mars on the fourteenth of the latter half of Caitra.
     aṅgārakamaṇi aṅgāraka-maṇi, is, m. coral (amber).
     aṅgārakavāra aṅgāraka-vāra, as, m. Tuesday.

aṅgārakita aṅgārakita, as, ā, am, charred, roasted, burnt.

aṅgāri aṅgāri, is, f. a portable fire-place.

aṅgārikā aṅgārikā, f. the stalk of the sugar-cane; the bud of the Kiṃśuka or Butea Frondosa.

aṅgāriṇī aṅgāriṇī, f. a small fire-place; the region heated by the sun, though no longer exposed to its rays; N. of a creeper.

aṅgārita aṅgārita, as, ā, am, charred, roasted, burnt; (ā), f. a portable fire-place; a bud; N. of a creeper; of a river; (am), n. the early blossom of the Kiṃśuka.

aṅgārīya aṅgārīya, as, ā, am, fit for making charcoal of.

aṅgāryā aṅgāryā, f. a heap of charcoal.

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aṅgikā aṅgikā, f. a bodice, a jacket. See aṅgaka.

aṅgir aṅgir, īr, m. (fr. rt. aṅg ?), N. of a Ṛṣi, who received the Brahmavidyā from Atharvan, and imparted it to Satyavāha, the teacher of Aṅgiras.

aṅgira aṅgira, as, or usually aṅgiras, ās, m. (related to [greek] or [greek] ?), a celebrated mythological name, usually ascribed to a Ṛṣi, the author of a number of hymns in the Ṛg-veda, of a code of laws, and of a treatise on astronomy; he is said by some to have been born from Brahmā's mouth, and to have been the husband of Smṛti, of Śraddhā, of two daughters of Maitreya, of several daughters of Daksha, &c.; he is considered as one of the seven Ṛṣis of the first Manvantara, as a Prajāpati, as a teacher of the Brahmavidyā, which he had learnt from Satyavāha, a descendant of Bharadvāja, &c. Among his sons, the chief is Agni, others are Saṃvarta, Utathya, and Bṛhaspati; among his daughters are mentioned Sinīvālī, Kuhū, Rākā, and Anumati; but the Ṛcas (or Vedic hymns), the manes of Havishmat, and mankind itself are styled his offspring. In astronomy he is the planet Jupiter, and a star in Ursa Major. (asas), m. pl. descendants of Aṅgiras or of Agni, mostly personifications of luminous objects; the hymns of the Atharva-veda; priests who, by using the magical formulas of those hymns, protect the sacrifice against the effects of inauspicious accidents.
     aṅgirastama aṅgiras-tama, as, ā, am, very rapid, especially (like Agni) in devouring food.
     aṅgirasvat aṅgiras-vat, ind. like Aṅgiras; (ān, atī, at), connected with or accompanied by the Aṅgirasas.

aṅgirasa aṅgirasa, as, m. an enemy of Viṣṇu in his incarnation of Paraśurāma.

aṅgirasāmayana aṅgirasām-ayana, am, n. a Sattra sacrifice.

aṅgī aṅgī (substituted for aṅga in compound words) implies assent.

aṅgīkṛ aṅgī-kṛ, cl. 8. P. A. -karoti, -kurute, -kar-tum, to agree to, promise, confess.

aṅgīkaraṇa aṅgī-karaṇa, am, n. act of assenting, agreeing, promising.

aṅgīkāra aṅgī-kāra, as, m. agreement, promise.

aṅgīkṛta aṅgī-kṛta, as, ā, am, agreed to, promised.

aṅgīkṛti aṅgī-kṛti, is, f. agreement, promise.

aṅguri aṅguri, is, or aṅgurī, f. (for aṅguli, q. v.), a finger; a toe.
     aṅgurīya aṅgurīya or aṅgurīyaka, as, am, m. n. a finger-ring; the ring-finger (?).

aṅgula aṅgula, as, m. (for rt. ag or aṅg), a finger; the thumb; a finger's breadth, a measure equal to eight barley-corns, twelve aṅgulas making a vitasti or span, and twenty-four a hasta or cubit; (in astron.) a digit, or twelfth part; N. of the sage Cāṇakya.
     aṅgulapramāṇa aṅgula-pramāṇa or aṅgula-māna, am, n. the measure or length of an aṅgula; (as, ā, am), having the length of an aṅgula.

aṅgulaka aṅgulaka at the end of compounds = aṅgula, i. e. so many aṅgulas or fingers long.

aṅguli aṅguli, is, or aṅgulī, f. a finger; a toe; the thumb; the great toe; the finger-like tip of an elephant's trunk; the measure aṅgula.
     aṅgulitoraṇa aṅguli-to-raṇa, am, n. a sectarial mark on the forehead consisting of three fingers or lines shaped like an arch or doorway (toraṇa), drawn with sandal or the ashes of cow-dung.
     aṅgulitra aṅguli-tra, am, n. or aṅguli-trāṇa, as, am, m. (?), n. a finger-protector, a contrivance like a thimble, used by archers to protect the thumb or finger from being injured by the bow-string.
     aṅgulitravat aṅgulitra-vat, ān, atī, at, provided with such a finger-protector.
     aṅgulimukha aṅguli-mukha or aṅguli-mukha, am, n. the tip of the finger.
     aṅgulimudrā aṅguli-mudrā or aṅguli-mudrikā, f. a seal-ring.
     aṅgulimoṭana aṅguli-moṭana, am, n. snapping or cracking the fingers.
     aṅguliṣaṅga aṅguli-ṣaṅga, as, m. contact of the fingers; act of fingering; (as, ā, am), sticking to the fingers.
     aṅgulisandeśa aṅguli-sandeśa, as, m. snapping or cracking the fingers as a sign.
     aṅgulisphoṭana aṅguli-sphoṭana, am, n. snapping or cracking the fingers.
     aṅgulīpañcaka aṅgulī-pañcaka, am, n. the five fingers.
     aṅgulīparvan aṅgulī-parvan, a, n. a finger-joint.
     aṅgulīsambhūta aṅgulī-sambhūta, as, m. produced from or on the finger, i. e. a finger nail.

aṅgulīka aṅgulīka or aṅgulīya or aṅgulīyaka, as, am, m. n. a finger-ring.

aṅguṣṭha aṅguṣṭha, as, m. (the smallest aṅga or limb?), the thumb; the great toe; a thumb's breadth, usually regarded as equal to an aṅgula.
     aṅguṣṭhamātra aṅguṣṭha-mātra, as, ī, am, or aṅguṣṭha-mātraka, as, ikā, am, having the length or size of a thumb.

aṅguṣṭhya aṅguṣṭhya, as, m. the thumb nail.

aṅgūṣa aṅgūṣa, as, m. (rapid in motion, fr. rt. aṅg or ag), an ichneumon; an arrow.

aṅgoṣin aṅgoṣin, ī, iṇī, i, Ved. resonant (?), praiseworthy (?).

aṅgya aṅgya, as, ā, am (fr. aṅga), belonging to or connected with the limbs of the body, corporeal, &c.

aṅgh aṅgh, cl. 1. A. aṅghate, ānaṅghe, aṅghitum, to go, set out, set about, commence; to hasten; to speak hastily, scold, blame.

aṅgha aṅgha (not in use, but equivalent to agha), evil, sin.
     aṅghas aṅghas, as, n. sin.
     aṅghāri aṅghāri (-gha-ari), is, m. (an enemy to sin or evil), epith. of Soma, and of a particular altar.

aṅghi aṅghi, or better aṅghri, is, m. a foot; the root of a tree [cf. aṃhri].
     aṅghrināmaka aṅghri-nāmaka, as, m. or aṅghri-nāman, a, n. a synonym of aṅghri, a root.
     aṅghripa aṅghri-pa, as, m. (drinking with the foot or root), a tree.
     aṅghriparṇī aṅghri-parṇī or aṅghri-valli, is, or aṅghri-vallikā, f. a plant, Hedysarum Lagopodioides.
     aṅghripāna aṅghri-pāna, as, ā, am, sucking his foot or toes (as an infant).
     aṅghriskandha aṅghri-skandha, as, m. the ancle.

ac ac (connected with añc, q. v.), cl. 1. P. A. acati, añcati, -te, ānañca, -e, añcitum, to go, move, tend; to honour; to make round or carved; to request ask; to speak indistinctly. See 2. acita, aciṣṭu.

acakra a-cakra, as, ā, am, having no wheels; immoveable; not vacillating; automatous (?).

acakṣus a-cakṣus, us, n. a bad or miserable eye, no eye; (us, us, us), blind.
     acakṣurviṣaya a-cakṣur-viṣaya, as, ā, am, not or no longer within reach of the eyes, invisible.
     acakṣuṣṭva acakṣuṣ-ṭva, am, n. blindness.

acakṣuṣka a-cakṣuṣka, as, ā, am, destitute of eyes, blind.

acaṇḍa a-caṇḍa, as, ā or ī, am, not of a hot temper, gentle, tractable; (ī), f. a tractable cow.

acatura a-catura, as, ā, am, destitute of four, having less than four; not cunning, not dexterous.

acandra a-candra, as, ā, am, moonless.

acapala a-capala, as, ā, am, not oscillating or vibrating; unmoveable, steady.

acāpalya a-cāpalya, am, n. freedom from unsteadiness, firmness.

acara a-cara, as, ā, am, or a-carat, an, antī, at, immoveable.

acarama a-carama, as, ā, am, not last, not least.

acala a-cala, as, ā, am, not staggering or moving, immoveable; (as), m. a mountain or rock; a bolt or pin; the number seven; N. of Śiva and of the first of the nine deified persons, called 'white Balas' among the Jainas; (ā), f. the earth; one of the ten earths of the Buddhists.
     acalakīlā acala-kīlā, f. the earth.
     acalatviṣ acala-tviṣ, ṭ, m. the Kokila or Indian cuckoo.
     acaladhṛti acala-dhṛti, is, f. a metre of four lines, of sixteen short syllables each, also called Gītyāryā.
     acalabhrātṛ acala-bhrātṛ, tā, m., N. of a Brāhman from Oude, who became one of the eleven heads of Gaṇas among the Jainas.
     acalamati acala-mati, is, m., N. of a Rākṣasa.
     acalaśreṣṭha acala-śreṣṭha, as, m. chief of mountains.
     acalādhipa acalādhipa (-la-adh-), as, m. (king of mountains), the Himālaya.
     acalāsaptamī acalā-saptamī, f. title of a book in the Bhavishyottara Purāṇa.

acāru a-cāru, us, vī, u, not pretty, inelegant.

acikkaṇā a-cikkaṇa, as, ā, am, not smooth, rough.

acit 1. a-cit, t, t, t (fr. rt. cit), without understanding.

acikitvas a-cikitvas, ān, uṣī, as, Ved. not knowing, ignorant of.

acitta a-citta, as, ā, am, unnoticed, unexpected; not an object of thought; inconceivable; destitute of intellect or sense.

acitti a-citti, is, f., Ved. want of sense, infatuation; an infatuated man (?).

acit 2. a-cit, t, t, t (fr. cit or citi, a pile; rt. ci), neglecting the Agnicayana, irreligious.

acita 1. a-cita, as, ā, am, not collected.

acita 2. acita, as, ā, am (fr. rt. ac), gone.

aciṣṭu aciṣṭu, us, us, u, Ved. going everywhere.

acitra a-citra, as, ā, am (not variegated), undistinguishable, indistinct.

acintā a-cintā, f. thoughtlessness, disregard.

acintita a-cintita, as, ā, am, not thought of, unexpected, disregarded.

acintya a-cintya, as, ā, am, surpassing all thought or conception; (as), m., N. of Śiva.
     acintyakarman acintya-kar-man, ā, ā, a, having or performing inconceivable actions.
     acintyarūpa acintya-rūpa, as, ā or ī, am, possessing inconceivable beauty.

acira a-cira, as, ā, am, not of long duration, brief; not of long date, recent.
     aciradyuti acira-dyuti, is, f. or acira-prabhā, f. lightning.
     aciraprasūtā acira-prasūtā, f. (having recently brought forth), a cow that has recently calved.
     acirabhās acira-bhās, ās, f. lightning.
      acira-mṛta, as, ā, am, recently deceased.
     acirarocis acira-rocis, is, f. or acirāṃśu (-ra-aṃ-), us, f. or acirābhā (-ra-ābhā), f. lightning.

aciram aciram or acirāt or acireṇa, ind. not long, not for long; not long ago; soon, speedily.

acirā acirā, f. the mother of the Jaina-saint Śānti.

aciṣṭu aciṣṭu, Ved. See under 2. acita.

acetana a-cetana, as, ā, am, or a-cetas, ās, ās, as, destitute of consciousness, inanimate; (of men) inconscious, insensible, senseless, fainting, &c.

acetāna a-cetāna, as, ā, am, Ved. thoughtless, infatuated.

acaitanya a-caitanya, am, n. unconsciousness; insensibility; senselessness, ignorance in spiritual things; that which is destitute of consciousness, i. e. the material world; matter.

aceṣṭa a-ceṣṭa, as, ā, am, effortless, motionless.
     aceṣṭatā aceṣṭa-tā, f. loss of motion from fainting, &c.

acodas a-codas, ās, ās, as, Ved. free from compulsion or external stimulus, spontaneous.

accha 1. a-ccha, as, ā, am (not shaded or covered, fr. a + cha for chad or chāyā, rt. chad), pellucid, transparent, clear; (as), m. a crystal.
     acchoda acchoda (accha-uda), as, ā, am, having clear water; (ā), f., N. of a river; a covering or garment of Viṣṇu (?); (am), n., N. of a lake in the Himālaya formed by the river Acchodā.

acchāya a-cchāya, as, ā, am, without shadow, casting no shadow.

accha 2. accha, as, m. (corruption of ṛkṣa), a bear.
     acchabhalla accha-bhalla, as, m. a bear; (bhalla itself means 'a bear.')

accha 3. accha or usually accha, rarely accham, ind., Ved. to, towards (governing the accusative and rarely the locative). It is a kind of separable preposition or prefix to verbs and verbal derivatives, as in the following.

acchai accha-i, cl. 2. P. -eti, -tum, or acchā-gam, cl. 1. P. -gacchati, -gantum, to attain, go towards.

acchanakṣ accha-nakṣ, cl. 1. P. A., Ved. -nakṣati, -te, -kṣitum, to go towards, approach.

acchanaś accha-naś, cl. 1. P., Ved. -naśati, -śitum, to come near.

acchanī accha-nī, cl. 1. P., Ved. -nayati, -netum, to lead towards or to.

acchanu accha-nu, cl. 2. P., Ved. -nauti, -navitum or -nuvitum, to call out to, to cheer.

acchapat accha-pat, cl. 1. P., Ved. -patati, -titum, and Caus. P. -patayati, -yitum, to fly towards.

acchavad accha-vad, cl. 1. P., Ved. -vadati, -ditum, to salute.

acchāvac acchā-vac, cl. 2. P., Ved. -vakti, -ktum, to invite.
     acchāvāka acchā-vāka, as, m. 'the inviter', title of a particular priest or Ṛtvij, one of the sixteen required to perform the great sacrifices with the Soma juice.
     acchāvākīya acchāvākīya, as, ā, am, referring to the Acchāvāka; containing the word acchāvāka.

accheta accheta (-cha-ita), as, ā, am, Ved. approached, attained.

acchokti acchokti (-cha-uk-), is, f., Ved. invitation.

acchidra a-cchidra, as, ā, am (free from clefts or flaws), unbroken, uninterrupted, uninjured; (am), n. unbroken or uninjured condition, an action free from defect or flaw; (eṇa), ind. uninterruptedly, from first to last.
     acchidrakāṇḍa acchidra-kāṇḍa, am, n. title of a chapter of the Taittirīya-Brāhmaṇa.
     acchidroti acchidroti (-dra-ūti), is, is, i, affording perfect protection.
     acchidrodhnī acchidrodhnī (-ra-ūdh-), f., Ved. (a cow) having a faultless udder.

acchidyamāna a-cchidyamāna, as, ā, am, uncut, uncurtailed; not fragile.

acchinna a-cchinna, as, ā, am, uncut, uncurtailed, uninjured; undivided, inseparable.
     acchinnapattra acchinna-pattra, as, ā, am (of a bird, or, in the Vedas, of an altar shaped like a bird), having the wings uncurtailed, uninjured; having uninjured leaves.
     acchinnaparṇa acchinna-parṇa, as, ī, am, having uninjured leaves.

acchedika a-cchedika or a-cchaidika, as, ā, or ī, am, not fit or needing to be cut.

acchedya a-cchedya, as, ā, am, improper or impossible to be cut, indivisible.

acchuptā a-cchuptā, f. (not touched by sin), N. of one of the sixteen Vidyādevīs of the Jainas.

acchoṭana acchoṭana, am, n. hunting.

acyuta a-cyuta, as, ā, am, what has not given way or fallen; firm, solid; imperishable, permanent; not leaking or dripping; (as), m., N. of Viṣṇu or Kṛṣṇa; also of a physician; N. of a plant, Morinda Tinctoria; N. of a gift to Agni.
     acyutakṣit acyuta-kṣit, t, m., Ved. having solid ground, an epithet of Soma.
     acyutacyut acyuta-cyut, t, t, t, Ved. throwing down that which is fixed.
     acyutaja acyuta-ja, ās, m. pl. a class of Jaina deities produced by Viṣṇu.
     acyutajallakin acyuta-jallakin, ī, m., N. of a commentator of the Amara-Kosha.
     acyutadanta acyuta-danta or acyutanta, as, m., N. of the ancestor of a warrior tribe called Ācyutadanti or Ācyutanti, though possibly the names refer to two distinct persons and tribes.
     acyutamūrti acyuta-mūrti, is, m., N. of Viṣṇu.
     acyutaruṣ acyuta-ruṣ, ṭ, f. inveterate hatred.
     acyutavāsa acyuta-vāsa, as, m. the sacred fig-tree, Ficus Religiosa.
     acyutasthala acyuta-sthala, am, n., N. of a place in the Pañjāb.
     acyutāgraja acyutāgraja (-ta-ag-), as, m. (Viṣṇu's elder brother), Balarāma; Indra.
     acyutopādhyāya acyuto-pādhyāya (-ta-up-), as, m. = acyuta-jallakin, q. v.

aj aj, cl. 1. P. (defect. verb, supplemented fr. rt. vī), ajati, ājīt, ajitum, to go, to drive, propel, throw, cast: Desid. ajijiṣati, to be desirous of driving [cf. Gr. [greek] Lat. ago].

aja 1. aja, as, m. a drove; a driver, mover, instigator, leader; epithet given in the Vedas to Indra. Rudra, one of the Maruts, Agni, and the sun; in later works to Brahmā, Viṣṇu, Śiva, and Kāma (see also 2 a-ja); the leader of a flock; a he-goat or ram [cf. Gr. [greek] Lith. ozys]; the sign Aries; the vehicle of the sun; N. of a descendant of Viśvāmitra, and of Daśaratha's or Dīrghabāhu's father; N. of a mineral substance; of a kind of rice; of the moon; (as), m. pl., N. of a class of Ṛṣis; of a people mentioned in the Vedas; (ā), f., N. of Prakṛti or Nature, of Māyā or Illusion; a she-goat; N. of a plant whose bulbs resemble the udder of a goat.
     ajakarṇa aja-karṇa, as, m. a goat's ear; a plant or tree, Terminalia Alata Tomentosa.
     ajakarṇaka aja-karṇaka, as, m. the Śāl-tree, Shorea Robusta.
     ajakūlā aja-kūlā, f., N. of a town of the Bodhis.
     ajakṣīra aja-kṣīra, am, n., Ved. goat's milk.
     ajagandha aja-gandha, as, m. smell of a he-goat; (as, ā, am), smelling like a goat.
     ajagandhā aja-gandhā or aja-gandhikā, f. shrubby basil, Ocymum Gratissimum.
     ajagandhinī aja-gandhinī, f. a plant, also called ajaśṛṅgī, q. v.
     ajagara aja-gara, as, m. (that swallows a goat), a huge serpent, probably boa constrictor; (ī), f., N. of a plant.
     ajagallikā aja-gallikā, f. 'goat's cheek', an infantile disease.
     ajajīva aja-jīva or aja-jīvika, as, m. 'who lives by goats', a goat-herd.
     ajatā aja-tā, f. a multitude of goats; the being a goat.
     ajatva aja-tva or ajā-tva, am, n. the being a goat.
     ajadaṇḍī aja-daṇḍī, f. a plant, also called brahmadaṇḍī.
     ajadevatā aja-devatā, ās, f. pl. the 25th lunar mansion.
     ajanāmaka aja-nāmaka, as, m. (named Aja or Viṣṇu), a mineral substance.
     ajapa aja-pa, as, m. a goat-herd.
     ajapatha aja-patha, as, m. 'goat's road', probably synonymous with aja-vīthī, q. v.
     ajapada aja-pada or aja-pāda, as, ā, am, goat-footed.
     ajapād aja-pād, t, m., Ved. epithet of the divinity called aja.
     ajapārśva aja-pārśva, as, m. (having black sides like a goat), epithet of Śvetakarṇa's son Rājīvalocana.
     ajapāla aja-pāla, as, m. a goat-herd; N. of Daśaratha's father.
     ajabhakṣa aja-bhakṣa, as, m. 'goat's food', N. of a plant, Varvūra.
     ajamāyu aja-māyu, us, m., Ved. bleating like a goat.
     ajamāra aja-māra, as, m., N. of a tribe or a prince.
     ajamīḍha aja-mīḍha or aja-mīḷha, as, m., N. of a son of Suhotra, the author of some Vedic hymns; of a grandson of Suhotra; surname of Yudhisṭhira.
     ajamukha aja-mukha, as, ī, am, goat-faced; (ī), f., N. of a Rākṣasī.
     ajameru aja-meru, N. of a place, Ajmir (?).
     ajamoda aja-moda, as, m. or aja-modā or aja-modikā, f. 'goat's delight', N. of various plants, common Carroway, the species called Ajwaen (Ligusticum Ajwaen), and especially a species of Parsley, Apium Involucratum.
     ajarṣabha ajarṣabha (-ja-ṛṣ-), as, m. the best goat.
     ajalambana aja-lambana, am, n. antimony.
     ajaloman aja-loman, ā, m. or aja-lomī, f., N. of a plant, Cowage, Carpopogon Pruriens; (a), n. goat's hair.
     ajavasti aja-vasti, is, m., N. of a tribe; (ayas), m. pl. the members of that tribe.
     ajavāha aja-vāha, as, m., N. of a district.
     ajavīthī aja-vīthī, f. 'goat's road', N. of one of the three divisions of the southern path, or one of the three paths in which the sun, moon, and planets move, comprehending the asterisms mūlā, pūrvāṣāḍha, and uttarāṣāḍha.
     ajaśṛṅgī aja-śṛṅgī, f. 'goat's horn', N. of a shrub, Odina Wodier, used as a charm and as a remedy for sore eyes,--the fruit resembles a goat's horn.
     ajastunda aja-stunda, am, n., N. of a town.
     ajahā aja-hā, f. Cowage, Carpopogon Pruriens.
     ajākṛpāṇīya ajā-kṛpāṇīya, as, ā, am, like the goat and shears in the fable.
     ajākṣīra ajā-kṣīra, am, n. goat's milk.
     ajāgala ajā-gala, as, m. goat's neck.
     ajāgalastana ajāgala-stana, as, m. nipple or fleshy protuberance on the neck of some Indian goats, and an emblem of any useless or worthless object or person.
     ajājīva ajā-jīva, as, m. (who lives by goats), a goat-herd.
     ajātaulvali ajā-taulvali, is, m., N. of a Muni who lived on the milk of goats; (given by grammarians as an example of compounds in which the middle term is left out).
     ajāda ajāda (aja-ada), as, m. 'goat-eater', the ancestor of a warrior tribe.
     ajādanī ajādanī (-ja-ad-), f. a species of prickly night-shade.
     ajāntrī ajāntrī (-ja-an-), f. a pot-herb, Convolvulus Argenteus.
     ajāpayas ajā-payas, as, n. goat's milk.
     ajāpālaka ajā-pālaka, as, ā, am, tending goats; (as), m. a goat-herd.
     ajāvika ajāvika (aja-av-), am, n. goats and sheep, small cattle.
     ajāśva ajāśva (aja-aś), am, n. goats and horses; (as), m. Pūṣan or the Sun who has goats for horses.
     ajaikapād ajaikapād (aja-ek-), t, m. epithet of Viṣṇu; of one of the eleven Rudras.
     ajaiḍaka ajaiḍaka (aja-eḍ-), am, n. goats and rams.

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ajaka ajaka, as, m., N. of a descendant of Purūravas; also of a king of Magadha; ajakā or ajikā, f. a young she-goat; a disease of the pupil of the eye, small reddish tumours (compared to kids), protruding through the transparent cornea and discharging pus.
     ajakājāta ajakā-jāta, am, n. the same disease of the eyes.

ajana ajana, ajani, aji, ajma, &c., see s. v.

aja 2. a-ja, as, ā, am, not born, existing from all eternity; (as), m. Brahmā, Viṣṇu, Śiva, Kāma; (ā), f. Prakṛti or Nature, Māyā or Illusion (see also 1. aja, s. v. aj and 1. ajana).

ajakava ajakava, as, m. (etymology unknown), Śiva's bow.
     ajakāva ajakāva, as, am, m. n. Śiva's bow; (as), m. a venomous kind of vermin, centipede or scorpion; (am), n. sacrificial vessel dedicated to Mitra and Varuṇa.
     ajagava ajagava or ajagāva, am, n. Śiva's bow; the southern portion of the path of the sun, moon, and planets; N. of a snake priest.

ajaghanya a-jaghanya, as, ā, am, not last; not least.

ajaghnivas a-jaghnivas, ān, uṣī, at (perf. part. fr. rt. han), not having killed.

ajaṭā a-jaṭā, f. a plant, Flacourtia Cataphracta; also ajaḍā and ajjhaṭā.

ajaḍa a-jaḍa, as, ā, am, not torpid or stupid; (ā), f., N. of two plants; see ajaṭā and kapikacchu, Carpopogon Pruriens.
     ajaḍadhī ajaḍa-dhī, īs, īs, i, of a vigorous mind, energetic, bold.

ajathyā ajathyā, f. yellow jasmin (fit for goats ?).

ajana 1. ajana, as, m. (fr. rt. aj.), Brahmā 'the agitator;' (am), n. act of instigating or moving.
     ajanayonija ajana-yoni-ja, as, m. (born fr. ajana, i. e. Brahmā); N. of Daksha.

ajani ajani, is, f. a path, road; see also aji.

ajana 2. a-jana, as, ā, am (rt. jan), destitute of living beings, especially of men; desert; (as), m. an insignificant person.

ajanani a-janani, is, f. privation of birth, cessation of existence; ajananir astu tasya, 'may he cease to exist !'

ajanya a-janya, as, ā, am, improper to be produced or born; unfit or unfavourable for mankind; (am), n. any portent or natural phenomenon unfavourable to mankind, as an earthquake.

ajapa 1. a-japa, as, m. (rt. jap), one who does not repeat prayers; a reader of heterodox works; (ā), f. the mantra or formula called haṃsa, which consists only of a number of inhalations and exhalations.

ajapa 2. aja-pa, as, m. a goat-herd. See s. v. 1. aja.

ajamīḍha aja-mīḍha, as, m. See s. v. 1. aja.

ajambha a-jambha, as, m. (toothless), a frog.

ajaya a-jaya, as, m. non-victory, defeat; (as, ā, am), unconquered, unsurpassed, invincible; (as), m., N. of Viṣṇu; of a lexicographer; of a river; (ā), f. hemp; N. of a friend of Durgā; Māyā or Illusion.

ajayya a-jayya, as, ā, am, invincible, improper to be won at play.

ajara a-jara, as, ā, am (rt. jṝ), not subject to old age, undecaying, ever young; (ā), f., N. of two plants, Aloe Perfoliata and Jīrṇapañjhī.
     ajarāmaravat ajarāmara-vat (-ra-am-), ind. as if undecaying and immortal.

ajarat a-jarat, an, antī, at, not suffering from old age, not decaying.

ajarayu a-jarayu, us, us, u, not subject to old age or decay.

ajaras a-jaras, another form for ajara, used only in some cases.

ajarya a-jarya, as, ā, am, not friable, not digestible; not subject to old age or decay; (am), n. friendship.

ajavas a-javas, ās, ās, as, Ved. not quick, inactive.

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ajasra a-jasra, as, ā, am (rt. jas, 'to injure' not to be killed or interrupted), perpetual.
     ajasram ajasram or ajasreṇa, ind. perpetually, for ever, ever.

ajahat a-jahat (pres. part. fr. rt. with a), not dropping or losing (used in compounds).
     ajahatsvārthā ajahat-svārthā, f., N. of a rhetorical figure, an elliptical use of words in which their original meaning is not dropped, as "white ones" for "white horses", "lances" for "men with lances."
     ajahalliṅga ajahal-liṅga, as, m. (in grammar) said of a noun not dropping its original gender, when used like an adjective.

ajā ajā, f. a goat; Prakṛti; Māyā. See s.v. 1. aja, where the compounds of ajā will also be found.

ajāgara a-jāgara, as, ā, am, not awake, not wakeful; (as), a plant, Eclipta or Verbesina Prostrata.

ajāji ajā-ji, is, or ajā-jī, f. (ajā with rt. ji?, that overcomes goats); Cumin seed, Cuminum Cyminum; Ficus Oppositifolia; Nigella Indica.

ajāta a-jāta, as, ā, am, unborn, not yet born, not yet developed.
     ajātakakud ajāta-kakud, t, m. a young bull whose hump (kakud) is yet undeveloped.
     ajātapakṣa ajāta-pakṣa, as, ā or ī, am, having undeveloped wings.
     ajātavyañjana ajāta-vyañjana, as, ā, am, having an undeveloped beard.
     ajātavyavahāra ajāta-vyavahāra, as, m. having his majority unattained, a minor, a youth under fifteen.
     ajātaśatru ajāta-śatru, us, us, u, having no enemy; having no adversary of equal standing; (us), m., N. of Śiva, of Yudhiṣṭhira, of a king of Kāśī, of a son of Śamīka, of a son of Vidmisāra or Bimbisāra, and contemporary of Śākyamuni.
     ajātānuśaya ajātānuśaya (-ta-anu-), as, ā, am, having no regret.
     ajātāri ajātāri (-ta-ari), is, m. (having no enemy), Yudhiṣṭhira.

ajānat a-jānat, an, atī, at (pres. part. of rt. jñā with a), not knowing, unaware.

ajāni a-jāni, is, or a-jānika, as, m. having no wife.

ajāneya ajāneya, better ājāneya, as, ā, am (from ājāna, ājāni, birth, descent), of high breed; undaunted, fearless; (as), m. a horse of high breed.

ajāmi a-jāmi, is, is, i, Ved. not of kin, not related; unfriendly; (in grammar) not corresponding.
     ajāmitā ajāmi-tā, f., Ved. absence of connection, friendliness, or similarity.

ajāyamāna a-jāyamāna, as, ā, am (rt. jan), not being born, not subject to birth.

aji aji, f. (fr. aj, q. v.), a road.

ajikā ajikā, f. (fr. ajā), a young goat [cf. 1. aja].

ajita a-jita, as, ā, am, not conquered, unsubdued, unsurpassed, invincible, irresistible; (as), m., N. of an antidote, a poisonous sort of rat; N. of various persons, viz. Viṣṇu; Śiva; one of the Saptarshis of the fourteenth Manvantara; Maitreya or a future Buddha; the second of the Arhats or saints of the present (Jaina) Avasrapiṇī, a descendant of Ikṣvāku; the attendant of Suvidhi, who is the ninth of those Arhats; (ās), m. pl. a class of deified beings in the first Manvantara.
     ajitakeśakambala ajita-keśa-kambala, as, m., N. of a Brāhman.
     ajitabalā ajita-balā, f., N. of a Jaina deity, who acts under the direction of the Arhat Ajita.
     ajitavikrama ajita-vikrama, as, m. (having invincible power), epithet of king Candragupta the second.
     ajitātman ajitātman (-ta-āt-), ā, ā, a, having an unsubdued self or spirit.
     ajitāpīḍa ajitāpīḍa (-ta-āp-), as, m. having an unsurpassed crown; N. of a king.
     ajitendriya ajitendriya (-ta-ind-), as, ā, am, having an unsubdued sensuous nature, whose passions are not controlled.

ajina ajina, am, n. (probably at first the skin of a goat, aja, with the hair on, then any skin which would answer the same purpose); the hairy skin of an antelope, especially a black antelope, which serves the religious student for a couch, seat, covering, &c.; the hairy skin of a tiger, &c.; (as), m., N. of a descendant of Pṛthu.
     ajinapattrā ajina-pattrā or ajina-pattrī or ajina-pattrikā, f. a bat.
     ajinaphalā ajina-phalā, f., N. of a plant (?).
     ajinayoni ajina-yoni, is, m. (origin of the skin), an antelope, deer.
     ajinavāsin ajina-vāsin, ī, inī, i, clad in a skin.
     ajinasandha ajina-sandha, as, m. (who joins or prepares skins), a furrier.

ajira ajira, as, ā, am (fr. rt. aj), agile, quick, rapid; (as), m., N. of a snake priest; (ā), f., N. of Durgā, and of a river; (am), n. place to run or fight in, area, court [Lat. ager?]; the body; any object of sense, air, wind; a frog; (am), ind. quickly.
     ajiravatī ajira-vatī, f., N. of the river on which the town Śrāvasti was situated.
     ajiraśocis ajira-śocis, is, m., Ved. having a quick light, glittering, epithet of Agni and Soma.
     ajirādhirāja ajirādhirāja (-ra-adh-), as, m., Ved. an agile emperor, epithet of death.

ajirāya ajirāya, nom. A. ajirāyate, -yitum, Ved. to be agile or quick.

ajirīya ajirīya, as, ā, am, connected (by proximity or ownership &c.) with an ajira or court &c.

ajihma a-jihma, as, ā, am, not crooked, straight, straightforward, upright; (as), m. a frog, a fish; see a-jihva, of which this may be a corruption.
     ajihmaga ajihma-ga, as, ā, am, going straight on; (as), m. an arrow.
     ajihmāgra ajihmāgra (-hma-ag-), as, ā, am, having a straight point.

ajihva a-jihva, as, ā, am, tongueless; (as), m. a frog.

ajīkava ajīkava, am, n. Śiva's bow. See ajakava.

ajīgarta a-jīgarta, as, m. (that has nothing to swallow), N. of a Ṛṣi, Śunaḥśepha's father.

ajīta a-jīta, as, ā, am (rt. jyā usually makes jīna), not faded, not faint.
     ajītapunarvaṇya ajīta-punarva-ṇya, am, n., Ved. (unfaded and recoverable), N. of a twofold rite to be performed by Kshatriyas.

ajīti a-jīti, is, f., Ved. unfadingness; freedom from decay, prosperity.

ajīrṇā a-jīrṇa, as, ā, am (rt. jṝ), not decomposed; unimpaired; undigested; (am), n. freedom from decay, indigestion.

ajīrṇi a-jīrṇi, is, f. indigestion.

ajīrṇin a-jīrṇin, ī, inī, i, suffering from indigestion.

ajīva a-jīva, as, m. (non-life), non-existence, death; (as, ā, am), lifeless.

ajīvat a-jīvat, an, antī, at, not living, destitute of a livelihood.

ajīvana a-jīvana, am, n. non-existence, death; (as, ā, am), destitute of a livelihood.

ajīvani a-jīvani, is, f. non-existence, death; ajīvanis tasya bhūyāt, 'may death befal him!'

ajīvita a-jīvita, am, n. non-existence, death.

ajugupsita a-jugupsita, as, ā, am, not blamed.

ajura a-jura or a-jurya, as, ā, am (rt. jūr), Ved. not subject to old age or decay.

ajuṣṭa a-juṣṭa, as, ā, am, Ved. not enjoyed, unsatisfactory.

ajuṣṭi a-juṣṭi, is, f., Ved. non-enjoyment, feeling of disappointment.

ajetavya a-jetavya, as, ā, am, invincible, insuperable, irresistible.

ajeya a-jeya, as, ā, am, invincible; (am), n., N. of an antidote.

ajaikapād ajaikapād (aja-eka-), t, or ajai-kapāda, as, m. an epithet of Viṣṇu; N. of one of the eleven Rudras.

ajaiḍaka ajaiḍaka (aja-eḍaka), am, n. goats and sheep.

ajoṣa a-joṣa, as, ā, am, Ved. not gratified, not yet satisfied.
     ajoṣya a-joṣya, as, ā, am, Ved. not easily gratified, never satisfied.

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ajjukā ajjukā, f. (in the drama) a courtezan; (corruption of arjukā.)

ajjhaṭā ajjhaṭā, f. a plant, Flacourtia Cataphracta. (Also ajaṭā and ajaḍā.)

ajjala ajjhala, as, m. (corruption of ujjvala?), a burning coal; (am), n. a shield (?).

ajña a-jña, as, ā, am (fr. a and rt. jñā), not knowing; ignorant, inexperienced; unconscious; unwise, stupid.
     ajñatva ajña-tva, am, n. or ajña-tā, f. ignorance.

ajñakā ajñakā or ajñikā, f. diminutive form for ajñā, an ignorant woman.

ajñāta a-jñāta, as, ā, am, unknown; unexpected; unaware.
     ajñātakulaśīla ajñāta-kula-śīla, as, ā, am, whose lineage and character are unknown.
     ajñātaketa ajñāta-keta, as, ā, am, Ved. having unknown or secret designs.
     ajñātabhukta ajñāta-bhukta, as, ā, am, eaten unawares.
     ajñātayakṣma ajñāta-yakṣma, as, m., Ved. (insidious consumption?), N. of a disease.
     ajñātavāsa ajñāta-vāsa, as, ā, am, whose dwelling is unknown.
     ajñātaśīla ajñāta-śīla, as, ā, am, whose character is unknown.

ajñātaka ajñātaka, as, ā, am, unknown, unaware.

ajñāti a-jñāti, is, m. not a kinsman, not related.

ajñātvā a-jñātvā, ind. not having known or ascertained.

ajñāna a-jñāna, am, n. non-cognisance; ignorance, especially (in philosophy) spiritual ignorance; not merely a negative, but an active principle, which consisting of the three Guṇas (fetters or qualities) sattva, rajas, and tamas, and preventing the soul from realizing its identity with Brahma, causes self to appear a distinct personality, and matter to appear a reality; hence equivalent to Prakṛti or Nature, and termed a divine Śakti (power), synonymous with Māyā, Illusion; (as, ā, am), ignorant, unwise.
     ajñānatas ajñāna-tas or ajñānāt, ind. unawares, ignorantly, inadvertently.
     ajñānakṛta ajñāna-kṛta, as, ā, am, done inadvertently.
     ajñānatva ajñāna-tva, am, n. or ajñāna-tā, f. ignorance.
     ajñānabandhana ajñāna-bandhana, am, n. the bond of ignorance.

ajñānin a-jñānin, ī, inī, i, ignorant, unwise.

ajñās a-jñās, ās, m., Ved. not a kinsman.

ajñeya a-jñeya, as, ā, am, baffling or passing knowledge, unfit to be known.

ajma ajma, as, m. (fr. rt. aj), Ved. career, march, battle [cf. [greek]].

ajman ajman, a, n., Ved. career, passage, battle; a house, a habitation [Lat. agmen].

ajyāni a-jyāni, is, f., Ved. undecaying nature.

ajyeṣṭha a-jyeṣṭha, as, ā, am, not the oldest or best; having no elder brother.
     ajyeṣṭhavṛtti ajyeṣṭha-vṛtti, is, is, i, not behaving as the eldest brother ought to behave, or (ajyeṣṭha-vṛtti) behaving like one who has no elder brother.

ajra ajra, as, m., Ved. a field, a plain; (as, ā, am), Ved. agile, quick [Lat. ager; Gr. [greek] cf. ajira].

ajrya ajrya, as, ā, am, Ved. being in or connected with a field or plain.

ajvin ajvin, ī, inī, i (fr. rt. aj), Ved. active, agile.

añc 1. añc (connected with ac, q. v.), cl. 1. P. A. añcati, -te, ānañca, -e, añci-ṣyati, -te, añcitum, to bend, curve, incline, curl; to reverence (with inclined body), to honour; to tend, move, go, wander about; to request: cl. 10. or Caus. añcayati, -yitum, to unfold, make clear, produce: Desid. P. A. añciciṣati, -te, to be desirous of bending: Pass. añcyate or acyate, to be bent.

añc 2. añc (at the end of compounds), turned to, going or directed towards; see akudhryañc, avāñc, udañc, devadryañc, &c. It may also mean honouring, see prāñc.

añca añca, as, m. (only used as the last part of compound words), curling, as in romāñca, sensation of the hairs of the body curling, thrill of rapture.

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añcati añcati, is, m. or añcatī, f. wind; fire.

añcana añcana, am, n. act of bending or curving.

añcala añcala, as, m. (perhaps also am), n. the border or corner of a garment, especially of a woman's garment, of a veil, shawl. (In Bengālī, a strip of country, district.)

añcita añcita, as, ā, am, bent, curved, curled, arched, handsome; gone, walked in; reverenced, honoured, distinguished.
     añcitapattra añcita-pattra, as, m. lotus with curved leaves.
     añcitapattrākṣa añcitapattrākṣa (-ra-akṣa), as, ī, am, having lotus eyes.
     añcitabhrū añcita-bhrū, ūs, f. woman with arched or handsome eyebrows.
     añcitalāṅgūla añcita-lāṅgūla, as, ā, am, having a curved tail (as a monkey).

añj añj, cl. 7. P. A. anakti, aṅkte, ānañja, añjiṣyati or aṅkṣyati, āñjīt, añjitum or aṅktum, to apply an ointment or pigment, smear with, anoint; to decorate, prepare; to honour, celebrate; to cause to appear, to make clear, distinguish, represent; to be beautiful; to go: Caus. añjayati, -yitum, āñjijat, to smear with; to speak, shine, to cause to go [cf. Lat. ungo].

añjaka añjaka, as, m., N. of a son of Vipracitti; of a son of Yadu.

añjana añjana, as, m. a kind of domestic lizard; N. of a fabulous serpent; of a tree; of a mountain; of a king of Mithilā; of the elephant of the west or south-west quarter; (am), n. act of applying an ointment or pigment, embellishing, &c.; black pigment or collyrium applied to the eye-lashes or the inner coat of the eyelids; special kind or material of this pigment, as lamp-black, Antimony, an extract of Ammonium, Xanthorrhiza, &c.; paint, especially as a cosmetic; magic ointment; ink; night; fire. (In rhetoric) suggesting the special meaning alluded to in an expression, as in a pun, &c.
     añjanakeśī añjana-keśī, f., N. of a vegetable perfume.
     añjananāmikā añjana-nāmikā, f. a swelling of the eyelid, stye.
     añjanavat añjana-vat, ind. like collyrium.
     añjanādhikā añjanādhikā (-na-adh-), f. a species of lizard.
     añjanāmbhas añjanāmbhas (-na-am-), as, n. eye-water.

añjanaka añjanaka, as, m. portion of the Vedas containing the word añjana.
     añjanakī añjanakī, f., N. of a medicinal plant.

añjanā añjanā, f., N. of Hanumat's mother; of Pravarasena's mother.
     añjanāgiri añjanā-giri, is, m., N. of a mountain.
     añjanāvatī añjanā-vatī, f. the female elephant of the north-east (or the west ?) quarter.

añjanika añjanika, as, ā, am, connected with collyrium; (ā), f. a species of lizard; a small mouse.

añjanī añjanī, f. a woman fit for the application of ointments, pigments, sandal, &c.; N. of two medicinal plants.

añjala añjala, añjali, see s. v. below.

añjas añjas, as, n., Ved. ointment, preparation (?); smoothness, sliding, speed (?); a good fit, adaptation (?); (according to others, ās, ās, as), level, straight, right.
     añjaspā añjas-pā, ās, ās, am, Ved. drinking the Soma preparation.
     añjaḥsava añjaḥ-sava, as, m. rapid preparation of Soma.

añjasa añjasa, as, ā, am, straight, straightforward, honest; (ī), f., Ved., N. of a heavenly river.

añjasā añjasā or añjas, ind. straight on, right, truly, justly; quickly, soon, instantly.

añjasāyana añjasāyana (-sā-ay-), as, ī, am, having a straight course, going straight on.

añjasīna añjasīna, as, ā, am, Ved. going straight on, straightforward.

añji añji, is, is, i, applying an ointment or pigment; ointment, brilliancy, unctuous, slimy; shining, brilliant; (is, i), m. n. the sexual organ, i. e. distinguishing the sex; (is), m. a sender, commander.
     añjimat añji-mat, ān, atī, at, Ved. coloured, bright, adorned.
     añjisaktha añji-saktha, as, m. (a victim) that has coloured thighs.

añjin añjin, ī, inī, i, Ved. making clear or manifest.

añjiva añjiva, as, ā, am, Ved. slippery, smooth.

añjiṣṭha añjiṣṭha, as, m., Ved. (highly brilliant), the sun; also añjiṣṇu, us, m.

añjala añjala (only at the end of compounds), another form for añjali, q. v.

añjali añjali, is, m. (fr. rt. añj), the open hands placed side by side and slightly hollowed, as if by a beggar to receive food; hence when raised to the forehead, a mark of supplication, reverence, salutation or benediction; a libation; a measure of corn, sufficient to fill both hands when placed side by side, equal to a kuḍava.
     añjalikarman añjali-karman, a, n. making the añjali or respectful salutation.
     añjalikārikā añjali-kārikā, f. an earthen doll, making the añjali; N. of a plant, probably Mimosa Natans.
     añjalipuṭa añjali-puṭa, as, am, m. n. cavity produced in making the añjali.
     añjalibandhana añjali-bandhana, am, n. salutation with the añjali raised to the forehead.
     añjalīkrita añjalī-krita, as, ā, am, (hands) placed together to form the añjali.

añjalika añjalika, as, am, m. n., N. of one of Arjuna's arrows; see karṇa-parva, 4788; (ā), a young mouse.

añjika añjika, as, m., N. of a son of Yadu. See añjaka.

añjihiṣā añjihiṣā, f. (fr. Desid. of rt. aṃh), desire of going.

añjī añjī, f. a blessing (?).

añjīra añjīra, am, n. a species of fig-tree (Ficus Oppositifolia); a fig. (In Bengālī) a guava. (añjīra is a Persian word.)

aṭ aṭ, cl. 1. P. A. aṭati, -te, āṭa, aṭiṣyati, āṭīt, aṭitum, to roam, wander about (sometimes with acc.), frequently used of religious mendicants: Intens. aṭāṭyate, to roam or wander about zealously or habitually, especially as a religious mendicant: Desid. aṭiṭiṣati, to be desirous of roaming.

aṭa aṭa, as, ā, am, roaming, wandering; (ā), f. the act or habit of roaming or wandering about, especially as a religious mendicant.

aṭaka aṭaka, as, ī, am, roaming.

aṭana aṭana, am, n. act or habit of wandering about.

aṭani aṭani, is, f. or aṭanī, f. the notched extremity of a bow.

aṭamāna aṭamāna, as, ā, am, roaming about, vagabond.

aṭavi aṭavi, is, or aṭavī, f. (place to roam in), a forest.
     aṭaviśikhara aṭavi-śikhara, ās, m. pl., N. of a people or country.

aṭavika aṭavika, better āṭavika, as, m. a woodman, forester.

aṭāṭā aṭāṭā, f. (habit of) roaming or wandering about.

aṭāṭyamāna aṭāṭyamāna, as, ā, am, roaming excessively.

aṭāṭyā aṭāṭyā, f. (habit of) roaming.

aṭāya aṭāya, nom. A. aṭāyate, to enter upon a roaming life, to become a religious mendicant.

aṭyā aṭyā, f. act or habit of roaming about as a religious mendicant.

aṭani, aṭavi, aṭāṭyā, &c., see under aṭ above.

aṭaruṣa aṭaruṣa or aṭarūṣa or aṭarūṣaka, as, m., N. of the shrub Justicia Adhatoda.

aṭala a-ṭala, as, ā, am, not shaky, firm, solid.

aṭṭ aṭṭ, cl. 1. A. aṭṭate, ānaṭṭe, aṭṭitum, to exceed, kill; cl. 10. P. aṭṭayati, -yitum, to contemn, lessen diminish.

aṭṭa aṭṭa, ind. high, lofty, loud; (as), m. top-heavy (?), exceeding; shaking; injuring; N. of a Yaksha; (as, am), m. n. addition to a building, apartment on the roof, upper story; tower, buttress, back of a building; (corruption of haṭṭa), a market, a market-place; (ā), f. overbearing conduct ?; (am), n. (corruption of anna ?), boiled rice, food; (as, ā, am), dried, dry.
     aṭṭapatibhāgākhyagṛhakṛtya aṭṭa-pati-bhāgākhya-gṛha-kṛtya (-ga-ākh-), am, n. business of the house called the marketmaster's department (an office in Kashmir).
     aṭṭasthalī aṭṭa-sthalī, f. (site of an aṭṭa), a name.
     aṭṭahasita aṭṭa-hasita, am, n. loud laughter, a horse-laugh.
     aṭṭahāsa aṭṭa-hāsa, as, m. idem; a name of Śiva.
     aṭṭahāsaka aṭṭa-hāsaka, as, m., N. of a shrub, Jasminum Multiflorum or Hirsutum.
     aṭṭahāsin aṭṭa-hāsin, ī, m. epithet of Śiva.
     aṭṭahāsya aṭṭa-hāsya, am, n. loud laughter; a horse-laugh.
     aṭṭāṭṭahāsa aṭṭāṭṭa-hāsa (-ṭṭa-aṭṭ-), as, m. very loud laughter.

aṭṭaka aṭṭaka, as, m. an apartment on the roof.

aṭṭaṭṭa aṭṭaṭṭa, ind. very high, very loud.

[Page 0011-c]

aṭṭana aṭṭana, am, n. a weapon shaped like a discus.

aṭṭā aṭṭā, f. overbearing conduct (?), excess (?).

aṭṭāya aṭṭāya (nom. fr. aṭṭā), A. aṭṭāyate (meaning doubtful), to be overbearing (?).

aṭṭāla aṭṭāla, as, or aṭṭālaka, as, m. an apartment on the roof, an upper story; (ikā), f. a house of two or more stories, a lofty house, palace; N. of a country.
     aṭṭālikākāra aṭṭālikā-kāra, as, m. a bricklayer, mason.
     aṭṭālikābandha aṭṭālikā-bandha, as, m. (in architecture) a kind of base.

aṭṭilikā aṭṭilikā, f., N. of a town.

aṭṇāra aṭṇāra, as, m. a king of Kośala.

aṭyā aṭyā, f.; see under rt. aṭ.

aṭh aṭh, cl. 1. P. A. aṭhati, -te, to go.

aṭhillā aṭhillā, f., N. of a Prākṛt metre.

aḍ 1. aḍ, cl. 1. P. aḍati, to endeavour.

aḍ 2. aḍ, cl. 5. P., Ved. aḍnoti, to pervade, attain; various reading for ah (?).

aḍakavatī aḍakavatī, N. of a fabulous palace on Meru; also of a city.

aḍḍ aḍḍ, cl. 1. P. aḍḍati, ānaḍḍa, aḍḍitum, to join; to infer, argue, meditate, discern; to attack.

aḍḍana aḍḍana, am, n. a shield.

aṇ 1. aṇ, cl. 1. P. aṇati, āṇa, aṇitum, to sound.

aṇ 2. aṇ, cl. 4. A. aṇyate, to breathe; another form of rt. an, q. v.

aṇaka aṇaka, as, ā, am, insignificant, small, contemptible.

aṇakīya aṇakīya, as, ā, am, connected with what is insignificant, &c.

aṇavya aṇavya, am, n. a field of (aṇu) Panicum Miliaceum; see aṇu.

aṇi aṇi, is, m. or aṇī, f. the point of a needle; the linch-pin; the pin or bolt at the end of the pole of a carriage; the corner or part of a house which serves for slaughtering; a bound, boundary, limit.
     aṇīmāṇḍavya aṇī-māṇḍavya, as, m., N. of a Ṛṣi said to have been impaled on an aṇi or linch-pin.

aṇiman aṇiman, ā, m. (fr. aṇu, q. v.), minuteness, fineness, thinness; atomic nature; the superhuman power of becoming as small as an atom; (a), n., Ved. the smallest particle.

aṇiṣṭha aṇiṣṭha, as, ā, am (fr. aṇu, q. v.), most minute.

aṇīyas aṇīyas, ān, asī, as (fr. aṇu, q. v.), or aṇīyaska, as, ā, am, more minute than usual.

aṇu aṇu, us, us or vī, u, fine, minute, atomic; (us), m. an atom of matter; an atom of time; the 54, 675, oooth part of a muhūrta (of 48 minutes); N. of a grain, Panicum Miliaceum; N. of Śiva; (u), n. (in prosody) the fourth part of a mātrā.
     aṇutara aṇu-tara, as, ā, am, very fine or minute, gentle.
     aṇutaila aṇu-taila, am, n., N. of a medical oil.
     aṇutva aṇu-tva, am, n. or aṇu-tā, f. minuteness, atomic nature.
     aṇubhā aṇu-bhā, f. lightning.
     aṇumadhyavīja aṇu-madhya-vīja, am, n. title of a hymn.
     aṇumātra aṇu-mātra, as, ī, am, having the size of an atom.
     aṇumātrika aṇu-mātrika, as, ā, am, having the size of an atom; containing the atomic elements (mātrā) of the body.
     aṇureṇu aṇu-reṇu, us, m. f. atomic dust (as seen in sun-beams).
     aṇureṇujāla aṇu-reṇu-jāla, am, n. an aggregate of such atomic dust.
     aṇurevatī aṇu-revatī f., N. of a plant, Croton Polyandrum.
     aṇuvedānta aṇu-vedānta, am, n. title of a book.
     aṇuvrīhi aṇu-vrīhi, is, m., N. of a fine sort of rice.
     aṇuśas aṇu-śas, ind. into or in minute particles.
     aṇūbhū aṇū-bhū, cl. 1. P. -bhavati, -vitum, to become minute or atomic.
     aṇūbhāva aṇū-bhāva, as, m. the becoming an atom.
     aṇvanta aṇv-anta, as, m. a hair-splitting question.

aṇuka aṇuka, as, ā, am, fine, minute, atomic; acute, clever, subtle.

aṇva aṇva, am, n., Ved. fine interstice or hole in the strainer used for the Soma juice.

aṇvī aṇvī, f., Ved. a finger.

[Page 0012-a]

aṇuha aṇuha, as, m., N. of a son of Vibhrāja.

aṇṭh aṇṭh or aṭh, cl. 1. A. aṇṭhate, ānaṇṭhe, aṇṭhitum, to go, move, tend.

aṇṭhita aṇṭhita, as, ā, am, gone; pained.

aṇḍa aṇḍa, as, am, m. n. (fr. rt. am), an egg, a testicle; the scrotum; the musk bag; Semen Virile; epithet of Śiva, from his being identified with the Brahmāṇḍa or mundane egg.
     aṇḍakaṭāha aṇḍa-kaṭāha, as, m. the shell of the mundane egg.
     aṇḍakoṭarapuṣpī aṇḍa-koṭara-puṣpī, f., N. of a plant, Convolvulus Argenteus (?).
     aṇḍakośa aṇḍa-kośa or aṇḍa-koṣa or aṇḍa-koṣaka, as, m. the scrotum.
     aṇḍaja aṇḍa-ja, as, ā, am, born from an egg; (as), m. a bird; a fish; a snake; a lizard; (ā), f. musk.
     aṇḍajeśvara aṇḍajeśvara (-ja-īś-), as, m. Garuḍa, the king of birds.
     aṇḍadhara aṇḍa-dhara, as, m. epithet of Śiva.
     aṇḍavardhana aṇḍa-vardhana, am, n. or aṇḍa-vṛddhi, is, f. swelling of the scrotum, hydrocele.
     aṇḍasū aṇḍa-sū, ūs, f. oviparous.
     aṇḍākarṣaṇa aṇḍākarṣaṇa (-ḍa-āk-), am, n. castration.
     aṇḍākāra aṇḍākāra (-ḍa-āk-), as, ā, am, egg-shaped, oval, elliptical; (as), m. an ellipsis.
     aṇḍākṛti aṇḍākṛti (-ḍa-āk-), is, is, i, egg-shaped, oval, elliptical; (is), f. an ellipsis.

aṇḍaka aṇḍaka, as, m. the scrotum; (am), n. a small egg, an egg.

aṇḍara aṇḍara, as, ī, am, N. or epithet of a tribe.
     aṇḍarāya aṇḍarāya, nom. A. aṇḍarāyate, -yitum, to behave like an Aṇḍara.

aṇḍālu aṇḍālu, us, m. a fish (full of eggs).

aṇḍīra aṇḍīra, as, m. a full male, a man; strong.

at 1. at, ind. a prefix said to imply 'surprise', probably a contraction of ati, meaning 'extraordinary.'
     adbhuta ad-bhuta, as, ā, am, extraordinary, mysterious, wonderful; see s. v.

at 2. at, cl. 1. P. atati, āta, atiṣyati, ātīt, atitum, sometimes A. atate, &c., to go constantly, walk, run; to obtain.

atana atana, as, m. a passer on; (am), n. act of passing on.
     atanavat atana-vat, ān, m. one who wanders.

atasi atasi, atka, see s. v.

atajjña a-taj-jña (for a-tad-jña), as, ā, am, ignorant of (tat) that, i. e. Brahma and the soul's identity with it.

ataṭa a-taṭa, as, ā, am, having no beach or shore, precipituous; (as), m. a precipice; the third hell.

atattvavid a-tattva-vid, t, t, t, ignorant of (tattva) the soul's identity with Brahma.

atattvārthavat a-tattvārtha-vat (-tva-ar-), ān, atī, at, not conformable with the nature of truth.

atathā a-tathā, ās, m., Ved. not such, different; saying a-tathā, 'not so', 'no', refusing; careless.
     atathocita a-tathocita (-thā-uc-), as, ā, am, not deserving of such (a fate), not thus deserving, not used to this (with gen.).

atathya a-tathya, as, ā, am, untrue, unreal, not really so.

atadarha a-tad-arha, as, ā, am, not deserving that; (am), ind. undeservedly, unjustly.

atadguṇa a-tad-guṇa, as, m. (in rhetoric) the use of predicates not descriptive of the essential nature of the object.

atantra a-tantra, as, ī, am, having no ropes or no (musical) strings; unrestrained; (am), n. not the object of a rule or of the rule under consideration.

atandra a-tandra, as, ā, am, or a-tandrita, as, ā, am, or a-tandrin, ī, iṇī, i, free from lassitude, alert, unwearied.

atapa a-tapa, as, ā, am, (rt. tap), not hot, not excited, not eager; cool; impassible, unostentatious; unemployed; (ās), m. pl. a class of deities among the Buddhists.

atapas a-tapas, ās, ās, as, or a-tapaska, as, ā, am, or a-tapasya, as, m. one who neglects tapas or the practice of ascetic austerities; an irreligious character.

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atapta a-tapta, as, ā, am, not heated, cool.
     ataptatanū atapta-tanū, ūs, m., Ved. whose body or mass is cool.
     ataptatapas atapta-tapas, ās, m. whose ascetic austerity has not been (fully or properly) endured.

atapyamāna a-tapyamāna, as, ā, am, not suffering.

atamisra a-tamisra, as, ā, am, not dark, not benighted.

atameru a-tameru, us, us, u, Ved. not languid.

atarka a-tarka, as, m. an illogical reasoner; bad logic.

atarkita a-tarkita, as, ā, am, unconsidered, unthought of; unexpected; (am), ind. unexpectedly.

atarkya a-tarkya, as, ā, am, baffling or surpassing thought or reasoning.
     atarkyasahasraśakti atarkya-sahasra-śakti, is, m. incomprehensibly endowed with a thousand powers.

atala a-tala, am, n. bottomless; N. of a hell beneath the earth; (as), m. Śiva.
     atalasparśa atala-sparśa, as, ā, am, or atala-spṛś, k, k, k, touching the atala; bottomless; (or it may be a-tala-sparśa, whose bottom cannot be touched or reached.)

atavyas a-tavyas, ān, asī, as, Ved. not stronger, not very strong.

atas atas, ind. (ablative of the pronom. base a, synonymous with asmāt), from this, than this; hence; henceforth, from that time; from this (or from that) cause or reason.
     ataūrdhvam ata-ūrdhvam, ind. henceforth, afterwards.
     ataeva ata-eva, ind. for this very reason; therefore.
     ataḥparam ataḥ-param, ind. henceforth, further on.
     atonimittam ato-nimittam, ind. on this ground, for this reason.
     atonya ato-nya (tas-an), as, ā, at, differing from this.
     atorham ato-rham (-tas-ar-), ind. for this object.

atasa atasa, as, m. (fr. rt. at), wind, air; the soul; a (missile) weapon; a garment made of the fibre of (atasī) flax; (am), n., Ved. shrubs.

atasī atasī, f. common flax, Linum Usitatissimum; Śaṇa, Bengal sun used as hemp, Crotolaria Juncea.

atasi atasi, is, m. (fr. rt. at), Ved. a wandering mendicant.

atasāyya atasāyya, as, ā, am, Ved. to be got by begging.

ati ati, ind. [probably neut. of an obsolete adj. atin, passing, going, beyond; see rt. at and cf. Old Germ. anti, unti, inti, unde, indi, &c.; Eng. and; Germ. und; Gr. [greek] Lat. ante; Lith. ant; Arm. ti; Zend aiti]. As a prefix to verbs and nouns, expresses beyond, over; too far past; as ati-kramitum, to overstep.
     atikrama ati-krama, transgression.

     When prefixed to nouns, not derived from verbs, it expresses beyond, surpassing; as ati-kaśa, past the whip; ati-mānuṣa, superhuman, &c.; see s. v.

     As a separable adverb or preposition (with acc.), Ved. beyond.

ati ati is often prefixed to nouns and adjectives, and rerely to verbs, in the sense excessive, extraordinary, intense; excessively, too; exceedingly, very.
     atikaṭhora ati-kaṭhora, as, ā, am, very hard, too hard.
     atikathā ati-kathā, f. an exaggerated tale; (as, ā, am,), exaggerated; see also s. v.
     atikarṣaṇa ati-karṣaṇa, am, n. excessive exertion.
     atikalyam ati-kalyam, ind. very early, too early.
     atikānta ati-kānta, as, ā, am, excessively beloved.
     atikāya ati-kāya, as, ā, am, of extraordinary body or size, gigantic; (as), m., N. of a Rākṣasa.
     atikutsita ati-kutsita, as, ā, am, greatly despised.
     atikulva ati-kulva, as, ā, am, Ved. too bald.
     atikṛcchra ati-kṛcchra, as, m. extraordinary pain or hardship; extraordinary penance.
     atikṛta ati-kṛta, as, ā, am, overdone, exaggerated.
     atikṛśa ati-kṛśa, as, ā, am, very thin, emaciated.
     atikṛṣṇa ati-kṛṣṇa, as, ā, am, very or too dark, very or too deep blue.
     atikruddha ati-kruddha, as, ā, am, excessively angry.
     atikruṣṭa ati-kruṣṭa, am, n. extraordinary cry or wailing.
     atikhara ati-khara, as, ā, am, very pungent or piercing.
     atigaṇḍa ati-gaṇḍa, as, ā, am, having large cheeks or temples; (as), m., N. of the yoga (or index), star of the 6th lunar mansion.
     atigandha ati-gandha, as, ā, am, having an overpowering smell; (as), m. sulphur; lemon-grass (Andropogon Schaenunthes); the Champac flower (Michelia Champaca); a kind of jasmin.
     atigandhālu ati-gandhālu, us, m., N. of a creeper, Putradātrī.
     atigarīyas ati-garīyas, as, n. (compar. of ati-guru), a higher price.
     atigarvita ati-garvita, as, ā, am, very conceited.
     atigahana ati-gahana, as, ā, am, very impenetrable.
     atiguṇa ati-guṇa, as, ā, am, having extraordinary qualities.
     atigupta ati-gupta, as, ā, am, closely concealed, very mysterious.
     atiguru ati-guru, us, us or vī, u, very heavy
     atigo ati-go, aus, f. an excellent cow.
     atigrāhya ati-grāhya, as, ā, am, very acceptable; (as), N. of three successive libations made (or cups filled) at the Jyotiṣṭoma sacrifice.
     aticaṇḍa ati-caṇḍa, as, ā, am, very violent.
     aticaraṇa ati-caraṇa, am, n. excessive practice.
     aticāpalya ati-cāpalya, am, n. extraordinary mobility or unsteadiness.
     atichattra ati-chattra or ati-chattraka, as, m. (extraordinary parasol), a mushroom; (ā), f. Anise, principally Anisum or Anethum Sowa; another plant, Barleria Longifolia.
     atijara ati-jara, as, ā, am, or (as a supplementary form) ati-jaras, ās, ās, as, very aged.
     atijala ati-jala, as, ā, am, well watered.
     atijava ati-java, as, m. extraordinary speed; (as, ā, am), very fleet.
     atijāgara ati-jāgara, as, ā, am, very wakeful; (as), m. the black curlew.
     atijīrṇa ati-jīrṇa, as, ā, am, very aged.
     atijīrṇatā atijīrṇa-tā, f. extreme old age
     atijīva ati-jīva, as, ā, am, quite alive, very lively.
     atiḍīna ati-ḍīna, am, n. extraordinary flight (of birds).
     atitapasvin ati-tapasvin, ī, inī, i, very ascetic
     atitīkṣṇa ati-tīkṣṇa, as, ā, am, very sharp.
     atitīvra ati-tīvra, as, ā, am, very sharp, pungent or acid; (ā), f. dūb grass.
     atitṛṇṇas ati-tṛṇṇas, as, ā, am, seriously hurt.
     atitṛpti ati-tṛpti, is, f. too great satiety.
     atitṛṣṇā ati-tṛṣṇā, f. excessive thirst, rapacity; (as, ā, am), excessively thirsty, rapacious.
     atitrasnu ati-trasnu, us, us, u, very timid, over timid.
     atidagdha ati-dagdha, as, ā, am, badly burnt; (am), n. (in medicine) N. of a bad kind of burn.
     atidarpa ati-darpa, as, m. excessive conceit; N. of a snake; (as, ā, am), excessively conceited.
     atidarśin ati-darśin, ī, inī, i, very far-sighted.
     atidātṛ ati-dātṛ, tā, m. a very liberal man.
     atidāna ati-dāna, am, n. munificence.
     atidāruṇa ati-dāruṇa, as, ā, am, very terrible.
     atidāha ati-dāha, as, m. great heat; violent inflammation.
     atidīrgha ati-dīrgha, as, ā, am, very long, too long.
     atiduḥkhita ati-duḥkhita or ati-duṣkhita, as, ā, am, greatly afflicted, very sad.
     atiduḥsaha ati-duḥsaha, as, ā, am, very hard to bear, quite unbearable.
     atidurgata ati-durgata, as, ā, am, very badly off.
     atidurdharṣa ati-durdharṣa, as, ā, am, very hard to approach, very haughty.
     atidurlambha ati-durlambha, as, ā, am, very hard to attain or obtain.
     atiduṣkara ati-duṣkara, as, ā, am, very difficult.
     atidūra ati-dūra, as, ā, am, very distant; (am), n. a great distance.
     atidoṣa ati-doṣa, as, m. a great fault.
     atidhavala ati-dhavala, as, ā, am, very white.
     atidhenu ati-dhenu, us, us, u, distinguished for his cows.
     atinidrā ati-nidrā, f. excessive sleep; (as, ā, am), given to (or overpowered by) excessive sleep; (am), ind. past (or after) sleeping time.
     atinipuṇa ati-nipuṇa, as, ā, am, very able or skilful.
     atinīca ati-nīca, as, ā, am, excessively low.
     atipathin ati-pathin, anthās, m. a better road than common.
     atipada ati-pada, as, ā, am, (in prosody) too long by one pada or foot.
     atiparokṣa ati-parokṣa, as, ā, am, far out of sight, i. e. no longer discernible.
     atiparokṣavṛtti atiparokṣa-vṛtti, is, is, i, (in grammar) having a nature that is no longer discernible, i. e. obsolete.
     atipātaka ati-pātaka, am, n. a very heinous sin, incest.
     atipuruṣa ati-puruṣa or ati-pūruṣa, as, m. a firstrate man or hero.
     atipūta ati-pūta, as, ā, am, quite purified; refined to excess.
     atipeśala ati-peśala, as, ā, am, very dexterous or clever.
     atiprakāśa ati-prakāśa, as, ā, am, Ved. very manifest, notorious.
     atiprage ati-prage, ind. very early.
     atipraṇaya ati-praṇaya, as, m. excessive kindness, partiality.
     atipraṇudya ati-praṇudya, ind. having pushed far forward.
     atiprabandha ati-prabandha, as, m. complete continuity.
     atipravaraṇa ati-pravaraṇa, am, n. excess in choosing.
     atipravṛtti ati-pravṛtti, is, f. issuing abundantly or too freely.
     atipravṛddha ati-pravṛddha, as, ā, am, enlarged to excess, overbearing.
     atipraśna ati-praśna, as, m. an extravagant question, a question regarding transcendental objects.
     atipraśnya ati-praśnya, as, ā, am, fit to be asked such an extravagant question.
     atiprasakti ati-prasakti, is, f. or ati-prasaṅga, as, m. excessive attachment; unwarrantable stretch of a rule or principle.
     atiprasiddha ati-prasiddha, as, ā, am, very famous, notorious.
     atiprauḍha ati-prauḍha, as, ā, am, full-grown.
     atiprauḍhayauvana ati-prauḍha-yauvana, as, ā, am, being in the full enjoyment of youth.
     atibala ati-bala, as, ā, am, very strong or powerful; (as), m. an active soldier; N. of a king; (ā), f., N. of a medicinal plant (Sidonia Cordifolia and Rhombifolia, or Annona Squamosa); N. of a powerful charm; N. of one of Daksha's daughters.
     atibālaka ati-bālaka, as, m. an infant; (as, ā, am), childish.
     atibāhu ati-bāhu, us, m. 'having extraordinary arms;' N. of a Ṛṣi of the fourteenth Manvantara.
     atibībhatsa ati-bībhatsa, as, m. excessive aversion.
     atibrahmacarya ati-brahmacarya, am, n. excessive abstinence or continence.
     atibhara ati-bhara, usually ati-bhāra, as, m. an excessive burden; excessive obscurity (of a sentence); N. of a king.
     atibhāraga atibhāra-ga, as, m. a mule.
     atibhī ati-bhī, īs, m. (very terrific), lightning.
     atibhīṣaṇa ati-bhīṣaṇa, as, ā, am, very terrific or formidable.
     atibhṛta ati-bhṛta, as, ā, am, well filled.
     atibhojana ati-bhojana, am, n. eating too much; morbid voracity.
     atibhrū ati-bhrū, ūs, ūs, u, having extraordinary eyebrows.
     atimaṅgalya ati-maṅgalya, as, ā, am, very auspicious; (as), m. a fruit, Aegle or Crataeva Marmelos.
     atimati ati-mati, is, f. haughtiness.
     atimadhyandina ati-madhyandina, am, n. the height of noon.
     atimarśa ati-marśa, as, m. close contact.
     atimāna ati-māna, as, m. great haughtiness.
     atimānin ati-mānin, ī, inī, i, very haughty.
     atimānitā atimāni-tā, f. great haughtiness.
     atimāruta ati-māruta, as, ā, am, very windy; (as), m. a hurricane.
     atimukta ati-mukta, as, ā, am, entirely liberated; quite free from sensual or worldly desire; seedless, barren; (as), m., N. of a tree, Dalbergia Oujeinensis; of a creeper, Gaertnera Racemosa.
     atimuktaka ati-muktaka, as, m. = the preceding; mountain ebony; a tree called Harimantha.
     atimukti ati-mukti, is, f. final liberation (from death).
     atimūrti ati-mūrti, is, f. 'highest shape', N. of a ceremony.
     atimaithuna ati-maithuna, am, n. excess of sexual intercourse.
     atimokṣa ati-mokṣa, as, m. final liberation (from death).
     atimodā ati-modā, f. extraordinary fragrance; N. of a tree, Jasminum Arboreum.
     atiyava ati-yava, as, m. a sort of barley.
     atiyaśa ati-yaśa, as, ā, am, or ati-yaśas, ās, ās, as, very celebrated or illustrious.
     atiyāja ati-yāja, as, m. 'great sacrificer', N. of a Ṛṣi.
     atiyuvan ati-yuvan, vā, vatī, or ūnī, va, very youthful.
     atiyoga ati-yoga, as, m. (in medicine) excessive union, excess.
     atiraṃhas ati-raṃhas, ās, ās, as, extremely rapid.
     atirakta ati-rakta, as, ā, am, very red; (ā), f. one of Agni's seven tongues.
     atiratha ati-ratha, as, m. a very great warrior fighting from a car.
     atirabhasa ati-rabhasa, as, m. excessive or extraordinary speed.
     atirasā ati-rasā, f. (very succulent); N. of various plants, as Mūrvā, Rāsnā, Klītanaka.
     atirājan ati-rājan, ā, m. an extraordinary or excellent king; one who surpasses a king [cf. also s. v.].
     atirucira ati-rucira, as, ā, am, very lovely; (ā), f., N. of two metres, one a variety of the ati-jagatī, the other also called cuḍikā or culikā.
     atiruṣ ati-ruṣ, ṭ, ṭ, ṭ, very angry.
     atirūpa ati-rūpa, as, ā, or ī, am, very beautiful; (am), n. extraordinary beauty.
     atiroga ati-roga, as, m. consumption.
     atiromaśa ati-romaśa, as, ā, am, very hairy, too hairy; (as), m. a wild goat, or a kind of monkey.
     atilakṣmī ati-lakṣmī, īs, īs, i, very prosperous; (īs), f. extraordinary prosperity.
     atilaṅghana ati-laṅghana, am, n. excessive fasting.
     atilamba ati-lamba, as, ā, am, very extensive.
     atilubdha ati-lubdha or ati-lobha, as, ā, am, very greedy or covetous.
     atilulita ati-lulita, as, ā, am, closely attached or adhering.
     atilobha ati-lobha, as, m. or atilobha-tā, f. excessive greediness or covetousness.
     atiloma ati-loma or ati-lomaśa, as, ā, am, very hairy, too hairy.
     atilomaśā ati-lomaśā, f. a pot-herb, Convolvulus Argenteus.
     atilohita ati-lohita, as, ā, am, very red.
     atilaulya ati-laulya, am, n. excessive eagerness or desire.
     ativaktṛ ati-vaktṛ, ā, rī, ṛ, very loquacious.
     ativakra ati-vakra, as, ā, am, very crooked or curved; (ā), f. one of the eight descriptions of planetary motion.
     ativartula ati-vartula, as, ā, am, very or quite round; (as), m., N. of a grain or pot-herb.
     ativāta ati-vāta, as, m. high wind, a storm.
     ativāda ati-vāda, as, m. extraordinary, i. e. abusive language; (reproof); N. of a Vedic verse recited on certain occasions.
     ativādin ati-vādin, ī, inī, i, talkative.
     ativālaka ati-vālaka, as, ā, am, childish; (as), m. an infant.
     ativāhana ati-vāhana, am, n. excessive toling.
     ativikaṭa ati-vikaṭa, as, ā, am, very fierce; (as), m. a vicious elephant.
     ativipina ati-vipina, as, ā, am, having many foreats.
     ativilambin ati-vilambin, ī, inī, i, very dilatory.
     ativiśrabdhanavoḍhā ati-viśrabdha-navoḍhā (-va-ūḍhā-), f. a fond but pert young wife.
     ativiṣa ati-viṣa, as, ā, am, exceedingly poisonous; counteracting poison; (ā), f. a very poisonous yet medicinal plant, Aconitum Ferox.
     ativṛddhi ati-vṛddhi, is, f. extraordinary growth or increase.
     ativṛṣṭi ati-vṛṣṭi, is, f. excessive rain.
     ativṛṣṭihata ativṛṣṭi-hata, as, ā, am, injured by heavy rain.
     ativepathu ati-vepathu, us, m. excessive tremor; (us, us, u), or ativepathu-mat, ān, atī, at, trembling excessively.
     ativaicakṣaṇya ati-vaicakṣaṇya, am, n. great proficiency.
     ativaiśasa ati-vaiśasa, as, ā, am, very adverse or destructive.
     ativyathana ati-vyathana, am, n. infliction of (or giving) excessive pain.
     ativyathā ati-vyathā, f. excessive pain.
     ativyaya ati-vyaya, as, m. lavish expenditure.
     ativyāpta ati-vyāpta, as, ā, am, stretched too far (as a rule or principle).
     ativyāpti ati-vyāpti, is, f. unwarrantable stretch (of a rule or principle).
     atiśakta ati-śakta, as, ā, am, or ati-śakti, is, is, i, very powerful; (is), f. or atiśakti-tā, f. great power or valour.
     atiśaktibhāj atiśakti-bhāj, k, k, k, possessing great power.
     atiśaṅkā ati-śaṅkā, f. excessive timidity.
     atiśarvara ati-śarvara, am, n., Ved. the dead of night.
     atiśasta ati-śasta, as, ā, am, very excellent.
     atiśukra ati-śukra, as, ā, am, too bright.
     atiśukla ati-śukla, as, ā, am, very white, too white.
     atiśobhana ati-śobhana, as, ā, am, very handsome, distinguished.
     atiśrī ati-śrī, īs, īs, i, very prosperous.
     atisaṃskṛta ati-saṃskṛta, as, ā, am, highly finished or adorned or educated.
     atisakti ati-sakti, is, f. excessive attachment.
     atisaktimat atisakti-mat, ān, atī, at, excessively attached.
     atisañcaya ati-sañcaya, as, m. excessive accumulation, a hoard.
     atisantapta ati-santapta, as, ā, am, greatly afflicted.
     atisandheya ati-sandheya, as, ā, am, easy to be settled or conciliated.
     atisamartha ati-samartha, as, ā, am, very competent.
     atisamīpa ati-samīpa, as, ā, am, very near.
     atisamparka ati-samparka, as, m. excessive sexual intercourse.
     atisādhvasa ati-sādhvasa, am, n. excessive fear or alarm.
     atisāntapana ati-sāntapana, am, n. a species of severe penance, inflicted especially for eating unclean animal food.
     atisāyam ati-sāyam, ind. very late or in the dusk.
     atisiddhi ati-siddhi, is, f. great perfection or proficiency.
     atisujana ati-sujana, as, ā, am, very moral, very friendly, very respectable.
     atisundara ati-sundara, as, ā or ī, am, very handsome, very beautiful; (as, ā), m. f. a metre belonging to the class aṣṭi, also called citra or cañcalā.
     atisulabha ati-sulabha, as, ā, am, very easily obtainable.
     atisuhita ati-suhita, as, ā, am, excessively kind, overkind.
     atisṛṣṭi ati-sṛṣṭi, is, f. an extraordinary or excellent creation.
     atisevā ati-sevā, f. excessive indulgence (of a habit).
     atisaurabha ati-saurabha, as, ā, am, very fragrant; (am), n. extraordinary fragrance.
     atisauhitya ati-sauhitya, am, n. excessive fondness, or the effect of it, e. g. being spoiled, stuffed with food, &c.
     atistuti ati-stuti, is, f. extraordinary praise.
     atisthira ati-sthira, as, ā, am, very stable or durable.
     atisthūla ati-sthūla, as, ā, am, excessively thick, or stout, or big, or clumsy; excessively stupid.
     atisnigdha ati-snigdha, as, ā, am, very smooth, very nice, very affectionate.
     atisparśa ati-sparśa, as, m. too marked contact (of the tongue and palate) in pronunciation.
     atisphira ati-sphira, as, ā, am, very tremulous.
     atisvapna ati-svapna, as, m. excessive sleep; (am), n. excessive tendency to dreaming.
     atisvastha ati-svastha, as, ā, am, enjoying excellent health.
     atihasita ati-hasita, am, n. or ati-hāsa, as, m. excessive laughter.
     atihrasva ati-hrasva, as, ā, am, excessively short.
     atyagni aty-agni, is, m. morbidly rapid digestion.
     atyadbhuta aty-adbhuta, as, ā, am, very wonderful.
     atyadhvan aty-adhvan, ā, m. a long way or journey, excessive travelling.
     atyamarṣin aty-amarṣin, ī, iṇī, i, quite out of temper.
     atyamla aty-amla, as, ā, am, very acid; (as), m. a tree, Spondias Mangifera; (ā), f. a tree, a species of citron.
     atyamlaparṇī atyamla-parṇī, f. having very acid leaves, N. of a medicinal plant or creeper.
     atyalpa aty-alpa, as, ā, am, very little.
     atyaśana aty-aśana, am, n. immoderate eating.
     atyaśnat aty-aśnat, an, atī, at, eating too much.
     atyasama aty-asama, as, ā, am, very uneven, very rough.
     atyādara aty-ādara, as, m. excessive deference.
     atyādāna aty-ādāna, am, n. taking away too much.
     atyāpti aty-āpti, is, f. complete attainment.
     atyārūḍhi aty-ārūḍhi, is, f. mounting too high.
     atyāśā aty-āśā, f. extravagant hope.
     atyāhāra aty-āhāra, as, m. excess in eating.
     atyāhārin aty-āhārin, ī, iṇī, i, eating immoderately, gluttonous.
     atyāhita aty-āhita, am, n. great calamity; great danger; facing great danger; a daring action.
     atyukti aty-ukti, is, f. excessive talking; exaggeration; hyperbole.
     atyugra aty-ugra, as, ā, am, very fierce; very pungent; (am), n. Asa Foetida.
     atyuccais aty-uccais, ind. very loudly.
     atyuccairdhvani atyuccair-dhvani, is, m. a very loud sound; a very high note.
     atyutkaṭa aty-utkaṭa, as, ā, am, very imposing, immense, extraordinary.
     atyutsāha aty-utsāha, as, m. (in medicine) excessive vigour or activity.
     atyudāra aty-udāra, as, ā, am, very liberal.
     atyulbaṇa aty-ulbaṇa or aty-ulvaṇa, as, ā, am, very conspicuous, immense, excessive.
     atyuṣṇa aty-uṣṇa, as, ā, am, very hot.

atikatha ati-katha or iti-katha, as, ā, am, past tradition or law, deviating from the rules of his caste, lawless; (see also under ati.)

atikandaka ati-kandaka, as, m., N. of a plant or tree, Hastikanda.

atikaśa ati-kaśa, as, ā, am, past the whip, i. e. unmanageable.

atikup ati-kup, cl. 4. P. -kupyati, -kopi-tum, to become very angry.

atikūrd ati-kūrd, cl. 1. P. -kūrdati, -ditum, to jump about.

atikṛti ati-kṛti or abhikṛti, is, f., N. of a metre of four lines, each containing twenty-five syllables.

atikṛṣ ati-kṛṣ, cl. 1. P. -karṣati, -karṣṭum or -kraṣṭum, to drag over or beyond.

atikeśara ati-keśara, as, m. an aquatic plant, Trapa Bipinosa.

atikram ati-kram, cl. 1. P. A., 4. P. -krāmati, -te, -krāmyati, -kramitum, to step or go or get beyond or over or across; to pass, cross; to surpass, excel, overcome; to pass by, neglect; to overstep, transgress, violate; to pass on or away; to step out; to part from, lose: Caus. -krāmayati or -kramayati, -yitum, to allow to pass, to leave unnoticed.

atikrama ati-krama, as, m. act of passing or overstepping; lapse (of time); overcoming, surpassing, conquering; excess, impositison, transgression, violation; neglect; determined onset.

atikramaṇa ati-kramaṇa, am, n. passing, surpassing, overstepping; excess; spending (time).

atikramaṇīya ati-kramaṇīya, as, ā, am, proper or practicable to be passed by or neglected or overcome.

atikramin ati-kramin, ī, iṇī, i, exceeding, violating, &c.

atikramya ati-kramya, ind. having passed beyond, behind, &c.

atikrānta ati-krānta, as, ā, am, having passed or transgressed; exceeded, surpassed, overcome.
     atikrāntaniṣedha atikrānta-niṣedha, as, ā, am, guilty of neglecting a prohibition.

atikrāmaka ati-krāmaka, as, ā, am, exceeding, transgressing, &c.

atikṣar ati-kṣar, cl. 1. P., Ved. -kṣarati, -ritum, to overflow.

atikṣip ati-kṣip, cl. 6. P. -kṣipati, -kṣeptum, to throw beyond.

atikṣipta ati-kṣipta, as, ā, am, thrown beyond; (am), n. (in medicine) sprain or dislocation of a particular kind.

atikhaṭva ati-khaṭva, as, ā, am, past the bedstead, able to do without a bedstead.

atikhyā ati-khyā, cl. 2. P., Ved. -khyāti, -khyātum, to survey, overlook, neglect, abandon, repudiate.

atigam ati-gam, cl. 1. P. -gacchati, -gan-tum, or ati-gā, cl. 3. P. -jigāti, -gātum, to pass, overcome, succeed; to escape; to pass by, pass over, neglect; to pass away, die.

atiga ati-ga, as, ā, am (used at the close of compounds), exceeding, overcoming, surpassing; as śokātiga (-ka-at-), overcoming grief.

atigata ati-gata, as, ā, am, having passed; being past.

atigava ati-gava, as, ā, am, having passed or surpassed a cow.

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atigāh ati-gāh, cl. 1. A. -gāhate, -hitum, or -gāḍhum, to emerge over; to rise upon.

atigur ati-gur, cl. 6. P., Ved. -gurati, -ritum, to shout, exclaim (?).

atiguhā ati-guhā, f. a plant, Hemionites Cordifolia.

atigrah ati-grah, cl. 9. P., Ved. -gṛbhṇāti or -gṛhṇāti, -grahītum, to take beyond or over the usual measure; to overtake, surpass.

atigraha ati-graha, as, m. act of overtaking or surpassing; one who takes or seizes to an extraordinary extent; (in philosophy) the same as atigrāha.

atigrāha ati-grāha, as, m. object of a graha, i. e. of an apprehensive organ; there are eight such grahas, viz. prāṇa, 'inhaling or nose;' vāc, 'speech;' jihvā, 'tongue;' cakṣus, 'eye;' śrotra, 'ear;' manas, 'mind;' hasta, 'hand;' tvac, 'skin:' these have eight corresponding ati-grāhas or objects, viz. apāna, 'exhaling substance;' nāman, 'name;' rasa, 'sap or taste;' rūpa, 'form;' śabda, 'sound;' kāma, 'desire;' karman, 'action;' and sparśa, 'touch.'

atigrāhya ati-grāhya, as, m., Ved., N. of three successive libations made (or cups filled) at the Jyotiṣṭoma sacrifice; (very acceptable; see under ati.)

atigha ati-gha, as, m. (fr. ati and rt. han, 'very destructive'), a weapon, a bludgeon; wrath.

atighna ati-ghna, as, ī, am, Ved. very or utterly destructive; (ī), f., Ved. a happy state of utter oblivion or profound sleep obliterating all that is disagreeable in the past.

atighnya ati-ghnya, as, ā, am, Ved. overpowering, overcoming (?).

aticamū ati-camū, ūs, ūs, u, victorious over armies.

aticar ati-car, cl. 1. P. -carati, -ritum, to pass or pass by; to overtake, surpass; to trangress, offend, be unfaithful to.

aticara ati-cara, as, ā, am, transient, changeable; (ā), f., N. of the shrub Hibiscus Mutabilis.

aticaraṇa ati-caraṇa. See s. v. ati.

aticāra ati-cāra, as, m. act of passing, overtaking, surpassing; accelerated motion, especially of planets.

aticārin ati-cārin, ī, iṇī, i, surpassing, transgressing.

aticṛt ati-cṛt, cl. 1. P. -cartati, -titum, to stick on, fasten together.

aticeṣṭ ati-ceṣṭ, cl. 1. A. -ceṣṭate, -ṭitum, to make extraordinary or excessive efforts.

aticchanda ati-cchanda, as, ā, am, past wordly desires, free from them.

aticchandas ati-cchandas, ās, ās, as, Ved. past worldly desires, free from them; (ās, as), f. n., N. of two extensive classes of metres; (as), n., N. of a particular brick in the sacrificial fire-place.

atijagatī ati-jagatī, f., N. of a genus of metres (belonging to the class aticchandas), of four lines, each containing thirteen syllables.

atijana ati-jana, as, ā, am ('past men'), uninhabited.

atijāta ati-jāta, as, ā, am, superior to his parentage.

atiji ati-ji, cl. 1. P. -jayati, -jetum, to conquer.

atijīv ati-jīv, cl. 1. P. -jīvati, -vitum, to survive; to surpass in the mode of living.

atitata ati-tata, as, ā, am, (fr. ati-tan), farstretched, making one's self very big, conceited.

atitap ati-tap, cl. 1. P. -tapati, -taptum, to be very hot; to heat; to affect greatly: Caus. -tāpayati, -yitum, to heat much.

atitarām ati-tarām, ind. (compar. of ati), above in rank (with acc.); better, higher, more (with abl.); very much, exceedingly, excessively.

atitṛd ati-tṛd, cl. 7. P. -tṛṇatti, -tarditum, to pierce, penetrate.

atitṛp ati-tṛp, cl. 4. P. -tṛpyati, -tarp-tum or -traptum, to be or become satisfied, satiated or glutted.

atitṝ ati-tṝ, cl. 1. P. -tarati, -taritum or -tarītum, to pass, cross, get over, overcome, escape; to attain: Desid. -titīrṣati, to be desirous of crossing or overcoming.

atitārin ati-tārin, ī, iṇī, i, crossing.

atitārya ati-tārya, as, ā, am, proper or practicable to be got over or overcome.

atityad ati-tyad, surpassing that; (a fictitious compound coined by grammarians.)

atitvam ati-tvam, surpassing thee; (a grammaticil compound, see the last); atitvām, ati-tvān (acc. sing. and pl.), him that surpasses thee, them that surpass thee.

atitvar ati-tvar, cl. 1. A., occasionally P., tvarate, -ti, -ritum, to hasten greatly.

atithi atithi, is, ī, i, m. f. n. (etymology uncertain; if, according to native authorities, fr. rt. at, it would then first mean 'a traveller;' if fr. a and tithi, the first idea would be 'one who has no fixed time for coming or staying;' if from ati and sthā, 'one who has the pre-eminence over the members of the household'), a guest, entitled to hospitality; (is), m. wrath; N. of Agni or an attendant of Soma; N. of Suhotra, king of Ayodhyā, and grandson of Rāma.
     atithikriyā atithi-kriyā, f. hospitality, as (religiously) due to a guest.
     atithigva atithi-gva, as, m. ('to whom guests should go'), an epithet of Divodāsa.
     atithitva atithi-tva, am, n. condition of a guest, hospitality.
     atithideva atithi-deva, as, ā, or ī, am, treating the guest as a divinity.
     atithidveṣa atithi-dveṣa, as, m. inhospitality.
     atithidharma atithi-dharma, as, m. title to hospitality.
     atithidharmin atithi-dharmin, ī, iṇī, i, entitled to hospitality.
     atithipati atithi-pati, is, m. the host or entertainer of a guest.
     atithipūjana atithi-pūjana, am, n. or atithi-pūjā, f. honourable and religious reception of a guest.
     atithivat atithi-vat, ind. like a guest.
     atithisatkāra atithi-satkāra, as, m. honourable treatment of a guest.
     atithisevā atithi-sevā, f. attention paid to a guest.

atithin atithin, ī, inī, i (fr. rt. at), Ved. travelling; (ī), m., N. of a king, also called Suhotra and Atithi, q. v.

atidatta ati-datta, as, m., N. of a brother of Datta and son of Rājādhideya.

atidah ati-dah, cl. 1. P., poet, also A., -dahati, -te, -dagdhum, to burn or blaze across; to burn or distress greatly.

atidā ati-dā, cl. 3. P. -dadāti, -dātum, to surpass in giving; to pass over or neglect in giving.

atidānta ati-dānta, as, m., N. of a prince.

atidiv ati-div, cl. 4. P. -dīvyati, -devitum, to play high, lose at play.

atidiś ati-diś, cl. 6. P. -diśati, -deṣṭum, to assign, make over, transfer: Pass. -diśyate, (in grammar) to be overruled or attracted or assimilated.

atidiṣṭa ati-diṣṭa, as, ā, am, overruled, attracted, influenced, inferred, substituted.

atideśa ati-deśa, as, m. transfer, extended application, inference, analogy, overruling influence, assimilation; a rule providing for more than the usual rule; putting one thing instead of another, substitution; rūpāti-deśa, such a rule as affecting the form of a word; (as, ā, am,), overruling, previously stated.

atidīpya ati-dīpya, as, m. (very brilliant), a plant, Plumbago Rosea.

atidṛp ati-dṛp, cl. 4. P. -dṛpyati, -darptum or -draptum, to be excessively conceited.

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atidṛś ati-dṛś, cl. 1. P., Ved. -paśyati, -draṣṭum, to look beyond, look through.

atideva ati-deva, as, m. a superior god; surpassing the gods.

atidhanvan ati-dhanvan, ā, m., N. of a descendant of Śunaka.

atidhāv ati-dhāv, cl. 1. P. -dhāvati, -vitum, to run or rush over.

atidhṛti ati-dhṛti, is, f., N. of a genus of metres belonging to the class aticchandas, and consisting of four lines, each containing nineteen syllables; (in arithm.) nineteen.

atinam ati-nam, cl. 1. P. -namati, -nantum, to bend aside, keep on one side.

atināman ati-nāman, ā, m., N. of a Saptarshi of the sixth Manvantara.

atināṣṭra ati-nāṣṭra, as, ā, am, past danger, out of danger.

atinicṛt ati-nicṛt or ati-nivṛt, t, f., N. of a Vedic metre of three pādas, containing respectively seven, six and seven syllables.

atinidram ati-nidram, ind. past sleeping time. See s. v. ati.

atiniṣṭan ati-niṣ-ṭan (-nis-tan), cl. 8. P., Ved. -tanoti, -nitum, to penetrate.

atinī ati-nī, cl. 1. P. -nayati, -netum, to lead over or beyond, to help a person over anything; to allow to pass away: Intens. A. -nenīyate, to bring forward.

atinu ati-nu, Caus. -nāvayati, -yitum, to turn away.

atinud ati-nud, cl. 6. P. A., Ved. -nudati, -te, -nottum, to drive by.

atined ati-ned, cl. 1. P., Ved. -nedati, -ditum, to stream or flow over, to foam over.

atinau ati-nau, aus, aus, u, disembarked.

atipañcā ati-pañcā, f. a girl who is past five.

atipaṭīkṣepa ati-paṭīkṣepa or a-paṭīkṣepa, as, m. omission of removing the theatrical curtain.

atipaṭh ati-paṭh, Pass, -paṭhyate, to be proclaimed, named or celebrated.

atipat ati-pat, cl. 1. P. -patati, -titum, to fall or fly by, past, beyond, over; to neglect: Caus. -pātayati, -yitum, to cause to fly by; to drag away; to make effectless.

atipatana ati-patana, am, n. act of falling or flying beyond, passing, missing, transgressing.

atipatita ati-patita, as, ā, am, missed, transgressed, past.

atipāta ati-pāta, as, m. passing away, lapse; neglect, transgression; ill-usage, opposition, contrariety.

atipātita ati-pātita, as, ā, am, quite displaced or broken; (am), n. (in medicine) complete fracture of a bone.

atipātin ati-pātin, ī, inī, i, overtaking, excelling in speed; (in medicine) running a rapid course, acute.

atipātya ati-pātya, as, ā, am, fit or proper to be neglected.

atipattra ati-pattra, as, m. the Teak tree; another tree, Hastikanda.

atipad ati-pad, cl. 4. A. -padyate, -pattum, to go beyond (with acc.), jump over, neglect, transgress: Caus. -pādayati, -yitum, to allow to pass by.

atipatti ati-patti, is, f. going beyond, passing, lapse; kriyātipatti, the passing by of an action unaccomplished.

atipanna ati-panna, as, ā, am, gone beyond, transgressed, missed; past.

atipara ati-para, as, ā, am, having overcome his enemy or enemies; (as), m. a great enemy.

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atipā ati-pā, Caus. P. -pāyayati, -yitum, to give to drink in great quantity.

atipādanicṛt ati-pādanicṛt or ati-pāda-nivṛt, t, f., N. of a Vedic metre of three pādas, containing respectively six, eight and seven syllables.

atipitṛ ati-pitṛ, -tā, m. surpassing his own father.
     atipitāmaha ati-pitāmaha, as, m. surpassing his own paternal grandfather.

atipū ati-pū, cl. 9. P., Ved. -punāti, -pavitum, to purify by overflowing.

atipṛ ati-pṝ, P., Ved. -pṛṇāti (?), Caus. -pārayati, -yitum, to convey across.

atiprakit ati-pra-kit or -cit, cl. 3. A., Ved. -cekite, to be distinct or distinguishable.

atipracyu ati-pra-cyu, cl. 1. A. -cyavate, -cyotum, to pass by: Caus. -cyāvayati, -yitum, to cause or allow to pass by.

atipraṇāś ati-pra-ṇaś (rt. naś), cl. 4. P. -ṇaśyati, -ṇaśitum or -ṇaṃṣṭum, to be deprived of (with acc.).

atipraṇī ati-pra-ṇī (rt. ), cl. 1. P. -ṇayati, -ṇetum, to lead past.

atipraṇud ati-pra-ṇud (rt. nud), cl. 6. P. A. -ṇudati, -te, -ṇottum, to press a person very strongly.

atipramāṇā ati-pramāṇa, as, ā, am, past measure, immense.

atiprāṇām ati-prāṇam, ind. above life.
     atiprāṇapriya atiprāṇa-priya, as, ā, am, dearer than life.

atipreṣita ati-preṣita, am, n. the time after the ceremony in which the Praisha Mantras are used.

atibrahman ati-brahman, ā, m., N. of a king.

atibrū ati-brū, cl. 2. P. -bravīti, -vaktum, to insult, abuse.

atibhū ati-bhū, cl. 1. P. -bhavati, -vitum, to excel, overcome.

atibhāva ati-bhāva, as, m. superiority; overcoming.

atibhūmi ati-bhūmi, is, f. extensive land; culmination, eminence, superiority; excess.

atibhūṣ ati-bhūṣ, cl. 10. A. -bhūṣayate, -yitum, to precede in adorning oneself.

atimanuṣyabuddhi ati-manuṣya-buddhi, is, is, i, having a superhuman intellect.

atimartya ati-martya, as, ā, am, superhuman.

atimaryāda ati-maryāda, as, ā, am, exceeding the proper limit; (am), ind. beyond bounds.

atimātra ati-mātra, as, ā, am, exceeding the proper measure; (am), ind. or atimātra-śas, ind. beyond measure.

atimānuṣa ati-mānuṣa, as, ī, am, superhuman, divine.

atimām ati-mām (acc. of aty-aham, q. v.), him or her that surpasses me.

atimāya ati-māya, as, ā, am, emancipated from Māyā or Illusion; finally liberated.

atimāra ati-māra or ati-bhāra, as, m., N. of a prince.

atimita 1. ati-mita, as, ā, am, over measured, beyond measure, exceeding.

atimita 2. a-timita, as, ā, am, not moistened, not wet.

atimukta ati-mukta and ati-muktaka, as, m. (rt. muc), N. of certain shrubs or trees; see under ati (surpassing pearls in whiteness).

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atimukti ati-mukti, is, f. final liberation. See under ati.

atimucya ati-mucya, ind. part. having dismissed or given up.

atimṛtyu ati-mṛtyu, us, us, u, overcoming death.

atiyā ati-yā, cl. 2. P. -yāti, -tum, to pass by.

atiyūyam ati-yūyam (nom. pl. of ati-tvam, q. v.), persons surpassing thee.

atirājan ati-rājan, ā, m. an extraordinary king; superior to a king.
     atirājakumāri ati-rājakumāri, is, is or ī, i, superior to a princess.

atirājaya atirājaya, nom. P. atirājayati, -yitum, to surpass a king.

atirājñī ati-rājñī, f. (a woman) superior to a king.

atirātra ati-rātra, as, ā, am, Ved. prepared or performed over-night; (as), m. an optional part of the Jyotiṣṭoma sacrifice; commencement and conclusion of certain sacrificial acts; concluding Vedic verse chanted on such occasions; N. of a son of Cākṣuṣa the sixth Manu.
     atirātrasavanīyapaśu atirātra-savanīya-paśu, us, m. the victim sacrificed at the Atirātra.

atiri ati-ri, neut. of ati-rai, q. v.

atiric ati-ric, Pass. -ricyate, to be left with a surplus, to surpass (in a good or bad sense with abl. or acc.).

atirikta ati-rikta, as, ā, am, left with or as a surplus, left apart; redundant, unequalled.
     atirikatatā atirikata-tā, f. redundancy, &c.
     atiriktāṅga atiriktāṅga (-ta-aṅ-), as, ā, am, having a redundant limb or finger or toe; (am), n. a redundant limb or finger or toe.

atireka ati-reka or atī-reka, as, m. surplus, excess; redundancy; difference; (as, ā, am,), redundant.

atirekin ati-rekin, ī, iṇī, i, surpassing.

atiruc ati-ruc, cl. 1. P. -rocati, -citum, to outshine.

atiruc ati-ruc, k, m. a horse's fetlock or knee.

atirai ati-rai, ās, ās, i ('exceeding one's income'), extravagant.

atilihā atilihā or aṭhillā, f. (etymology uncertain), N. of a Prākṛt metre of four lines, each containing sixteen Mātras.

ativayam ati-vayam (nom. pl. of aty-aham, q. v.), persons surpassing me.

ativartana ati-vartana. See under ati-vṛt.

ativalita ati-valita, as, ā, am, well surrounded or covered (?), full of folds (?), well supplied (?).

ativah ati-vah, cl. 1. P. -vahati, -voḍhum, to carry over or across: Caus. -vāhayati, -yitum, to let time pass, spend.

ativāhana ati-vāhana, am, n. excessive toiling or enduring.

ativāhita ati-vāhita, as, ā, am, swifter than the wind; (according to Colebrooke) an epithet of the Sūkṣmaśarīra, also (according to Carey) of the Preta-śarīra, or misery-enduring body, which is of the size of a thumb; (as), m. an inhabitant of the lower world.

ativāhya ati-vāhya, as, ā, am, practicable or proper to be passed (as time, &c.); (am), n. the passing of time.

ativoḍhṛ ati-voḍhṛ, ḍhā, m. one who carries over or across.

ativāsa ati-vāsa, as, m. fast on the day before performing the Śrāddha.

atividdha ati-viddha, as, ā, am (rt. vyadh), transfixed, badly wounded.
     atividdhabheṣaja atividdha-bheṣaja, as, ī, am, curing deep wounds.

ativiśva ati-viśva, as, m. ('superior to all or to the universe'), N. of a Muni.

ativṛt ati-vṛt, cl. 1. A. -vartate, -titum, to pass, surpass, cross; to get over, overcome; to transgress, violate, offend, especially by unfaithfulness; to pass away; to delay.

ativartana ati-vartana, am, n. a pardonable offence or misdemeanour.

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ativartin ati-vartin, ī, inī, i, crossing, passing; guilty of a pardonable offence or of pardonable irregularity.

ativṛtti ati-vṛtti, is, f. surpassing; hyperbolical meaning; (in medicine) excessive action.

ativela ati-vela, as, ā, am, passing its proper boundary, excessive; (am), ind. excessively.

ativyādhin ati-vyādhin, ī, inī, i (rt. vyadh), piercing, wounding.

ativyādhya ati-vyādhya, as, ā, am, vulnerable.

atiśakkarī ati-śakkarī or ati-śakvarī, f. a class of metres of four lines, each containing fifteen syllables. It has eighteen varieties.

atiśakra ati-śakra, as, ā, am, superior to Indra.

atiśaṅka ati-śaṅk, cl. 1. A. -śaṅkate, -kitum, to suspect; to be concerned about.

atiśaya atiśaya, &c. See under ati-śī below.

atiśastra ati-śastra, as, ā, am, superior to weapons or missiles.

atiśākvara atiśākvara, as, ā, am, written in or connected with the Ati-śakvarī metre.

atiśī ati-śī, cl. 2. A. -śete, -śayitum, to precde in lying down; to surpass, excel, exceed; to act as an incubus, annoy.

atiśaya ati-śaya, as, m. pre-eminence, eminence; superiority in quality or quantity or numbers; advantageous result; one of the superhuman qualities attributed to Jaina Arhats; (as, ā, am), pre-eminent, superior, abundant.
     atiśayam atiśayam or atiśayena, ind. eminently, very.
     atiśayokti atiśayokti (-ya-uk-), is, f. hyperbolical language; extreme assertion; verbosity.

atiśayana ati-śayana, as, ā, am, eminent, abundant; (am), ind. excessively.
     atiśayanī ati-śayanī, f., N. of a metre of four lines, also called citralekhā.

atiśayita ati-śayita, as, ā, am, superior.

atiśayin ati-śayin, ī, inī, i, excelling, abounding.

atiśāyana ati-śāyana, am, n. act of excelling; excessiveness.

atiśāyin ati-śāyin, ī, inī, i, excelling, abounding; excessive.

atiśeta ati-śeta, as, ā, am, excelling, exceeding; superior.

atiśītam ati-śītam, ind. past the cold, after the winter.

atiśeṣa ati-śeṣa, as, m. remainder, remnant, especially of time.

atiśreṣṭha ati-śreṣṭha, as, ā, am, superior to the best, best of all.
     atiśreṣṭhatva atiśreṣṭha-tva, am, n. pre-eminence.

atiśreyasi ati-śreyasi, is, m. a man superior to the most excellent woman.

atiśliṣ ati-śliṣ, cl. 4. P. -śliṣyati, -śleṣṭum, to fasten or tie over.

atiśva ati-śva, as, ī, am, superior to, or worse than, a dog; (ā), m., N. of a tribe.

atiṣel ati-ṣel (rt. sel or śel), Caus. P. -ṣelayati, -yitum, to make one go to a great distance.

atiṣkradvarī ati-ṣkadvarī, f. (rt. skand), (transgressor), a dissolute woman.

atiṣṭhat a-tiṣṭhat, an, antī, at, not standing, unstable.

atiṣṭhā ati-ṣṭhā (rt. sthā), cl. 1. P. -tiṣṭhati, -ṣṭhātum, to excel.

atiṣṭhā ati-ṣṭhā, f. precedence, superiority; (ās), m. f., Ved. or ati-ṣṭhāvan, ā, m. or atiṣṭhā-vat, ān, atī, at, superior in standing, surpassing.

atisandhā ati-san-dhā (-sam-dhā), cl. 3. P. A. -dadhāti, -dhatte, -dhātum, to overreach, deceive.

atisandham ati-sandham, ind. in violation of an agreement or of the settled order.

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atisandhāna ati-san-dhāna, am, n. overreaching, cheating.

atisandhita ati-san-dhita, as, ā, am, overreached, cheated.

atisandheya ati-san-dheya, as, ā, am, easy to be conciliated or settled.

atisarva ati-sarva, as, ā, am, superior to all; (as), m. the supreme.

atisāṃvatsara ati-sāṃvatsara, as, ī, am, extending over more than a year.

atisāmyā ati-sāmyā, f. the sweet juice of the Bengal Madder, Rubia Manjith.

atisṛ ati-sṛ, Caus. P. -sārayati, -yitum, to extend; to exert (?).

atisara ati-sara, as, m., Ved. effort, exertion.

atisāra ati-sāra or atī-sāra, as, m. violent straining at stool, dysentery.

atisārakin ati-sārakin or atī-sārakin or ati-sārin or atī-sārin, ī, iṇī, i, afflicted with dysentery.

atisṛj ati-sṛj, cl. 6. P. -sṛjati, -sraṣṭum, to dismiss, abandon; to leave as a remnant; to remit, forgive; to give away.

atisarga ati-sarga, as, m. act of parting with, dismissal, giving away, granting permission.

atisarjana ati-sarjana, am, n. liberality, granting, engaging, a gift; sending out of the world, killing.

atisṛjya ati-sṛjya, ind. part. having dismissed, &c.; excessively.

atisṛp ati-sṛp, cl. 1. P. -sarpati, -sarptum or -sraptum, to glide over, get over.

atisena ati-sena, as, m., N. of a prince, a son of Śambara.

atisauparṇā ati-sauparṇa, as, ī, am, superior to Suparṇa's or Garuḍa's (vision, &c.).

atistri ati-stri, is, is or ī, i, surpassing a woman; Gram. 123. b. The feminine may end in ī.

atihastaya ati-hastaya, Nom. (fr. ati-hasta), P. atihastayati, -yitum, to stretch out the hands; (fr. atihastin), to overtake on an elephant.

atihimam ati-himam, ind. after the cold or the frost.

atī atī (ati-i), cl. 2. P. aty-eti, -tum, to pass, elapse, pass over, overflow; to pass on; to get over; to defer; to enter; to overcome, overtake, outdo; to pass by, neglect; to overstep violate; to be redundant; to die: Intens. atīyate, to overcome.

atīta atīta, as, ā, am, gone by, past, passed away, dead; having gone through, having got over or beyond, having passed by, having neglected; negligent; passed, left behind; excessive; (as), m. modern N. of a particular Śaiva sect; (am), n. the past.
     atītakāla atīta-kāla, as, m. the past time or tense.
     atītanauka atīta-nauka, as, ā, am, landed.

atītvarī atītvarī (-ti-it-), f., Ved. (transgressor), a bad woman.
     atyaya aty-aya, aty-āya, see s. v.

atīkṣṇā a-tīkṣṇa, as, ā, am, not sharp, blunt, dull.

atīndriya atīndriya (ati-in-), as, ā, am, beyond the congisance of (indriya) the senses; (as), m. in the Sānkhya phil. the soul or puruṣa; (am), n. in the Sānkhya phil. nature or pradhāna; in the Vedānta phil. the mind or manas.

atīreka, atīsāra. See under ati-ric, ati-sṛ.

atīva atīva (ati-iva), ind. exceedingly, very; excessively, too; quite; surpassing (with the acc.).

atīvra a-tīvra, as, ā, am, not sharp, blunt; not pungent.

atuṅga a-tuṅga, as, ā, am, not tall, short, dwarfish.

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atunda a-tunda, as, ā, am, not stout, thin, lank.

atura a-tura, as, ā, am, Ved. not liberal, not rich.

atula a-tula, as, ā, am, unequalled; (as), m. (destitute of weight), the Sesamum seed and plant.
     atulya a-tulya, as, ā, am, unequalled.

atuṣa a-tuṣa, as, ā, am, without husks.

atuṣārakara a-tuṣāra-kara, as, m. (having not cold rays), the sun.

atuṣṭi a-tuṣṭi, is, f. displeasure, discontent.

atuhina a-tuhina, Ved. not cold; used in compounds, thus atuhina-dhāman, ā, or atuhina-raśmi, is, or atuhina-ruci, is, m. the sun.

atūtuji a-tūtuji, is, is, ī, Ved. not quick, slow.

atūrta a-tūrta, as, ā, am, Ved. not in a hurry; not outrun or outdone or obstructed; unhurt; (am), n. illimited space.
     atūrtadakṣa atūrta-dakṣa, as, m., Ved. having designs that cannot be obstructed (epithet of the Aśvins).
     atūrtapathin atūrta-pathin, anthās, m., Ved. having a path that cannot be obstructed.

atṛṇāda a-tṛṇāda (-ṇa-ada), as, m. (not an eater of grass), a newly-born calf.

atṛṇyā a-tṛṇyā, f. a small quantity or short supply of grass.

atṛdila a-tṛdila, as, ā, am, Ved. not fragile, solid, or 'having no holes.'

atṛpa a-tṛpa, as, ā, am, Ved. not satisfied.

atṛpṇuvat atṛpṇuvat, ān, atī, at, Ved. insatiable.

atṛpta a-tṛpta, as, ā, am, unsatisfied, insatiable, eager.
     atṛptadṛś atṛpta-dṛś, k, k, k, looking with eagerness.

atṛpti a-tṛpti, is, f. unsatisfied condition, insatiability.

atṛṣita a-tṛṣita, as, ā, am, Ved. not thirsty, not greedy.

atṛṣṇaj a-tṛṣṇaj, k, k, k, Ved. not thirsty.

atṛṣya a-tṛṣya, as, ā, am, Ved. beyond the reach of thirst.

atṛṣyat a-tṛṣyat, an, antī, at, Ved. not thirsting after, not greedy, not eager.

atejas a-tejas, n. absence of brightness or vigour; dimness, shade, shadow; feebleness, dulness, insignificance; (ās, ās, as), or a-tejaska, as, ā, am, or a-tejasvin ī, inī, i, not bright, dim, not vigorous.

atoṣaṇīya a-toṣaṇīya, as, ā, am, impossible or improper to be pleased or appeased.

atka atka, as, ā, am, (fr. rt. at), travelling; (as), m. a traveller; a limb or member; (Ved.) water, liquid; lightning; armour, mail; garment; N. of an Asura.

atkīla atkīla or utkīla, as, m., N. of the author of some Vedic hymns, a descendant of Viśvāmitra.

attali attali, is, m., N. of a man.

attavya attavya, as, ā, am, (fr. rt. ad), fit or proper to be eaten.

atti atti, is, m., Ved. an eater; f., see also s. v. attā.

attṛ attṛ, tā, m. an eater.

attā attā, f. (etym. uncertain, probably a word borrowed from the Deccan, occurring chiefly in dramas); a mother; mother's sister; elder sister; (in Prākṛt) a mother-in-law. See akkā.

atti atti, is, or attikā, f. elder sister.

attra, attri, attrin, attra, &c. See atra, atri, atrina.

atna atna, as, or atnu, us, m. (fr. at), the sun. atya, as, m., Ved. a courser, steed.

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atyaṃhas aty-aṃhas, ās, ās, as, Ved. beyond the reach of (or emancipated from) sin or evil.

atyagni aty-agni, is, m. morbidly rapid digestion, see s. v. ati; (is, is, i), surpassing fire.
     atyagnisomārka aty-agni-somārka (-ma-ar-), as, ā, am, brighter than fire or the moon or the sun.

atyagniṣṭoma aty-agniṣṭoma, as, m., N. of the optional second part of the Jyotiṣṭoma sacrifice; the Vedic verse chanted at the close of that ceremony.

atyaṅkuśa aty-aṅkuśa, as, ā, am, past the (elephant-driver's) hook, unmanageable.

atyaṅgula aty-aṅgula, as, ā, am, exceeding an aṅgula (finger's breadth).

atyatikram aty-ati-kram, cl. 1. P. -krāmati, -kramitum, to approach for sexual intercourse.

atyanila aty-anila, as, ā, am, surpassing the wind.

atyanta aty-anta, as, ā, am, past its proper end or limit; excessive, very great or strong, &c.; endless, unbroken, perpetual; absolute, perfect; (am), ind. excessively, exceedingly; in perpetuity; absolutely, completely; to the end.
     atyantakopana atyanta-kopana, as, ā, ām, very passionate, outrageous.
     atyantaga atyanta-ga, as, ā, am, going or walking very much or very fast.
     atyantagata atyanta-gata, as, ā, am, completely pertinent; always applicable.
     atyantagati atyanta-gati, is, f. complete accomplishment; (in grammar) the sense of 'completely.'
     atyantagāmin atyanta-gāmin, ī, inī, i, going or walking very much or very fast.
     atyantaguṇin atyanta-guṇin, ī, inī, i, having extraordinary qualities.
     atyantatiraskṛtavācyadhvani atyanta-tiraskṛta-vācya-dhvani, is, f. (in rhetoric) a metaphoric or hyperbolical use of depreciating language.
     atyantapīḍana atyanta-pīḍana, am, n. act of giving excessive pain.
     atyantavāsin atyan-ta-vāsin, ī, m. a Brāhman who perpetually lodges as a student with his teacher.
     atyantasaṃyoga atyanta-saṃyoga, as, m. (in grammar) immediate proximity.
     atyantasamparka atyanta-sam-parka, as, m. excessive sexual intercourse.
     atyantasukumāra atyanta-sukumāra, as, ī, am, very tender; (as), m. a kind of grain, Panicum Italicum.
     atyantābhāva atyantābhāva (-ta-abh-), as, m. absolute non-existence.

atyantika 1. atyantika or atyantina, as, ā, am, going much or fast or far.

atyantika 2. aty-antika, as, ā, am, too close, too near, very close; (am), n. too great nearness.

atyaya aty-aya, as, m. (fr. rt. i with ati, see atī), passing, lapse, passage; passing away, perishing, death; danger, risk, evil, suffering; transgression, guilt, vice; getting at, attacking; overcoming, mastering (mentally); a class.

atyayika atyayika better ātyayika, as, ā, am, temporary, occasional.

atyayin atyayin, ī, inī, i, passing, surpassing.

atyarāti aty-arāti, is, m., N. of a son of Janantapa.

atyartha aty-artha, as, ā, am (beyond its proper worth), exorbitant, excessive.
     atyartham atyartham, ind. excessively, exceedingly.

atyard aty-ard, cl. 1. P. -ardati, -ditum, to press hard, to distress greatly.

atyarh aty-arh, cl. 1. P. -arhati, -hitum, to excel in worth.

atyavi aty-avi, is, m., Ved. passing over or through the strainer, which consisted of sheep's wool or a sheep's tail (an epithet of Soma).

atyaś aty-aś, cl. 9. P. -aśnāti, -aśitum, to precede in eating.

atyaṣṭi aty-aṣṭi, is, f. a metre of four lines, each containing seventeen syllables; the number seventeen.
     atyaṣṭisāmagrī atyaṣṭi-sāmagrī, f. title of a particular book.

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atyas 1. aty-as (ati-as), cl. 2. P. -asti, to excel, surpass.

atyas 2. aty-as (ati-as), cl. 4. P. -asyati, -situm, to shoot beyond or at, overpower (with arrows).

atyasta aty-asta, as, ā, am, having shot beyond, having surpassed.

atyaham aty-aham, surpassing me, (a fictitious word coined by grammarians.)

atyahna aty-ahna, as, ā, am, exceeding a day in duration.

atyākāra aty-ā-kāra, as, m. (rt. kṛ), contempt, blame.

atyākram aty-ā-kram (ati-ā-), cl. 1. P. -krāmati, -kramitum, to walk past.

atyācāra aty-ācāra, as, m. performance of works of supererogation; (as, ā, am,), negligent of or departing from the established customs.

atyāditya aty-āditya, as, ā, am, surpassing the sun.

atyādhāna aty-ā-dhāna, am, n. act of imposing or placing upon; imposition, deception.

atyānandā aty-ānandā, f. morbid indifference (of a wife) to the pleasure of sexual intercourse.

atyāya aty-āya, as, m. (fr. rt. i with ati), transgression, excess; (as, ā, am), going beyond, transgressing.

atyāyat aty-ā-yat (ati-ā-), cl. 1. A. -yatate, -titum, to make extraordinary efforts.

atyāla aty-āla, as, m., N. of a plant, Plumbago Rosea.

atyāśramin aty-āśramin, ī, m. (superior to the four Āśramas), an ascetic of the highest degree.

atyāsa aty-āsa, as, m. act of allowing to elapse; only used in the acc. as the concluding part of compound words, thus dvyahātyāsam, after an interval of two days.

atyuktā aty-uktā or aty-ukthā, f., N. of a class of metres of four lines, each containing two syllables.

atyukṣ aty-ukṣ (ati-ukṣ), cl. 1.P. -ukṣati, -kṣitum, to surpass.

atyutkram aty-ut-kram (ati-ut-), cl. 1. P. -krāmati, -kramitum, to surpass, excel.

atyupadha aty-upadha, as, ā, am, superior to any test, tried, trustworthy.

atyuh aty-uh. See aty-ūh.

atyūmaśā aty-ūmaśā, ind. (etym. unknown), particle of abuse, used in comp. with as, bhū, kṛ.

atyūrmi aty-ūrmi, is, is, i, Ved. overflowing, bubbling over.

atyūh aty-ūh (ati-ūh), cl. 1. P. ūhati, hitum, to convey across. Spelt aty-uh in some forms.

atyūha aty-ūha, as, m. close meditation; a gallinule, a peacock; (ā), f. a plant, Jasminum Villosum or Nyctanthes Tristis.

atyṛj aty-ṛj (ati-ṛj), cl. 1. P. A. -arjati, -te, -jitum, to convey across, admit; to remove.

atyeṣ aty-eṣ, cl. 1. P. -eṣati, -ṣitum, to glide over.

atra 1. a-tra or Ved. a-trā, ind. (fr. pronominal base a substitued for etad; the word atra being often used for the loc. case etasmin), in this matter, in this respect; in this place, here; at this time; there; then.
     atradaghna atra-daghna, as, ī, am, reaching so far up, having this (or that) stature.
     atrabhavat atra-bhavat, ān, atī, at, honourable (used chiefly in dramatic language, to indicate a person who is present).

atratya atratya, as, ā, am, connected with this palce, produced or found here.

atra 2. a-tra, as, ā, am, (rt. trai), Ved. not enjoying (or not affording) protection.

atra 3. atra, as, m. (for at-tra, fr. rt. ad), Ved. a devourer, demon; a Rākṣasa; (am), n., Ved. food.

atri atri, is, m. (etymologically at-tri, fr. rt. ad), a devourer; N. of a great Ṛṣi, author of a number of Vedic hymns; (in astronomy) one of the seven stars of the Great Bear.
     atrayas atrayas, pl. m. the descendants of Atri.
     atricaturaha atri-caturaha, as, m. (the four days of Atri), N. of a sacrifice.
     atrijāta atri-jāta, as, m. the moon, said to have been produced by Atri's look; for a-tri-jāta, see below.
     atridṛgja atri-dṛg-ja, atri-netra-ja or atri-netra-prasūta or atri-netra-prabhava or atri-netra-sūta, as, or atri-netra-bhū, ūs, m. the moon; (in arithm.) the number one.
     atribhāradvājikā atri-bhāradvājikā, f. marriage of Atri and Bhāradvājī.
     atrivat atri-vat, ind. like Atri.
     atrisaṃhitā atri-saṃhitā, ā, or atri-smṛti, is, f. the code ascribed to Atri.

atrin atrin, ī, m. a devourer, demon; a Rākṣasa.

atrapa a-trapa, as, ā, am, destitute of shame.

atravas atravas, ind. (a doubtful word), the year before last.

atrasnu a-trasnu, us, us, u, or a-trāsa, as, ā, am, fearless.

atrijāta a-tri-jāta, as, ā, am, (not born thrice, but twice); a man belonging to one of the first three classes [for atri-jāta, see s. v. atri].

atraiva atraiva (atra-eva), ind. on this very spot.

atvac a-tvac, k, k, k, skinless.

atvarā a-tvarā, f. freedom from or absence of haste.

atha atha or Ved. athā, ind. (probably fr. pronom. base a), an auspicious an inceptive particle, often not easily expressed in English; now; then; moreover; rather; certainly; but; else; what? how else ? &c.
     athakim atha-kim, ind. how else? what else? certainly, assuredly, sure enough.
     athakimu atha-kimu, ind. how much more; so much the more.
     athaca atha-ca, ind. moreover, and likewise.
     athatu atha-tu, ind. but, on the contrary.
     athavā atha-vā, ind. or; (when repeated) either or; or rather; or perhaps; what? is it not so? &c.
     athavāpi athavāpi (-vā-api), ind. or, rather.
     athātas athātas (-tha-at-), ind. now.
     athānantaram athānantaram (-tha-an-), ind. now.
     athāpi athāpi (-tha-api), ind. so much the more; moreover; therefore; thus.

atho atho, ind. (has much the same meaning as atha, and probably the same etymology), now; likewise; next; therefore.
     athovā atho-vā, ind. the same as atha-vā.

athari athari, is, or atharī, f. (generally in the plural; etymology doubtful; said to be fr. rt. at, to go, or fr. an obsolete rt. ath), meaning doubtful, probably spark or flame having a pointed shape; (according to others) the point of a lance; (according to others) a finger.

atharya atharya, as, m., Ved. lambent; moving constantly; or (according to some) pointed like a lance; or (according to some) shooting forth points like those of a lance.

atharya atharya, nom. P. atharyati, Ved. to move constantly.

atharyu atharyu, us, m., Ved. = atharya, as.

atharvan atharvan, ā, m. (said to be fr. an obsolete word athar, fire), a priest who has to do with fire and Soma; a Brāhman; N. of the priest who is said to have been the first to obtain fire and offer Soma and prayers: he is represented as a Prajāpati, as Brahmā's eldest son, as the first learner and earliest teacher of the Brahma-vidyā, as the author of the Atharva-veda, as identical with Aṅgiras, as the father of Agni, &c.: epithet of Śiva, Vaśiṣṭha, Soma, Prāṇa; (ā, a), m. n. the fourth or Atharva-veda, consisting chiefly of formulas intended to obviate the effects of any mistake or untoward incident attending the performance of a sacrifice.
     atharvāṇas atharvāṇas, pl. m. descendants of Atharvan, often coupled with those of Aṅgiras and Bhṛgu; the hymns of the Atharva-veda.
     atharvabhūta atharva-bhūta, ās, m. pl. (who have become Atharvans), epithet of the twelve Maharshis.
     atharvavat atharva-vat, ind. like Atharvan or his descendants.
     atharvavid atharva-vid, t, m. one versed in the Atharva-veda (a qualification essential to the special class of priests called Brāhmaṇas).
     atharvaveda atharva-veda, as, m., N. of the fourth Veda, which strictly speaking is not a Veda at all, like the Ṛg, Yajur, and Sāma-vedas, but a collection of formulas to avert the consequences of mistakes or mishaps in sacrifices.
     atharvaśikhā atharva-śikhā, f. title of an Upaniṣad.
     atharvaśiras atharva-śiras, n. = preceding; (ās), m. an epithet of Mahāpuruṣa.
     atharvahṛdaya atharva-hṛdaya, am, n. title of a Pariśiṣṭa.

atharva atharva, as, m., N. of Brahmā's eldest son, to whom he revealed the Brahma-vidyā. See atharvan.

atharvaṇa atharvaṇa, as, m., N. of Śiva.

atharvaṇi atharvaṇi, is, better ātharvaṇi, m. a Brāhman versed in the Atharva-veda; a family priest.

atharvāṅgiras atharvāṅgiras (-va-aṅ-), ās, m. a member of the sacerdotal race or class called atharvāṅgirasas, m. pl., i. e. the descendants of Atharvan and of Aṅgiras; this latter word is also a name of the hymns of the Atharva-veda.

atharvāṅgirasa atharvāṅgirasa, as, ī, am (fr. the preceding), connected with the sacerdotal class called Atharvāṅgiras; (am), n. the work or office of the Atharvāṅgiras; (ās), m. pl. the hymns of the Atharva-veda.

atharvāṇa atharvāṇa, am, n. the work, i. e. ritual of the Atharva-veda.
     atharvāṇavid atharvāṇa-vid, t, m. one versed in that ritual.

atharvī atharvī, f., Ved. (doubtful) not moving (?); pierced by a lance (?); surrounded by fire (?).

ad ad, cl. 2. P. atti, āda, atsyati, attum, to eat, devour; to destroy [cf. Lith. edmi; Slav. jamj for jadmj; Gr. [greek] Lat. edo; Goth. rt. AT, pres. ita; Germ. essen; Eng. to eat; Arm. utem].

ad ad, t, t, t, at the end of compounds, eating; as matsyād, t, t, t, eating fish.

ada ada or adaka, as, ā, am, eating.

adat 1. adat, an, atī, at, eating. (For a-dat, see below.)

adana adana, am, n. act of eating; food.

adanīya adanīya, as, ā, am, to be eaten, what may be eaten.

attavya attavya, atti, attri, adman, adya, advan, &c., see s. v.

adakṣa a-dakṣa, as, ā, am, not handy, unskilful, awkward.

adakṣiṇā a-dakṣiṇa, as, ā, am, not handy; not right, left; not giving or bringing in a dakṣiṇā or present to the priest.
     adakṣiṇatva adakṣiṇa-tva, am, n. awkwardness; peculiarity of not bringing in a dakṣiṇā.
     adakṣiṇīya adakṣiṇīya or adakṣiṇya, as, ā, am, not entitled to a dakṣiṇā.

adagdha a-dagdha, as, ā, am, not burnt, not scorched.

adaṇḍa a-daṇḍa, as, ā, am, free from punishment; (am), n. impunity.

adaṇḍya a-daṇḍya or a-daṇḍanīya, as, ā, am, not deserving punishment; exempt from it.

adat 2. a-dat, an, atī, at, or adatka, as, ā, am, toothless. (For adat, see above.)

adatta a-datta, as, ā, am, not given; given unjustly; not given in marriage; having given nothing; (ā), f. an unmarried girl; (am), n. a donation which is null and void.

adattvā a-dattvā, ind. not having given, without having given.

adatrayā a-datrayā, ind., Ved. not through a present.

adadryañc adadry-añc, aṅ, īcī, ak (a word coined by grammarians, fr. adas + añc), inclining or going to that.

adana adana, adanīya. See under ad.

adanta 1. a-danta or a-dantaka, as, ā, am, toothless; (as), m. a leech.

adantya a-dantya, as, ā, am, not suitable for the teeth; not dental; injurious to the teeth; (am), n. toothlessness.

adanta 2. ad-anta, as, ā, am, (in gram.) ending in at, i. e. in the short inherent vowel a.

adabdha a-dabdha, as, ā, am (rt. dambh or dabh), Ved. not deceived or tampered with, unimpaired, unbroken, pure.
     adabdhadhīti adabdha-dhīti, is, is, i, Ved. whose works are unimpaired.
     adabdhavrata adabdha-vrata, as, m., Ved. whose devotions or religious observances are unbroken.
     adabdhavratapramati adabdha-vrata-pramati, is, m., Ved. of unbroken observances and superior mind; of superior mind from having unbroken observances.
     adabdhāyu adabdhāyu (-dha-āyu), us, m., Ved. having unimpaired vigour or pure food; leaving uninjured the man who sacrifices.
     adabdhāsu adabdhāsu (-dha-asu), us, us, u, Ved. having a pure life.

adabha a-dabha, as, ā, am, Ved. free from deceit, unimpaired.

adabhra a-dabhra, as, ā, am, not scanty, plentiful.

adambha a-dambha, as, ā, am, free from deceit, straightforward; (as), m. an epithet of Śiva; freedom from or absence of deceit; straightforwardness.

adambhitva a-dambhi-tva, am, n. sincerity.

adamudryañc adamudry-añc, aṅ, īcī, ak, inclining or going to that. (Like adadryañc, coined by grammarians from adas + añc).

adamuyañc adamuy-añc or adamūy-añc = the preceding.

adamya a-damya, as, ā, am, untameable.

adaya a-daya, as, ā, am, (rt. day), merciless, unkind; (am), ind. ardently.

adayālu a-dayālu, us, us, u, unkind.

adara a-dara, as, ā, am, not little, much.
     adaraka adaraka, as, m., N. of a man.

adarśa 1. a-darśa (for ā-darśa), as, m. a mirror.

adarśa 2. a-darśa, as, m. day of new moon.

adarśana a-darśana, am, n. non-vision, not seeing; disregard, neglect; non-appearance, latent condition, disappearance; (as, ā, am), invisible, latent.
      adarśana-patha, am, n. a path beyond the reach of vision.

adarśanīya a-darśanīya, as, ā, am, invisible; (am), n. invisible condition.

adala a-dala, as, ā, am, leafless; (as), m. a plant, Eugenia (or Barringtonia) Acutangula; (ā), f. Socotorine Aloe, a Perfoliata or Indica.

adaśan a-daśan, a, not ten.
     adaśamāsya a-daśa-māsya, as, ā, am, not ten months old.

adas 1. adas, m. asau, f. asau, n. adas, pron. that; a certain.
     adas adas, ind. thus, so; ever.
     adaḥkṛtya adaḥ-kṛtya, having done that.
     adobhavati ado-bhavati, he becomes that.
     adomaya ado-maya, as, ī, am, made of that, containing that.
     adomūla ado-mūla, as, ā, am, rooted in that.

adasya adasya, nom. P. adasyati, to become that.

adas 2. adas, eating, (only at the close of compound words.)

adākṣiṇya a-dākṣiṇya, am, n. unkindness, rudeness.

adātṛ a-dātṛ, tā, trī, tṛ, not giving; not liberal, miserly; not giving (a daughter) in marriage; not paying, not liable to payment.

[Page 0018-b]

adādi ad-ādi, is, is, i, having ad at the head, i. e. belonging to the second class of roots headed by ad.

adāna a-dāna, am, n. (rt. ), not giving, act of withholding; (as, ā, am,), not giving.

adānya a-dānya, as, ā, am, not giving, miserly.

adāman a-dāman, ā, ā, a, Ved. not liberal, miserly.

adāyin a-dāyin, ī, inī, i, not giving.

adāśu a-dāśu, us, us, u, Ved. or a-dāśuri, is, m. or a-dāśvas, ān, m. not giving, not sacrificing, impious.

aditi 1. a-diti, is, f., Ved. having nothing to give, destitution; for 2. aditi, 3. a-diti, see below.

adānta a-dānta, as, ā, am, unsubdued.

adābhya a-dābhya, as, ā, am, Ved. free from deceit, trusty; not to be trifled with; (as), m., N. of a libation (graha) in the Jyotiṣṭoma sacrifice.

adāyāda a-dāyāda, as, ā, am, not entitled to be an heir; destitute of heirs.

adāyika a-dāyika, as, ī, am, unclaimed from want of persons entitled to inherit; not relating to inheritance.

adāra 1. a-dāra, as, m. having no wife.

adāra 2. a-dāra, as, m. (rt. dṝ), non-injuring.
     adārasṛt adāra-sṛt, t, t, t, Ved. escaping unhurt.

adāsa a-dāsa, as, m. (not a slave), a free man.

adāhya a-dāhya, as, ā, am, incombustible.

adikka a-dikka, as, ā, am, Ved. having no share in the horizon, banished from beneath the sky.

aditi 2. aditi, is, m. (fr. rt. ad), Ved. devourer, i. e. death; for 1. a-diti, see above.

aditi 3. a-diti, is, is, i (rt. 4. or do, dyati; for 1. a-diti, see above), not tied, free; boundless; unbroken, entire, unimpaired; happy; pious; (is), f. freedom, security, safety; boundlessness, immensity; inexhaustible abundance; unimpaired condition, perfection; creative power; aditi, the mother of the Ādityas, or of the gods; a cow; a wife; milk; the earth; speech (as symbols of the above ideas).
     aditī aditī, du., Ved. heaven and earth.
     aditija aditi-ja or aditi-nandana, as, m. a son of Aditi, an Āditya, a divine being.
     adititva aditi-tva, am, n. the condition of Aditi, or of freedom, unbrokenness, &c.

aditsat a-ditsat, an, antī, at, or a-ditsu, us, us, u (Desid. fr. rt. ), not inclined to give.

adiprabhṛti adi-prabhṛti, is, m., ad &c., i. e. belonging to the second class of roots [cf. ad-ādi].

adīkṣita a-dīkṣita, as, ā, am, one who has not performed the consecrating ceremony (dīkṣā) connected with the Soma sacrifice; one who is not concerned in that ceremony; one who has not received Brāhmanical consecration.

adīna a-dīna, as, ā, am, not depressed; not low; noble-minded; rich happy; (as), m., N. of a prince, also called Ahīna.
     adīnasattva adīna-sattva, as, ā, am, possessing undepressed (or unimpaired) goodness or mettle.
     adīnātman adīnātman (-na-āt-), ā, ā, a, undepressed in spirit; high-spirited.

adīpita a-dīpita, as, ā, am, not illuminated.

adīrgha a-dīrgha, as, ā, am, not long.
     adīrghasūtra adīrgha-sūtra, as, ā, am, not dilatory, not tedious, prompt.

aduḥkha a-duḥkha, as, ā, am, (free from evil or trouble), propitious.
     aduḥkhanavamī aduḥkha-navamī, f. the propitious ninth day in the first fortnight of Bhādrapada, when the women worship Devī to avert evil for the ensuing year.

adugdha a-dugdha, as, ā, am, not milked out, not sucked out.

[Page 0018-c]

aducchuna a-ducchuna, as, ā, am, Ved. free from evil, propitious.

adurga a-durga, as, ā, am, not difficult of access; destitute of a strong hold or fort.
     adurgaviṣaya adurga-viṣaya, as, m. an unfortified country.

adurmakha a-durmakha, as, ā, am, Ved. not reluctant, unremitting, cheerful.

adurmaṅgala a-durmaṅgala, as, ā, am, Ved. not inauspicious.

adurvṛtta a-durvṛtta, as, ā, am, not of a bad character or disposition.

aduṣṭa a-duṣṭa, as, ā, am, not vitiated, not bad, not guilty; innocent.
     aduṣṭatva aduṣṭa-tva, am, n. the being not vitiated; innocence.

adū a-dū, ūs, ūs, u, Ved. dilatory, without zeal, not worshipping.

adūna a-dūna, as, ā, am (rt. du), uninjured, unimpaired.

adūra a-dūra, as, ā, am, not distant, near; (am), n. vicinity.
     adūre adūre or adūrāt or adūratas, ind. (with abl. or gen.) not far, near; soon.
     adūrabhava adūra-bhava, as, ā, am, situated at no great distance.

adūṣita a-dūṣita, as, ā, am, unvitiated; unspotted, irreproachable.
     adūṣitadhī adūṣita-dhī, īs, m. possessing an uncorrupted mind.

adṛḍha a-dṛḍha, as, ā, am, not firm; not decided, irresolute.

adṛpita a-dṛpita, as, ā, am (rt. dṛp), Ved. not treated haughtily (?), not thoughtless.

adṛpta adṛpta, as, a, am, Ved. not conceited, not vain.
     adṛptakratu adṛpta-kratu, us, us, u, having not vain designs; sober-minded.

adṛpyat adṛpyat, an, antī, at, Ved. not conceited.

adṛś a-dṛś, k, k, k (rt. dṛś), sightless, blind.

adṛśya a-dṛśya, as, ā, am, invisible, latent; not fit to be seen.
     adṛśyakaraṇa adṛśya-karaṇa, am, n. act of rendering invisible; title of a part of a treatise on magic.

adṛśyat a-dṛśyat, an, antī, at, invisible; (ī), f., N. of Vasiṣṭha's daughter-in-law.

adṛṣṭa a-dṛṣṭa, as, ā, am, unseen, unforeseen; invisible; not experienced; unobserved, unknown; unsanctioned; (as), m., Ved., N. of some venomous substance or vermin; (am), n. unforeseen danger or calamity; that which is beyond the reach of observation or consciousness; especially the merit or demerit attaching to a man's conduct in one state of existence (such as a former birth), and the corresponding (apparently arbitrary) reward or punishment with which he is visited in another (which may be either the present life or a future birth); destiny, fate; luck, bad luck.
     adṛṣṭakarman adṛṣṭa-karman, ā, ā, a, one who has not seen practice.
     adṛṣṭakāma adṛṣṭa-kāma, as, m. passionate attachment to an object that has never been seen.
     adṛṣṭaja adṛṣṭa-ja, as, ā, am, produced or resulting from fate.
     adṛṣṭanara adṛṣṭa-nara or adṛṣṭa-puruṣa, as, m. (no third person or mediator being seen), a treaty concluded by the parties personally.
     adṛṣṭaparasāmarthya adṛṣṭa-para-sāmarthya, as, m. one who has not experienced the power of an enemy.
     adṛṣṭapūrva adṛṣṭa-pūrva, as, ā, am, never seen before.
     adṛṣṭaphala adṛṣṭa-phala, as, ā, am, having consequences that are not yet visible; (am), n. result or consequence which is not yet visible, i. e. hidden in the future.
     adṛṣṭarūpa adṛṣṭa-rūpa, as, ā, am, having an invisible shape.
     adṛṣṭavat adṛṣṭa-vat, ān, atī, at, connected with or coming from destiny; lucky or unlucky; fortunate.
     adṛṣṭahan adṛṣṭa-han, ā, m., Ved. destroyer of venomous vermin.
     adṛṣṭārtha adṛṣṭārtha (-ṭa-ar-), as, ā, am, having a transcendental object, metaphysical, having an object not evident to the senses (as a science).
     adṛṣṭāśrutapūrvatva adṛṣṭāśruta-pūrvatva (-ṭa-aś-), am, n. quality of never having been seen or heard before.

[Page 0019-a]

adṛṣṭi a-dṛṣṭi, is, or a-dṛṣṭikā, f. a displeased or malicious look, an evil eye.

adeya a-deya, as, ā, am, improper or unfit to be given; (am), n. an object which, in law, it is either not right or not necessary to give or surrender.
     adeyadāna adeya-dāna, am, n. an illegal gift.

adeva a-deva, as, ā, am (rt. div), not divine, not of divine origin, not referring to any deity; godless, impious; (as), m. one who is not a god.
     adevamātṛka adeva-mātṛka, as, ā, am, not having the gods as mothers, not sockled by any deity, i. e. not rained upon.

adevaka a-devaka, as, ā, am, not referring to or intended for any deity.

adevatā a-devatā, f. one who is not a deity.

adevatra a-devatra or a-devatrā, ind., Ved. not towards the gods.

adevayat a-devayat, an, antī, at, or adevayu, us, us, u, Ved. indifferent to the gods, irreligious.

adaiva a-daiva, as, ī, am, not referring to or connected with the gods or with their action; not predetermined by them or by fate.

adevṛghnī a-devṛ-ghnī, f., Ved. not destructive to her brother-in-law.

adeśa a-deśa, as, m. (rt. diś), a wrong place, an improper place.
     adeśakāla a-deśa-kāla, am, n. wrong place and time.
     adeśaja adeśa-ja, as, ā, am, grown in a wrong place.
     adeśastha adeśa-stha, as, ā, am, out of place, in the wrong place, one absent from his country, an absentee.

adeśya a-deśya, as, ā, am, improper or unfit to be ordered or advised or indicated; not on the spot, not present on the occasion referred to.

adomada a-doma-da or a-doma-dha, as, ā, am, Ved. not occasioning inconvenience.

adomaya ado-maya, &c. See adas.

adoha a-doha, as, m. (rt. duh), season when milking is impracticable.

adogdhṛ a-dogdhṛ, dhā, dhrī, dhṛ (not milking), not exacting; considerate.

adga adga, as, m. (fr. rt. ad), a sacrificial cake, also called puroḍāśa; (according to others) an oblation of clarified butter.

adṭ adṭ or adḍ adḍ. See. s. v. aṭṭ.

addhā ad-dhā, ind. (fr. ad or a, this), Ved. in this way; manifestly; certainly, truly.
     addhātamām ad-dhā-tamām, ind., Ved. most certainly.
     addhāpuruṣa addhā-puruṣa, as, m., Ved. a veritable or true man.
     addhābodheya addhā-bodheya, ās, m. pl. aderents of a particular Śākhā or recension of the white Yajur-veda.

addhāti addhāti, is, m., Ved. a wise man, a seer.

addhyālohakarṇā addhyā-loha-karṇa, as, ā, or ī, am, Ved. having ears quite red (?).

adbhuta adbhuta, as, ā, am (perhaps corrupted from ati-bhūta, 'exceeding that which is;' see 1. at), transcendental, supernatural, prodigious, wonderful, marvellous; (as), m. the marvellous (in style); surprise; N. of the Indra of the ninth Manvantara; (am), n. a marvel, a wonder, a prodigy.
     adbhutakarman adbhuta-karman, ā, ā, a, performing wonderful works; exhibiting wonderful workmanship.
     adbhutakratu adbhu-ta-kratu, us, us, u, Ved. possessing wonderful intelligence.
     adbhutagandha adbhuta-gandha, as, ā, am, having a wonderful smell.
     adbhutatama adbhuta-tama, am, n. an extraordinary wonder.
     adbhutatva adbhuta-tva, am, n. wonderfulness.
     adbhutadarśana adbhuta-darśana, as, ā, am, having a wonderful aspect.
     adbhutadharma adbhuta-dharma, as, m. a system or series of marvels or prodigies.
     adbhutabrākmaṇa adbhuta-brākmaṇa, am, title of a portion of a Brāhmaṇa belonging to the Sāma-veda.
     adbhutabhīmakarman adbhuta-bhīma-karman, ā, ā, a, performing wonderful and fearful works.
     adbhutarasa adbhuta-rasa, as, m. the marvellous style (of poetry).
     adbhutarāmāyaṇa adbhuta-rāmāyaṇa, am, n. title of a work ascribed to Vālmīki.
     adbhutarūpa adbhuta-rūpa, as, ā or ī, am, having a wonderful shape.
     adbhutaśānti adbhuta-śānti, is, m. or f. (?), N. of the sixty-seventh Pariśiṣṭa of the Atharva-veda.
     adbhutasaṅkāśa adbhuta-saṅkāśa, as, ā, am, resembling a wonder.
     adbhutasāra adbhuta-sāra, as, m. the wonderful resin (of the Khadira tree, Mimosa Catechu); title of a book on the "Essence of Prodigies."
     adbhutasvana adbhuta-svana, as, m. (having a wonderful sound or voice), a N. of Śiva.
     adbhutainas adbhutainas (-ta-en-), ās, ās, as, Ved. one in whom no fault is visible.
     adbhutottarakāṇḍa adbhutottarakāṇḍa (-ta-utt-), am, n., N. of a work, an appendix to or rather an imitation of the Rāmāyaṇa.
     adbhutopama adbhutopama (-ta-up-), as, ā, am, resembling a wonder.

adman adman, a, n. (fr. rt. ad), Ved. eating; a meal; a house.
     admasad adma-sad, t, m., Ved. seated (with others) at a meal (?); seated at or busy in the preparation of a meal (?); a cook (?); a mother (?).
     admasadya admasadya, am, n., Ved. the condition of an admasad.
     admasadvan admasadvan, ā, ā, a, Ved. fit to be a companion at a meal.

admani admani, is, m. fire.

admara admara, as, ā, am, gluttonous.

adya 1. adya, as, ā, am, fit or proper to be eaten; (am), n. food, anything eatable.

adya 2. a-dya or Ved. adyā, ind. (fr. pronom. base a, this, with dya for dyu, Lat. ho-die), to-day; now-a-days; now.
     adyadina adya-dina or adya-divasa, as, am, m. n. the present day.
     adyapūrvam adya-pūrvam, ind. before now.
     adyaprabhṛti adya-prabhṛti, ind. from and after to-day.
     adyaśvīna adya-śvīna, as, ā, am, likely to happen to-day or (śvas) to-morrow; (ā), f. a female near delivery.
     adyasutyā adya-sutyā, f. preparation and consecration of the Soma on the same day.
     adyāpi adyāpi (-ya-api). ind. even now, just now; to this day; down to the present time; henceforth.
     adyāvadhi adyāvadhi (-ya-av-), is, is, i, beginning or ending to-day; from or till to-day.
     adyaiva adyaiva (adya-eva), ind. this very day.

adyatana adyatana, as, ī, am, extending over or referring to to-day; occurring or current to-day or now-a-days, modern; (as), m. the period of a current day, either from midnight to midnight, or from dawn to dark; (ī), f. (in gram.) the aorist tense from its relating what has occurred on the same day.
     adyatanabhūta adyatana-bhūta, as, m. the aorist.

adyatanīya adyatanīya, as, ā, am, extending over or referring to to-day; current now-a-days.

adyu a-dyu, us, us, u, Ved. blunt.

adyut a-dyut, t, t, t, Ved. destitute of brightness.

adyūtya a-dyūtya, am, n., Ved. unlucky gambling; (according to others) the watch just before the dawn; (as, ā, am,), not derived from gambling, honestly obtained.

adrava a-drava, as, ā, am, not liquid.

adravya a-dravya, am, n. a nothing, a worthless thing.

adri adri, is, m. (said to be fr, rt. ad, but perhaps from a not, and dṝ, to split, not lialbe to be split), a stone, a rock, a mountain; a stone for pounding Soma with or grinding it on; a stone for a sling, a thunderbolt; a mountain-shaped mass of clouds; a cloud (the mountains are the clouds personified, and regarded as the enemies of Indra); a tree; the sun; N. of a measure; the number seven; N. of a grandson of Pṛthu.
     adrikarṇī adri-karṇī, f. a plant, Clitoria Ternatea Lin.
     adrikīlā adri-kīlā, f. the earth.
     adrikṛtasthalī adri-kṛta-sthalī, f., N. of an Apsaras.
     adrija adri-ja, as, ā, am, produced from or found among rocks or mountains; (ā), f., N. of a plant, Saiṃhalī; N. of Pārvatī or Durgā; (am), n. red chalk.
     adrijā adri-jā, ās, m., Ved. produced from (the friction of) stones.
     adrijūta adri-jūta, as, ā, am, Ved. excited by (the friction of) stones.
     adritanayā adri-tanayā, f. the mountain-daughter, i. e. Pārvatī; N. of a metre of four lines, each containing twenty-three syllables.
     adridugdha adri-dugdha, as, ā, am, Ved. milked, i. e. expressed with stones.
     adridviṣ adri-dviṣ, ṭ, m. the enemy of mountains or clouds, i. e. Indra.
     adrinandinī adri-nandinī, f., N. of Pārvatī.
     adripati adri-pati, is, m. the Himālaya as the lord of mountains.
     adribarhas adri-barhas, ās, ās, as, Ved. mountain-high.
     adribudhna adri-budhna, as, ā, am, Ved. rooted in or produced on a rock or mountain.
     adribhid adri-bhid, t, t, t, Ved. splitting mountains or clouds; (t), m., N. of Indra.
     adribhū adri-bhū, ūs, ūs, u, mountain-born, found or living among mountains; (ūs), f. a plant. probably Salvinia Cucullata.
     adrimātṛ adri-mātṛ, tā, trī, tṛ, Ved. having a rock or mountain for a mother.
     adrimūrdhan adri-mūrdhan, ā, m. the head or summit of a mountain.
     adrirāj adri-rāj, ṭ, or adri-rāja, as, m. Himālaya as the king of mountains.
     adrivat adri-vat, ān, voc. as, m., Ved. armed with stones or thunderbolts.
     adrivahni adri-vahni, is, m. fire on or in a mountain or rock.
     adriśayya adri-śayya, as, m. having the mountain for his couch, i. e. Śiva.
     adriśṛṅga adri-śṛṅga, am, n. a mountain-peak.
     adriṣuta adri-ṣuta, as, ā, am, Ved. prepared with stones.
     adrisaṃhata adri-saṃhata, as, ā, am, Ved. expressed with stones.
     adrisānu adri-sānu, us, us, u, Ved. lingering on the mountains.
     adrisāra adri-sāra, as, m. essence of stones, i. e. iron.
     adrisāramaya adri-sāra-maya, as, ī, am, made of iron.
     adrīndra adrīndra (-dri-in-) or adrīsa (-dri-īś-), as, m. the lord of mountains, i. e. Himālaya.

adrikā adrikā, f., N. of an Apsaras.

adruh a-druh, dhruk, k, k, or adruhvan, ā, ā, a (rt. druh), Ved. free from malice or treachery.

adrogha a-drogha, as, ā, am, Ved. free from falsehood, true; (am), ind. without falsehood.
     adroghavāc adrogha-vāc, k, k, k, Ved. free from malice or treachery in speech.
     adroghāvita adroghāvita (-gha-av-), as, ā, am, Ved. loving freedom from malice or treachery.

adroha a-droha, as, m. freedom from malice or treachery.
     adrohavṛtti adroha-vṛtti, is, f. conduct free from malice or treachery.

adrohin a-drohin, ī, iṇī, i, free from malice or treachery.

advan advan, ā, ā, a (fr. rt. ad), eating; (used at the end of compound words.)

advaya a-dvaya, as, ā, am, not two, without a second, only, unique; (as), m., N. of Buddha; (am), n. non-duality, unity; identity, especially the identity of Brahma with the universe or with the soul, or of spirit and matter; the ultimate truth.
     advayavādin advaya-vādin or advaita-vādin, ī, m. Buddha; a Jaina; one who teaches advaya or identity.
     advayānanda advayānanda (-ya-ān-), as, m., N. of an author, and of a founder of the Vaiṣṇava sect in Bengal, who lived at the close of the fifteenth century.

advayat a-dvayat, an, or a-dvayas, ās, m., Ved. free from duplicity.

advayāvin a-dvayāvin, ī, or a-dvayu, us, m., Ved. free from double dealing or duplicity.

advāra a-dvāra, am, n. a place without a door; an entrance which is not the proper door.

advija a-dvija, as, ā, am, destitute of Brāhmans.

advitīya a-dvitīya, as, ā, am, without a second, sole, unique; matchless.

adviṣeṇya a-dviṣeṇya, as, ā, am (rt. dviṣ), Ved. not to be disliked; not malevolent.

adveṣa a-dveṣa, as, ā, am, Ved. not malevolent.
     adveṣarāgin a-dveṣa-rāgin, ī, iṇī, i, free from malevolence and passionate desire.

adveṣas adveṣas, ind., Ved. without malevolence, without opposition.

adveṣin adveṣin, ī, iṇī, i, free from malevolence.

adveṣṭṛ adveṣṭṛ, ā, m. not an enemy; a friend.

advaita a-dvaita, as, ā, am, destitute of duality, having no duplicate; peerless; sole, unique; epithet of Viṣṇu; (am), n. non-duality; identity, especially the identity of Brahma with the universe or with the soul, or of spirit and matter; the ultimate truth; title of an Upaniṣad.
     advaitena advaitena, ind. solely.
     advaitānanada advaitānanada (-ta-ān-), as, m. =  advayānanda, q. v.
     advaitopaniṣad advaitopaniṣad (-ta-up-), t, f., N. of an Upaniṣad.

adha adha or adhā, ind., Ved. (much the same as atha, used chiefly as an inceptive particle), now; then, therefore; moreover, so much the more; and, partly.
     adhādha adha-adha, as well as, partly-partly.
     adhapriya adha-priya, as, ā, am, or adha-prī, īs, īs, i, Ved. pleased or glad then.

adhaḥ adhaḥ, &c. See adhas.

adhana a-dhana, as, ā, am, destitute of wealth or property.

adhanya a-dhanya, as, ā, am, not richly supplied with corn or other produce; not prosperous; unhappy, wretched.

adhama adhama, as, ā, am (see etymology of adhara), lowest, vilest, worst; very low or vile or bad; often used at the close of comp., as in narā-dhama, the vilest or worst of men; (as), an unblushing paramour; (ā), a low or bad mistress [cf. Lat. infimus].
     adhamabhṛta adhama-bhṛta or adhama-bhṛtaka, as, m. a servant of the lowest class, a porter.
     adhamarṇa adhamarṇa (-ma-ṛ-), as, or adhamarṇika, as, m. one reduced to inferiority by debt, a debtor.
     adhamaśākha adhama-śākha, as or am (?), m. or n. (?), N. of a region.
     adhamāṅga adhamāṅga (-ma-aṅ-), am, n. (the lowest member), the foot.
     adhamācāra adhamācāra (-ma-āc-), as, ā, am, guilty of vile conduct.
     adhamārdha adhamārdha (-ma-ar-), am, n. the lower half, the lower part.
     adhamārdhya adhamārdhya, as, ā, am, connected with or referring to the lower part.

adhamarṇā, adhamarṇika, &c. See above, under adhama.

adhara adhara, as, ā, am (said to come from adhas or from a base adh, whence adhas may be derived), lower, inferior; tending downwards; low, vile; worsted, silenced; prior; (as), m. the lower lip, the lip; (ā), f. the lower region, nadir; (am), n. the lower part; a reply; Pudendum Muliebre [Ossetic, dalag; Goth. dala-thro; Lat. inferus].
     adharatas adhara-tas or adhara-stāt or adharasmāt or adharāt or adhareṇa, ind. below, beneath; in the lower region.
     adharakaṇṭha adhara-kaṇṭha, as, am, m. n. the lower neck.
     adharakāya adhara-kāya, as, m. the lower part of the body.
     adharapāna adhara-pāna, am, n. drinking the lower lip, kissing.
     adharamadhu adhara-madhu, u, n. the moisture of the lips.
     adharasvastika adhara-svastika, am, n. the nadir.
     adharāmṛta adharā-mṛta (-ra-am-), am, n. the nectar of the lips.
     adharāraṇi adharāraṇi (-ra-ar-), is, f., Ved. the lower of the two pieces of wood used in producing fire by friction.
     adharāvalopa adharāvalopa (-ra-av-), as, m. biting the lip.
     adharottara adharottara (-ra-ut-), as, ā, am, lower and higher; worse and better; question and answer; nearer and further; sooner and later; upside down, topsy-turvy.
     adharoṣṭha adharoṣṭha or adharauṣṭha (-ra-oṣ-), as, m. the lower lip; (am), n. the lower and upper lip.

adharāk adharāk, ind. beneath, in the lower region.

adharācīna adharācīna or adharācya, as, ā, am, or adharāñc āṅ, ācī, āk, Ved. tending downwards, to the nadir or the lower region, tending towards the south (or west ?).

adharāttāt adharāttāt, ind., Ved. below, beneath.

adharīkṛta adharī-kṛta, as, ā, am, worsted; invalidated.

adharīṇa adharīṇa, as, ā, am, vilified.

adharībhūta adharī-bhūta, as, ā, am, worsted; invalidated.

adharedyus adhare-dyus, ind. the day before yesterday; on a previous day.

adhareya adhareya, as, ā, am, inferior in quality or worth.

adharma a-dharma, as, m. unrighteousness, injustice, irreligion, wickedness; demerit, guilt; N. of a Prajāpati, son of Brahmā, husband of Hiṃsā or Mṛṣā; N. of an attendant of the sun; (ā), f. unrighteousness personified and represented as the bride of death.
     adharmacārin adharma-cārin, ī, iṇī, i, practising wickedness.
     adharmatas adharma-tas, ind. unrighteously, unjustly.
     adharmadaṇḍana adharma-daṇḍana, am, n. unjust punishment.
     adharmamaya adharma-maya, as, ī, am, made up of wickedness; downright wicked.
     adharmātman adharmātman (-ma-āt-), ā, ā, a, having a wicked spirit or disposition.
     adharmāstikāya adharmāstikāya (-ma-as-), as, m. the category (astikāya) of adharma.

adharmin adharmin, ī, iṇī, i, unrighteous, wicked, impious.

adharmiṣṭha adharmiṣṭha, as, ā, am, most wicked, impious.

adharmya adharmya, as, ā, am, unlawful, contrary to law or religion, wicked.

adhavā a-dhavā, f. a widow (usually vi-dhavā, without a husband).

adhas adhas, ind. (said to come from adh, see adhara), below, down; in the lower region; beneath, under; from under (with acc., gen., and abl.); also applied to the lower region and to the Pudendum Muliebre [cf. Lat. infra].
     adhastaram adhas-taram, ind. very far down.
     adhaupāsana adha-upāsana, am, n. sexual intercourse.
     adhaḥkara adhaḥ-kara, as, m. the lower part of the hand.
     adhaḥkāya adhaḥ-kāya, as, m. the lower part of the body.
     adhaḥkṛta adhaḥ-kṛta, as, ā, am, put down, cast down.
     adhaḥkṛṣṇājinam adhaḥ-kṛṣṇājinam (-ṇa-aj-), ind. under the black skin.
     adhaḥkhanana adhaḥ-khanana, am, n. undermining.
     adhaḥpadma adhaḥ-padma, am, n. (in architecture) a certain part of the cupola.
     adhaḥpāta adhaḥ-pāta, as, m. a downfall.
     adhaḥpuṣpī adhaḥ-puṣpī, f. (having flowers looking downwards), N. of two plants, Pimpinella Anisum and Elephantopus Scaber (or Hieracium ?).
     adhaḥpravāha adhaḥ-pravāha, as, m. a downward current.
     adhaḥprastara adhaḥ-prastara, as, m. seat or bed of turf or grass for person in a state of impurity.
     adhaḥprāṅśāyin adhaḥ-prāṅ-śāyin, ī, inī, i, sleeping on the ground, towards the east.
     adhaścara adhaś-cara, as, m. a thief ('creeping on the ground').
     adhaḥśaya adhaḥ-śaya, as, ā, am, sleeping on the ground.
     adhaḥśayya adhaḥ-śayya, as, ā, am, having a peculiar couch on the ground; (ā), f. act of sleeping on the ground and on a peculiar couch.
     adhaḥśiras adhaḥ-śiras, ās, ās, as, holding the head downward; head foremost; (as), n., N. of a hell.
     adhastala adhas-tala, am, n. the room below anything.
     adhaspada adhas-pada, am, n. the place under the feet.
     adhaspadam adhaspadam, ind. under foot.
     adhaḥstha adhaḥ-stha, as, ā, am, placed low or below; inferior.
     adhaḥsthita adhaḥ-sthita, as, ā, am, standing below; situated below.
     adhaḥsvastika adhaḥ-svastika, am, n. the nadir.
     adho'ṃśuka adho-'ṃśuka, am, n. a lower garment.
     adho'kṣa adho-'kṣa or adho-akṣa, as, ā, am, Ved. (situated) below the axle or under a car; (am), ind. under the axle.
     adho'kṣaja adho-'kṣa-ja, as, m. an epithet of Viṣṇu or Kṛṣṇa; the sign Śravaṇā.
     adhogaṇṭā adho-gaṇṭā, f. a plant, Achyranthes Aspera.
     adhogata adho-gata, as, ā, am, gone down, descended.
     adhogati adho-gati, is, f. or adho-gama, as, m. or adho-gamana, am, n. descent, downward movement, degradation.
     adhogati adho-gati, is, is, i, going downwards, deacending.
     adhogāmin adho-gāmin, ī, inī, i = preceding.
     adhoghaṇṭā adho-ghaṇṭā, f. a plant, Achyranthes Aspera.
     adho'ṅga adho-'ṅga, am, n. the anus, Pudendum Muliebre.
     adhojānu adho-jānu, ind. below the knee.
     adhojihvikā adho-jihvikā, f. the uvula.
     adhodāru adho-dāru, u, n. the under timber.
     adhodiś adho-diś, k, f. the lower region, the nadir.
     adhodṛṣṭi adho-dṛṣṭi, is, f. a downcast look; (is, is, i), having a downcast look.
     adhodeśa adho-deśa, as, m. the lower or lowest part, especially of the body.
     adhodvāra adho-dvāra, am, n. the anus, Pudendum Muliebre.
     adhonābham adho-nābham, ind. below the navel.
     adho'para adho-'para, am, n. the anus.
     adhopahāsa adhopahāsa (-dhas-up-), as, m., Ved. sexual intercourse.
     adhobandhana adho-bandhana, am, n. an under girth.
     adhobhakta adho-bhakta, am, n. a dose of medicine to be taken after eating.
     adhobhava adho-bhava, as, ā, am, lower.
     adhobhāga adho-bhāga, as, m. the lower or lowest part, especially of the body.
     adhobhāgadoṣahara adho-bhāga-doṣa-hara, as, ā, am, curing or strengthening the lower part of the body.
     adhobhuvana adho-bhuvana, am, n. the lower world.
     adhobhūmi adho-bhūmi, is, f. lower ground; land at the foot of a hill.
     adhomarman adho-marman, a, n. the anus.
     adhomukha adho-mukha, as, ā, or ī, am, having the face downwards; headlong; upside down; (as), m. Viṣṇu; (ā), f. a plant, Premna Esculenta; (am), n. a division of hell.
     adhoyantra adho-yantra, am, n. the lower part of an apparatus; a still.
     adhoraktapitta adho-rakta-pitta, am, n. discharge of blood from the anus and the urethra.
     adhorāma adho-rāma, as, m., Ved. (a goat) having peculiar white or black marks on the lower part of the body.
     adholāmba adho-lāmba, as, m. a plummet; the perpendicular; (as), m. the lower world.
     adhovadana adho-vadana, as, ā, am, the same as adho-mukha.
     adhovarcas adho-varcas, ās, ās, as, powerful in the lower regions.
     adhovaśa adho-vaśa, as, m. the bottom, Pudendum Muliebre.
     adhovāyu adho-vāyu, us, m. vital air passing downwards; flatulency.
     adho'vekṣi adho-'vekṣi (adhas + ava + īkṣin), looking down.
     adho'śrapitta adho-'śra-pitta, see adho-raktapitta.
     adho'śvam adho-'śvam, ind. under the horse.

adhastana adhastana, as, ī, am, lower, being underneath.

adhastāt adhastāt, ind. the same as adhas, q. v.

adhastāddiś adhastād-diś, k, f. the lower region, the nadir.

adhā adhā, Ved. See adha.

adhāmārgava adhāmārgava, as, m. a plant, Achyranthes Aspera.

adhāraṇāka a-dhāraṇaka, as, ā, am, unable to support, unremunerative.

adhārmika a-dhārmika, as, ī, am, unjust, unrighteous, wicked.

adhārya a-dhārya, as, ā, am, unfit or improper to be held or carried or kept up.

adhi 1. adhi, is, m. (better ādhi, q. v.), anxiety, perplexity; f. a woman in her courses.

adhi 2. adhi, ind., as a prefix to verbs and nouns, expresses above, over and above, besides.

     As a separable adverb or preposition; (with abl.) Ved. over; from above; from; from the presence of; for; (with gen.) Ved. among; (with loc.) Ved. over; on; at; subject to; (with acc.) over, upon, concerning.
     adhyadhi adhy-adhi, ind. on high, just above.

adhika adhika, as, ā, am, additional; subsequent, later; surpassing (in number or quantity or quality), superior, more numerous; abundant; excellent; supernumerary, redundant; secondary, inferior; intercalated; (am), n. surplus; abundance; redundancy; hyperbole: ind. exceedingly; too much; more.
     adhikaṃtu adhikaṃ-tu, moreover.
     adhikakṣayakārin adhika-kṣaya-kārin, ī, iṇī, i, causing excessive waste.
     adhikatā adhika-tā, f. or adhika-tva, am, n. addition, excess, redundancy, preponderance.
     adhikatithi adhika-tithi, is, m. f. an intercalary lunar day.
     adhikadanta adhika-danta or adhi-danta, as, m. a redundant tooth which grows over another.
     adhikadina adhika-dina or adhi-dina, am, n. an intercalated day.
     adhikamāṃsārman adhika-māṃsārman (-sa-ar-), a, n. proud flesh in the eye; see adhimāṃsa.
     adhikamāsa adhika-māsa, as, m. an intercalated month.
     adhikarddhi adhikarddhi (-ka-ṛd-), is, is, i, abundantly prosperous.
     adhikavākyokti adhika-vākyokti (-kya-uk-), is, f. exaggeration, hyperbole.
     adhikaṣāṣṭika adhika-ṣā-ṣṭika, as, ī, am, (containing or costing) more than sixty.
     adhikasaṃvatsara adhika-saṃvatsara, as, m. an intercalated month.
     adhikasāptatika adhika-sāptatika, as, ī, am (containing or costing) more than seventy.
     adhikāṅga adhikāṅga (-ka-aṅ-), as, ā, or ī, am, having some redundant member or members; (am), n. belt worn over the coat of mail.
     adhikādhika adhikādhika (-kha-adh-), as, ā, am, outdoing one another.
     adhikārtha adhikārtha (-ka-ar-), as, ā, am, exaggerated.
     adhikārthavacana adhikārtha-vacana, am, n. exaggeration, hyperbole,

adhikarmakara adhi-karmakara, as, m. or adhi-karmakṛt, t, m. an overseer of workmen.

adhikalpin adhi-kalpin, ī, m., Ved. a sharp gambler.

adhikārma adhi-kārma, am, n., N. of some place unknown.

adhikṛ adhi-kṛ, cl. 8. P. -karoti, -kartum, to place at the head, appoint; to aim at, regard; to refer or allude to; to superintend, be at the head of: A. -kurute, to be or become entitled to; to be or become superior to.

adhikaraṇa adhi-karaṇa, am, n. the act of placing at the head or of subordinating government, supremacy, magistracy, court of justice; a receptacle, support; a claim; a topic, subject; (in philosophy) a substratum; a subject (e. g. ātmā is the adhi-karaṇa of knowledge); a category; a relation; (in grammar) regimen, government, comprehension, location, the sense of the locative case; relationship of words in a sentence, which agree together, either as adjective and substantive, or as subject and predicate, or as two substantives in apposition; (in rhetoric) a topic; a paragraph or minor section; (as, ī), m. f. one who has to superintend.
     adhikaraṇabhojaka adhikaraṇa-bhojaka, as, m. a judge.
     adhikaraṇamaṇḍapa adhikaraṇa-maṇḍapa, as, am, m. n. the hall of justice.
     adhikaraṇasiddhānta adhikaraṇa-siddhānta, as, m. a syllogism or conclusion which involves others.
     adhikaraṇaitāvattva adhi-karaṇaitāvattva (-ṇa-et-), am, n. fixed quantity of a substratum.

adhikaraṇika adhi-karaṇika or better ādhikaraṇika, as, m. a government official; a judge or magistrate.

adhikaraṇya adhi-karaṇya, am, n. athority, power.

adhikarman adhi-karman, a, n. superintendence.
     adhikarmakṛt adhi-karmakṛt or adhi-karmakara, see s. v.
     adhikarmakṛta adhi-karma-kṛta, as, m. person appointed to superintend an establishment.

adhikarmika adhikarmika, as, m. the overseer of a market.

adhikāra adhi-kāra, as, m. authority; office; government, rule, administration, jurisdiction; royalty, prerogative; title; rank; claim, right, especially to perform sacrifices with benefit; privilege; ownership; possession; property; reference, relation; exertion, effort; a topic, subject; a paragraph or minor section; (in grammar) government; a heading-rule; (as, ī), m. f. having much to superintend.
     adhikārastha adhikāra-stha, as, ā, am, established in an office.
     adhikārāḍhya adhikārāḍhya (-ra-āḍha-), as, ā, am, invested with authority.

adhikārin adhi-kārin, ī, iṇī, i, possessing authority; entitled to; fit for; (ī), m. a superintendent, governor; an official; a rightful claimant; a proprietor, master; one possessing the right of sacrificing; a man proficient in the Vedānta; man as the lord of creation.
     adhikāritva adhikāri-tva, am, n. or adhikāri-tā, f. authority; rightful claim; ownership, &c.

adhikṛta adhi-kṛta, as, ā, am, placed at the head of; appointed; ruled, administered; claimed; (as), m. a superintendent, especially a comptroller of public accounts.
     adhikṛtatva adhikṛta-tva, am, n. the being engaged in or occupied with.

adhikṛti adhi-kṛti, is, f. a right, privilege; possession.

adhikṛtya adhi-kṛtya, ind. having placed at the head, having made the chief subject; regarding; concerning; with reference to.

adhikram adhi-kram, cl. 1. P. -krāmati, -kramitum, to ascend, mount up to; to attack, scale.

adhikrama adhi-krama, as, m. an invasion, attack.

adhikramaṇa adhi-kramaṇa, am, n. act of invading or scaling.

adhikṣi adhi-kṣi, cl. 6. or cl. 1. P., Ved. -kṣiyati or -kṣeti, -kṣetum, to be settled in or over, rest upon; to inhabit, to obtain; (occasionally adhi-kṣip occurs for this rt. by mistake.)

adhikṣit adhi-kṣit, t, m., Ved. a lord, ruler (fr. rt. 2. kṣi and not fr. adhi-kṣi above).

adhikṣip adhi-kṣip, cl. 6. P. -kṣipati, -kṣeptum, to lay upon; to bespatter; to insult, abuse, scold; to superinduce (disease); (occasionally this rt. appears to be used by mistake for adhi-kṣi, q. v.)

adhikṣipadabjanetra adhikṣipad-abja-netra, as, ā, or ī, am, having eyes which eclipse the lotus.

adhikṣipta adhi-kṣipta, as, ā, am, insulted; scolded; thrown down; placed, fixed; despatched.

adhikṣepa adhi-kṣepa, as, m. abuse, contempt; dismissal.

adhigaṇ adhi-gaṇ, cl. 10. P. -gaṇayati, -yitum, to enumerate, to value highly.

adhigam adhi-gam, cl. 1. P. -gacchati, -gantum, to go up to, approach, overtake; to have senmal intercourse with; to fall in with; to meet, find, discover, obtain; to accomplish; to study, read: Desid. P. adhi-jigamiṣati, to seek; A. adhi-jigāṃsate, to be desirous of studying or reading.

adhigata adhi-gata, as, ā, am, found, obtained, acquired; gone, over, studied, learnt.

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adhigantavya adhi-gantavya, as, ā, am, attainable.

adhigantṛ adhi-gantṛ, t, ā, m. one who attains or acquires.

adhigama adhi-gama, as, m. the act of attaining, acquisition; acquirement, mastery, study, knowledge; mercantile return, profit, &c.

adhigamana adhi-gamana, am, n. acquisition; finding; acquirement, reading, study; marriage, copulation.

adhigamanīya adhi-gamanīya or adhi-gamya, as, ā, am, attainable, practicable to be learnt.

adhigartya adhi-gartya, as, ā, am, Ved. (found) on the driver's seat.

adhigava adhi-gava, as, ī, am, Ved. (found) on or in a cow, derived from a cow.

adhigā adhi-gā, cl. 2. P. A. or cl. 3. P. -gāti, -te, -jigāti, -gātum, to fall in with, obtain; to notice, to go over, learn, read, study, remember; to attempt, resolve: Caus. P. adhi-gāpayati, -yitum, to cause to go over or teach: Desid. of the Caus. adhi-jigāpayiṣati, to be desirous of teaching.

adhiguṇā adhi-guṇa, as, ā, am, possessing superior qualities.

adhigupta adhi-gupta, as, ā, am, protected, guarded.

adhicaṅkrama adhi-caṅkrama, as, ā, am, Ved. walking or creeping over something.

adhicar adhi-car, cl. 1. P. -carati, -ritum, to walk or move on or over something.

adhicaraṇa adhi-caraṇa, am, n. the act of walking or moving or being on or over something.

adhici adhi-ci, cl. 5. P. -cinoti, -cetum, to pile or build upon.

adhijan adhi-jan, cl. 4. A. -jāyate, -janitum, to be born.

adhija adhi-ja, as, ā, am, born, superior by birth.

adhijanana adhi-janana, am, n. birth.

adhijānu adhi-jānu, ind. on the knees.

adhiji adhi-ji, cl. 1. P. -jayati, -jetum, to win in addition, conquer.

adhijihva adhi-jihva, as, m. or adhi-jihvikā, f. a peculiar swelling of the tongue or epiglottis.

adhijya adhi-jya, as, ā, am, having the bowstring (jyā) up or stretched, i. e. strung.

adhijyotiṣam adhi-jyotiṣam, ind. on the subject of light or the mundane luminaries (a chapter in the Upaniṣads).

adhitiṣṭhati adhi-tiṣṭhati. See adhiṣṭhā.

adhitya adhitya, as, ā, am (fr. adhi), being above.

adhityakā adhityakā, f. land on the upper part of a mountain, table land.

adhidaṇḍanetṛ adhi-daṇda-netṛ, tā, m. (ruler appointed to punish), epithet of Yama.

adhidanta adhi-danta, as, m. a redundant tooth which grows over another.

adhidārva adhi-dārva, as, ī, am (fr. dāru), wooden.

adhidina adhi-dina, am, n. an intercalated day.

adhideva adhi-deva, as, m. or adhi-devatā, f. a presiding or tutelary deity.
     adhidevam adhi-devam or adhi-devatam, ind. concerning the gods or the deity.

adhidevana adhi-devana, am, n., Ved. part of the house allotted to gambling; the table or board for gambling.

adhidaiva adhi-daiva or adhi-daivata, am, n, a presiding or tutelary deity; the supreme deity; the divine agent operating in material objects.
     adhidaivam adhi-daivam or adhidaivatam, ind. on the subject of the deity or the divine agent.

adhidaivika adhi-daivika, as, ī, am, spiritual.

adhidhā adhi-dhā, cl. 3. P. -dadhāti, -dhātum, to give, present; A. -dhatte, to acquire additionally.

adhidhṛ adhi-dhṛ, Caus. P. -dhārayati, -yitum, to carry over or across.

adhinātha adhi-nātha, as, m., N. of the author of the Kālayoga-śāstra.

adhinidhā adhi-ni-dhā, cl. 3. P. -dadhāti, -dhātum, to deposit, impart.

adhinirṇij adhi-nirṇij, k, k, k, Ved. veiled.

adhinivas adhi-ni-vas, cl. 1. P. -vasati, -vastum, to dwell.

adhinī adhi-nī, cl. 1. P. -nayati, -netum, to lead away from (with abl.); to raise above the ordinary measure, enhance.

adhinṛt adhi-nṛt, cl. 4. P. -nṛtyati, -nartitum, to dance upon (with acc.).

adhipa adhi-pa, as, m. a ruler, commander, regent, king.

adhipati adhi-pati, is, m. same as adhi-pa, (in medic.) a particular part of the head, where a wound proves instantly fatal.
     adhipativatī adhipati-vatī, f., Ved., N. given to certain female divinities.

adhipatnī adhi-patnī, f. a female sovereign or ruler.

adhipā adhi-pā, ās, m., Ved. a ruler, king, sovereign.

adhipatham adhi-patham, ind. over or across a road.

adhipāṃśula adhi-pāṃśula, as, ā, am, become dusty from above; dusty. Also adhi-pāṃsula.

adhipuruṣa adhi-puruṣa, as, m. the supreme spirit.

adhipū adhi-pū, cl. 9. P., Ved. -punāti, -pavitum, to besprinkle, to sprinkle.

adhipūtabhṛtam adhi-pūta-bhṛtam, ind., Ved. over the (vessel) full of purified Soma.

adhipeṣaṇā adhi-peṣaṇa, as, ā, am, serving to pound or grind upon.

adhiprajam adhi-prajam, ind. on the subject of procreation as a means of preserving the world (a chapter in the Upaniṣads).

adhipraṣṭiyuga adhi-praṣṭi-yuga, am, n. yoke laid upon the praṣṭi or foremost of three horses, used on certain sacrificial occasions, to which a fourth horse could be attached; (as), m. the fourth horse thus attached (?).

adhibādh adhi-bādh, cl. 1. A. -bādhate, -dhitum, to vex, annoy.

adhibrū adhi-brū, cl. 2. P. -bravīti, -vaktum, to give orders to.

adhibhuj adhi-bhuj, cl. 7. A. -bhuṅkte, -bhoktum, to enjoy.

adhibhū adhi-bhū, ūs, m. (rt. bhū with adhi), a master, a superior.

adhibhūta adhi-bhūta, am, n. the spiritual or fine substratum of material or gross objects; the all-penetrating influence of the supreme spirit; the supreme spirit himself; nature.
     adhibhūtam adhi-bhūtam, ind. on the subject of material objects (a chapter in the Upainshads).

adhibhautika adhi-bhautika (better ādhibhautika, q. v.), as, ī, am, natural (?).

adhibhojana adhi-bhojana, am, n. an additional gift.

adhimantha adhi-mantha or adhī-mantha, as, m. (churning of the eyes), severe ophthalmia.

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adhimanthana adhi-manthana, am, n., Ved. friction for producing fire; (as, ā, am), suitable for such friction (as wood).

adhimanthita adhi-manthita, as, ā, am, suffering from ophthalmia.

adhimāṃsa adhi-māṃsa or adhi-māṃsaka, as, m. proud flesh or cancer, especially in the eyes or the back part of the gums.
     adhimāṃsārman adhimāṃsārman (-sa-ar-), a, n. ophthalmic disease produced by proud flesh or cancer.

adhimātra adhi-mātra, as, ā, am, past or above measure, excessive; (am), ind. on the subject of prosody.
     adhimātrakāruṇika adhimātra-kāruṇika, as, m. (exceedingly merciful), N. of a Mahā-brāhmaṇa among the Buddhists.

adhimāsa adhi-māsa, as, m. an intercalary month.

adhimukti adhi-mukti, is, f. (with Buddhists) intuition (?); implicit faith (?).
     adhimuktisāra adhimukti-sāra, as, ā, am, wholly given to intuition or to implicit faith (?).

adhimuktika adhi-muktika, as, m. (with Buddhists) an epithet of Mahā-kāla.

adhimuhya adhi-muhya, as, m., N. of Śākyamuni in one of his thirty-four former births.

adhiyajña adhi-yajña, as, m. the chief or principal sacrifice; influence or agency affecting a sacrifice; (as, ā, am), relating to a sacrifice; (am), ind. on the subject of sacrifices.

adhiyat adhi-yat, cl. 1. A., Ved. -yatate, -titum, to fasten, fix, stick.

adhiyam adhi-yam, cl. 1. P. -yacchati, -yantum, to give, present.

adhiyā adhi-yā, cl. 2. P. -yāti, -tum, to escape.

adhiyāṅga adhiyāṅga, am, n. a redundant limb; (better adhikāṅga.)

adhiyodha adhi-yodha, as, m. a warrior who fights in the first lines (?).

adhirajju adhi-rajju, us, us, u, Ved. carrying a rope, fastening, fettering.

adhiratha adhi-ratha, as, ā, am, being upon or over a car; (as), m. a charioteer; N. of a charioteer who was a prince of Aṅga and Karṇa's foster-father; (am), n. a cart-load.

adhirathi adhi-rathi, is, m. (various reading for uda-rathi), the sun (?); the sea (?).

adhirathyam adhi-rathyam, ind. on the high road.

adhirāj adhi-rāj, ṭ, m. a supreme king, emperor.

adhirāja adhi-rāja, as, or adhi-rājan, ā, m. an emperor.

adhirājya adhi-rājya or adhi-rāṣṭra, am, n. supremacy, imperial dignity; an empire; N. of a country.
     adhirājyabhāj adhirājya-bhāj, k, m. possessor of imperial dignity.

adhirukma adhi-rukma, as, ā, am, wearing gold.

adhiruh adhi-ruh, cl. 1. P. or poet. A. adhi-rohati, -te, -roḍhum, to rise above, to ascend, mount: Caus. -ropayati, -yitum, to raise, place above.

adhirūḍha adhi-rūḍha, as, ā, am, ascended, mounted.
     adhirūḍhasamādhiyoga adhirūḍha-samādhi-yoga, as, ā, am, engaged in profound meditation.

adhiropaṇa adhi-ropaṇa, am, n. the act of raising or causing to mount.

adhiropita adhi-ropita, as, ā, am, raised, placed above.

adhiroha adhi-roha, as, m. ascent, mounting, overtopping.

adhirohaṇa adhi-rohaṇa, am, n. act of ascending or mounting or rising above; (ī), f. a ladder, flight of steps.

adhirohin adhi-rohin, ī, iṇī, i, rising above, ascending, &c.; (iṇī), f. a ladder, flight of steps.

adhilokam adhi-lokam, ind. on the subject of the universe (a chapter in the Upaniṣads).
     adhilokanātha adhi-loka-nātha, as, m. lord of the universe.

adhivac adhi-vac, cl. 2. P., Ved. -vakti, -vak-tum, to speak in favour of; to advocate; to side with.

adhivaktṛ adhi-vaktṛ, tā, m., Ved. an advocate; a comforter; an orator.

adhivacana adhi-vacana, am, n. advocacy; speaking in favour of; an appellation, epithet.

adhivāka adhi-vāka, as, m., Ved. advocacy, protection.

adhivap adhi-vap, cl. 1. A., Ved. -vapate, -vaptum, to put on; to shatter.

adhivas 1. adhi-vas, cl. 1. P. -vasati, -vastum, to inhabit; to settle or perch upon.

adhivāsa 1. adhi-vāsa, as, m. an inhabitant, a neighbour; one who dwells above; a habitation, abode, settlement, site; sitting before a person's house without taking food till he ceases to oppose or refuse a demand, commonly called 'sitting in dharṇā;' pertinacity; (for 2. 3. adhi-vāsa, see below.)
     adhivāsabhūmi adhivāsa-bhūmi, is, f. a dwelling-place, settlement.

adhivāsana 1. adhi-vāsana, am, n. act of causing the divinity to take up its abode in an image; sitting in dharṇā [cf. s. v. adhi-vāsa above]. (For 2. adhi-vāsana, see below.)

adhivāsin adhi-vāsin, ī, inī, i, inhabiting, settled in.
     adhivāsitā adhivāsi-tā, f. settled residence.

adhyuṣita adhy-uṣita, see s. v.

adhivas 2. adhi-vas, cl. 2. A. -vaste, -vasitum, to put on or over (as clothes &c.).

adhivastra adhi-vastra, as, ā, am, clothed.

adhivāsa 2. adhi-vāsa or adhī-vāsa, as, m. an upper garment, mantle.

adhivāsita 1. adhi-vāsita, as, ā, am, invested with, clothed with; see also s. v. adhi-vās below.

adhivājya adhi-vājya, am, n., N. of a country; correctly adhi-rājya.

adhivās adhi-vās, cl. 10. P. -vāsayati, -yitum, to scent, perfume.

adhivāsa 3. adhi-vāsa, as, m. application of perfumes or fragrant cosmetics. (For. 1. 2. adhi-vāsa, see above.)

adhivāsana 2. adhi-vāsana, am, n. application of perfumes, &c.; touching a vessel containing fragrant objects, that have been presented to an idol, as a ceremony; preliminary purification of the image.

adhivāsita 2. adhi-vāsita, as, ā, am, scented.

adhivāhana adhi-vāhana, as, m., N. of a man, said to be a son of Aṅga.

adhivikartana adhi-vi-kartana, am, n. the act of cutting off.

adhivikram adhi-vi-kram, cl. 1. A. -kramate, -mitum, to step forth towards or for some one.

adhivid adhi-vid, cl. 6. P. -vindati, -veditum, to obtain; to marry in addition to.

adhivinnā adhi-vinnā, f. a wife whose husband has married again; a neglected or superseded wife.

adhivettavyā adhi-vettavyā or adhi-vedanīyā or adhi-vedyā, f. a wife in addition to whom it is proper to marry another.

adhivettṛ adhi-vettṛ, tā, m. a husband who marries an additional wife.

adhivedana adhi-vedana, am, n. marrying an additional wife.

adhividyam adhi-vidyam, ind. on the subject of science (a chapter in the Upaniṣads).

adhivedam adhi-vedam, ind. concerning the Veda.

adhiśī adhi-śī, cl. 2. A. -śete, -śayitum, to lie down upon, to lie upon, to sleep upon.

adhiśayana adhi-śayana, as, ā, am, lying on, sleeping on.

adhiśayita adhi-śayita, as, ā, am, recumbent upon; used for lying or sleeping upon.

adhiśri adhi-śri, cl. 1. P. -śrayati, -yitum, Ved. -śrayitavai, to ascend; to put on fire, make hot.

adhiśraya adhi-śraya, as, m. a receptacle.

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adhiśrayaṇa adhi-śrayaṇa, am, n. act or ceremony of putting (a kettle) on the fire; (ī), f. a fire-place, oven.
     adhiśrayaṇīya adhi-śrayaṇīya, as, ā, am, relating to or connected with the Adhi-śrayaṇa.

adhiśrita adhi-śrita, as, ā, am, put on the fire (as a pot).

adhiṣavaṇā adhi-ṣavaṇa, am, n. (fr. rt. su with adhi), Ved. hand-press for extracting and straining the Soma juice; (as, ā, am), used for extracting and straining the Soma juice.

adhiṣṭhā adhi-ṣṭhā (adhi-sthā), cl. 1. P. or poet. A. -tiṣṭhati, -te, -ṣṭhātum, to stand upon, depend; to inhabit, abide; to be, stand; to superintend, govern; to step over or across; to overcome; to ascend, mount.

adhiṣṭhātṛ adhi-ṣṭhātṛ, tā, trī, tṛ, superintending, presiding, governing, tutelary; (ā), m. a ruler; especially the supreme ruler, or Providence personified and identified with one or another of the Hindū gods; a chief; a protector.

adhiṣṭhāna adhi-ṣṭhāna, am, n. standing by, being at hand, approach; standing or resting upon; a basis, base; a wheel (as the basis of a car); a position, site, residence, abode, seat; a settlement, town; government, authority, power, dominion; a precedent, rule; a benediction.
     adhiṣṭhānaśarīra adhiṣṭhāna-śarīra, am, n. (in Sāṅkhya phil.) a body which forms the medium between the subtle and the gross body.

adhiṣṭhāyaka adhi-ṣṭhāyaka, as, ā, am, governing, superintending, guarding.

adhiṣṭhita adhi-ṣṭhita, as, ā, am, settled; inhabited; superintended; regulated; appointed; superintending.

adhistri adhi-stri, ind. concerning a woman or a wife.
     adhistrī adhi-strī, f. a superior or distinguished woman.

adhihari adhi-hari, ind. concerning Hari.

adhī adhī (adhi-i), cl. 2. P. adhy-eti, -tum, to meet with, attain, notice, observe, understand; to mind, remember, care for, long for; to know, know by heart; to go over; study, learn, read, recite, declare; A. adhīte, to study, learn by heart, read, recite, declare: Caus. P. adhy-āpayati, -yitum, to make one read or study, teach, instruct; Desid. of the Caus. adhy-āpipayiṣati, to be desirious of teaching: Desid. adhīṣiṣati, to be desirous of teaching.

adhīta adhīta, as, ā, am, attained; studied, read; well read, learned.
     adhītaveda adhīta-veda, as, m. one who has studied the Vedas or whose studies are finished.

adhīti adhīti, is, f. perusal, study; Ved. desire, recollection.

adhītin adhītin, ī, inī, i, well read, proficient.

adhītya adhītya, ind. having gone over, having studied.

adhīyat adhīyat, an, atī, at, remembering, proficient study.

adhīyāna adhīyāna, as, m. a student; one who goes over the Veda either as a student or a teacher.

adhyayana adhy-ayana, adhy-āpaka, adhy-āpana, adhy-etavya, adhy-etṛ, &c., see s. v.

adhīkāra adhī-kāra = adhi-kāra, q. v.

adhīkṣ adhīkṣ (adhi-īkṣ), cl. 1. A. adhī-kṣate, -kṣitum, to discover.

adhīna adhīna, as, ā, am (fr. adhi), subject, subservient (generally forming the last member of a compound).
     adhīnatā adhīna-tā, f. or adhīna-tva, am, n. subjection, dependence.

adhīmantha adhī-mantha = adhi-mantha, q. v.

adhīra a-dhīra, as, ā, am, not fixed, moveable; confused; deficient in calm self-command; excited, excitable; fitful, capricious; querulous; weakminded, foolish; (ā), f. lightning; a capricious or bellicose mistress.
     adhīratā adhīra-tā, f. want of confidence.

adhīvāsa adhī-vāsa = adhi-vāsa, q. v.

adhīvāsas adhī-vāsas, ind. over the garment.

adhīśa adhīśa (adhi-īśa), as, m. a lord, a master over (others).

adhīśvara adhīśvara (adhi-īś-), as, m. a supreme lord or king, an emperor; (among the Jainas) an Arhat.

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adhīṣṭa adhīṣṭa (adhi-iṣṭa), as, ā, am, solicited, honorary; (am), n. solicitation; honorary office.

adhunā a-dhunā, ind. (fr. the pronom. base a, substituted for idam), at this time, now.

adhunātana adhunātana, as, ī, am, belonging to or extending over the present time.

adhura a-dhura, as, ā, am, not laden.

adhūmaka a-dhūmaka, as, ā, am, smokeless.

adhṛta a-dhṛta, as, ā, am, not held, unrestrained, uncontrolled; (as), m. an epithet of Viṣṇu.

adhṛti a-dhṛti, is, f. want of firmness or fortitude; laxity, absence of control or restraint; incontinence; (is, is, i), unsteady.

adhṛṣṭa a-dhṛṣṭa, as, ā, am, (rt. dhṛṣ), not bold, modest; not put down, invincible, irresistible.

adhṛṣya a-dhṛṣya, as, ā, am, unassailable, invincible; unapproachable; proud; (ā), f., N. of a river.

adhenu a-dhenu, us, us, u, Ved. yielding no milk or advantage; not nourishing.

adhairya a-dhairya, am, n. want or loss of calm self-command; paroxysm of excitement; excitability; (as, ā, am), deficient in self-command; swayed by excitement or violent feeling.

adho adho. See under adhas.

adhyaṃsa adhy-aṃsa, as, ā, am, (placed) on the shoulder.

adhyakta adhy-akta, as, ā, am (rt. añj), equipped, prepared.

adhyakṣa adhy-akṣa, as, ā, am, observable; exercising supervision; (as), m. an eye-witness; an inspector, superintendent; N. of a plant, Mimusops Kauki (kṣīrikā).

adhyakṣaram adhy-akṣaram, ind. on the subject of syllables; above all syllables (as the mystic om).

adhyagni adhy-agni, ind. over or by the nuptial fire, property given to the bride.
     adhyagnīkṛta adhyagnī-kṛta, am, n. property given to the wife at the wedding.
     adhyagnyupāgata adhyagny-upāgata, am, n. property received by a wife at the wedding.

adhyañc adhy-añc, aṅ, īcī, ak, tending upwards, eminent, superior.

adhyaṇḍā adhyaṇḍā, f., N. of two plants, Cowage (Carpopogon Pruriens) and Flacourtia Cataphracta.

adhyadhikṣepa adhy-adhikṣepa, as, m. excessive censure; gross abuse.

adhyadhīna adhy-adhīna, as, ā, am, completely subject or dependent, as a slave.

adhyaya adhy-aya or better adhy-āya, as, m. (fr. adhi-i, see adhī), a lesson, lecture, chapter.

adhyayana adhy-ayana, am, n. reading, studying, especially the Vedas (on of the six duties of a Brāhman).
     adhyayanatapasī adhyayana-tapasī, n. nom. du. study and penance.
     adhyayanapuṇya adhyayana-puṇya, am, n. religious merit acquired by studying.

adhyayanīya adhy-ayanīya, as, ā, am, fit or proper to be read or studied.

adhyardha adhy-ardha, as, ā, am, having an additional half, i. e. one and a half; (in compounds synonymous with) adhy-ardhaka, as, ikā, am, amounting to or worth one and a half.
     adhyardhakaṃsa adhyardha-kaṃsa, as, am, m. n. one and a half kaṃsa; (as, ī, am), amounting to or worth one and a half kaṃsa.
     adhyardhakākiṇīka adhyardha-kākiṇīka, as, ā, am, amounting to or worth one and a half kākiṇī.
     adhyardhakārṣāpaṇa adhyardha-kārṣāpaṇa or adhyardha-kārṣāpaṇika, as, ī, am, amounting to or worth one and a half kārṣāpaṇa.
     adhyardhakhārīka adhyardha-khārīka, as, ā, am, amounting to or worth one and a half khārī.
     adhyardhapaṇya adhyardha-paṇya, as, ā, am, amounting to or worth one and a half paṇa.
     adhyardhapādya adhyardha-pādya, as, ā, am, amounting to one foot and a half.
     adhyardhapratika adhyardha-pratika, as, ī, am, amounting to one and a half kārṣāpaṇa.
     adhyardhamāṣya adhyardha-māṣya, as, ā, am, amounting to or worth one and a half māṣa.
     adhyardhaviṃśatikīna adhy-ardha-viṃśatikīna, as, ā, am, amounting to or worth one and a half score or thirty.
     adhyardhaśata adhyardha-śata or adhyardha-śatya, as, ā, am, amounting to or bought with one hundred and fifty.
     adhyardhaśatamāna adhyardha-śatamāna or adhyardha-śātamāna, as, ī, am, amounting to or worth one and a half śatamāna.
     adhyardhaśāṇa adhyardha-śāṇa or adhyardha-śāṇya, as, ā, am, amounting to or worth one and a half śāṇa.
     adhyardhaśūrpa adhyardha-śūrpa, as, ī, am, amounting to or worth one and a half śūrpa.
     adhyardhasahasra adhyardha-sahasra or adhyardha-sāhasra, as, ī, am, amounting to or worth one thousand five hundred.
     adhyardhasuvarṇa adhyardha-suvarṇa or adhyardha-sauvarṇika, as, ī, am, amounting to or worth one and a half suvarṇa.

athyarbuda adhy-arbuda or adhy-arvuda, am, n. a tumour, goitre (dating from the time of birth).

athyavaso adhy-ava-so, cl. 4. P. -syati, sātum, to undertake, grapple with, attempt; to determine, consider.

adhyavasāna adhy-ava-sāna, am, n. determining; attempt, effort, exertion; energy, perseverance; (in rhetoric) concise and forcible language.

adhyavasāya adhy-ava-sāya, as, m. = the preceding; (in philosophy) mental effort, apprehension.
     adhyavasāyayukta adhyava-sāya-yukta, as, ā, am, or adhyavasāyin, ī, inī, i, resolute.

adhyavasāyita adhy-ava-sāyita, as, ā, am, attempted.

adhyavasita adhy-ava-sita, as, ā, am, mentally apprehended, ascertained, determined.

adhyavahanana adhy-avahanana, as, ā, am, Ved. serving as an implement on which anything is peeled.

adhyaśana adhy-aśana, am, n. eating too soon after a meal, before the last meal is digested.

adhyas adhy-as, cl. 4. P. -asyati, -situm, to throw or place over or upon.

adhyasta adhy-asta, as, ā, am, placed over; disguised; supposed.

adhyasthi adhy-asthi, i, n. a bone growing over another.

adhyah adhy-ah, Defect. Perf. -āha, to address; to bless.

adhyākram adhy-ā-kram, cl. 1. P. -krāmati, -kramitum, to attack; to fix upon, occupy.

adhyāgam adhy-ā-gam, cl. 1. P. -gacchati, -gantum, to fall in with, meet with.

adhyācar adhy-ā-car, cl. 1. P. -carati, -ritum, to bestride, occupy as a seat.

adhyāṇḍā adhy-āṇḍā, f., N. of a plant. See adhyaṇḍā.

adhyātma adhy-ātma, am, n. the supreme spirit; (as, ā, am), own, belonging to self; (am), ind. concerning self or individual personality.
     adhyātmacetas adhy-ātma-cetas, ās, m. one who meditates on the supreme spirit.
     adhyātmajñāna adhy-ātma-jñāna, am, n. or adhy-ātma-vidyā, f. knowledge of the supreme spirit or of ātman.
     adhyātmadṛś adhy-ātma-dṛś, k, or adhyātma-vid, t, m. a sage proficient in that knowledge.
     adhyātmarati adhy-ātma-rati, is, m. a man delighting in the contemplation of the supreme spirits or of ātman.
     adhyātmarāmāyaṇa adhy-ātma-rāmāyaṇa, am, n. a Rāmāyaṇa, in which everything is referred to the universal spirit; it forms part of the Brahmāṇḍa-Purāṇa.
     adhyātmaśāstra adhyātma-śāstra, am, n., N. of a work.
     adhyātmottarakāṇḍa adhyātmottara-kāṇḍa (-ma-ut-), am, n., N. of the last book of the Adhyātmarāmāyaṇa.

adhyātmika adhy-ātmika or better ādhyātmika, as, ī, am, connected with or relating to the soul or the supreme spirit.

adhyāpaka adhy-āpaka, as, m. (fr. adhi-i, see adhī), a teacher or professor, especially of sacred knowledge; N. of a priest (?).
     adhyāpakodita adhyāpakodita (-ka-ud-), as, m. entitled an adhyāpaka, styled a professor.

adhyāpana adhy-āpana, am, n. instruction or lecturing. especially on sacred knowledge.

adhyāpayitṛ adhy-āpayitṛ, t, ā, m. a teacher.

adhyāpita adhy-āpita, as, ā, am, instructed.

adhyāpya adhy-āpya, as, ā, am, fit or proper to be instructed.

adhyāya adhy-āya, as, m. a lesson, lecture, chapter; reading; proper time for reading or for a lesson; (at the close of comp. words) a reader, student, as vedādhyāya, a reader or student of the Vedas.
     adhyāyaśatapāṭha adhyāya-śata-pāṭha, as, m. an index of the One Hundred Chapters, N. of a work.

adhyāyin adhyāyin, ī, inī, i, studious, engaged in reading or study.

adhyāruh adhy-ā-ruh, cl. 1. P., poet. A. -rohati, -te, -roḍhum, to ascend, mount: Caus. -ropayati, -yitum, to cause or order to mount.

adhyārūḍha adhy-ārūḍha, as, ā, am, mounted, ascended; (with the instr.) above, superior; (with the abl.) below, inferior.

adhyāropa adhy-āropa, as, m. or adhy-āropaṇa, am, n. act of making one mount or of raising; act of attributing, especially through mistake.

adhyāropita adhy-āropita, as, ā, am, falsely attributed; hyperbolical.

adhyāvas adhy-ā-vas, cl. 1. P. -vasati, -vastum, to inhabit, dwell in (with acc. or loc.).

adhyāvāpa adhy-ā-vāpa, as, m. (rt. vap), the act of sowing or scattering upon.

adhyāvāhanika adhy-ā-vāhanika, am, n. that part of a wife's property which she receives when on a visit to her parents.

adhyās adhy-ās, cl. 2. A. -āste, -situm, to sit down or (of beasts) lie down upon, to settle upon; to occupy as one's seat or habitation; to get into, enter upon; to be directed to or upon; to affect, concern; to influence, rule; to conhabit with: Caus. P. adhy-āsayati, -yitum, to make (one) sit down: Des. adhy-āsisiṣate, to be about to get upon (a seat &c.).

adhyāsana adhy-āsana, am, n. act of sitting down upon; presiding over; a seat, settlement.

adhyāsayoga adhyāsa-yoga, as, m. (with Buddhists) a kind of meditation (?).

adhyāsita adhy-āsita, as, ā, am, seated on; seated in the presidential chair; settled, inhabited.

adhyāsin adhy-āsin, ī, inī, i, sitting down or seated upon.

adhyāsīna adhy-āsīna, as, ā, am, seated upon.

adhyāsa adhy-āsa, as, m. (rt. 2. as), imposing; erroneously attributing; an appendage.

adhyāharaṇā adhy-ā-haraṇa, am, n. or adhy-ā-hāra, as, m. (rt. hṛ), act of supplying (elliptical language); supplement; act of inferring or arguing.

adhyāharaṇīya adhy-āharaṇīya or adhy-āhartavya or adhy-āhārya, as, ā, am, proper to be supplied; proper to be argued.

adhyāhṛta adhy-āhṛta, as, ā, am, supplied, argued.

adhyuṣita adhy-uṣita, as, ā, am (rt. vas, see 1. adhi-vas), inhabited; obtained (?).
     adhyuṣitāśva adhy-uṣitāśva or adhyūṣitāśva (-ta-aś-), as, m., N. of a prince descended from Daśaratha.

adhyuṣṭa adhy-uṣṭa, as, ā, am (rt. uṣ = ucch ?), coiled up three and a half times.
     adhyuṣṭavalaya adhy-uṣṭa-valaya, as, m. (snake) forming a ring coiled up three and a half times.

adhyuṣṭra adhy-uṣṭra, as, m. conveyance borne or drawn by camels.

adhyūḍha adhy-ūḍha, as, ā, am (past pass. part. fr. rt. vah with adhi), raised, exalted; affluent; abundant; (as), m. Śiva; (ā), f. a wife whose husband has married an additional wife.

adhyūdhnī adhy-ūdhnī, f. (fr. ūdhan or ūdhas, udder, with adhi), a tubular vessel above the udder, or above the scrotum, i. e. urethra (?).

adhyūṣivas adhy-ūṣivas, ān, uṣī, as (perf. part. of rt. vas with adhi), having inhabited.

adhyūh adhy-ūh, cl. 1. P. -ūhati, -hitum, to lay on, overlay; to place upon, to raise above.

adhyūhana adhy-ūhana, am, n. putting on a layer (of ashes or cinders).

adhyṛdh adhy-ṛdh, cl. 5. P. -ṛdhnoti, -ardhitum, to expand.

adhyetavya adhy-etavya or adhy-eya, as, ā, am (fr. rt. i with adhi, see adhī), fit or proper to be studied or read.

adhyetṛ adhy-etṛ, t, ā, m. a student, reader.

adhyeṣyamāṇa adhy-eṣyamāṇa, as, ā, am (fut. part.), intending to study.

adhyedh adhy-edh, cl. 1. A. -edhate, -dhitum, to increase, prosper.

adhyeṣaṇā adhy-eṣaṇa, am, ā, n. f. (fr. rt. 3. iṣ with adhi), solicitation, entreaty.

adhri a-dhri, is, is, i (rt. dhṛ), unrestrained, irresistible.
     adhrigu adhri-gu, us, plur. āvas, m., Ved. irresistible; N. of a heavenly killer of victims; N. of a formula concluding with an invocation of Agni.
     adhrija adhri-ja, as, ā, am, Ved. irresistible.
     adhripuṣpalikā adhri-puṣpalikā, f. a species of the Pāṇ plant, Piper Betel.

adhriyamāṇa a-dhriyamāṇa, as, ā, am (pres. pass. part. of rt. dhṛ with a), not held; not to be got hold of, not forthcoming, not surviving or existing, dead.

adhruva a-dhruva, as, ā, am, not fixed, not permanent; uncertain, doubtful; separable, admitting of severance without disastrous effects.

adhruṣa adhruṣa, as, m. quinsy, a kind of sore throat (etymology doubtful).

adhvan adhvan, ā, m. (said to be from ad, 'to eat', d being changed to dh, or fr. rt. at), a road, way, orbit; a journey, course; distance; time; means, method, resource; the zodiac (?), sky, air; a place; a recension of the Vedas and the school upholding it; assault (?). adhvan becomes adhva, as, at the end of some compounds.
     adhvaga adhva-ga, as, ā, am, travelling; (as), m. a traveller; a camel, a mule; the sun; (ā), f. Gangā (the river).
     adhvagat adhva-gat, t, m. a traveller.
     adhvagatyanta adhva-gaty-anta or adhva-ganta-vya, as, m. measure of length applicable to roads.
     adhvagabhogya adhvaga-bhogya, as, m. (traveller's delight), N. of a tree (Spondias Mangifera).
     adhvagamana adhva-gamana, am, n. act of travelling.
     adhvagāmin adhva-gāmin, ī, inī, i, wayfaring.
     adhvagā adhva-gā, f. a plant, also called Svarṇulī.
     adhvapati adhva-pati, is, m. (lord of the orbits or of the zodiac), the sun.
     adhvaratha adhva-ratha, as, m. a travelling car.
     adhvaśalya adhva-śalya, as, m. a plant, Achyranthes Aspera.
     adhvādhipa adhvādhipa (-va-adh-) or adhveśa (-va-īś-), as, m. officer in charge of the police on the public roads.

adhvanīna adhvanīna or adhvanya, as, ā, am, speeding on a journey; (as), a traveller.

adhvayat adhvayat, an, antī, at, Ved. running, quick.

adhvara a-dhvara, as, ā, am (fr. a, not, and dhvara, crookedness, injury), Ved. not crooked, unbroken, uninterrupted; durable; sound; intent; (as), m. a religious or liturgical service, a sacrifice, especially the Soma sacrifice; N. of a Vasu; of the chief of a family; (am), n. sky or air.
     adhvarakarman adhvara-karman, a, n. performance of the Adhvara or connected with it.
     adhvarakalpā adhvara-kalpā, f., N. of an optional sacrifice (Kāmyeṣṭi).
     adhvarakāṇḍa adhvara-kāṇḍa, am, n. title of the book in the Śatapatha-Brāhmaṇa which refers to Adhvaras.
     adhvarakṛt adhvara-kṛt, t, m. performing an Adhvara.
     adhvaraga adhvara-ga, as, ā, am, intended for an Adhvara.
     adhvaradīkṣaṇīyā adhvara-dīkṣaṇīyā, f. consecration connected with the Adhvara.
     adhvaraprāyaścitti adhvara-prāyaścitti, is, f. expiation connected with the Adhvara.
     adhvaravat adhva-ra-vat, ān, atī, at, containing the word Adhvara.
     adhvaraśrī adhvara-śrī, īs, m., Ved. glory (i. e. patron) of the Adhvara.
     adhvarasamiṣṭayajus adhvara-samiṣṭa-yajus, us, n., N. of an aggregate of nine libations connected with the Adhvara.
     adhvarastha adhvara-stha, as, ā, am, or adhvare-ṣṭhā, ās, ās, am, Ved. standing at (or engaged in) an Adhvara.

adhvarayu adhvarayu, etymological substitute for adhvaru.

adhvarīya adhvarīya or adhvarya, nom. (fr. adhvara), P. adhvarīyati or adhvaryati, P. to be desirous of having an Adhvara performed; to institute one (?).

adhvaryu adhvaryu, us, m. one who institutes an Adhvara; any officiating priest; technical name of a priest of a particular class (as distinguished from the hotṛ, the udgātṛ, and the Brahman classes). The Adhvaryavas "had to measure the ground, to build the altar, to prepare the sacrificial vessels, to fetch wood and water, to light the fire, to bring the animal and immolate it." Whilst engaged in these duties, they had to repeat, without interruption or mistake, the hymns of the Yajur-veda; hence that Veda itself is also called Adhvaryu or Adhvaryavas, and the latter word also means adherents of the Yajur-veda.
     adhvaryukāṇḍa adhvaryu-kāṇḍa, am, n. title of a book of mantras or prayers intended for Adhvaryavas.
     adhvaryukratu adhvaryu-kratu, us, m. sacrificial act performed by the Adhvaryu.
     adhvaryuveda adhvaryu-veda, as, m. the Yajur-veda.

adhvasman a-dhvasman, ā, ā, a, Ved. imperishable (?); not causing to fall (?); unveiled, open to the light (?).

adhvānta a-dhvānta, am, n. (not positive darkness), twilight, gloom, shade.
     adhvāntaśātrava adhvānta-śā-trava, as, m. a plant, Cassia Fistula or Bignonia Indica (not an enemy to darkness, i. e. blossoming in the shade).

an 1. an-, occasionally ana ana-, (before a vowel) the substitute for 3. a, or a privative.

     (Before terminations commencing with vowels) the substitute for the pronominal base a, as in anena (ana-ina).

an 2. an, cl. 2. P. aniti or Ved. anati, āna, aniṣyati, ānīt, anitum, to breathe, gasp, move, go, live [cf. Gr. [greek] Lat. animus]: Caus. ānayati, -yitum: Desid. aniniṣati.

ana ana, as, m. breath, spiration.

anana anana, am, n. breathing, living.

anaṃśa an-aṃśa, as, ā, am, or an-aṃśin, ī, inī, i, portionless; not entitled to a share in an inheritance.

anaṃśumatphalā an-aṃśumat-phalā, f. a plantain (the same as aṃśumat-phalā).

anaka anaka, as, ā, am, inferior = aṇaka, q. v.

anakadundubha anaka-dundubha, as, m. a name of Kṛṣṇa's grandfather.
     anakadundubhi anaka-dundubhi or better ānakadundubhi, is, m. a name given to Kṛṣṇa's father, Vasudeva; (a name said to be derived from the beating of drums at his birth.)

anakasmāt an-akasmāt, ind. not without a cause or an object; not accidentally, not suddenly.

anakṣ an-akṣ, k, k, k, Ved. or an-akṣa, as, ī, am, sightless, blind.

anakṣi an-akṣi, n. a bad eye.

anakṣara an-akṣara, as, ā, am, unfit to be uttered; unable to articulate.

anakṣastambham an-akṣa-stambham, ind. so as not to interfere with the axle-tree.

anagāra an-agāra, as, m. (houseless), an ascetic who has adopted a houseless or vagrant condition.

anagārikā an-agārikā, f. the houseless life of such an ascetic.

anagna a-nagna, as, ā, am, not naked.
     anagnatā anagna-tā, f. the not being naked.

anagni an-agni, is, m. non-fire; substance differing from fire; absence of fire; (is, is, i), requiring no fire or fire-place; not maintaining the sacred fire, irreligious; unmarried; dispensing with the use of fire; dyspeptic.
     anagnitra an-agni-tra, as, ā, am, or an-agni-trā, ās, ās, am, not maintaining the sacred fire, irreligious (?); not enjoying Agni's protection (?).
     anagnidagdha an-agni-dagdha, as, ā, am, not burnt with fire; not burnt on the funeral pile (but buried); (ās), m. pl., N. of a class of manes.
     anagniṣvātta anagni-ṣvātta, ās, m. pl. = preceding; see agni-dagdha and agni-ṣvātta under agni.

anagha an-agha, as, ā, am, sinless, innocent; faultless; handsome; (as), m. white mustard; N. or epithet of various persons, especially Śiva.
     anaghāṣṭamī ana-ghāṣṭamī (-gha-aṣ-), f., N. of the fifty-fifth Adhyāya of the Bhavishyottara-Purāṇa.

anaṅkuśa an-aṅkuśa, as, ā, am, unrestrained, ungovernable.

anaṅga an-aṅga, as, ā, am, incorporeal; (as), m. Love, N. of Kāma, the god of love, so called because he was reduced to ashes by a flash from the eye of Śiva, for having attempted to disturb his penance by filling him with love for Pārvatī; (am), n. the ether, air, sky; the mind, manas; that which is not the aṅga, q. v.
     anaṅgakrīḍā anaṅga-krīḍā, f., N. of a metre of two verses, the first containing sixteen long syllables, the second thirty-two short ones.
     anaṅgadevī anaṅga-devī, f., N. of a queen-consort of Kaṣmīr.
     anaṅgapāla anaṅga-pāla, as, m., N. of a king's chamberlain at Kaṣmīr.
     anaṅgamejaya an-aṅgam-ejaya, as, ā, am, not shaking the body (?).
     anaṅgaraṅga anaṅga-raṅga, N. of an erotic work.
     anaṅgalekhā anaṅga-lekhā, f. a love letter; N. of a queen of Kaṣmīr.
     anaṅgaśekhara anaṅga-śekhara, as, m., N. of a metre of four verses, each containing fifteen iambi.
     anaṅgasenā an-aṅga-senā, f., N. of a dramatic personage.
     anaṅgāpīḍa an-aṅgāpīḍa (-ga-āp-) as, m., N. of a king of Kaṣmīr.
     anaṅgāsuhṛd anaṅgāsuhṛd (-ga-as-), t, m. Kāma's enemy, i. e. Śiva.

anaṅgaka an-aṅgaka, am, n. the mind.

anaṅguri an-aṅguri, is, is, i, destitute of fingers.

anaccha an-accha, as, ā, am, not pellucid, turbid.

anajakā an-ajakā or an-ajikā, f. a miserable little goat.

anañjana an-añjana, as, ā, am, free from collyrium or pigment or pain; (am), n. the sky, atmosphere; Viṣṇu.

anaḍuh anaḍ-uh, ḍvān, m. (fr. anas, a cart, q. v., and vah, to drag), an ox; bull; the sign Taurus.
     anaḍujjihvā anaḍuj-jihvā, f. a plant, also called Gojihvā, Elephantopus Scaber.
     anaḍudda anaḍud-da, as, m. donor of a bull or ox.
     anaḍuhī anaḍuhī or anaḍvāhī, f. a cow.

anaḍutka anaḍutka, as, ā, am, having oxen (?).

anaḍuha anaḍuha, as, m., N. of the chief of a certain Gotra.

anaṇu an-aṇu, us, us or vī, u, not minute or fine, coarse; (us), m. coarse grain, peas, &c.

anata a-nata, as, ā, am, not bent, not bowed down; erect; stiff; haughty.

anati an-ati-, not very-, not too-, not past-. (Words commencing with an-ati are so easily analysed by referring to ati, &c., that few need be enumerated).
     anatikrama an-ati-krama, as, m. moderation, propriety.
     anatikramaṇīya an-atikramaṇīya, as, ā, am, not to be avoided, not to be transgressed, inviolable.
     anatidṛśya an-atidṛśya, as, ā, am, Ved. not transparent, opaque; (or equivalent to aty-adṛśya), quite indiscernible.
     anatidbhuta an-atidbhuta, as, m., Ved. unsurpassed.
     anativṛtti an-ativṛtti, is, f. congruity.
     anativyādhya an-ativyādhya, as, ā, am, Ved. invulnerable.
     anatyantagati an-atyanta-gati, is, f. the sense of "not exceedingly", sense of diminutive words.
     anatyaya an-atyaya, as, ā, am, unperishable, unbroken.
     anatyudya an-atyudya, as, ā, am, Ved. (equivalent to aty-an-udya), quite unfit to be mentioned.

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anadat an-adat, an, atī, at, not eating, not consuming.

anaddhā an-addhā or (with part. u) an-addho, ind., Ved. not truly, not really; not clearly.
     anaddhāpuruṣa an-addhā-puruṣa, as, m., Ved. one who is not a true man, one who is of no use either to gods or men or the manes.

anadya an-adya, as, ā, am, not fit to be eaten; (as), m. white mustard.

anadyatana an-adyatana, as, m. tense which is not applicable to the current day.

anadhika an-adhika, as, ā, am, incapable of being enlarged or excelled; boundless; perfect.

anadhikāra an-adhikāra, as, m. absence of authority or right or claim.
     anadhikāracarcā anadhikāra-carcā, f. intermeddling, officiousness.

anadhikārin an-adhikārin, ī, iṇī, i, not entitled to.

anadhikṛta an-adhikṛta, as, ā, am, not placed at the head of, not appointed.

anadhigata an-adhigata, as, ā, am, not obtained, not acquired; not studied.
     anadhigatamanoratha anadhigata-manoratha, as, ā, am, disappointed.
     anadhigataśāstra anadhigata-śāstra, as, ā, am, unacquainted with the Śāstras.

anadhigamya an-adhigamya, as, ā, am, unattainable.

anadhiṣṭhāna an-adhiṣṭhāna, am, n. want of superintendence.

anadhiṣṭhita an-adhiṣṭhita, as, ā, am, not appointed; not present.

anadhīna an-adhīna or an-adhīnaka, as, ā, am, independent; (as), m. an independent carpenter who works on his own account, see kauṭa-takṣa.

anadhyakṣa an-adhyakṣa, as, ā, am, not observable; destitute of a superintendent.

anadhyayana an-adhyayana, am, n. not studying; intermission of study.

anadhyāya an-adhyāya, as, m. = the preceding; time when there is or ought to be an intermission of study.
     anadhyāyadivasa anadhyāya-divasa, as, m. a vacation day.

anana anana, am, n. (fr. rt. an), breathing, living.

ananaṅgamejaya an-anaṅgamejaya, as, ā, am, not leaving the body unshaken; see under an-aṅga.

ananujñāta an-anujñāta, as, ā, am, not agreed to, not permitted, denied.

ananubhāvaka an-anubhāvaka, as, ī, am, unable to comprehend.
     ananubhāvakatā ananubhāvaka-tā, f. noncomprehension; unintelligibility.

ananubhāṣaṇā an-anubhāṣaṇa, am, n. not repeating (for the sake of challengin) a proposition; tacit assent.

ananubhūta an-anubhūta, as, ā, am, not perceived, not experienced, unknown.

ananumata an-anumata, as, ā, am, not honoured, not liked, disagreeable, unfit.

ananuṣaṅgin an-anuṣaṅgin, ī, iṇī, i, not attached to, indifferent to.

ananuṣṭhāna an-anuṣṭhāna, am, n. non-observance, neglect; impropriety.

ananūkta an-anūkta, as, ā, am, not recited or studied; not responded to.

ananta an-anta, as, ā, am, endless, boundless, eternal, infinite; (as), m., N. of many person, particularly of Viṣṇu; of Viṣṇu's couch, the snake king Śeṣa; of Śeṣa's brother Vāsuki; of Kṛṣṇa; of his brother Baladeva; of Śiva, Rudra, one of the Viśva-devas, the 14th Arhat, &c.; a plant, Sinduvāra, Vitex Trifolia; Talc; the 23rd lunar asterism, Śravaṇa; a silken cord tied round the right arm at a particular festival; the letter ā; a periodic decimal fraction?; (ā), f. the earth; the number one; N. of various females, especially of Pārvatī; N. of various (perennial?) plants, particularly one also called Śārivā, Periploca Indica or Asclepias Pseudosarsa (or Asthmatica), the root of which supplies a valuable medicine; (am), n. the sky, atmosphere; Talc.
     anantakara ananta-kara, as, ī, am, rendering endless, magnifying indefinitely.
     anantaga ananta-ga, as, ā, am, going or moving for ever or indefinitely.
     anantaguṇa ananta-guṇa, as, ā, am, having boundless excellencies.
     anantacaturdaśī ananta-caturdaśī, f. the fourteenth lunar day (or full moon) of Bhādra, when Ananta is worshipped.
     anantacāritra ananta-cāritra, as, m., N. of a Bodhisattva.
     anantajit ananta-jit, t, m., N. of the fourteenth Jaina Arhat of the present Avasarpiṇī.
     anantatā ananta-tā, f. or ananta-tva, am, n. eternity, infinity.
     anantatāna ananta-tāna, as, ā, am, extensive.
     anantatīrtha ananta-tīrtha, as, m., N. of an author.
     anantatīrthakṛt ananta-tīrtha-kṛt, t, m. the same as Anantajit.
     anantatṛtīyā ananta-tṛtīyā, f. the third day of Bhādra, said to be sacred to Viṣṇu.
     anantatṛtīyavrata anantatṛtīya-vrata, the twenty-fourth Adhyāya of the Bhavishyottara-Purāṇa.
     anantadṛṣṭi ananta-dṛṣṭi, is, m. epithet of Śiva.
     anantadeva ananta-deva, as, m., N. of various persons, especially of a king of Kaṣmīr.
     anantanemi ananta-nemi, is, m., N. of a king of Mālava, a contemporary of Śākyamuni.
     anantapāra ananta-pāra, as, ā, am, of boundless width.
     anantapāla ananta-pāla, as, m., N. of a warrior chief in Kaṣmīr.
     anantabhaṭṭa ananta-bhaṭṭa, as, m., N. of a man.
     anantamati ananta-mati, is, m., N. of a Bodhisattva.
     anantamāyin ananta-māyin, ī, inī, i, endlessly illusory or delusive or deceitful.
     anantamūla ananta-mūla, as, m. a medicinal plant, also called Śārivā.
     anantarāma ananta-rāma, as, m., N. of a man.
     anantarāśi ananta-rāśi, is, m. (in arithm.) an infinite quantity; a periodic decimal fraction (?).
     anantarūpa ananta-rūpa, as, ā, or ī, am, having innumerable forms or shapes.
     anantāt an-anta-at, ān, atī, at, eternal, infinite; (ān), m. (in the Upaniṣads) one of Brahmā's four feet, earth, intermediate space, heaven, and ocean.
     anantavarman ananta-varman, ā, m., N. of a king.
     anantavāta ananta-vāta, as, m. a disease of the head, somewhat like tetanus.
     anantavikramin ananta-vikramin, ī, m., N. of a Bodhisattva.
     anantavijaya ananta-vijaya, as, m., N. of Yudhiṣṭhira's conchshell.
     anantavīrya ananta-vīrya, as, m., N. of the twenty-third Jaina Arhat of a future age.
     anantavrata ananta-vrata, am, n. cermeony or festival in honour of Ananta or Viṣṇu on the day of the full moon in Bhādra; title of the 102nd Adhyāya of the Bhavishyottara-Purāṇa.
     anantaśakti an-anta-śakti, is, is, i, omnipotent; (is), m., N. of a king.
     anantaśayana ananta-śayana, am, n. Travancore.
     anantaśīrṣā an-anta-śīrṣā, f., N. of the snake king Vāsuki's wife.
     anantaśuṣma ananta-śuṣma, as, ā, am, Ved. possessing boundless strength (?); endlessly blowing (?).
     anantātman anantātman (-ta-āt-), ā, m. the infinite spirit.
     anantāśrama anantāśrama, ananteśvara, &c., names of persons unknown.

ananataka ananataka, as, ā, am, endless, boundless, eternal, infinite; (am), n. (among the Jainas) the eternal (i. e. the aggregate of spirit and matter); the infinite (i. e. infinite space).

anantya anantya, as, ā, am, infinite, eternal; (am), n. infinity, eternity.

anantara an-antara, as, ā, am, having no interior; having (or leaving) no interstice or interval or pause; uninterrupted, unbroken; continuous; immediately adjoining, contiguous; next of kin, &c.; compact, close; (am), n. contiguousness; Brahma, the supreme soul, as being of one entire essence; (am), ind. immediately after; after; afterwards.

anantaraja anantara-ja, as, m. (next-born), the son of a Kṣatriyā or Vaiśyā mother by a father belonging to the caste immediately above the mother's.
     anantarajāta an-antara-jāta, as, m. = preceding; also the son of a Śudrā mother by a Vaiśya father.

anantarāyam an-antarāyam, ind. without a break.

anantarita an-antarita, as, ā, am, not separated by any interstice; unbroken.

anantarīya anantarīya, as, ā, am, concerning (or belonging to) the next of kin, &c.

anantarhita an-antar-hita, as, ā, am, (past part. Pass. of antar-dhā, q. v., with an), not concealed, manifest; not separated by a break.

ananda a-nanda, as, ā, am, joyless, cheerless; (ās), m. pl., Ved., N. of a purgatory.

ananna an-anna, am, n. rice or food undeserving of its name.

ananya an-anya, as, ā, am, no other, not another, not different, identical; self; not having a second, unique; not more than one, sole; having no other (object), undistracted.
     ananyagati ananya-gati, is, f. sole resort or resource.
     ananyagati ananya-gati, is, is, i, or ananya-gatika, as, ā, am, having only one (or no other) resort or resource left.
     ananyagāmin ananya-gāmin, ī, inī, i, going to no other.
     ananyacinta ananya-cinta, as, ā, am, or ananya-cetas, ās, ās, as, giving one's undivided thought to, (with loc.).
     ananyacodita ananya-codita, as, ā, am, self-impelled.
     ananyaja ananya-ja, as, m. epithet of Kāma or Love.
     ananyatā ananya-tā, f. or ananya-tva, am, n. identity.
     ananyadṛṣṭi ananya-dṛṣṭi, is, is, i, gazing intently.
     ananyadeva an-anya-deva, as, ā, am, having no other god.
     ananyaniṣpādya ananya-niṣpādya, as, ā, am, (requiring) to be accomplished by no other.
     ananyapūrvā an-anya-pūrvā, f. a female who never belonged to another, a virgin.
     ananyapratikriya ananya-pratikriya, as, ā, am, having no other means of resistance or redress.
     ananyabhava ananya-bhava, as, ā, am, originating in or with no other.
     ananyabhāva ananya-bhāva, as, ā, am, thinking of the only one, i. e. of the supreme spirit.
     ananyamanas ananya-manas, ās, ās, as, or ananya-manaska, as, ā, am, or ananya-mānasa, as, ī, am, exercising undivided attention.
     ananyayoga ananya-yoga, as, m. not suitable to any others.
     ananyaviṣaya ananya-viṣaya, as, ā, am, exclusively applicable.
     ananyaviṣayātman ananya-viṣayātman (-ya-āt-), ā, ā, a, having the mind fixed upon one (or the sole) object.
     ananyavṛtti ananya-vṛtti, is, is, i, closely attentive.
     ananyahṛta an-anya-hṛta, as, ā, am, not carried off by another, safe.
     ananyānubhava ananyānubhava (-ya-an-), as, m., N. of the teacher of Prakāśātman.
     ananyārtha ananyārtha (-ya-ar-), as, ā, am, not subservient to another object; principal.
     ananyāśrita ananyāśrita (-ya-āś-), as, ā, am, not having resorted to another; independent; (am), n. (in law) unencumbered property.

ananyādṛśa an-anyādṛśa, as, ī, am, not like others, singular.

ananvaya an-anvaya, as, m. want of connexion; (in rhetoric) comparison of an object with its own ideal, (as, a lady-like lady.)

ananvita an-anvita, as, ā, am, unconnected, inconsecutive, desultory, incoherent, irrelevant, irregular; not attended with, destitute of.

anapa an-apa, as, ā, am, destitute of water.

anapakaraṇā an-apakaraṇa, am, n. (rt. kṛ), not injuring; (in law) non-payment, non-delivery.

anapakarman an-apakarman, a, n. or anapakriyā, f. = preceding.

anapakāra an-apakāra, as, m. harmlessness.

anapakārin an-apakārin, ī, iṇī, i, innocuous.

anapakṛta an-apakṛta, as, ā, am, unharmed.

anapakarṣa an-apakarṣa, as, m. (rt. kṛṣ), m. non-degradation, superiority.

anapaga an-apaga, as, ā, am, not departing from.

anapacyuta an-apacyuta, as, ā, am, Ved. not fallen off, not declined; not displaced.

anapajayya an-apajayya, as, ā, am (rt. ji), Ved. impossible to have its victorious character reversed or neutralized.

anapatya an-apatya, as, ā, am, childless; Ved. causing childlessness, unpropitious; (am), n. childlessness.
     anapatyatā anapatya-tā, f. childlessness.
     anapatyavat an-apatya-vat, ān, atī, at, Ved. childless.

anapatyaka anapatyaka, as, ā, or ī, am, childless.

anapatrapa an-apatrapa, as, ā, am, shameless.

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anapanihita an-apanihita, as, ā, am, Ved. not curtailed or mutilated.

anapayati an-apayati, ind., Ved. (before the sun makes a start); very early. (apayati is said to be fr. rt. i with apa, perhaps the loc. of the pres. part.)

anapara an-apara, as, ā, am, without another; having no follower; sole (as an epithet of Brahma).

anaparāddha an-aparāddha, as, ā, am, having sustained no injury; (am), ind. without injury.

anaparādha an-aparādha, as, m. innocence, innocuousness; (as, ā, am), innocent, faultless; free from defects.
     anaparādhatva anaparādha-tva, am, n. freedom from fault.

anaparādhin anaparādhin, ī, inī, i, innocent.

anapalāṣuka an-apalāṣuka, as, ā, am, not thirsty.

anapavācana an-apavācana, as, ā, am, Ved. impossible to be talked away or wished away.

anapavṛjya an-apavṛjya, as, ā, am, Ved. clear of objects that should be shunned as impure.

anapavyayat an-apavyayat (apa-vy-ayat), an, antī, at, Ved. unremitting, not letting go, able.

anapasara an-apasara, as, ā, am (having no hole to creep out of), inexcusable, unjustifiable; (as), m. an usurper.

anapasaraṇa an-apasaraṇa, am, n. absence of an outlet.

anapaspṛś an-apaspṛś, k, k, k, Ved. not refusing, not obstinate.

anapasphura an-apasphur, ūs, or an-apasphura, as, ā, am, or an-apasphurat, an, antī, at, Ved. (a cow) not withdrawing, i. e. not refusing to be milked.

anapahatapāpman an-apahata-pāpman, ā, ā, a, Ved. not freed from evil (epithet of the Pitṛs).

anapahṛta an-apahṛta, as, ā, am, not carried off, not stolen.

anapākaraṇa an-apākaraṇa, am, n. or an-apākarman, a, n. (in law) non-payment, nondelivery.

anapāya an-apāya, as, ā, am, free from loss, undiminished; not passing away, imperishable; (as), m. freedom from loss or from wear and tear; permanence, imperishable nature; epithet of Śiva.

anapāyin anapāyin, ī, inī, i, not transient, imperishable; unfailing.

anapāvṛt an-apāvṛt, ind., Ved. not turned away, unremittingly.

anapāśraya an-apāśraya, as, ā, am, not dependent.

anapuṃsaka a-napuṃsaka, am, n. (in gram.) not a neuter.

anapūpīya an-apūpīya or an-apūpya, as, ā, am, unfit for (apūpa) cakes. See apūpa.

anapekṣa an-apekṣa, as, ā, am, regardless, careless; indifferent; impartial; irrespective; irrelevant; (ā), f. disregard, carelessness, indifference; (am), ind. without regard to; regardlessly, carelessly, accidentally.
     anapekṣatva anapekṣa-tva, am, n. disregard; irrelevance; irrespectiveness; (-tvāt), from having no reference to, since (it) has no reference to.

anapekṣita an-apekṣita, as, ā, am, disregarded; unheeded; unexpected.

anapekṣin an-apekṣin, ī, iṇī, i, regardless, careless; indifferent, &c.

anapekṣya an-apekṣya, ind. disregarding, irrespective of.

anapeta an-apeta, as, ā, am, not gone off, not past; not separated, faithful to, possessed of.

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anapta an-apta, as, ā, am, Ved. not watery.

anapnas an-apnas, ās, ās, as, Ved. destitute of means (?), merit (?), shape (?), [cf. Lat. inops.]

anapsaras an-apsaras, ās, f. unlike an Apsaras, unworthy of an Apsaras.

anaphā anaphā, f. a particular configuration of the planets. [Gr. [greek]]

anabhijña an-abhijña, as, ā, am, unacquainted with, ignorant.

anabhidruh an-abhidruh, dhruk, k, k, Ved. not malicious.

anabhipreta an-abhipreta, am, n. something different from (or the reverse of) what was intended.

anabhibhūta an-abhibhūta, as, ā, am, not overcome, unsurpassed; not beset, unobstructed.

anabhimata an-abhimata, as, ā, am, not to one's mind, disliked.

anabhimlāta an-abhi-mlāta, as, ā, am, unfaded.
     anabhimlātavarṇa anabhimlāta-varṇa, as, ā, am, Ved. of unfaded colour or brightness.

anabhimlāna an-abhimlāna, as, m. (non-fading), N. of the chief of a Gotra.

anabhirūpa an-abhirūpa, as, ā, or ī, am, not handsome, not pleasing.

anabhilakṣita an-abhilakṣita, as, m. destitute of (masonic?) marks or symbols, an impostor.

anabhilāṣa an-abhilāṣa, as, m. non-relish; want of appetite; want of desire.

anabhilāṣin an-abhilāṣin, ī, iṇī, i, not desirous.

anabhivyakta an-abhivyakta, as, ā, am, indistinct.

anabhiśasta an-abhiśasta, as, ā, am, or an-abhiśasti, is, is, i, or an-abhiśastya, as, ā, am, Ved. blameless, faultless.
     anabhiśastenī anabhiśaste-nī, īs, īs, i, Ved. leading to prefection or to heaven.

anabhiṣaṅga an-abhiṣaṅga or an-abhi-ṣvaṅga, as, m. absence of connection or attachment.

anabhisandhāna an-abhisandhāna, am, n. or an-abhisandhi, is, m. absence of a (latent) design; disinterestedness.
     anabhisandhikṛta anabhisandhi-kṛta, as, ā, am, done undesignedly.

anabhisambandha an-abhisambandha, as, ā, am, unconnected.

anabhisneha an-abhisneha, as, ā, am, not affectionate, impassible.

anabhihita an-abhihita, as, ā, am, not named; (Ved.) not fastened; (as), m., N. of the chief of a Gotra.

anabhīśu an-abhīśu, us, us, u, Ved. unbridled; epithet of the sun.

anabhyanujñā an-abhyanujñā (abhy-anu-jñā), f. non-permission.

anabhyārūḍha an-abhyārūḍha, as, ā, am, not ascended, not mounted.

anabhyāśa an-abhyāśa or an-abhyāsa, as, ā, am, not near, distant.
     anabhyāsamitya anabhyāsam-itya, as, ā, am, improper to be approached.

anabhyāsa an-abhyāsa, as, m. want of practice or skill.

anabhraka an-abhraka, as, m. 'cloudless;' N. of a class of Bauddha divinities (generally in m. pl.).

anabhri an-abhri, is, is, i, Ved. (requiring) no shovel or scraper; epithet of rain-water.

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anama a-nama, as, m. one who needs not make a salutation to others; a Brāhman.

anamasya a-namasya, as, ā, am, unworthy of a salutation.

anamitamyaca an-amitam-paca, as, ā, am, (the same as mitam-paca), not cooking what has not first been weighed, niggardly, miserly.

anamitra an-amitra, as, ā, am, having no enemies; (am), n. condition of having no enemies; (as), m., N. of various persons, particularly a king of Ayodhyā.

anamīva an-amīva, as, ā, am, Ved. free from disease, well, comfortable; salubrious, salutary; sinless; (am), n. good health, happy state, comfort, prosperity.

anambara an-ambara, as, ā, am, waring no clothing, naked; (as), m. a Buddhist mendicant.

anaya 1. a-naya, as, m. bad management; bad conduct (gambling, &c.).

anaya 2. an-aya, as, m. evil course, ill luck; misfortune, adversity.
     anayaṅgata anayaṅ-gata, as, ā, am, unfortunate.

anaraṇya an-araṇya, as, m., N. of a king of Ayodhyā, said by some to have been Pṛthu's father.

anarus an-arus, us, us, us, Ved. not sore or wounded, healed, well, sound.

anargala an-argala, as, ā, am, free from bars, free, licentious.

anargha an-argha, as, ā, am, priceless, invaluable; (as), m. wrong value.
     anargharāghava anargha-rāghava, am, n. title of a drama by Murāri, treating of Rāma.

anarghya an-arghya, as, ā, am, priceless, not to be had at any price; anything but valuable.
     anarghyatva anarghya-tva, am, n. pricelessness.

anartha an-artha, as, m. non-value; a worthless or useless object; disappointing occurrence, reverse, evil; nonsense; (as, ā, am), worthless, useless; unfortunate; having no meaning; having not that (but another) meaning; nonsensical.
     anarthakara anartha-kara, as, ī, am, doing what is useless or worthless; unprofitable; producing evil or misfortune.
     anarthatva anartha-tva, am, n. uselessness, &c.
     anarthadarśin anartha-darśin, ī, inī, i, minding useless or worthless things.
     anarthanāśin anartha-nāśin, ī, m. (destroyer of evil), Śiva.
     anarthabuddhi anartha-buddhi, is, is, i, having a nonsensical intellect.
     anarthabhāva anartha-bhāva, as, ā, am, malicious.
     anarthalupta anartha-lupta, as, ā, am, freed from all that is worthless.
     anarthasaṃśaya an-artha-saṃśaya, as, m. not a risk of one's money; safety of one's money or wealth.

anarthaka an-arthaka, as, ā, am, useless, vain, worthless; meaningless, nonsensical.

anarthya an-arthya, as, ā, am, worthless, useless.

anarpaṇa an-arpaṇa, am, n., Ved. non-surrendering, not giving up.

anarva an-arva, as, ā, am, or an-arvan, ā, ā, a, Ved. not liable to be stayed or limited; unobstructed; irresistible; permanent.

anarviś 1. anar-viś, ṭ, m., Ved. seated on the car (anas) or cart; a driver.

anarviś 2. an-ar-viś, ṭ, m. (ar for aram, rt. ), one who fails to reach his destination.

anarśani an-arśani, is, m., Ved. N. of a demon slain by Indra; (etym. doubtful.)

anarśarāti an-arśa-rāti, is, is, i, Ved. giving of uninjurious things, one whose gifts do not hurt.

anarha an-arha, as, ā, am, or an-arhat, an, antī, at, undeserving of punishment or of reward; unworthy; inadequate, unsuitable.

anarhyatā anarhya-tā, f. condition of not being properly estimated; inadequacy, unsuitableness.

anala anala, as, m. (fr. rt. an, q. v.), fire; Agni, the god of fire; digestive power, gastric juice, bile; wind; N. or epithet of Vasudeva; of a certain Muni; of one of the eight Vasus; of a certain monkey; N. of various plants, as Plumbago Zeylanica and Rosea, and Semicarpus Anacirdium; the letter r; the number three; (in astron.) the fiftieth year of Bṛhaspati's cycle; the third lunar mansion or Kṛttikā (?).
     analadīpana anala-dīpana, as, ī, am, stomachic.
     analaprabhā anala-prabhā, f. a plant, Halicacabum Cardiospermum.
     analapriyā anala-priyā, f. Agni's wife.
     analavāṭta anala-vāṭta, as, m., N. of ancient Pattana.
     analasāda anala-sāda, as, m. dyspepsia.
     analānanda analānanda (-la-ān-), as, m., N. of a Vedantic writer, author of the Vedāntakalpataru.

analaṅkariṣṇu an-alaṅkariṣṇu, us, us, u, not given to the use of ornaments; not ornamented.

analam an-alam, ind. not enough; insufficiently.

analasa an-alasa, as, ā, am, not lazy, active.

anali anali, is, m. a tree, Sesbana Grandiflora.

analpa an-alpa, as, ā, am, not a little, much, numerous.
     analpaghoṣa analpa-ghoṣa, as, ā, am, very clamorous, very noisy.
     analpamanyu analpa-manyu, us, us, u, greatly enraged.

anava anava, as, m., N. of a man or a tribe, = anu.

anavakāśa an-avakāśa, as, ā, am, having no opportunity; uncalled for (there being no "occasion" for it), inapplicable.

anavagāhin an-avagāhin, ī, inī, i (rt. gāh), not dipping into, not studying.

anavagāhya an-avagāhya, as, ā, am, unfathomable.

anavagīta an-avagīta, as, ā, am, not made an object of a contemptuous song, not blamed.

anavagraha an-avagraha, as, ā, am, resistless; not to be intercepted.

anavaglāyat an-avaglāyat, an, antī, at, Ved. not growing remiss.

anavacchinna an-avacchinna, as, ā, am, not intersected, uninterrupted; not marked off, unbounded, unlimited, immoderate; undefined, undiscriminated.
     anavacchinnahāsa anavacchinna-hāsa, as, m. continuous or immoderate laughter.

anavat ana-vat, ān, atī, at (fr. ana, see under rt. an), endowed with breath or life.
     anavattva anavat-tva, am, n. condition of being endowed with life.

anavatapna an-avatapta, as, m. (among Buddhists) N. of a serpent king; N. of a lake, = Rāvaṇa-hrada.

anavadya an-avadya, as, ā, am, irreproachable, faultless; unobjectionable; (ā), f., N. of an Apsaras.
     anavadyatā anavadya-tā, f. or anavadya-tva, am, n. faultlessness.
     anavadyarūpa anavadya-rūpa, as, ā or i, am, of faultless form or beauty.
     anavadyāṅga anavadyāṅga (-ya-aṅ-), as, ā, or ī, am, having faultless body or limbs.

anavadrāṇa an-avadrāṇa, as, ā, am (rt. drā), Ved. not going to sleep, not sleepy.

anavadharṣya an-avadharṣya, as, ā, am, Ved. not to be defied.

anavadhāna an-avadhāna, am, n. inattention, inadvertence; (as, ā, am), inattentive, careless.
     anavadhānatā anavadhāna-tā, f. inadvertency.

anavadhi an-avadhi, is, is, i, unlimited.

anavadhṛṣya an-avadhṛṣya, as, ā, am, impossible to be put down or injured.

anavana an-avana, as, ā, am, affording no help or protection.

anavanāmitavaijayanta an-avanāmita-vaijayan-ta, as, m. (having victorious banners unlowered, ever prosperous; Buddhist term for) a future universe.

anavapṛgṇa an-avapṛgṇa, as, ā, am (rt. pṛc), Ved. not closely united, but spreading all around.

anavabudhyamāna an-avabudhyamāna, as, ā, am, deranged.

anavabrava an-avabrava, as, ā, am, Ved. not speaking without effect; speaking authoritatively; or irreproachable (?).

anavabhra an-avabhra, as, ā, am, Ved. not carried off (?); undiminished (?); enduring (?).
     anavabhrarādhas an-avabhra-rādhas, ās, ās, as, Ved. having undiminished (or durable) wealth; able to give a lasting reward.

anavama an-avama, as, ā, am, not low; exalted.

anavamarśam an-avamarśam, ind. without touching.

anavara an-avara, as, ā, am, not inferior; excellent.

anavarata an-avarata, as, ā, am, incessant; (am), ind. incessantly.

anavaratha an-avaratha, as, m., N. of a son of Madhu and father of Kuruvasta.

anavarārdhya an-avarārdhya, as, ā, am, chief, principal.

anavalamba an-avalamba, as, ā, am, having no prop or support.

anavalambana an-avalambana, am, n. independence.

anavalambita an-avalambita, as, ā, am, not propped up, not supported, not dependent.

anavalepa an-avalepa, as, ā, am, free from (moral) veneer, unvarnished, unassuming.

anavalobhana an-avalobhana, am, n. ('nonlonging'). N. of ceremony to be observed by a pregnant woman; title of a particular treatise in an Upaniṣad.

anavasa an-avasa, as, ā, am, Ved. not stopping to eat by the way.

anavasara an-avasara, as, ā, am, having no interval of leisure, busy; coming when there is no such interval, inopportune; (as), m. absence of leisure; unseasonableness.

anavasādya an-avasādya, ind. (part. of Caus. of ava-sad with 3. a), without annoying.

anavasāna an-avasāna, as, ā, am, (rt. so), having no setting, free from death; endless.

anavasita an-avasita, as, ā, am, not set, not terminated; (ā), f., N. of a species of the Triṣṭubh metre, consisting of four lines with eleven feet in each.

anavasyat an-avasyat, an, antī, at, unceasing.

anavaskara an-avaskara, as, ā, am, free from dirt, dean, cleansed.

anavastha an-avastha, as, ā, am, unsettled, unstable; (ā), f. unsettled condition or character; instability, unsteady or loose conduct; (in phil.) nonfinality (of a proposition), endless series of statements,

anavasthāna an-avasthāna, as, ā, am, unstable, fickle; (as), m. wind; (am), n. instability; unsteadiness or looseness of conduct.

anavasthāyin an-avasthāyin, ī, inī, i, transient.

anavasthita an-avasthita, as, ā, am, unsettled, unsteady, loose in conduct.
     anavasthitacitta anavasthita-citta, as, ā, am, or an-avasthitātman (-ta-āt-), ā, ā, a, unsteady-minded.
     anavasthitacittatva anavasthitacitta-tva, am, n. unsteadiness of mind.
     anavasthitatva anavasthita-tva, am, n. unsteadiness, instability.

anavasthiti an-avasthiti, is, f. instability; unsteadiness; looseness of character.

anavasyat an-ava-syat. See an-avasāna.

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anavahita an-avahita, as, ā, am, heedless, inattentive.

anavahvara an-avahvara, as, ā, am, Ved. not crooked, straightforward.

anavāc an-avāc, k, k, k, not speechless, the reverse of speechless.

anavāñc an-avāñc, āṅ, ācī, āk, not inclining downwards, looking up or straightforward.

anavānam an-avānam, ind. without breathing (between), in one breath, without interruption, uno tenore.
     anavānatā anavāna-tā, f. uninterruptedness, contiguity.

anavāpta an-avāpta, as, ā, am, not obtained.

anavāpti an-avāpti, is, f. non-attainment.

anavāyam an-avāyam, ind., Ved. uninterruptedly, unyieldingly.

anavithya an-avithya, as, ā, am, (fr. avi, q. v.), not suited to sheep.

anavekṣa an-avekṣa, as, ā, am, regardless; (am), ind. irrespectively; without regard to; (ā), f. or an-avekṣaṇa, am, n. regardlessness.

anavrata an-avrata, as, ā, am, not (wholly) destitute of ascetic performances; (as), m. a Jaina devotee of that description.

anaśana an-aśana, am, n. abstinence from food, fasting, especially as a form of suicide adopted from vindictive motives; (as, ā, am), fasting.
     anaśanatā anaśana-tā, f. not eating.

anaśanāya an-aśanāya, as, ā, am, Ved. not hungry.

anaśita an-aśita, am, n. condition of not having eaten, fasting.

anaśnat an-aśnat, an, atī, at, not eating, not enjoying.
     anaśnantsāṅgamana anaśnant-sāṅgamana, as, m., Ved. the sacrificial fire in the Sabhā (which is approached before breakfast).

anaśnāna an-aśnāna, as, ā, am, not eating.

anaśru an-aśru, us, us, u, tearless.

anaśva an-aśva, as, ā, am, having no horse or horses; (as), m. something that is not a horse.
     anaśvadā an-aśva-dā, ās, ās, am, Ved. one who does not give horses.

anaśvan an-aśvan, ā, m., N. of Parīkṣit's father.

anaśvara a-naśvara, as, ī, am, imperishable.

anaṣṭa a-naṣṭa, as, ā, am, undestroyed, unimpaired.
     anaṣṭapaśu anaṣṭa-paśu, us, us, u, Ved. having his cattle unimpaired.
     anaṣṭavedas anaṣṭa-vedas, ās, ās, as, Ved. having his property unimpaired.

anas anas, as, n. (said to be fr. rt. an), a cart; a mother; birth; offspring, living creature; boiled rice.
     anasvat anas-vat, ān, atī, at, Ved. yoked to a cart.

anaḍuh anaḍ-uh, anar-viś, see s. v. (s changed to and r).

anasūya an-asūya, as, ā, am, not spiteful, not envious; (ā), f. freedom from spite; absence of ill-will or envy; N. of a daughter of Daksha, and of one of Śakuntalā's friends.

anasūyaka an-asūyaka, as, ā, am, or an-asūyu, us, us, u, not spiteful or envious.

anasūri an-a-sūri, is, is, i, Ved. not unwise, wise.

anastamita an-astam-ita, as, ā, am, not gone down; not subject to setting or declining.

anastha an-astha, as, ā, am, or an-asthi, is, is, i, or anasthika, as, ā, am, or anasthi-mat, ān, atī, at, boneless.

anahaṅkāra an-ahaṅkāra, as, m. (non-egotism), absence of or freedom from self-conceit, or the tendency to regard self as something distinct from the supreme spirit; freedom from pride; (as, ā, am), free from self-conceit or pride.

anahaṅkṛta an-ahaṅkṛta, as, ā, am, or an-ahaṃ-vādin, ī, inī, i, free from self-conceit or pride.

anahaṅkṛti an-ahaṅkṛti, is, f. = an-ahaṅkāra; (is, is, i), free from self-conceit or pride.

anahan an-ahan, as, n. a day which is no day, an evil or unlucky day.

anā anā, ind., Ved. (inst. of pronom. base a), hereby, thus, indeed; also said to be a substitute for an or ana, 'not', in one or two words.

anākāra an-ākāra, as, ā, am, shapeless.

anākārita an-ākārita, as, ā, am, not claimed, not exacted.

anākāla an-ākāla, as, m. unseasonable time; famine.
     anākālabhṛta anākāla-bhṛta, as, m. a slave who became one voluntarily to avoid starvation in a time of scarcity; also spelt annākāla-bhṛta.

anākāśa an-ākāśa, as, ā, am, having no transparent atmosphere, differing from it; opaque, dark; (as, am), m. n. air or atmosphere undeserving of its name.

anākula an-ākula, as, ā, am, not beset; not confused; unperplexed, calm, consistent, regular.

anākṛta an-ākṛta, as, ā, am, Ved. unreclaimed, unreclaimable.

anākrānta an-ākrānta, as, ā, am, unassailed, unassailable; (ā), f. a plant, Prickly Nightshade, Solanum Jacquini.

anākṣārita an-ākṣārita, as, ā, am, unreproached.

anākṣit an-ākṣit, t, t, t, Ved. not residing or resting.

anāga an-āga, as, ā, am, Ved. sinless; see an-āgas; (ā), f., N. of a river.

anāgata an-āgata, as, ā, am (rt. gam), not come, not arrived; future; not attained, not learnt; unknown; (am), n. the future.
     anāgatavat anāgata-vat, ān, atī, at, connected with or relating to the future.
     anāgatavidhātṛ anāgata-vidhātṛ, ā, m. (disposer of the future), provident; N. of a fish.
     anāgatābādha anāgatābādha (-ta-āb-), as, m. future trouble.
     anāgatārtavā anāgatārtavā (-ta-ār-), f. a girl who has not yet attained to puberty.
     anāgatāvekṣaṇa an-āgatāvekṣaṇa (-ta-av-), am, n. act of looking at that which is to come next.

anāgati an-āgati, is, f. non-arrival; non-attainment, nonaccession.

anāgama an-āgama, as, m. non-arrival, non-attainment; (as, ā, am), not come, not present; (in law) not constituting an accession to previous property, but possessed from time immemorial, and therefore without documentary proof.
     anāgamopabhoga anāgamopabhoga (-ma-up-), as, m. enjoyment of such property.

anāgamiṣyat an-āgamiṣyat, an, antī, at, one who will not approach.

anāgamya an-āgamya, as, ā, am, unapproachable, unattainable.

anāgāmin an-āgāmin, ī, inī, i, not coming, not arriving; not future, not subject to returning; (ī), m. epithet of the third among the four Buddhist orders.

anāgāmuka an-āgāmuka, as, ā, am, not in the habit of coming, not likely to come.

anāgas an-āgas, ā, ās, as, sinless, blameless; conferring sinlessness or bliss.
     anāgāstva anāgās-tva, am, n., Ved. sinlessness.
     anāgohatyā anāgo-hatyā, f. murder of an innocent person.

anācaraṇa an-ācaraṇa, am, n. or better an-ācāra, as, m. improper behaviour; departure from that which is customary or right.

anācāra an-ācāra, as, ā, am, or anācārin, ī, iṇī, i, improper in behaviour; regardless of custom or propriety or law; unprincipled.

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anācāryabhogīna an-ācārya-bhogīna, as, ā, am, unfit or improper for a spiritual teacher to eat or enjoy.

anājñapta an-ājñapta, as, ā, am (rt. jñā), not commanded.
     anājñaptakārin anājñapta-kārin, ī, iṇī, i, doing what has not been commanded.

anājñāta an-ājñāta, as, ā, am, unknown, surpassing all that has ever been known.

anāḍhya an-āḍhya, as, ā, am, not wealthy, poor.
     anāḍhyambhaviṣṇu an-āḍhyam-bhaviṣṇu, us, us, u, not becoming wealthy; becoming poor (?).

anātata an-ātata, as, ā, am, not stretched or strung (as a bow).

anātapa an-ātapa, as, m. freedom from the blaze of the sun; shade; coolness.

anātura an-ātura, as, ā, am, Ved. free from suffering or weariness; well.

anātman an-ātman, ā, m. not self, another; something different from spirit or soul; (ā, ā, a), not spiritual, corporeal; destitute of spirit or mind.
     anātmajña an-ātma-jña, as, ā, am, destitute of spiritual knowledge or true wisdom.
     anātmapratyavekṣā anātma-pratya-vekṣā, f. (with Buddhists) reflection that there is no spirit or self.
     anātmavat an-ātma-vat, ān, atī, at, not self-possessed; (vat), ind. unlike one's self.

anātmaka an-ātmaka, as, ā, am, (with Buddhists) unreal.

anātmanīna an-ātmanīna, ās, ā, am, not adapted to self; disinterested.

anātmya an-ātmya, as, ā, am, impersonal; (am), n. want of affection for one's own family.

anātyantika an-ātyantika, as, ī, am, not perpetual, not final; intermittent, recurrent.

anātha a-nātha, as, ā, am, having no master or natural protector; widowed; fatherless; helpless, poor; (am), n., Ved. want of a protector, helplessness.
     anāthapiṇḍada anātha-piṇḍa-da or a-nātha-piṇḍika, as, m. ('giver of cakes or food to the poor'), N. of a merchant, in whose garden Śākyamuni used to instruct his disciples.
     anāthasabhā anātha-sabhā, f. a poorhouse.

anāda a-nāda, as, m. absence of sound (in pronouncing aspirated letters).

anādin a-nādin, ī, inī, i, not sounding.

anādadāna an-ādadāna, as, ā, am, not accepting.

anādara an-ādara, as, m. disrespect, contemptuous neglect; (as, ā, am), Ved. not awestruck, calm; indifferent.

anādaraṇa an-ādaraṇa, am, n. disrespectful behaviour, neglect.

anādarin an-ādarin, ī, iṇī, i, disrespectful, irreverent.

anādi an-ādi, is, is, i, having no beginning, existing from eternity.
     anāditva anādi-tva, am, n. state of having no beginning.
     anādinidhana an-ādi-nidhana, as, ā, am, having neither beginning nor end, eternal.
     anādimat anādi-mat, ān, atī, at, having no beginning.
     anādimadhyānta an-ādi-madhyānta (-dhya-an-), as, ā, am, having no beginning, middle or end.
     anādyananta anādy-ananta, as, ā, am, without beginning and without end.
     anādyanta an-ādyanta, as, ā, am, without beginning and end; (as), m., N. of Śiva.

anādiṣṭa an-ādiṣṭa, as, ā, am, not indicated; not commanded or instructed; not allowed.

anādīnava an-ādīnava, as, ā, am, faultless.

anādṛta an-ādṛta, as, ā, am, not respected, disrespected, despised.

anādṛtya an-ādṛtya, ind. without respecting, regardless of.

anādeya an-ādeya, as, ā, am, unfit or improper to be received, unacceptable, inadmissible.

anādeśakara anādeśa-kara, as, ā, am, doing what is not commanded or not allowed.

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anādya 1. an-ādya, as, ā, am, = an-ādi, having no beginning.

anādya 2. an-ādya, as, ā, am, = an-adya, not eatable.

anādhṛṣ an-ādhṛṣ, k, k, k (rt. dhṛṣ), Ved. not checking.

anādhṛṣṭa an-ādhṛṣṭa, as, ā, am, Ved. unchecked, unimpaired, invincible, perfect.

anādhṛṣṭi an-ādhṛṣṭi, is, m. ('superior to any check'), N. of a son of Śūra; also of a son of Ugraseana and general of the Yādava.

anādhṛṣya an-ādhṛṣya, as, ā, am, Ved. invincible, not to be meddled with.

anānata an-ānata, as, ā, am, Ved. unbent, not humbled; (as), m., N. of a Ṛṣi.

anānukṛtya an-ānukṛtya, as, ā, am (rt. kṛ with ānu for anu), Ved. inimitable, unparalleled.

anānuda an-ānuda, as, ā, am (rt. with ānu for anu), Ved. not giving way, unyielding, obstinate; unaided (?), unsurpassed in giving (?).

anānudiṣṭa an-ānudiṣṭa, as, ā, am, (rt. diś with ānu for anu), Ved. unsolicited.

anānupūrvya an-ānupūrvya, am, n. separation of the different parts of a compound word by the intervention of others; the not coming in regular order, tmesis.
     anānupūrvyasaṃhitā an-ānupūrvya-saṃhitā, f. the manner of constructing a sentence with the above tmesis.

anānubhūti an-ānubhūti, is, f., Ved. inattention, neglect; (tayas), pl. neglectful or irreligious people.

anāpad an-āpad, t, f. absence of misfortune or calamity.

anāpanna an-āpanna, as, ā, am, not realized, unattained.

anāpāna an-āpāna, as, m., N. of a prince, son of Aṅga.

anāpi an-āpi, is, is, i, Ved. having no kindred or friends (epithet of Indra).

anāpūyita an-āpūyita, as, ā, am, Ved. not stinking.

anāpta an-āpta, as, ā, am, unattained, unobtained; unsuccessful in the effort to attain or obtain; not apt, unifit; (as), m. a stranger.

anāpti an-āpti, is, f. non-attainment.

anāpya an-āpya, as, ā, am, unattainable, unobtainable.

anāpluta an-āpluta, as, ā, am, unbathed, unwashed.
     anāplutaṅga an-āplutaṅga (-ta-aṅ-), as, ā, or ī, am, having an unwashen body.

anābādha an-ābādha, as, ā, am, free from obstacles or troubles.

anābhayin an-ābhayin, ī, inī, i, Ved. fearless (epithet of Indra).

anābhū an-ābhū, ūs, ūs, u, Ved. neglectful, disobliging, irreligious.

anābhyudayika an-ābhyudayika, as, ī, am, inauspicious, ill-omened, unlucky.

anāman a-nāman, ā, ā, a, nameless; infamous; (ā), m. the ring-finger.
     anāmatva anāma-tva, am, n. namelessness.

anāmaka a-nāmaka, as, ā, am, nameless, infamous; (as), m. the intercalary month; (am), n. piles, haemorrhoids.

anāmikā a-nāmikā, f. the ring-finger.

anāmaya an-āmaya, as, ā, am, free from disease, healthy, salubrious; (as), m. Śiva; (am), n. health.

anāmayat an-āmayat, an, antī, at, Ved. not causing pain, not hurting; (t), n., Ved. health.

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anāmayitnu an-āmayitnu, us, us, u, Ved. salubrious, curative.

anāmin a-nāmin, ī, inī, i, Ved. unbending.

anāmya a-nāmya, as, ā, am, impossible to be bent.

anāmiṣa an-āmiṣa, as, ā, am, without flesh; bootless, profitless.

anāmṛṇa an-āmṛṇa, as, ā, am, Ved. having no enemy that can injure.

anāmṛta an-āmṛta, as, ā, am, immortal.

anāyaka a-nāyaka, as, ā, am, having no leader or ruler, disorderly.

anāyata an-āyata, as, ā, am, unchecked, unrestrained; not propped or supported; close, continuous, unseparated; unextended, having no length.

anāyatana an-āyatana, am, n. that which is not really a resting-place or an altar; (as, ā, am), having no resting-place or altar.
     anāyatanavat anāyatana-vat, ān, atī, at, = the last.

anāyatta an-āyatta, as, ā, am, independent, uncontrolled.
     anāyattavṛtti anāyatta-vṛtti, is is, i, having an independent livelihood.
     anāyattavṛttitā anāyattavṛtti-tā, f. independence.

anāyasāgra an-āyasāgra (-sa-ag-), as, ā, am, having no iron point.

anāyāsa an-āyāsa, as, m. absence of exertion, facility, ease, idleness, neglect; (as, ā, am), easy, ready; (ena), ind. easily.
     anāyāsakṛta anāyāsa-kṛta, as, ā, am, done readily or easily; (am), n. an infusion prepared extemporaneously (in medicine).

anāyudha an-āyudha, as, ā, am, Ved. weaponless; having no implements (for sacrifice).

anāyuṣā an-āyuṣā, f. or an-āyus, f., N. of the mother of Bala and Vṛtra.

anāyuṣya an-āyuṣya, as, ā, am, not imparting long life, fatal to long life.

anārata an-ārata, as, ā, am, eternal; (am), ind. eternally.

anārabhya 1. an-ārabhya, as, ā, am, improper or impracticable to be commenced or undertaken.
     anārabhyatva anārabhya-tva, am, n. impossibility of being commenced.

anārabhya 2. an-ārabhya, ind. without commencing: this is used in compounds in the sense 'detached;' thus, an-ārabhya-vāda, as, m. a detached remark (upon sacrifices, &c.); anārabhyādhīta (-ya-adh-), as, ā, am, taught or studied or read as a detached subject (not as part of regular or authoritative treatise).

anārambha an-ārambha, as, m. absence of beginning, noncommencement, not attempting or undertaking; (as, ā, am), having no commencement.

anārambaṇa an-ārambaṇa, as, ā, am, Ved. (for anālambana) having no support.

anārambhaṇa an-ārambhaṇa, as, ā, am, Ved. without support (?), or intangible (?).

anāruhya an-āruhya, ind. not having surmounted.

anārogya an-ārogya, am, n. sickness; (as, ā, am), unhealthy.
     anārogyakara anārogya-kara, as, ā or ī, am, unwholesome, unhealthy, causing sickness.

anārjava an-ārjava, am, n. crookedness, moral or physical; disease.

anārtava an-ārtava, as, ī, am, unseasonable.

anārtvijīna an-ārtvijīna, as, ā, am, unfit or unsuitable for a priest.

anārya an-ārya, as, ā, am, not respectable, vulgar, unworthy, inferior, bad, vile; destitute of Āryas; (as), m. not an Ārya.
     anāryakarmin anārya-karmin, ī, m. doing work unbecoming an Ārya or becoming only a non-Ārya.
     anāryaja anārya-ja, as, ā, am, of vile or unworthy origin; (am), n. Agallochum being a produce of the country of Mlecchas or barbarians.
     anāryajuṣṭa an-ārya-juṣṭa, as, ā, am, practised, observed, or possessed by men who are not Āryas.
     anāryatā anārya-tā, f. or anārya-tva, am, n. vileness, unworthiness, baseness.
     anāryatikta anārya-tikta, as, m. a medicinal plant, a kind of Gentian (Gentiana Cherayta Rox).

anāryaka an-āryaka, am, n. Agallochum or Aloe wood (Aquila Agallocha Rox).

anārṣa an-ārṣa, as, ī, am, not referring or belonging to a Ṛṣi or to the genuine text of a Vedic hymn; e. g. the word iti, added for grammatical purposes in the Pada-pāṭha to certain words, which in the Saṃhitā-pāṭha are not followed by iti; not applied to a Ṛṣi, not added to his name, as an affix.

anārṣeya an-ārṣeya, as, ī, am, the same as the last.

anālamba an-ālamba, as, ā, am, unsupported, without stay or support; (as), m. want of support; despondency.

anālambana an-ālambana, as, ā, am, unsupported; desponding.

anālambī an-ālambī, f. Śiva's lute.

anālambukā an-ālambukā or an-ālambhukā, f. a woman during menstruation.

anālāpa an-ālāpa, as, ā, am, reserved, taciturn; (as), m. reserve, taciturnity.

anālocita an-ālocita, as, ā, am, unseen, unbeheld; unweighed, unconsidered, rash, imprudent.

anālocya an-ālocya, ind. not having considered.

anāvayā an-āvayā, ās, ās, am, Ved. unyielding, not desisting.

anāvarti an-āvarti, is, f. non-return, i. e. final emancipation. See an-āvṛt below.

anāviddha an-āviddha, as, ā, am, not wounded, unhurt, unmoved by.

anāvila an-āvila, as, ā, am, not turbid, clear, pure, not marshy.

anāvṛt an-āvṛt, t, t, t, Ved. not returning.

anāvṛtta an-āvṛtta, as, ā, am, not turned about or round; not retreating; not frequented or approached; not chosen.

anāvṛtti an-āvṛtti, is, f. non-return; final emancipation.

anāvṛta an-āvṛta, as, ā, am, uncovered, undressed, uninclosed, open.

anāvṛṣṭi an-āvṛṣṭi, is, f. want of rain, drought.

anāvedita an-āvedita, as, ā, am, not notified, not made known.

anāvyādha an-āvyādha, as, ā, am, Ved. impossible to be broken or forced open.

anāvraska an-āvraska, as, m. (rt. vraśc), uninjured condition; (as, ā, am), not injurious.

anāśa 1. an-āśa, as, ā, am (fr. āśā), hopeless, despairing.

anāśa 2. a-nāśa, as, ā, am (rt. naś), undestroyed, living.

anāśin a-nāśin, ī, inī, i, imperishable.

anāśya a-nāśya, as, ā, am, indestructible.

anāśaka an-āśaka, am, n. fasting, abstaining from food even to death.
     anāśakanivṛtta anāśaka-ni-vṛtta, as, m. one who has abandoned the practice of fasting.
     anāśakāyana anāśakāyana (-ka-ay-), am, n. a course of fasting (as a penance).

anāśasta an-āśasta, as, ā, am, not praised; not commendable (?), inglorious (?), hopeless (?).

anāśīrdā an-āśīr-dā, ās, m. not giving a blessing; ungrateful.

anāśu 1. an-āśu, us, us, u, not quick, slow.

anāśu 2. an-āśu, us, us, u (rt. ), not diffusive, not pervading.

anāśu 3. a-nāśu, us, us, u, Ved. indestructible.

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anāścarya an-āścarya, as, ā, am, not wonderful.

anāśramin an-āśramin, ī, m. one who does not belong to or follow any of the four Āśramas or religious orders to which Brāhmans at different periods of life are bound to attach themselves.

anāśramavāsa an-āśrama-vāsa or an-āśrame-vāsa, as, m. one who does not belong to the Āśramas; non-residence in a religious retreat.

anāśraya an-āśraya, as, m. absence or want of any person or thing to depend upon; defencelessness, self-dependence, isolation; (as, ā, am), defenceless; unprotected; isolated.

anāśrita an-āśrita, as, ā, am, detached; disengaged; unconnected with, independent; non-inherent.

anāśvas an-āśvas, vān, uṣī, vat, not having eaten, fasting.

anāṣṭra a-nāṣṭra, as, ā, am, free from dangers or dangerous opponents.

anās an-ās, ās, m. f. having no mouth or face.

anāsa a-nāsa, as, ā, am, Ved. without a nose (epithet of demons).

anāsika a-nāsika, as, ā, am, noseless.

anāsādita an-āsādita, as, ā, am, not met with, not found or obtained, not encountered or attacked; not occurred; not having happened; non-existent.
     anāsāditavigraha anāsādita-vigraha, as, ā, am, unused to war.

anāsthā an-āsthā, f. unfixedness, want of confidence; disrespect; want of consideration; want of faith or devotedness; unconcern, indifference.

anāsthāna an-āsthāna, as, ā, am, having or yielding no basis or fulcrum; without a fixed seat or site.

anāsvāda an-āsvāda, as, m. want of taste, insipidity; (as, ā, am), without taste, insipid.

anāsvādita an-āsvādita, as, ā, am, untasted.

anāhata an-āhata, as, ā, am, unbeaten, unwounded, intact; new and unbleached (as cloth); produced otherwise than by beating; not multiplied; (as), m. the fourth of the mystical cakras or circles of the body.
     anāhatanāda anāhata-nāda, as, m. a sound produced otherwise than by beating; the sound om.

anāhāra an-āhāra, as, m. abstinence, not taking food; non-seizure; non-production; (as, ā, am), one who abstains from food.

anāhārin an-āhārin, ī, iṇī, i, not taking (food); fasting.

anāhārya an-āhārya, as, ā, am, not to be seized or taken, not producible; not to be eaten.

anāhitāgni an-āhitāgni (-ta-ag-), is, m. a householder who has neglected to perform the Agnyādhāna.

anāhuti an-āhuti, is, f. non-sacrificing; a sacrifice unworthy of its name.

anāhūta an-āhūta, as, ā, am, uncalled, uninvited.
     anāhūtopajalpin anāhūtopajalpin (-ta-up-), ī, m. an uncalled-for boaster.
     anāhūtopaviṣṭa anāhūtopaviṣṭa (-ta-up-), as, ā, am, seated as an uninvited guest.

anāhlāda an-āhlāda, as, m. absence of joy; (as, ā, am), gloomy, not cheerful.

anāhlādita an-āhlādita, as, ā, am, not exhilarated.

aniḥśasta a-niḥśasta, as, ā, am, unpraised.

anikāmatas a-nikāmatas, ind. involuntarily, unintentionally.

aniketa a-niketa or a-niketana, as, ā, am, houseless.

anikṣiptadhūra a-nikṣipta-dhūra, as, m., N. of a Bodhisattva or deified Buddhist saint.

anikṣu an-ikṣu, us, m. not (true) sugarcane; a sort of long grass or reed, Saccharum Spontaneum. (an may here denote 'comparison', see 3. a.)

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anigīrṇa a-nigīrṇa, as, ā, am, not swallowed, not supplied (as an ellipsis).

anigraha a-nigraha, as, ā, am, unrestrained; (as), m. non-restraint; non-refutation; not owning one's self refuted.
     anigrahasthāna anigraha-sthāna, am, n. (in philosophy) occasion of non-refutation.

anighāteṣu a-nighāteṣu (-ta-iṣu), us, m., N. of a man (having arrows that strike no one).

aniṅgya an-iṅgya, as, ā, am, not divisible; a word not divisible.

aniccha an-iccha or an-icchaka, as, ā, am, or an-icchat, an, antī or atī, at, or an-icchu, us, us, u, or an-icchuka, as, ā, am, undesirous, averse, unwilling; not intending.

anicchā an-icchā, f. absence of wish or design, indifference.

anijaka a-nijaka, as, ā, am, not one's own, belonging to another.

anita anita, as, ā, am (etym. doubtful), destitute. of.
     anitabhā anita-bhā, f., Ved. not endowed with splendor, N. of a river (?).

anitya a-nitya, as, ā, am, not everlasting, transient; occasional, incidental; irregular, unusual; unstable; uncertain; (am), ind. occasionally.
     anityakarman ani-tya-karman, a, n. or anitya-kriyā, f. an occasional act of worship, sacrifice for a special purpose.
     anityatā ani-tya-tā, f. or anitya-tva, am, n. transient or limited existence.
     anityadatta anitya-datta or anitya-dattaka or ani-tya-datrima, as, m. a son surrendered by his parents to another for temporary or preliminary adoption.
     anityapratyavekṣā anitya-pratyavekṣā, f. (Buddhist) consciousness that all is passing away.
     anityabhāva anitya-bhāva, as, m. transitoriness.
     anityasama anitya-sama, as, ā, m. f. sophism, consisting in generalizing what is exceptional (as perishableness).
     anityasamaprakaraṇa anitya-sama-prakaraṇa, am, n. a section in the Nyāya discussing that sophism.
     anityasamāsa anitya-samāsa, as, m. a compound, the sense of which may be equally expressed by resolving it into its constituent parts.

anidāna a-nidāna, as, ā, am, causeless, groundless.

anidra a-nidra, as, ā, am, sleepless, awake; (ā), f. sleeplessness.

anidrita a-nidrita, as, ā, am, not asleep, awake.

anidhṛṣṭa a-nidhṛṣṭa, as, ā, am, unchecked, unsubdued.

anidhma an-idhma, as, ā, am, having or requiring no fuel.

anina an-ina, as, ā, am, Ved. having no master.

anindita a-nindita, as, ā, am, irreproachable, not despised, pious, virtuous, free.

anindya a-nindya or a-nindanīya, as, ā, am, unblamable, faultless.

anindra an-indra, as, ā, am, deprived of Indra; dispensing with or disregarding Indra.

anindriya an-indriya, am, n. that which is not the senses, the soul, the reason.

anipadyamāna a-nipadyamāna, as, ā, am, not falling down (to sleep), untiring.

anipāta a-nipāta, as, m. (not a fall), continuance of life.

anipuṇa a-nipuṇa, as, ā, am, unskilled, not clever or conversant.

anibaddha a-nibaddha, as, ā, am, not tied down, not bound, unattached, incoherent, unconnected.
     anibaddhapralāpin anibaddha-pralāpin, ī, inī, i, chattering incoherently, talking at random.

anibādha a-nibādha, as, ā, am, unobstructed, unlimited; (as), m. liberty.

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anibhṛta a-nibhṛta, as, ā, am, not private, not reserved, immodest, bold, public.

anibhṛṣṭa a-nibhṛṣṭa, as, ā, am, Ved. unabated; unimpaired; undefeated.
     anibhṛṣṭatavi anibhṛṣṭa-tavi hi, is, m., Ved. having unabated power.

anibhya an-ibhya, as, ā, am, not wealthy.

animan animan, ā, m. a mote. See aṇiman.

animantrita a-nimantrita, as, ā, am, uninvited.
     animantritabhojin a-nimantrita-bhojin, ī, inī, i, eating without being invited.

animāna a-nimāna, as, ā, am, Ved. unbounded, immense.

animitta a-nimitta, as, ā, am, having no adequate occasion, causeless, groundless; (am), n. absence of an adequate ciuse or occasion, groundlessness.
     animittatas ani-mitta-tas, ind. groundlessly.
     animittanirākṛta a-nimitta-nirākṛta, as, ā, am, groundlessly rejected.
     animittaliṅganāśa animitta-liṅga-nāśa, as, m. (unaccountable loss of distinct vision); N. of an ophthalmic disease, ending in total blindness, perhaps amaurosis.

animiṣ a-nimiṣ, f., Ved. absence of winking (only used in acc. and inst. cases).
     animiṣam ani-miṣam or
     animiṣā animiṣā or animeṣam, ind., Ved. without winking, i. e. vigilantly or incessantly.

animiṣa a-nimiṣa or a-nimeṣa, as, ā, am, not winking, looking steadily, vigilant; open as eyes or flowers; (as), m. not winking; a god; a fish.
     animiṣākṣa animiṣākṣa (-ṣa-ak-), as, ī, m. f. one whose eyes are fixed.
     animiṣācārya animiṣācārya (-ṣa-āc-), as, m., N. of Vṛhaspati.

animiṣīya animiṣīya, as, ā, am, relating to those who do not wink (i. e. to the gods).

aniyata a-niyata, as, ā, am, not regulated, uncontrolled, not fixed, uncertain, unrestricted, irregular, casual.
     aniyatapuṃskā a-niyata-puṃskā, f. a woman irregular or unchaste in conduct.
     aniyatavṛtti aniyata-vṛtti, is, is, i, having no fixed or regular employmen or income.
     aniyatāṅka aniyatāṅka (-ta-aṅ-), as, m. (in arithm.) an indeterminate digit.
     aniyatātman a-niyatātman (-ta-āt-), ā, m. one whose self or spirit is not regulated or under proper control.

aniyama a-niyama, as, m. absence of control or rule or fixed order or obligation, unsettledness; indecorous or improper conduct; uncertainty, doubt; (as, ā, am), having no rule, irregular.

aniyamita a-niyamita, as, ā, am, having no rule or law; irregular.

aniyukta a-niyukta, as, ā, am, not appointed, not authoritative; (as), m. an assessor at a court who has not been formally appointed and is not entitled to vote.

aniyogin a-niyogin, ī, inī, i, not attached or clinging to.

anira an-ira, as, ā, am, Ved. destitute of food (or vigour ?), or of a sacrificial offering; (ā), f. want of food (languor?).

anirākariṣṇu a-nirākariṣṇu, us, us, u, not obstructive, not censorious.

anirākṛta a-nirākṛta, as, ā, am, unobstructed.

anirukta a-nirukta, as, ā, am, unuttered, not articulated, not clearly explained, unspeakable, not plain, vague.
     aniruktagāna anirukta-gāna, am, n. indistinct singing; humming (of hymns), a particular mode of chanting the Sāma-veda.

aniruddha a-niruddha, as, ā, am, unobstructed, ungovernable, self-willed; (as), m. a spy, a secret emissary (?); the son of Pradyumna, a form of Kāma, and husband of Uṣā; Śiva; N. of an Arhat contemporary of Śākyamuni; N. of a descendant of Vṛṣṇi; (am), n. the rope for fastening cattle.
     aniruddhapatha a-niruddha-patha, am, n. an unobstructed path; the atmosphere, ether.
     aniruddhabhāvinī a-niruddha-bhāvinī, f. Aniruddha's wife.

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anirūpita a-nirūpita, as, ā, am, not determined, undefined.

anirjita a-nirijita, as, ā, am, unconquered, unvanquished.

anirṇaya a-nirṇaya, as, m. uncertainty, want of decision.

anirṇīta a-nirṇīta, as, ā, am, unascertained, undetermined.

anirṇeya a-nirṇeya, as, ā, am, not to be decided.

anirdaśa a-nirdaśa or a-nir-daśāha (-śa-ah-), as, ā, am, within the ten days of impurity after childbirth or a death; (am), ind. = preceding, used adverbially.

anirdiṣṭa a-nirdiṣṭa, as, ā, am, (rt. diś), unexplained, undefined.

anirdeśa a-nirdeśa, as, m. absence or unsatisfactoriness of rule or direction.

anirdeśya a-nir-deśya or a-nirdiśya, as, ā, am, undefinable, inexplicable, incomparable.

anirdhārita a-nirdhārita, as, ā, am, undetermined, unascertained, undefined.

anirdhārya a-nirdhārya, as, ā, am, undeterminable, not to be agreed upon.

anirbhara a-nirbhara, as, ā, am, little, slight, light.

anirbheda a-nirbheda, as, m. (the act of not blurting out), not revealing.

anirmala a-nirmala, as, ā, am, dirty, foul, turbid.

anirmālyā a-nirmālyā, f. a plant (Mendicago Esculenta, Rox).

anirlocita a-nirlocita, as, ā, am, not carefully looked at, not considered.

anirvacanīya a-nirvacanīya or a-nirvācya, as, ā, am, unutterable, indescribable; improper to be mentioned.

anirvartyamāna a-nirvartyamāna, as, ā, am, not being brought to a close.

anirvāṇa a-nirvāṇa, as, ā, am, unextinguished.

anirvāha a-nirvāha, as, m. non-accomplishment, non-completion; inconclusiveness; insufficiency of income, the state of being straitened in means.

anirvāhya a-nirvāhya, as, ā, am, difficult to be managed.

anirviṇṇa a-nirviṇṇa, as, ā, am, not downcast.

anirvid a-nirvid, t, t, t, free from causes of depression.

anirveda a-nirveda, as, m. non-depression, self-reliance.

anirvṛta a-nirvṛta or a-nirvṛtta, as, ā, am, unaccomplished, unfulfilled; discontented; unhappy, ill at ease, unquiet, discomposed.

anirvṛti a-nirvṛti or a-nirvṛtti, is, f. incompleteness, discontent, misery.

anirveśa a-nirveśa, as, ā, am, destitute of employment, wretched.

anila anila, as, m. (fr. rt. an, cf. Irish anal), air or wind, considered also as a deity; one of the subordinate deities, forty-nine of whom form the class of Anilas or winds; one of the eight demi-gods, called Vasus; wind, as one of the humors or rasas of the body; rheumatism, paralysis, or any affection referred to disorder of the wind; N. of a Ṛṣi and other persons; the letter y; the number forty-nine; (ī), f. the fifteenth Nakshatra (?).
     anilakumāra anila-kumāra, ās, m. pl. among the Jainas, a class of deities.
     anilaghna anila-ghna, as, ī, am, or anila-han, hā, -ghnī, ha, or anila-hṛt, t, t, t, or anilāpaha (-la-ap-), as, ā, am, curing disorders arising from wind.
     anilaghnaka anila-ghnaka, as, m. a large tree (Terminalia Belerica).
     anilaparyaya anila-paryaya or anila-paryāya, as, m. pain and swelling of the eyelids and outer parts of the eye.
     anilaprakṛti anila-prakṛti, is, is, i, having an airy or windy nature.
     anilavyādhi anila-vyādhi,  is, m. derangement of the (internal) wind.
     anilasakha anila-sakha, as, m., N. of fire (the friend of wind).
     anilātmaja anilātmaja (-la-āt-), as, m. the son of the wind, Hanumat or Bhīma.
     anilāntaka anilāntaka (-la-an-), as, m., N. of a plant, Iṅgudī or Aṅgāra-pushpa (wind-destroying).
     anilāmaya anilāmaya (-la-ām-), as, m. morbid affection of the wind, flatulence, rheumatism.
     anilāyana anilā-yana (-la-ay-), am, n. way or course of the wind.
     anilāśin anilāśin (-la-āś-), ī, inī, i, fasting, lit. feeding on the wind.

anilambhasamādhi a-nilambha-samādhi, is, m. (i. e. unpropped meditation), N. of a peculiar kind of meditation among Buddhists.

anilayana a-nilayana, as, ā, am, having no (fixed) home.

anilocita a-nilocita. See anirlocita.

aniloḍita a-niloḍita, as, ā, am, inexperienced.

anivartana a-nivartana, as, ā, am, notturning away, firm, steadfast; improper to be abandoned, right.

anivartin a-nivartin, ī, inī, i, not turning back, brave, not returning.
     anivartitva anivarti-tva, am, n. not turning back, brave resistance.

anivārita a-nivārita, as, ā, am, unchecked, unimpeded, unopposed, unforbidden.

anivārya a-nivārya, as, ā, am, not to be warded off, inavertible, unavoidable, irresistible.

aniviśamāna a-niviśamāna, as, ā, am, Ved. not retiring to rest, restless.

anivṛta a-nivṛta, as, ā, am, unchecked, not impeded.

anivedita a-nivedita, as, ā, am, untold, unmentioned.
     aniveditavijñāta anivedita-vijñāta, as, ā, am, known without being told.

anivedya a-nivedya, ind. not having announced.

aniveśana a-niveśana, as, ā, am, Ved. having no place of rest.

aniśa a-niśa, as, ā, am, Ved. nightless, i. e. sleepless, uninterrupted, incessant.
     aniśam aniśam, ind. incessantly.

aniśita a-niśita, as, ā, am, Ved. incessant.
     aniśitasarga aniśita-sarga, as, ā, am, Ved. having an incessant flow.

aniścita a-niścita, as, ā, am, unascertained, not certain.

aniścitya a-niścitya, ind. not having ascertained.

aniścintya a-niścintya, as, ā, am, not to be comprehended (by thought), inconceivable.

aniṣaṅga a-niṣaṅga, as, ā, am, Ved. having no quiver, unarmed.

aniṣavya a-niṣavya, as, ā, am, Ved. not to be killed.

aniṣiddha a-niṣiddha, as, ā, am, unprohibited, unforbidden.

aniṣeddhra a-niṣeddhra, as, ā, am, Ved. unimpeded, unchecked.

aniṣu an-iṣu, us, us, u, having no arrows, having bad arrows.

aniṣkṛta a-niṣkṛta, as, ā, am, not done with, unfinished, not settled.
     aniṣkṛtainas aniṣkṛtainas (-ta-en-), ās, ās, as, having one's guilt not settled, i. e. unexpiated.

aniṣṭa 1. an-iṣṭa, as, ā, am (rt. iṣ), unwished, undesirable, disadvantageous, disagreeable, unfavourable; bad, wrong, evil, unlucky, ominous; (ā), f. a plant, Sida Alba; (am), n. evil, detriment, disadvantage, calamity, crime.
     aniṣṭagraha aniṣṭa-graha, as, m. an evil planet.
     aniṣṭaduṣṭadhī aniṣṭa-duṣṭa-dhī, īs, īs, i, having an evil and corrupt mind.
     aniṣṭaprasaṅga aniṣṭa-prasaṅga, as, m. connection with a wrong object or a wrong argument or a wrong rule.
     aniṣṭaphala aniṣṭa-phala, am, n. evil result.
     aniṣṭaśaṅkā aniṣṭa-śaṅkā, f. foreboding or fear of evil or misfortune.
     aniṣṭasūcaka aniṣṭa-sūcaka, as, ikā, am, foreboding evil, ominous.
     aniṣṭahetu aniṣṭa-hetu, us, m. an evil omen.
     aniṣṭāpādana an-iṣṭāpādana (-ṭa-āp-), am, n. not obtaining what is desired or (fr. aniṣṭa and āpādana) obtaining what is not desired.
     aniṣṭāpti an-iṣṭāpti (-ṭa-āp-), is, f. = preceding.
     aniṣṭāśaṃsin aniṣṭāśaṃsin (-ṭa-āś-), ī, inī, i, indicating or boding evil.
     aniṣṭotprekṣaṇa aniṣṭotprekṣaṇa (-ṭa-ut-), am, n. expectation of evil.

aniṣṭa 2. an-iṣṭa, as, ā, am, (rt. yaj), not offered in sacrifice, not honoured with a sacrifice.

aniṣṭin an-iṣṭin, ī, m. one who does not sacrifice or has not sacrificed.

aniṣṭṛta a-niṣṭṛta, as, ā, am, Ved. unhurt, unchecked.

aniṣṭhā a-niṣṭhā, f. unsteadfastness, unsteadiness.

aniṣṭhura a-niṣṭhura, as, ā, am, not harsh, not scurrilous.

aniṣṇāta a-niṣṇāta, as, ā, am, unskilled.

aniṣpatti a-niṣpatti, is, f. non-accomplishment, incompletion.

aniṣpanna a-niṣpanna, as, ā, am, imperfect, incomplete.

aniṣpattram a-niṣ-pattram, ind. so that the arrow does not come out (on the other side), i. e. not with excessive force.

anisarga a-nisarga, as, ā, am, unnatural, unnaturally affected.

anistabdha a-nistabdha, as, ā, am, not rendered immoveable or stiff; not paralysed; not fixed.

anistīrṇa a-nistīrṇa, as, ā, am, not crossed over; not set aside; not rid of; unanswered, unrefuted.
     anistīrṇābhiyoga anistīrṇābhiyoga (-ṇa-abh-), as, m. (a defendant) who has not yet (by refutation) got rid of a charge.

anīka anīka, as, am, m. n. (fr. rt. an), face; appearance, splendor; edge, point; front, row, array, march; army, forces; war, combat.
     anīkavat anīka-vat, ān, m., Ved. having a face, or constituting the face, or occupying the front or foremost rank (epithet of Agni).
     anīkavidāraṇa anīka-vidāraṇa, as, m. (shatterer of armies), N. of a man.
     anīkaśas anīka-śas, ind. in rows or marching columns.
     anīkastha anīka-stha, as, m. a warrior or combatant; an armed or royal guard, a sentinel; the trainer of an elephant, an elephant-driver; a mark, a sing, signal; a military drum.

anīkinī anīkinī, f. an army, a host, forces; a certain force; three Camūs or one-tenth of an Akṣauhiṇī, i. e. a complete army; 2187 elephants and as many cars, 6561 horses, and 10935 foot; a lotus.

anīkṣaṇa an-īkṣaṇa, am, n. not seeing or looking at.

anīca a-nīca, as, ā, am, not low, decent, respectable; not pronounced with the Anudātta accent.
     anīcānuvartin a-nīcānuvartin (-ca-an-), ī, inī, i, not keeping low company; (ī), m. a faithful lover or husband.

anīcidarśin a-nīci-darśin, ī, m., N. of a Bauddha saint (?).

anīcais anīcais, ind. not in a low voice, loudly.

anīḍa a-nīḍa, as, ā, am, having no nest or settled abode, i. e. incorporeal; (as), m. an epithet of Agni or fire.

anīti 1. a-nīti, is, f. impropriety, immorality, injustice; impolicy, foolish conduct, indiscretion.
     anītijña anīti-jña, as, ā, am, or anīti-vid, t, t, t, clever in immoral conduct or (fr. a and nītijña) ignorant of morality or policy, not politic or discreet.

anīti 2. an-īti, is, f. freedom from a calamitous season.

anīdṛśa an-īdṛśa, as, ī, am, unlike, dissimilar.

anīpsita an-īpsita, as, ā, am, undesired.

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anīrasana a-nīrasana (a-nir-rasana), as, ā, am, not destitute of a waistband.

anīśa an-īśa, as, ā, am, one who has not a lord or superior, paramount; powerless, unable; (as), m. Viṣṇu; (ā), f. powerlessness, helplessness.
     anīśatva anīśa-tva, am, n. powerlessness.

anīśvara an-īśvara, as, ā, am, without a superior; unchecked, uncontrolled, paramount; without power, powerless, unable; not belonging to the deity; atheistical.
     anīśvaratā anīśvara-tā, f. or anīśvara-tva, am, n. absence of a supreme ruler.
     anīśvaravādin an-īśvara-vādin, ī, m. an atheist, one who denies a supreme ruler of the universe.

anīha an-īha, as, ā, am, listless, indifferent; (as), m., N. of a king of Ayodhyā.

anīhā an-īhā, f. indifference, apathy, disinclination.

anīhita an-īhita, as, ā, am, disagreeable, displeasing, unwished; (am), n. displeasure.

anīLa a-nīḷa, Ved. See a-nīḍa.

anu 1. anu, us, vī, u. See aṇu.

anu 2. anu, us, m., Ved. man; N. of a king, one of Yayāti's sons; (possibly) N. of a non-Āryan tribe.

anu 3. anu, ind. as a prefix to verbs and nouns, expresses after, along, alongside, lengthwise, near to, under, subordinate to, with.

     (When prefixed to nouns, especially in adverbial compounds) it implies repetition, according to, severally, each by each, orderly, methodically.

     (As a separable preposition, with accusative) after, along, over, near to, through, to, towards, at, according to, in order, agreeably to, in regard to.

     (As a separable adverb) after, afterwards, thereupon, again, further, then, next.

anuka anu-ka, as, ā, am, lustful (fr. anu-kam, q. v.; or, according to others, fr. 3. anu with affix ka).

anukath anu-kath, cl. 10. P. -kathayati, -yitum, to relate after (some one else); to repeat (what has been heard).

anukathana anu-kathana, am, n. orderly narration, discourse, conversation.

anukathita anu-kathita, as, ā, am, related, repeated.

anukanīyas anu-kanīyas, ān, asī, as, the next youngest.

anukam anu-kam, Caus. P. -kāmayati, -yitum, to desire.

anuka anu-ka, as, ā, am, libidinous; see s. v. above.

anukāma anu-kāma, as, m., Ved. desire; (as, ā, am), according to one's desire, agreeable; (am), ind. as desired, at pleasure; wish after wish (?), after one's wish (?).
     anukāmakṛt anukāma-kṛt, t, t, t, Ved. fulfilling one's desire.

anukāmīna anukāmīna, as, m. one who acts as he pleases.

anukamp anu-kamp, cl. 1. A. -kampate, -pitum, to sympathize with, compassionate; Caus. -kampayati, -yitum, = the same.

anukampaka anu-kampaka, as, m. (sympathizer), N. of a king; (as, ā, am), (at the close of compounds) sympathizing with, compassionating.

anukampana anu-kampana, am, n. or anu-kampā, f. sympathy, compassion.

anukampāyin anu-kampāyin, ī, inī, i, condoling.

anukampita anu-kampita, as, ā, am, compassionated.
     anukampitātman anu-kampitātman (-ta-āt-), ā, ā, a, having a compassionate spirit.

anukampin anu-kampin, ī, inī, i, sympathizing with, compassionating.

anukampya anu-kampya or anu-kampanīya, as, ā, am, pitiable, worthy of sympathy; (as), m. an ascetic; a courier.

anukarṣa anu-karṣa. See under anu-kṛṣ.

anukalpa anu-kalpa. See under anukḷp.

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anukāṅkṣ anu-kāṅkṣ, cl. 1. P. A. -kāṅ-kṣati, -te, -kṣitum, to long for, desire, seek.

anukāṅkṣā anu-kāṅkṣā, f. desire after.

anukāṅkṣin anu-kāṅkṣin, ī, iṇī, i, longing for.

anukāla anu-kāla, as, ā, am, opportune, occasiona; (am), ind. opportunely, occasionally, on a proper occasion.

anukīrtana anu-kīrtana. See anu-kṝt.

anukuñcita anu-kuñcita, as, ā, am, bent, made crooked.

anukuṣ anu-kuṣ, cl. 9. P. -kuṣṇāti, -koṣitum, to pull or drag along (to lift ?).

anukūj anu-kūj, cl. 1. P. -kūjati, -jitum, to follow in cooing or singing or groaning.

anukūla anu-kūla, as, ā, am, following the bank (kūla), slope or declivity, according to the current, favourable, agreeable; conformable to; friendly, kind, well-disposed; (as), m. a faithful or kind and obliging husband; (ā), f. Croton Polyandrum; N. of a metre; (am), n. favour, kindness (often in an ironical sense).
     anukūlatā anukūla-tā, f. concord, good-will, favour, conformity, consent; prosperity.
     anukūlanāyaka anukūla-nāyaka, as, m. a kind husband or lover.
     anukūlavāyu anukūla-vāyu, us, m. a favourable wind.

anukūlaya anukūlaya, nom. P. anukūlayati, -yitum, to act in a friendly way.

anukṛ anu-kṛ, cl. 8. P. or poet. A. -karoti, -kurute, -kartum, to do afterwards, to follow in doing, imitate, equal, requite, adopt: Caus. -kārayati, -yitum, to cause one to imitate.

anukara anu-kara, as, ā, am, imitating; (as), m. an assistant.

anukaraṇa anu-karaṇa, am, n. imitation, following an example; resemblance, similarity.

anukartṛ anu-kartṛ, tā, trī, tṛ, an imitator, imitating; (), m. a mimic, actor, performer.

anukarman anu-karman, a, n. imitation; a subsequent rite or ceremony.

anukāra anu-kāra, as, m. imitation, resemblance.

anukārin anu-kārin, ī, iṇī, i, imitating, an imitator, acting, mimicing.

anukārya anu-kārya, as, ā, am, fit to be imitated or (dramatically) acted; (am), n. subsequent business; subsequent day (?).

anukṛta anu-kṛta, as, ā, am, copied, imitated, made or done like.

anukṛti anu-kṛti, is, f. imitation, a copy, compliance.

anukṛtya anu-kṛtya, as, ā, am, fit to be imitated or represented.

anukriyā anu-kriyā, f. imitation, doing anything subsequently or in like manner; a subsequent rite.

anukrī anu-krī, f. a subsequent rite or ceremony.

anukṛt anu-kṛt, cl. 6. P. -kṛntati, -karti-tum, to go on shattering or destroying.

anukṛp anu-kṛp, cl. 6. A., Ved. -kṛpate, to mourn; nom. A. -kṛpāyate, -yitum, to compassionate, condole with.

anukṛṣ anu-kṛṣ, cl. 1. P. -karṣati, -karṣṭum or -kraṣṭum, to drag after one's self, attract: Caus. -karṣayati, -yitum, = the same; to subject.

anukarṣa anu-karṣa, as, m. or anu-karṣaṇa, am, n. attraction, drawing; invoking, summoning by incantation; the bottom or the axle-tree of a carriage; grammatical attraction; including a subsequent in a preceding rule; lagging behind in a ceremony; delayed performance of a duty.

anukarṣan anu-karṣan, ā, m. the bottom of a carriage.

anukṛṣṭa anu-kṛṣṭa, as, ā, am, attracted; included or implied in a subsequent rule.

anukṝ anu-kṝ, cl. 6. P. -kirati, -karitum, rītum, to scatter along, to crowd: Pass. -kīryate, to become crowded or filled.

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anukīrṇa anu-kīrṇa, as, ā, am, crowded.

anukṝt anu-kṝt, cl. 10. P. -kīrtayati, -yitum, to relate after (or in order), to narrate.

anukīrtana anu-kīrtana, am, n. act of proclaiming or publishing.

anukḷp anu-kḷp, cl. 1. A. -kalpate, -kalpitum, -kalptum, to follow duly: Caus. -kalpa-yati, -yitum, to get (others) to follow or imitate duly.

anukalpa anu-kalpa, as, m. permission to adopt an alternative or substitute, as "instead of Kuśa grass you may use Dūrbā."

anukalpita anu-kalpita, as, ā, am, followed, attended.

anukta an-ukta, as, ā, am, (rt. vac), unuttered, unsaid, unheard of, extraordinary.
     anuktanirmitta anukta-nirmitta, am, n. a reason which is unuttered or unheard of or extraordinary; (as, ā, am,), having such a reason.

anukti an-ukti, is, f. the not speaking, improper speech.

anuktha an-uktha, as, ā, am, Ved. hymnless, not singing hymns.

anukrakaca anu-krakaca, as, ā, am, serrated, dentated like a saw.

anukrand anu-krand, cl. 1. A. -krandate, -ditum, to shout or cry after one.

anukram anu-kram, cl. 1. P. -krāmati, -kramitum, to go on, go after, follow; to go through in order, enumerate, supply with an abstract or index.

anukrama anu-krama, as, m. succession, arrangement, order, method; an index showing the successive contents of a book; (am), ind. in due order.

anukramaṇa anu-kramaṇa, am, n. proceeding methodically or in order; following.

anukramaṇikā anu-kramaṇikā or anu-kramaṇī, f. a table or chapter of contents, especially of the collection of hymns &c. in Vedic books.

anukrānta anu-krānta, as, ā, am, gone over, read, or done in due order.

anukrīḍ anu-krīḍ, cl. 1. A. -krīḍate, -ḍitum, to play.

anukruś anu-kruś, cl. 1. P. -krośati, -kroṣṭum, to shout at: Caus. -krośayati, -yitum, to join in lamenting, show sympathy.

anukrośa anu-krośa, as, m. tenderness, compassion.

anukṣaṇam anu-kṣaṇam, ind. momentarily, perpetually, every instant.

anukṣattṛ anu-kṣattṛ, tā, m. the doorkeeper's or charioteer's mate or attendant.

anukṣapam anu-kṣapam, ind. night after night.

anukṣar anu-kṣar, cl. 1. P. -kṣarati, -ritum, to flow into or upon.

anukṣi anu-kṣi, cl. 6. P., Ved. -kṣiyati, -kṣetum, to overspread, reach: Pass. -kṣīyate, to decay or vanish gradually.

anukṣetra anu-kṣetra, am, n. stipend (in commutation probably of the proceeds of an endowment) given to temple-servants in Orissa.

anukhañja, anu-khañja, as, m., N. of a country.

anukhyā anu-khyā, cl. 2. P., Ved. -khyāti, -tum, to descry.

anukhyāti anu-khyāti, is, f. act of descrying or revealing or reporting.

anukhyātṛ anu-khyātṛ, tā, m. a discoverer, revealer, reporter.

anugaṅgam anu-gaṅgam, ind. along the Ganges.

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anugaṇ anu-gaṇ, cl. 10. P. -gaṇayati, -yitum, to count over.

anugaṇita anu-gaṇita, as, ā, am, counted over.

anugaṇitin anu-gaṇitin, ī, inī, i, one who has counted over.

anugam anu-gam, cl. 1. P. -gacchati, -gan-tum, to go after, follow, seek, approach, visit, arrive; to practise, observe, obey, imitate; to enter into; to die out, be extinguished: Caus. -gamayati, -yitum, to imitate, cause to die out.

anuga anu-ga, as, ā, am, going after, following, corresponding with, adapted to; a companion; a follower, a servant; (at the close of compounds) having followers, as balānuga, having a force following him, i. e. leader of a force or army; (ā), f., N. of an Apsaras.

anugata anu-gata, as, ā, am, followed (lit. or fig.), as by a dependant; covered (as by a dress hanging behind); following; a follower; acquired; extinguished; tallying with; (am), n. moderate time in music.
     anugatārtha anu-gatārtha (-ta-ar-), as, ā, am, having a corresponding (easily discoverable) meaning.

anugatika anu-gatika, as, m. a follower, an imitator.

anugantavya anu-gantavya or anu-gamya, as, ā, am, proper to be followed (especially in death); worthy of being imitated.

anugama anu-gama, as, m. or anu-gamana, am, n. following, going after in life or death; postcremation of a widow; imitating, approaching.

anugamya anu-gamya, as, ā, am, to be followed or imitated.

anugāmin anu-gāmin, ī, inī, i, following, a follower, a companion.

anugāmuka anu-gāmuka, as, ā, am, habitually or constantly following or attending.

anugarj anu-garj, cl. 1. P. anu-garjati, -jitum, to shout or roar after.

anugarjita anu-garjita, am, n. roaring echo.

anugavam anu-gavam, ind. so as to suit the oxen.

anugavīna anu-gavīna, as, m. a cowherd.

anugā anu-gā, cl. 3. P. -jigāti, -gātum, to go after, follow, seek, be guided by.

anugādin anu-gādin, ī, inī, i, following in speaking, echoing.

anugāh anu-gāh, cl. 1. A. -gāhate, -gāhitum, gāḍhum, to plunge after, be immersed in.

anugāḍha anu-gāḍha, as, ā, am, plunged, immersed.

anugiram anu-giram, ind. on the mountain.

anugu anu-gu, ind. behind the oxen or cows.

anuguṇa anu-guṇa, as, ā, am, having similar qualities, congenial with; according or suitable to; (am), ind. naturally; (as), m. natural peculiarity.

anugup anu-gup, cl. 1. P. -gopāyati, -gop-tum, to protect.

anugupta anu-gupta, as, ā, am, protected, sheltered, concealed.

anugṛdh anu-gṛdh, cl. 4. P. -gṛdhyati, -gardhitum, to be greedy after.

anugṝ anu-gṝ, cl. 9. P. -gṛṇāti, -garitum, rītum, Ved. to join in praising; to rejoin, answer, repeat.

anugai anu-gai, cl. 1. P. -gāyati, -gātum, to sing after or to (a person or a tune); to celebrate in song: Caus. -gāpayati, -yitum, to make one sing after or to.

anugīti anu-gīti, is, f., N. of a metre of two verses, the first containing twenty-seven, the second thirty-two mātrās.

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anugra an-ugra, as, ā, am, not harsh or violent, mild, gentle.

anugrah anu-grah, cl. 9. P. -gṛhṇāti or Ved. -gṛbhṇāti, or cl. 9. A. -gṛhṇīte, -grahītum, to follow in taking or plundering; to support; uphold; to receive, welcome; treat with kindness, favour, oblige; foster.

anugṛhīta anu-gṛhīta, as, ā, am, favoured, obliged.

anugraha anu-graha, as, m. or anu-grahaṇa, am, n. favour, kindness, showing favour, conferring benefits, promoting or furthering a good object; assistance; facilitating by incantation; rear-guard; (in the Purāṇas) N. of the eighth or fifth creation.
     anugrahakātara anugraha-kātara, as, ā, am, anxious to please or for favour.
     anugrahasarga anugraha-sarga, as, m. (in Sāṅkhya phil.) creation of the feelings or mental conditions.

anugrahin anu-grahin, ī, m., Ved. proficient in magic skill.

anugrāhaka anu-grāhaka, as, ikā, am, favouring, furthering, facilitating; favourable, kind, gracious.

anugrāhita anu-grāhita or anu-grahita (?), as, ā, am, favoured.

anugrāhin anu-grāhin, ī, iṇī, i, gracious, favourable.

anugrāhya anu-grāhya, as, ā, am, fit or deserving to be favoured or furthered.

anujighṛkṣā anu-jighṛkṣā, f. desire to show favour or kindness.

anugrāmam anu-grāmam, ind. village after village.

anugrāsaka anu-grāsaka, as, m. a mouthful (of boiled rice), the equivalent of a mouthful.

anughaṭṭ anu-ghaṭṭ, cl. 10. P. -ghaṭṭayati, -yitum, to stroke, rub lengthwise.

anughuṣ anu-ghuṣ, cl. 1. P., Ved. -ghoṣati, -ṣitum, to name aloud.

anucakṣ anu-cakṣ cl. 2. A., Ved. -caṣṭe, -caṣṭum, to look at or up to.

anucar anu-car, cl. 1. P. -carati, -ritum, to walk or move after or along, to follow, pursue, traverse, seek after; to follow out, adhere to, attend, to behave: Caus. -cārayati, -yitum, to let or cause to traverse.

anucara anu-cara, as, ī, am, following, attending; (as), m. companion, follower, servant; (ā or ī), f. a female attendant.

anucāraka anu-cāraka, as, m. a follower, attendant; (ā), f. a female follower or attendant.

anucārin anu-cārin, ī, iṇī, i, following, attending.

anucarci anu-carci, is, is, i, Ved. reciting or repeating (in a chorus).

anuci 1. anu-ci, cl. 5. P. -cinoti, -cetum, to set or place along or in regular order.

anucita 1. anu-cita, as, ā, am, set or placed along or lengthwise or in rows.

anuci 2. anu-ci, cl. 3. P., Ved. -ciketi, to remember.

anucita 2. an-ucita, as, ā, am, improper, wrong, unusual, strange.
     anucitārtha anucitārtha (-ta-ar-), as, m. an unusaul meaning.

anucint anu-cint, cl. 10. P. -cintayati, -yitum, to meditate, consider, recal to mind: Caus. to make to consider.

anucintā anu-cintā, f. or anu-cintana, am, n. thinking of, meditating upon, recalling, recollecting; anxiety.

anucintita anu-cintita, as, ā, am, recollected, recalled, thought of.

anucca an-ucca, as, ā, am, not high, low, humble.

anuccais an-uccais, ind. not aloud, in a low voice.

anuccāra an-uccāra, non-pronunciation, skipping words. See uc-car.

anucchāda anu-cchāda, as, m. (fr. rt. chad with anu), a garment which hangs down, or probably that part of the lower garment which hangs down in front from the waist to the feet.

anucchitti an-uc-chitti, is, f. or an-uc-cheda, as, m. (rt. chid with ud), not cutting off, non-extirpation, non-destruction, indestructibility.
     anucchittidharman anuc-chitti-dharman, ā, ā, a, possessing the virtue (or law) of being indestructible.

anucchindat 1. an-uc-chindat, an, atī, at, not destroying.

anucchinna an-uc-chinna, as, ā, am, not cut off, unextirpated, undestroyed.

anucchedya an-uc-chedya, as, ā, am, indestructible, not severable.

anucchid anu-cchid (anu-chid), cl. 7. P. -cchinatti, -cchettum, to cut along or lengthwise.

anucchindat 2. anu-cchindat, an, atī, at, cutting lengthwise.

anucchiṣṭa an-ucchiṣṭa, as, ā, am (rt. śiṣ with ud), not rejected, pure (by austerity and devotion).

anuccho anu-ccho (anu-cho), cl. 4. P. -chyati, -chātum, to cut open or cut up.

anujan anu-jan, cl. 4. A. -jāyate, -janitum, to follow in being born or produced or arising; to take after (one's parents).

anuja anu-ja, as, ā, am, born after, later, younger; (as), m. a younger brother, a cadet; N. of a plant, also called Trāyamāṇa; (am), n., N. of a plant, also called Prapauṇḍarīka; (ā), f. a younger sister.

anujanman anu-janman, ā, m. a younger brother, younger.

anujāta anu-jāta, as, ā, am, after-born, later, younger; taking after (the parents); after teething (?); born again, i. e. invested with the sacred cord; (as), m. a younger brother; (ā), f. a younger sister.

anujanam anu-janam, ind. according to people, popularly.

anujap anu-jap, cl. 1. P. -japati, -pitum, to follow or imitate in muttering.

anujalp anu-jalp, cl. 1. P. -jalpati, -pitum, to follow in talking; A. -jalpate, to entertain by conversation.

anujāgṛ anu-jāgṛ, cl. 2. P. -jāgarti, -jāgaritum, to watch as an attendant.

anuji anu-ji, cl. 1. P. -jayati, -jetum, to subdue: Desid -jigīṣate, to be desirous of subduing.

anujighṛkṣā anu-jighṛkṣā. See under anu-grah.

anujīv anu-jīv, cl. 1. P. -jīvati, -vitum, to follow or imitate in living; to live for any one; to live by or upon something; to live submissively under: Caus. -jīvayati, -yitum, to restore to life.

anujīvin anu-jīvin, ī, inī, i, living by or upon; dependent; (ī), m. a dependent, follower.
     anujīvisātkṛta anujīvi-sāt-kṛta, as, ā, am, made wholly subservient.

anujīvya anu-jīvya, as, ā, am, to be followed in living.

anujuṣ anu-juṣ, cl. 6. A., Ved. -juṣate, -joṣitum, to seek.

anujṝ anu-jṝ, cl. 4. P. -jīryati, or cl. 1. P., Ved. -jarati, -jaritum, -rītum, to follow in getting old or decaying.

anujīrṇa anu-jīrṇa, as, ā, am, grown old or decayed after or in consequence of.

anujjhat an-ujjhat, an, antī or atī, at, not quitting, not leaving.

anujjhita an-ujjhita, as, ā, am, undiminished, unimpaired, not left or lost.

anujñā 1. anu-jñā, cl. 9. P. rarely A. -jānāti, jānīte, -jñātum, to permit, grant, allow, consent; to excuse, forgive; to authorize; to allow one to take leave, dismiss, bid farewell; to entreat; to behave kindly: Caus. -jñāpayati, -yitum, to request, ask permission, ask for leave, to take leave: Desid. -jijñāsati or -te, to be willing to grant.

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anujñā 2. anu-jñā, f. or anu-jñāna, am, n. assent, assenting, permission; leave to depart; allowance made for faults; an order or command.
     anujñāprārthanā anujñā-prārthanā or anujñaiṣaṇā (-jñā-eṣ-), f. asking permission, taking leave.

anujñāta anu-jñāta, as, ā, am, assented to, permitted, allowed; ordered, directed, instructed; accepted; authorized, honoured; allowed to depart, dismissed.

anujñāpaka anu-jñāpaka, as, m. one who commands or enjoins.

anujñāpana anu-jñāpana, am, n. or anu-jñapti, is, f. authorization; issuing an order or permission.

anujyeṣṭha anu-jyeṣṭha, as, ā, am, next eldest; (am), ind. after the eldest, according to seniority.

anutakṣ anu-takṣ, cl. 1. P., Ved. -takṣati, -kṣitum, -taṣṭum, to sharpen or stimulate by offerings.

anutan anu-tan, cl. 8. P. -tanoti, -tanitum, to extend along, to carry on, continue, develop.

anutap anu-tap, cl. 1. P. -tapati, -taptum, to heat, to vex, annoy: Pass. -tapyate or poet. -tapyati, to suffer afterwards, repent; to desiderate, miss: Caus. -tāpayati, -yitum, to distress.

anutapta anu-tapta, as, ā, am, heated; filled with regret.

anutāpa anu-tāpa, as, m. repentance, heat.

anutāpana anu-tāpana, as, ī, am, occasioning remorse, repentance or sorrow.

anutāpin anu-tāpin, ī, inī, i, penitent, regretting.

anutara anu-tara. See anu-tṝ below.

anutark anu-tark, cl. 10. P. or poet. A. -tarkayati, -te, -yitum, to follow in thought, to regard as or take for.

anutarṣa anu-tarṣa, as, m. thirst, wish, desire; a drinking vessel, one used for drinking spirituous liquors.

anutarṣaṇa anu-tarṣaṇa, am, n. a vessel from which spirituous liquor is drunk; distributing liquor.

anutilam anu-tilam, ind. grain after grain (of Sesamum), i. e. very minutely or by grains.

anutiṣṭhamāna anu-tiṣṭhamāna. See anu-ṣṭhā.

anutunna anu-tunna, as, ā, am (rt. tud), Ved. depressed or repressed (in sound), muffled.

anutūlaya anu-tūlaya, nom. P. -tūlayati, -yitum, to rub lengthwise (with a brush or cotton?).

anutṛd anu-tṛd, cl. 7. P. -tṛṇatti, -tardi-tum, to let go, let out; split, sever, open.

anutṛp anu-tṛp, cl. 4. A. -tṛpyate, -tarpi-tum, -tarptum, -traptum, to take one's fill (or refreshment) after or later than another.

anutṝ anu-tṝ, cl. 1. P. -tarati, -ritum or -rītum, to follow across or to the end; to stretch lengthwise or prostrate: Pass. -tīryate, to be laid or lay one's self lengthwise.

anutara anu-tara, am, n. fare, freight.

anutka an-utka, as, ā, am, free from regret, not regretting, self-complacent, not repenting of.

anutkarṣa an-utkarṣa, as, m. inferiority, non-elevation.

anutta a-nutta, as, ā, am, Ved. not cast down, invincible; (or, not moistened, = an-utta?).
     anuttamanyu anutta-manyu, us, m. of invincible wrath, i. e. Indra.

anuttama an-uttama, as, ā, am, unsurpassed, incomparably the best or chief, excellent; not the best; (in gram.) not used in the uttama or first person.
     anuttamāmbhas an-uttamāmbhas (-ma-am-), as, n. (in Sāṅkhya phil.) indifference to and consequent abstinence from sensual enjoyment, as fatiguing.
     anuttamāmbhasika an-uttamāmbhasika, am, n. indifference to and abstinence from sensual enjoyment as involving injury to external objects.

anuttara an-uttara, as, ā, am, chief, principal; best, excellent; without a reply, unable to answer, silent; fixed, firm; low, inferior, base; south, southern; (am), n. a reply which is coherent or evasive and therefore held to be no answer; (as), m. a class of gods among the Jainas.
     anuttarayogatantra anuttara-yoga-tantra, am, n. title of the last of the four Bauddhatantras.
     anuttaropapātika an-uttaropapātika (-ra-up-), ās, m. pl. the same class of gods.
     anuttaropapātikadaśā anuttaropapātika-daśā, ās, f. pl. title of a book treating of those gods.

anuttāna an-uttāna, as, ā, am, lying with the face towards the ground; not supine.

anutthāna an-utthāna, am, n. (rt. sthā), the not rising, want of exertion.

anutthita an-utthita, as, ā, am, not risen, not grown up (as grain).

anutpatti an-utpatti, is, f. failure, non-production; (is, is, i), or an-utpattika, as, ī, am, not (yet) produced.
     anutpattikadharmakṣānti anutpattika-dharma-kṣānti, is, f. (with Buddhists) acquiescence in the state (and moral condition) which is still future, preparation for a future state.
     anutpattisama anutpatti-sama, as, ā, m. f. (in Nyāya phil.) arguing against a thing by trying to show that nothing exists from which it could spring.

anutpanna an-utpanna, as, ā, am, unborn, unproduced; uneffected, unaccomplished.

anutpāda an-utpāda, as, m. the not coming into existence; the not taking effect.
     anutpādakṣānti anutpāda-kṣānti, is, f. acquiescence in not having to undergo another birth.

anutpādana an-utpādana, am, n. not producing, non-production.

anutpādya an-utpādya, as, ā, am, not to be produced or created, i. e. eternal.

anutsāha an-utsāha, as, m. want of adequate effort; want of energy or determination; listlessness; (as, ā, am), deficient in determination.
     anutsāhatā anutsāha-tā, f. want of determination.

anutsuka an-utsuka, as, ā, am, not eager, calm, retiring; moderate.
     anutsukatā anutsuka-tā, f. moderateness.

anutsūtra an-utsūtra, as, ā, am, not anomalous.

anutseka an-utseka, as, m. absence of arrogance or highmindedness.

anutsekin an-utsekin, ī, inī, i, not arrogant or puffed up.

anudaka an-udaka, as, ā, am, waterless.

anudagra an-udagra, as, ā, am, not lofty, low; not projecting.

anudaya an-udaya, as, m. non-rising, the not rising (of a luminary).

anudita 1. an-udita, as, ā, am, not risen, not appeared. (For 2. an-udita, see next column.)

anudara an-udara, as, ā, am, thin, lank.

anudah anu-dah, cl. 1. P. -dahati, -dagdhum, to burn over again, to burn up.

anudā anu-dā, cl. 3. P. -dadāti, -dātum, to give back, restore, give way, yield, grant, remit; to pay one out (?).

anuda anu-da, as, ā, am, Ved. yielding, emulating others in giving, a follower.

anudatta anu-datta, as, ā, am, granted, remitted, given back.

anudeya anu-deya, as, ā, am, to be given back or restored.

anudeyī anu-deyī, f., Ved. restitution; a female follower or companion.

anudātta an-udātta, as, ā, am, not raised, not elevated, not pronounced with the Udātta accent, grave; accentless, having the neutral general tone neither high nor low: the term anudātta is used by Pāṇini both for the grave or non-elevated accent (explained by him as sannatara, q. v.) which immediately precedes the Udātta, and also for the general accentless, neutral tone, neither high nor low, explained as eka-śruti, i. e. the one monotonous ordinary intonation which belongs to the generality of syllables in a sentence; (as), m. one of the three accents to be observed in reading the Vedas, the grave accent.
     anudāttatara anudātta-tara, as, m. more than Anudātta, still lower in sound than Anudātta, i. e. the very Anudātta accent (or a syllable having this accent) which immediately precedes a syllable having the Udātta or Svarita accent, and is therefore more depressed than the ordinary Anudātta.
     anudāttādi an-udāttādi (-ta-ād-), n. (in gram.) a nominal base of which the first syllable is Anudātta.
     anudāttet anudāttet (-ta-it-), t, m. a verbal root having for its Anubandha the Anudātta accent to indicate that it takes the Ātmane-pada terminations only; also anudāttopa-deśa.
     anudāttodaya anudāttodaya (-ta-ud-), am, n. a syllable immediately preceding the Anudātta accent.

anudāra 1. an-udāra, as, ā, am, niggardly, mean; liberal, munificent.

anudāra 2. anu-dāra, as, ā, am, adhered to or followed by a wife.

anudita 2. an-udita, as, ā, am, unsaid, unuttered, interdicted (see 1. anu-udita under an-udaya).

anudinam anu-dinam or anu-divasam, ind. daily, every day.

anudiś anu-diś, cl. 6. P. -diśati, -deṣṭum, to point out, to assign.

anudiśam anu-diśam, ind. in every quarter.

anudeśa anu-deśa, as, m. a rule or injunction, especially one that points back to a previous rule; reference to something prior.

anudeśin anu-deśin, ī, inī, i, pointing back, referring back; being the object of an Anudeśa.

anudṛbh anu-dṛbh, cl. 6. P., Ved. -dṛbhati, -darbhitum, to make into bundles or chains.

anudṛś anu-dṛś, cl. 1. P. -paśyati, -dra-ṣṭum, to survey, behold; to keep in view or in mind, to foresee: Caus. P. -darśayati, -yitum, to show, tell, teach: Pass. -dṛśyate, to become or be visible.

anudarśana anu-darśana, am, n. consideration, regard, reference.

anudarśin anu-darśin, ī, inī, i, considering, foreseeing.

anudṛṣṭi anu-dṛṣṭi, is, f., N. of the ancestress of Ānudṛṣṭineya.

anudraṣṭavya an-udraṣṭavya, as, ā, am, capable of being observed, visible.

anudṝ anu-dṝ, Pass. -dīryate, to break through after (another); to be scattered or confused (in consequence of the confusion of others).

anudeham anu-deham, ind. behind the body.

anudairghya anu-dairghya, as, ā, am, longitudinal.

anudgīrṇa an-udgīrṇa, as, ā, am, not vomited forth, not disdained; not spurned.

anuddhata an-uddhata, as, ā, am, (rt. han), not lifted up, humble, unsurpassed, unequalled, unopposed.

anuddharaṇa an-uddharaṇa, am, n. (rt. hṛ), non-removal; not offering, not establishing or proving.

anuddhāra an-uddhāra, as, m. non-partition, not taking a share; non-removal.

anuddhṛta an-uddhṛta, as, ā, am, non-removed, not taken away; uninjured, undestroyed; unoffered; undivided, unpartitioned; unestablished, unproved.
     anuddhṛtābhyastamaya an-ud-dhṛtābhyastamaya (-ta-abh-), as, m. sunset (abhy-astamaya), taking place whilst the Āhavanīya fire continues (an-uddhṛta) unremoved from the Gārhapatya.

anudbhaṭa an-udbhaṭa, as, ā, am, not exalted, unassuming.

anudya an-udya, as, ā, am, unutterable.

anudyata an-udyata, as, ā, am (rt. yam), inactive, idle, destitute of perseverance.

anudyoga an-udyoga, as, m. absence of exertion or effort, inactivity, laziness.

anudyogin an-udyogin, ī, inī, i, inactive, lazy, indifferent.

anudra an-udra, as, ā, am, waterless.

anudru anu-dru, cl. 1. P. -dravati, -drotum, to run after, follow; accompany; to pursue.

anudruta anu-druta, as, ā, am, followed, pursued; (am), n. a measure of time in music, half a Druta, or onefourth of a Mātrā or of the time taken to articulate a short vowel.

anudvāha an-udvāha, as, m. non-marriage, celibacy.

anudvigna an-udvigna, as, ā, am, free from apprehension or perplexity, easy in mind.

anudvega an-udvega, as, ā, am, free from anxiety; (as), m. freedom from uneasiness.
     anudvegakara an-udvega-kara, as, ī, am, not causing apprehension, not overawing.

anudhā anu-dhā, cl. 3. P. -dadhāti, -dhātum, to welcome, receive kindly.

anudhāv 1. anu-dhāv, cl. 1. P. -dhāvati, -vitum, to run after, to run up to.

anudhāvat anu-dhāvat, an, antī, at, running after.

anudhāvana 1. anu-dhāvana, am, n. chasing, pursuing, running after; close pursuit of any object, going after a mistress.

anudhāvita anu-dhāvita, as, ā, am, pursued, run after, literally or figuratively.

anudhāv 2. anu-dhāv, cl. 1. P. A. -dhavati, -te, -vitum, to cleanse.

anudhāvana 2. anu-dhāvana, am, n. cleansing, purification.

anudhyai anu-dhyai, cl. 1. P. -dhyāyati, -dhyātum, to consider attentively, to think of, to muse, to be anxious.

anudhyāna anu-dhyāna, am, n. meditation, religious contemplation, solicitude.

anudhyāyin anu-dhyāyin, ī, inī, i, contemplating, meditating.

anunad anu-nad, cl. 1. P. -nadati, -ditum, to sound towards, (with acc.): Caus. P. -nādayati, -yitum, to make resonant or musical.

anunāda anu-nāda, as, m. sound, vibration, reverberation, echo.

anunādita anu-nādita, as, ā, am, made to resound.

anunādin anu-nādin, ī, inī, i, resounding, echoing, resonant.

anunam anu-nam, cl. 1. P. -namati, -nantum, to incline to.

anunaya anu-naya, anu-nayin, &c. See anu-nī.

anunāsika anu-nāsika, as, ā, am, nasal, uttered through the nose (as one of the five nasal consonants, or a vowel, or the three semivowels, y, v, l, under certain circumstances; in the case of vowels and semivowels, the mark is used to denote this nasalization); the nasal mark ṃ; (am), n. a nasal twang.
     anunāsikatva anunāsika-tva, am, n. nasality.
     anunāsikalopa anunā-sika-lopa, as, m. dropping of a nasal sound or letter.
     anunāsikātva anunāsikātva (-ka-āt-), am, n. nasal pronunciation of ā.
     anunāsikādi anunāsikādi (-ka-ādi), is, m. a compound letter commencing with a nasal.
     anunāsikānta anunā-sikānta (-ka-an-), as, m. a radical ending in a nasal.
     anunāsikopadha anunāsikopadha (-ka-up-), as, ā, am, having a nasal penultimate; succeding a syllable with a nasal sound.

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anunikram anu-ni-kram, cl. 1. P. -krāmati, -kramitum, to follow in the steps.

anunikṣ anu-nikṣ, cl. 1. P., Ved. -nikṣati, -kṣitum, to pierce along.

anunitud anu-ni-tud, cl. 6. P. -tudati, -tottum, to wound with a stab, to goad.

anunipad anu-ni-pad, cl. 4. A. -padyate, -pattum, to lie down by the side of.

anunirjahāna anu-nir-jahāna, as, ā, am (rt. ), proceeding out of (?).

anunirdah anu-nir-dah, cl. 1. P. -dahati, -dagdhum, to burn down in succession.

anunirdeśa anu-nirdeśa, as, m. description or relation following a previous model.

anunirvāpa anu-nirvāpa, as, m. subsequent libation (with clarified butter).

anunirvāpyā anu-nirvāpyā, f. ceremony connected with this subsequent libation.

anunī anu-nī, cl. 1. P. -nayati, -netum, to bring near, to lead after; to persuade, induce, win over, conciliate, to coax, pacify, supplicate.

anunaya anu-naya, as, m. conciliation, salutation, courtesy, civility, showing respect or adoration to a guest or a deity; humble entreaty or supplication, reverntial deportment; regulation of conduct, discipline, tuition; (as, ā, am), conciliatory, kind; (am), ind. fitly, becomingly.
     anunayapratighaprahāṇa anunaya-pratigha-prahāṇa, am, n. (with Buddhists) abandoning the obstacles to conciliatory behaviour.
     anunayāmantraṇa anunayāmantraṇa (-ya-ām-), am, n. conciliatory address.

anunayamāna anu-nayamāna, as, ā, am, conciliating, honouring, showing respect.

anunayin anu-nayin, ī, inī, i, courteous, humble, supplicating.

anunāyaka anu-nāyaka, as, ikā, am, submissive, humble.

anunāyikā anu-nāyikā, f. a female character, subordinate to a nāyikā or leading female character in a drama.

anuninīṣu anu-ninīṣu, us, us, u, desirous of conciliating or gratifying.

anunīta anu-nīta, as, ā, am, trained, disciplined, obtained, acquired, taught, respected; pleased, pacified, appeased, humbly entreated.

anunīti anu-nīti, is, f. conciliation, courtesy, supplication.

anuneya anu-neya, as, ā, am, easily conciliated.

anunu anu-nu or -nū, cl. 6. and cl. 2. P., Ved. -nuvati or -nauti, -navitum or -nuvitum, to praise again and again: Intens. -nonavīti, to cheer after.

anunṛt anu-nṛt, cl. 4. P. -nṛtyati, -nartitum, to dance after (with acc.); to dance before (with acc.).

anunnata an-unnata, as, ā, am, not elevated, not lifted up.
     anunnatagātra anunnata-gātra, as, ā, am, (with Buddhists) having limbs that are not too stout, prominent or protuberant.
     anunnatānata anunnatānata (-ta-ān-), as, ā, am, not raised nor lowered, level.

anunmatta an-unmatta or an-unmadita or an-unmāda, as, ā, am, sane, sober, not wild, not mad.

anupa anupa, as, ā, am, watery, marshy; see anūpa.
     anupaja anupa-ja or better anūpa-ja, am, n. ginger (in its undried state).

anupakārin an-upakārin, ī, iṇī, i, not assisting, disobliging, ungrateful, not making a return for benefits received; unserviceable, useless.

anupakṛta an-upakṛta, as, ā, am, unassisted.

anupakṣita an-upakṣita, as, ā, am, uninjured, undestroyed.

anupagīta an-upagīta, as, ā, am, not praised or celebrated (?); not accompanied in singing (?); (am), ind. so that no other person accompanies in singing.

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anupaghātārjita an-upaghātārjita (-ta-arj-), as, ā, am, acquired without detriment (to the paternal estate).

anupaghnat an-upaghnat, an, atī, at, not detrimental (to the paternal estate).

anupac anu-pac, cl. 1. P. -pacati, -paktum, to make ripe by degrees: Pass. -pacyate, to become ripe by degrees.

anupajīvanīya an-upajīvanīya, as, ā, am, yielding (or granting) no livelihood; having no livelihood.

anupaṭh anu-paṭh, cl. 1. P. -paṭhati, -ṭhitum, to say after, repeat.

anupaṭhita anu-paṭhita, as, ā, am, read through (aloud), recited.

anupaṭhitin anu-paṭhitin, ī, m. (one who has read through or recited), proficient.

anupat anu-pat, cl. 1. P. -patati, -titum, to fly to (with acc.); fly after, run after, go after, follow: Caus. -pātayati, -yitum, to fly to; to throw a person down together with oneself.

anupatana anu-patana, am, n. falling on or upon; following; (in mathem.) proportion.

anupatita anu-patita, as, ā, am, fallen, descended; followed.

anupāta anu-pāta, see s. v.

anupati anu-pati, ind. after the husband.

anupatha anu-patha, as, ā, am, following the road; having favourable roads ?; (as), m. a road; (am), ind. along the road.

anupad 1. anu-pad, cl. 4. A. -padyate, -pattum, to follow, attend, be fond of; to enter; to enter upon; to notice, understand; to handle.

anupad 2. anu-pad, t, t, t, Ved. coming to pass; or (t), f. food (?).

anupada anu-pada, as, ā, am, following closely; (as), m., N. of a man or tribe; (am), n. a chorus, burden of a song or words sung again after regular intervals; (am), ind. step by step, word for word; on the heels of, close behind or after.
     anupadasūtra anupada-sūtra, am, n. title of a commentary explaining the text (of a Brāhmaṇa) word for word.

anupadavī anu-padavī, f. a way.

anupadin anu-padin, ī, m. a searcher, an inquirer, one who follows or seeks for.

anupadīnā anupadīnā, f. a boot, a buskin.

anupadasvat an-upadasvat, ān, atī, at, Ved. not drying up, not decaying (?).

anupadiṣṭa an-upadiṣṭa, as, ā, am, untaught, uninstructed.

anupadeṣṭṛ an-upadeṣṭṛ, ṭā, m. one who does not point out or teach.

anupadha an-upadha, as, m. (having no penultimate), a letter or syllable (as a sibilant or h) when not preceded by another.

anupadhiśeṣa an-upadhi-śeṣa, as, m. that in which there is not longer a condition of individulity (?).

anupanāha an-upanāha, as, m. (with Buddhists) want of close attachment or adherence (?).

anupanyasta an-upanyasta, as, ā, am, not laid down clearly, not established.

anupanyāsa an-upanyāsa, as, m. failure of proof or determination, uncertainty, doubt.

anupapatti an-upapatti, is, f. non-accomplishment, failure, inconclusive argumentation; irrelevancy, inapplicability, impossibility, insufficiency of means, penury, adversity.

anupapanna an-upapanna, as, ā, am, not done, unaccomplished, uneffected; unproved, undemonstrated; irrelevant, inconclusive, inapplicable, impossible, inadequately supported.

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anupapādaka an-upapādaka, ās, m. pl. (having no material parent), N. of a class of Buddhas, called Dhyānibuddhas.

anupaplava an-upaplava, as, ā, am, free from any overwhelming calamity.

anupapluta an-upapluta, as, ā, am, not overwhelmed (with calamity).

anupabādha an-upabādha, as, ā, am, Ved. unobstructed, unimpaired.

anupabhukta an-upabhukta, as, ā, am, unenjoyed, unpossessed.

anupabhujyamāna an-upabhujyamāna, as, ā, am, not being enjoyed.

anupama an-upama, as, ā, am, incomparable, matchless; excellent, best; (ā), f. the female elephant of the south-east or of the north-east.
     anupamamati anupama-mati, is, m., N. of a contemporary of Śākya-muni.

anupamita an-upamita, as, ā, am, uncompared, matchless.

anupameya an-upameya, as, ā, am, incomparable.

anupamardana an-upamardana, am, n. nondemolition or refutation of a charge.

anupayukta an-upayukta, as, ā, am, unsuited, unsuitable, improper; useless, unserviceable.

anupayoga an-upayoga, as, m. unserviceableness, uselessness.

anupayogin an-upayogin, ī, inī, i, unsuitable, useless.

anuparata an-uparata, as, ā, am, uninterrupted, not stopped.

anuparāpat anu-parā-pat, cl. 1. P. -patati, -titum, to fly or hasten by the side of another.

anuparikṝ anu-pari-kṝ, cl. 6. P. -kirati, -karitum, -rītum, to scatter alongside, to bestrew.

anuparikram anu-pari-kram, cl. 1. P. -krā-mati, -kramitum, to walk round in order, to make the circuit of, visit in a regular round.

anuparigā anu-pari-gā, cl. 3. P. -jigāti, gātum, to make the round of, traverse.

anupariṇī anu-pari-ṇī (-nī), cl. 1. P. -ṇayati, -ṇetum, to lead or carry about.

anuparidhi anu-paridhi, ind. along or at the three Paridhis of the sacrificial fire.

anupariśrit anu-pariśrit, ind. along or at the surrounding fence.

anuparī anu-parī (-pari-i), cl. 2. P. -pary-eti, -tum, to follow in going round, to make the round of.

anupare anu-pare (-parā-i), cl. 2. P. -paraiti, -tum, to follow in walking off.

anuparyāgā anu-pary-ā-gā, cl. 3. P. -jigāti, gātum, to revolve, accomplish a revolution.

anuparye anu-parye (-pari-ā-i), cl. 2. P. -paryaiti, -tum, to make the whole round of.

anupalakṣita an-upalakṣita, as, ā, am, untraced, unperceived, unmarked, undiscriminated.

anupalakṣya an-upalakṣya, as, ā, am, not to be traced.
     anupalakṣyavartman anupalakṣya-vartman, ā, ā, a, having ways (or a way) that cannot be traced.

anupalabdha an-upalabdha, as, ā, am, unobtained, unperceived, unascertained.

anupalabdhi an-upalabdhi, is, f. non-perception, non-recognition.
     anupalabdhisama anupalabdhi-sama, as, ā, m. f. sophism, trying to establish a fact (e. g. the reality and eternity of sound) from the impossibility of perceiving the non-perception of it.

anupalabhyamāna an-upalabhyamāna, as, ā, am, not being perceived.

anupalambha an-upalambha, as, m. non-perception.

anupalambhana an-upalambhana, am, n. want of apprehension or knowledge.

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anupavītin an-upavītin, ī, m. one who does not wear the sacred cord, uninvested with the sacrificial thread.

anupaśaya an-upaśaya, as, m. any aggravating thing or circumstance that increases a disease.

anupaśānta an-upaśānta, as, ā, am, not cilm; (as), m., N. of a Buddhist mendicant.

anupaśya anu-paśya, as, ā, am, following with his looks, keeping in view or in mind.

anupasarga an-upasarga, as, m. a word that is not an Upasarga, that has not the force of one, that is destitute of one; that which needs no additions or supplements (as a divine being).

anupasecana an-upasecana, as, ā, am, having nothing (e. g. no sauce) for moistening.

anupaskṛta an-upaskṛta, as, ā, am, unfinished, unpolished; not cooked, i. e. genuine, blameless; unrequited.

anupasthāna an-upasthāna, am, n. absence, the not being at hand.

anupasthāpana an-upasthāpana, am, n. not producing, not offering, not placing; not having ready or at hand.

anupasthāpayat an-upasthāpayat, an, antī, at, not presenting, not having at hand.

anupasthāpita an-upasthāpita, as, ā, am, not ready, not at hand, not offered or produced.

anupasthāyin an-upasthāyin, ī, inī, i, absent, distant.

anupasthita an-upasthita, as, ā, am, not come near, not present, not at hand, not current; (am), n. a word not upasthita (q. v.) in the grammatical sense of that term.

anupasthiti an-upasthiti, is, f. absence, not being at hand.

anupahata an-upahata, as, ā, am, unimpaired, unvitiated; not rendered impure.
     anupahatakruṣṭa an-upa-hata-kruṣṭa, as, ā, am, (with Buddhists) neither affected by injury no by anger.

anupahūta an-upahūta, as, ā, am, not called upon or invited; not called upon aloud; not accompanied with invitations.

anupā 1. anu-pā, cl. 1. P. -pibati, -pātum, to drink after or thereupon, follow in drinking, drink at: Caus. -pāyayati, -yitum, to cause to drink afterwards.

anupāna anu-pāna, am, n. a fluid vehicle in medicine; drink taken with or after medicine; drink close at hand.

anupānīya anu-pānīya, am, n. drink close at hand; (as, ā, am), fit to be drunk after; serving as a liquid vehicle of medicine.

anupā 2. anu-pā, Caus. P. A. -pālayati, -te, -yitum, to preserve, keep.

anupālana anu-pālana, am, n. preserving, keeping up.

anupālayat anu-pālayat, an, antī, at, keeping, maintaining.

anupālin anu-pālin, ī, inī, i, preserving, keeping up.

anupālu anu-pālu, n., N. of a plant, wild Calladium (?).

anupākṛta an-upākṛta, as, ā, am, not rendered fit for sacrificial purposes.
     anupākṛtamāṃsa anupākṛta-māṃsa, am, n. flesh of an animal not prepared for sacrifice.

anupākhya an-upākhya, as, ā, am, not clearly discernible.

anupāta anu-pāta, as, m. falling subsequently upon, alighting or descending upon in succession; following; going, proceeding in order, or as a consequence; a degree of latitude opposite to one given, the Antaeci (?); proportion (in arithm.); arithmetical progression, rule of three.

anupātaka anu-pātaka, am, n. a heinous crime, as falsehood, fraud, theft, adultery.

anupātam anu-pātam, ind. in succession.

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anupātin anu-pātin, ī, inī, i, following as a consequence or result.

anupāna anu-pāna. See s. v. 1. anu-pā.

anupānatka an-upānatka, as, ā, am, shoeless.

anupāyin an-upāyin, ī, inī, i, not using means or expedients.

anupārśva anu-pārśva, as, ā, am, lateral; along or by the side.

anupāvṛtta an-upāvṛtta, ās, m. pl., N. of a people.

anupāsana an-upāsana, am, n. want of attention to.

anupāsita an-upāsita, as, ā, am, not attended to, neglected.

anupuruṣa anu-puruṣa, as, m. the beforementioned man, a follower.

anupuṣpa anu-puṣpa, as, m. a kind of reed (Saccharum Sara Roxb.).

anupūrva anu-pūrva, as, ā, am, regular, orderly, successive, from the preceding. anupūrveṇa or anupūrva-śas, ind. in regular order or succession, from the first, from the beginning, from above downwards.
     anupūrvakeśa anupūrva-keśa, as, m. one who has regular hair.
     anupūrvagātra anupūrva-gātra, as, m. one who has regularly shaped limbs.
     anupūrvaja anupūrva-ja, as, ā, am, descended in a regular line.
     anupūrvadaṃṣṭra anupūrva-daṃṣṭra, as, ā, am, having regular teeth.
     anupūrvanābhi anu-pūrva-nābhi, is, m. having a regularly shaped navel.
     anupūrvapāṇilekha anupūrva-pāṇi-lekha, as, ā, am, having regular lines in the hands.
     anupūrvavatsā anupūrva-vatsā, f. a cow which calves regularly.

anupūrvya anupūrvya, as, ā, am, regular, orderly, successive.

anupṛkta anu-pṛkta, as, ā, am, mixed with.

anupṛṣṭhya anu-pṛṣṭhya, as, ā, am (held or extended), lengthwise.

anupṝ anu-pṝ, Caus. P. -pūrayati, -yitum, to fill, to fulfil.

anupeta an-upeta, as, ā, am, not endowed with, not invested with (the sacred cord).

anupoṣaṇa an-upoṣaṇa, am, n. not fasting.

anupta an-upta, as, ā, am (rt. vap), unsown (as seed).
     anuptaśasya anupta-śasya, as, ā, am, fallow, meadow (ground, &c.).

anuptrima an-uptrima, as, ā, am, grown without being sown.

anuprakamp anu-pra-kamp, Caus. A. -kamp-ayate, -yitum, to follow in swinging or agitating.

anuprach anu-prach, cl. 6. P. -pṛcchati, -praṣṭum (with two acc. cases of the person and thing), to ask, to inquire after.

anupraśna anupraśna, see s. v.

anuprajan anu-pra-jan, cl. 4. A. -jāyate, -janitum, to be born after; to procreate again and again: Caus. -janayati, -yitum, to cause to be born subsequently.

anuprajñā anu-pra-jñā, cl. 9. P. -jānāti, jñātum, to track, trace, discover.

anuprajñāna anu-prajñāna, am, n. tracking, tracing.

anupraṇud anu-pra-ṇud (-nud), cl. 6. P. A. -ṇudati, -te, -ṇottum, to push away from one's self; to frighten away, put to flight.

anupratikram anu-prati-kram, cl. 1. P. -krām-ati, -kramitum, to return.

anuprath anu-prath, cl. 1. A. -prathate, -thitum, to praise, celebrate.

anupradā anu-pra-dā, cl. 3. P. -dadāti, dātum, to surrender, make over.

anupradāna anu-pradāna, am, n. a gift, donation.

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anupradhāv anu-pra-dhāv, cl. 1. P. -dhāvati, -vitum, to rush after.

anupradhāvita anu-pradhāvita, as, ā, am, hurried, eager.

anuprapat anu-pra-pat, cl. 1. P. -patati, -titum, to fly towards.

anuprapātam anu-prapātam, ind. going in succession.

anuprapad anu-pra-pad, cl. 4. A. -padyate, -pattum, to follow.

anuprapanna anu-prapanna, as, ā, am, following after, conformed to.

anuprapādam anu-prapādam, ind. going in succession.

anuprapā anu-pra-pā, cl. 1. P. A. -pibati, -te, -pātum; P. to drink one after the other; A. to drink after another (with acc.).

anupramāṇa anu-pramāṇa, as, ā, am, having a suitable size or length.

anuprayuj anu-pra-yuj, cl. 7. A. -yuṅkte, -yoktum, to employ, apply.

anuprayujyamāna anu-prayujyamāna, as, ā, am, employed in addition.

anuprayoktavya anu-prayoktavya, as, ā, am, proper to be joined or employed in addition.

anuprayoga anu-prayoga, as, m. additional use.

anupraroha anu-praroha, as, ā, am, coming up or growing in accordance with.

anupravah anu-pra-vah, cl. 1. P. -vahati, -voḍhum, to drag (or carry) about.

anupraviś anu-pra-viś, cl. 6. P. -viśati, -veṣṭum, to follow in entering, to attack, enter; to sleep with.

anupraviśya anu-praviśya, ind. having entered.

anupraveśa anu-praveśa, as, m. or anu-praveśana, am, n. return, entrance; imitation.

anupraveśanīya anu-praveśanīya, as, ā, am, connected with returning or with entering.

anupraśuc anu-pra-śuc, cl. 1. P. -śocati, -citum, to regret or mourn deeply.

anupraśna anu-praśna, as, m. (fr. anu-prach), a subsequent question having reference to what has been previously said by the teacher.

anuprasakta anu-prasakta, as, ā, am, strongly attached, closely connected.

anuprasakti anu-prasakti, is, f. close connection with.

anuprastha anu-prastha, as, ā, am, latitudinal; according to width, following the breadth or latitude.

anupraharaṇa anu-praharaṇa, am, n. knocking into or throwing into.

anuprāṇ anu-prāṇ (-pra-an), cl. 2. P. -prāṇiti, -ṇitum, to breathe after.

anuprāp anu-prāp (-pra-āp), cl. 5. P. -āpnoti, -āptum, to come or go up to, reach, attain, overtake (?); to arrive, to get, obtain; to get back; to imitate.

anuprāpta anu-prāpta, as, ā, am, arrived, returned; obtained; having reached, having got.

anuprās anu-prās (-pra-as), cl. 4. P. -asyati, -asitum, to throw or shoot after.

anuprāsa anu-prāsa, as, m. alliteration, repetition of similar letters, syllables, and words.

anupre anu-pre (-pra-i), cl. 2. P. -praiti, -tum, to follow; to follow in death; to seek after.

anuprekṣ anu-prekṣ (-pra-īkṣ), cl. 1. A. -prekṣate, -kṣitum, to follow with the eyes.

anupreṣ anu-preṣ (-pra-iṣ), Caus. P. -preṣayati, -yitum, to send forth after.

anuplava anu-plava, as, m. (rt. plu), a companion or follower.

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anubandh anu-bandh, cl. 9. P. -badhnāti, -banddhum, to attach, tie; to bind (by an obligation); to stick, adhere, follow, endure.

anubaddha anu-baddha, as, ā, am, bound to, obliged to, connected with, related to, belonging to.

anubandha anu-bandha, as, m. binding, connection, attachment, the encumbrance or clog of a family; uninterrupted succession; sequence, consequence, result; intention, design, motive or cause of an action; obstacle; the inseparable adjunct or sign of anything, secondary or symptomatic affection, supervening on the principal disease; an indicatory letter or syllable, marking some peculiarity in the inflection of the word to which it is attached (for instance, an i attached to roots, denotes the insertion of a nasal before their final consonant); a child or pupil, who imitates an example set by the parent or preceptor; commencement, beginning; anything small or little, a part, a small part; (in arithm.) the junction of fractions; (in phil.) an indispensable element of the Vedānta; (ī), f. hickup; thirst.

anubandhaka anu-bandhaka, as, ikā, am, connected, allied; related.

anubandhana anu-bandhana, am, n. binding, connection, succession, unbroken series.

anubandhin anu-bandhin, ī, inī, i, connected with, attached; having in its train or as a consequence, resulting.
     anubandhitva anubandhi-tva, am, n. the state of being accompanied.

anubandhya anu-bandhya, as, ā, am, principal, primary, what may receive an adjunct, as a root, a disease; (as), m. one of the three principal sacrificial animals at the Jyotiṣṭoma sacrifice.

anubala anu-bala, am, n. rear-guard, or an auxiliary army following another.

anubādh anu-bādh, cl. 1. A. -bādhate, -dhitum, to press closely, pursue.

anubudh anu-budh, cl. 4. A. -budhyate, -bodhitum, to awake, to recollect, to learn (by information).

anubodha anu-bodha, as, m. reviving the scent of a faded perfume, replacing perfumes removed by bathing; an after-thought.

anubodhana anu-bodhana, am, n. recollecting.

anubodhita anu-bodhita, as, ā, am, informed or convinced by recollection.

anubrāhmaṇa anu-brāhmaṇa, am, n. a work resembling a Brāhmaṇa.

anubrāhmaṇika anu-brāhmaṇika (or perhaps more correctly ānu-brāhmaṇika), as, or anu-brāhmaṇin, ī, m. a knower of an anu-brāhmaṇa.

anubrū anu-brū, cl. 2. P. -bravīti, -vaktum, to pronounce, utter, vow.

anubhāṣ anu-bhāṣ, cl. 1. A. -bhāṣate, -ṣitum, to pronounce clearly, to confess.

anubhāṣaṇa anu-bhāṣaṇa, am, n. repeating what has been said; repeating a proposition in order to refute it.

anubhāsa anu-bhāsa, as, m. a species of crow.

anubhid anu-bhid, cl. 7. P. -bhinatti, -bhettum, to split, break.

anubhitti anu-bhitti, ind. along a cleft.

anubhuj anu-bhuj, cl. 7. A. -bhuṅkte, -bhok-tum, to suffer the due consequence of one's actions.

anubhoga anu-bhoga, as, m. (in law) enjoyment, a grant of hereditary land in return for service.

anubhū anu-bhū, cl. 1. P. -bhavati, -vitum, to be after, to notice, perceive, understand; to experience, to attempt.

anubhava anu-bhava, as, m. perception, apprehension, fruition; understanding; impression on the mind not derived from memory; experience, knowledge derived from personal observation or experiment; result, consequence.
     anubhavasiddha anubhava-siddha, as, ā, am, established by experience or perception.
     anubhavārūḍha anubhavārūḍha (-va-ār-), as, ā, am, subjected to trial or experiment.

anubhāva anu-bhāva, as, m. a sign or indication of a feeling (bhāva) by look or gesture; dignity, authority, consequence; firm opinion, ascertainment, good resolution, belief.

anubhāvaka anu-bhāvaka, as, ikā, am, causing to apprehend, making to understand.
     anubhāvakatā anubhāvaka-tā, f. understanding.

anubhāvana anu-bhāvana, am, n. the act of indicating feelings by sign or gesture.

anubhāvin anu-bhāvin, ī, inī, i, perceiving, knowing, an eye-witness; showing signs of feeling.

anubhū anu-bhū, ūs, ūs, u, perceiving, understanding.

anubhūta anu-bhūta, as, ā, am, perceived, understood, judged, experienceed, apprehended; resulted, followed as a consequence; that has experienced, tasted, tried or enjoyed.

anubhūti anu-bhūti, is, f. perception, apprehension; knowledge from any source but memory; (in phil.) knowledge from four sources, viz. perception by the senses, inference, comparison, and verbal knowledge; dignity, consequence.
     anubhūtiprakāśa anubhūti-prakāśa, as, m. title of a metric paraphrase of the twelve principal Upaniṣads, by Vidyāraṇya-muni.
     anubhūtisvarūpācārya anubhūti-svarūpācārya (-pa-āc-), as, m., N. of the author of the grammar Sārasvatī-prakriyā.

anubhūya anu-bhūya, ind. having perceived, having experienced.

anubhūyamāna anu-bhūyamāna, as, ā, am, under trial, under enjoyment.

anubhṛ anu-bhṛ, cl. 1. P., Ved. -bharati, -bhartum, to praise conformably (?), to commit to, throw into.

anubhartṛ anu-bhartṛ, tā, trī, tṛ, Ved. praising conformably, imitating.

anubhrāj anu-bhrāj, cl. 1. P. -bhrājati, -jitum, to illuminate.

anubhrātṛ anu-bhrātṛ, tā, m. a younger brother.

anumad anu-mad, cl. 1. P., Ved. -madati, -ditum, to rejoice over, to gladden, to praise.

anumatta anu-matta, as, ā, am, intoxicated (with joy, &c.); recovered from intoxication (?).

anumādya anu-mādya, as, ā, am, to be praised in succession, to be granted with acclamation or praise.

anumadhyamam anu-madhyamam, ind. next oldest to the middle.

anuman anu-man, cl. 4. A. -manyate, -man-tum, to approve, assent to, permit, grant: Caus. P. -mānayati, -yitum, to ask for permission, to honour.

anumata anu-mata, as, ā, am, approved, assented to, permitted, allowed; agreeable, pleasant; loved, beloved; concurred with, being of one opinion; (am), n. consent, permission, approbation. anumate, loc. c. with consent of.
     anumatakarmakārin anumata-karma-kārin, ī, iṇī, i, doing what is allowed, acting according to an agreement.

anumati anu-mati, is, f. assent, permission, approbation; the fifteenth day of the moon's age, on which it rises one digit less than full, when the gods or manes receive oblations with favour; the former personified as a goddess and worshipped especially in the Rājasūya sacrifice; oblation made to this goddess.
     anumatipattra anumati-pattra, am, n. (in law) a deed expressing assent.

anumanana anu-manana, am, n. assenting; independance.

anumantṛ anu-mantṛ, tā, trī, tṛ, consenting to, permitting.

anumanyamāna anu-manyamāna, as, ā, am, minding, assenting.

anumantr anu-mantr, cl. 10. A. (P. ?) -mantr-ayate, -ti, -yitum, to accompany with or consecrate by magic formulas; to dismiss with a blessing.

anumantraṇa anu-mantraṇa, am, n. consecration by hymns and prayers.
     anumantraṇamantra anumantraṇa-mantra, as, m. a hymn used in consecrating.

anumantrita anu-mantrita, as, ā, am, so consecrated.

anumaraṇa anu-maraṇa. See anu-mṛ.

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anumaru anu-maru, us, m. a country next to a desert.

anumā 1. anu-mā, cl. 3. A. -mimīte, -mātum, to infer, conclude, guess, conjecture; to reconcile, to equal: Pass. -mīyate, to be inferred or supposed.

anumā 2. anu-mā, f. inference, a conclusion from given premises.

anumāna anu-māna, am, n. the act of inferring or drawing a conclusion from given premises; inference, consideration, reflection; guess, conjecture; one of the means of obtaining knowledge (pramāṇa) according to the Sāṅkhya or Nyāya systems, but not according to the Vedānta.
     anumānakhaṇḍa anumāna-khaṇḍa, am, n., N. of a work on inference, by Cintāmaṇi.
     anumānaprakāśa anumāna-prakāśa, as, m. a similar work by Rucidatta.
     anumānamaṇidīdhiti anumāna-maṇi-dīdhiti, is, f. a similar work by Raghunātha.
     anumānokti anumānokti (-na-uk-), is, f. reasoning, logic.

anumāpaka anu-māpaka, as, ikā, am, causing an inference, as an effect.

anumita anu-mita, as, ā, am, inferred, conjectured.

anumiti anu-miti, is, f. inference, conclusion from given premises.

anumimāna anu-mimāna, as, ā, am, concluding, inferring.

anumīyamāna anu-mīyamāna, as, ā, am, being inferred.

anumeya anu-meya, as, ā, am, inferable, to be inferred, proved or conjectured.

anumādya anu-mādya. See under anu-mad.

anumāṣam anu-māṣam, ind. like a kidney bean.

anumāsa anu-māsa, as, m. the following month.

anumud anu-mud, cl. 1. A. -modate, -ditum, to join in rejoicing, to sympathize with, to rejoice; to allow with pleasure, to express approval, applaud, permit.

anumoda anu-moda, as, m. a subsequent pleasure, the feeling of pleasure from sympathy.

anumodaka anu-modaka, as, ikā, am, assenting, showing sympathetic joy.

anumodana anu-modana, am, n. pleasing, causing pleasure, applauding; assent, acceptance; sympathetic joy.

anumodita anu-modita, as, ā, am, pleased, delighted, applauded; agreeable, acceptable.

anumuh anu-muh, cl. 4. P. -muhyati, -mog-dhum or -moḍhum, to feel distressed at, to be troubled about.

anumṛ anu-mṛ, cl. 6. A. -mriyate, -martum, to follow in death.

anumaraṇa anu-maraṇa, am, n. following in death; postcremation of a widow whose husband's corpse is not on the spot, and with part of whose dress she therefore ascends the pile; this is prohibited to Brāhman women: it is often synonymous with the opposite term saha-maraṇa, con-cremation or burning with the body.

anumariṣyat anu-mariṣyat, an, atī or antī, at, about to follow in death.

anumṛtā anu-mṛtā, f. the woman who burns with a part of her husband's dress.

anumṛgyadāśu anumṛgya-dāśu, us, m. (rt. mṛg and ), granting all that is sought.

anumṛj anu-mṛj, cl. 2. P. -mārṣṭi, -mārji-tum or -mārṣṭum, to purify.

anumṛś anu-mṛś, cl. 6. P. -mṛśati, -mar-ṣṭum or -mraṣṭum, to consider, think of, reflect.

anumarśam anu-marśam, ind. having repeatedly considered.

anumlocā anu-mlocā or anu-mlocantī, f., N. of an Apsaras.

anuyajus anu-yajus, ind. (rt. yaj), according to the Yajur-veda.

anuyāga anu-yāga, as, m. a subsequent or after-sacrifice.

anuyāja anu-yāja, as, m. a secondary or final sacrifice or offering.
     anuyājaprasava anuyāja-prasava, as, m. permission to perform an Anuyāja.
     anuyājapraiṣa anuyāja-praiṣa, ās, m. pl. the formulas belonging to the Anuyāja.
     anuyājavat anuyāja-vat, ān, atī, at, having secondary sacrifices.
     anuyājānumantraṇa anu-yājānumantraṇa (-ja-an-), am, n. reciting those formulas.
     anuyājārtha anuyājārtha (-ja-ar-), as, ā, am, belonging to or used at an Anuyāja.

anuyam anu-yam, cl. 1. P., Ved. -yacchati, -yantum, to covet.

anuyavam anu-yavam, ind. like barley.

anuyā 1. anu-yā, cl. 2. P. -yāti, -tum, to follow, attend; to take (off) seriatim.

anuyā 2. anu-yā, ās, ās, am, following; (ās), f., Ved. food.

anuyata anu-yata, as, ā, am, followed, pursued, practised.

anuyātavya anu-yātavya, as, ā, am, to be followed.

anuyātṛ anu-yātṛ, tā, m. a follower, companion.

anuyātra anu-yātra, am, ā, n. f. retinue, attendance, that which is required for a journey.

anuyātrika anu-yātrika, as, ā, am, following as attendant.

anuyāna anu-yāna, am, n. going after, following.

anuyāyin anu-yāyin, ī, inī, i, going after; a follower, a dependant or attendant; following, consequent upon.
     anuyāyitā anuyāyi-tā, f. or anuyāyi-tva, am, n. the state of being a follower, succession.

anuyuj anu-yuj, cl. 7. A. -yuṅkte, -yoktum, to examine, question, put upon trial; to order; enjoin; to select (a husband).

anuyukta anu-yukta, as, ā, am, ordered, enjoined; asked, inquired; examined, questioned, reprehended, censured.

anuyuktin anu-yuktin, ī, m. one who has enjoined, examined.

anuyugam anu-yugam, ind. according to the Yugas or four ages.

anuyoktṛ anu-yoktṛ, tā, m. an examiner, inquirer, teacher.

anuyoga anu-yoga, as, m. a question, examination, asking, solicitation; censure, reproof; religious meditation, spiritul union.
     anuyogakṛt anuyoga-kṛt, t, m. an Ācārya or spiritual teacher.

anuyogin anu-yogin, ī, inī, i, what combines or unites; connected or combined with, situated in or on, questioning, examining.

anuyojana anu-yojana, am, n. question, questioning, examining.

anuyojya anu-yojya, as, ā, am, to be examined or questioned; to be enjoined or ordered; censurable; a servant, agent, delegate.

anuyūpam anu-yūpam, ind. along the Yūpa or sacrificial post.

anurakṣ anu-rakṣ, cl. 1. P. -rakṣati, -ṣitum, to preserve.

anurakṣaṇa anu-rakṣaṇa, am, n. the act of preserving.

anurajju anu-rajju, ind. along the rope.

anurañj anu-rañj, cl. 4. A. -rajyate, -raṅk-tum, to be attached or devoted; P. -rajyati, to blush, be deeply affected: Caus. P. -rañjayati, -yitum, to win, conciliate, gratify.

anurakta anu-rakta, as, ā, am, fond of, attached or devoted to, pleased; beloved.
     anuraktapraja anurakta-praja, as, ā, am, beloved by his subjects.
     anuraktaloka anurakta-loka, as, m. a person to whom every one is attached.

anurakti anu-rakti, is, f. affection, attachment, love, devotion.

anurañjaka anu-rañjaka, as, ikā, am, attaching, conciliating, causing affection, gratifying, pleasing.

anurañjana anu-rañjana, am, n. attachment, the act of attaching or conciliating affection, love; pleasing, giving delight to.

anurañjita anu-rañjita, as, ā, am, conciliated, inspired with affection, pleased, delighted.

anurāga anu-rāga, as, m. attachment, affection, love, passion, goodwill.
     anurāgavat anurāga-vat, ān, atī, at, affectionate, attached, in love with.
     anurāgeṅgita anurāgeṅgita (-ga-iṅg-), am, n. gesture expressive of passion.

anurāgin anu-rāgin, ī, iṇī, i, impassioned, attached, enamoured, causing love; (iṇī), f. personification of a musical note.
     anurāgitā anurāgi-tā, f. the state of being in love with.

anuraṇana anu-raṇana, am, n. sounding conformably to.

anurata anu-rata, as, ā, am, fond of, attached, devoted to.

anurati anu-rati, is, f. love, affection; attachment, goodwill.

anuratha anu-ratha, as, m., N. of a son of Kuruvatsa and father of Puruhotra.

anurathyā anu-rathyā, f. a path along the margin of a road; a side road, the margin of a street.

anurasa anu-rasa, as, m. (in poetry) a subordinate feeling or passion; (in medic.) a secondary flavour, as a little sweetness in a sour fruit, &c.

anurahasa anu-rahasa, as, ā, am, solitary, private; (am), ind. in secret, apart.

anurātram anu-rātram, ind. every night.

anurāddha anu-rāddha, as, ā, am (rt. rādh), effected, accomplished.

anurādha anu-rādha, as, ā, am, causing welfare; see anū-rādha; born under the asterism Anurādhā; (ā), f. the seventeenth of the twenty-eight Nakshatras or lunar mansion, a constellation described as a row of oblation.
     anurādhagrāma anurādha-grāma, as, m. or anu-rādha-pura, am, n. the ancient capital of Ceylon founded by a man named Anurādha.

anurī anu-rī, cl. 4. A. -rīyate, -retum, to flow after.

anuru an-uru, us, us or vī, u, not great, not large.

anuruc anu-ruc, Caus. P. -rocayati, -yitum, to choose, prefer.

anurud anu-rud, cl. 2. P. -roditi, -tum, to lament.

anurudh 1. anu-rudh, cl. 7. P. -ruṇaddhi, -roddhum, to retain, keep back; cl. 4. A. -rudhyate or poet. P. -rudhyati, to love, to be fond of or to spare; to coax, soothe, entreat (especially in Bengālī).

anuruddha anu-ruddha, as, ā, am, checked, restrained, opposed; soothed, coaxed, pacified; (as), m., N. of a cousin of Śākya-muni.

anurudh 2. anu-rudh, t, t, t, Ved. loving, adhering to, favouring.

anurodha anu-rodha, as, m. or anu-rodhana, am, n. obliging another or fulfilling his wishes; obligingness, compliance, gratification, satisfaction, conformity, consideration, respect; reference or bearing of a rule.

anurodhaka anu-rodhaka, as, ikā, am, or anu-rodhin, ī, inī, i, complying with, compliant, obliging, conforming to, having respect or regard to.
     anurodhitā anurodhi-tā, f. the state of being so.

anuruhā anu-ruhā, f., N. of a grass (Cyperus Pertenius).

anurupa anu-rūpa, as, ā, am, following the form, conformable, corresponding, like, resembling; fit, suitable; adapted to, agreeable to, according to; (as), m. the Antistrophe which has the same metre as the Stotriya or Strophe (understand pragātha or tṛca); the second of three verses recited together; (am), n. conformity, suitability. anurūpam or anu-rūpeṇa or anurūpatas, ind. conformably, agreeably to, according.
     anurūpaceṣṭa anurūpa-ceṣṭa, as, ā, am, endeavouring to act becomingly.

anurevatī anu-revatī, f., N. of a plant.

anulagna anu-lagna, as, ā, am, attached to; followed; intent on, pursuing after.

anulā anulā, f., N. of a female Arhat or Buddhist saint; also of a queen of Ceylon.

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anulāpa anu-lāpa, as, m. (rt. lap), repetition of what has been said, tautology.

anulāsa anu-lāsa, as, m. or anu-lāsya, as, m. a peacock.

anulip anu-lip, cl. 6. P. -limpati, -leptum, to anoint, besmear; cl. 6. A. -limpate, to anoint one's self (previous to or after bathing); to bathe: Caus. -lepayati, -yitum, to get one anointed.

anulipta anu-lipta, as, ā, am, smeared, anointed.
     anuliptāṅga anu-liptāṅga (-ta-aṅ-), as, ā, am, having the limbs anointed.

anulepa anu-lepa, as, m. unction, anointing, smearing, bedaubing.

anulepaka anu-lepaka, as, ikā, am, or anu-lepin, ī, inī, i, anointing the body with unguents, who or what anoints.

anulepana anu-lepana, am, n. anointing the body; unguent so used; oily or emollient application.

anulubh anu-lubh, Caus. -lobhayati, -yitum, to entice; to go astray (?).

anuloma anu-loma, as, ā, am, in a natural direction, in regular order, regular, successive, with the hair (loman) or grain (opposed to prati-loma); (ā), f. a woman of a lower caste than that of the man's with whom she is connected; (ās), pl. mixed castes.
     anulomakalpa anuloma-kalpa, as, m. the thirty-fourth of the Pariśiṣṭas belonging to the Atharva-veda.
     anulomakṛṣṭa anu-loma-kṛṣṭa, as, ā, am, ploughed in the regular direction (with the grain).
     anulomaja anuloma-ja, as, ā, am, produced or born in due gradation; applied especially to the mixed tribes; or offspring of a mother inferior in caste to the father, as the Mūrdhāvasikta of a Brāhman father and Kṣatriyā mother, and so on with the Ambaṣṭha, Niṣāda or Pāraśava, Māhiṣya, Ugra, Karaṇa.
     anulomapariṇītā anuloma-pariṇītā, f. married in regular gradation.
     anulomāya anulomāya (-ma-aya), as, ā, am, having fortune favourable.

anulomana anu-lomana, am, n. due regulation, sending or putting in the right direction; (in medicine) carrying off by the right channels, purging.

anulomaya anu-lomaya, nom. P. anu-lomayati, -yitum, to stroke or rub with the hair or the grain, to go with the grain, to send in the right direction or carrying off by the right channels.

anulbaṇa an-ulbaṇa or an-ulvaṇa, as, ā, am, not excessive, not prominent, smooth (?), free from disturbing circumstances.

anuvaṃśa anu-vaṃśa, as, m. a genealogical list or table; (am), ind. according to race or family, a new family.

anuvaṃśya anuvaṃśya, as, ā, am, relating to a genealogical list or table.

anuvakra anu-vakra, as, ā, am, somewhat crooked or oblique.
     anuvakraga anuvakra-ga, as, ā, am, having a somewhat oblique course (as a planet, &c.).

anuvac anu-vac, cl. 2. P. -vakti, -tum, to repeat, reiterate, recited, speak after, reply.

anuvaktavya anu-vaktavya, as, ā, am, to be repeated.

anuvaktṛ anu-vaktṛ, tā, trī, tṛ, speaking after, repeating, replying.

anuvacana anu-vacana, am, n. or anu-vāc, k, f. speaking after, repetition, reciting, reading; lecture; a chapter, a section; recitation of certain texts (mantra) in consequence of and in connection or conformity with injunctions (praiṣa) spoken by other priests.

anuvacanīya anu-vacanīya, as, ā, am, referring to the anu-vacana.

anuvāka anu-vāka, as, m. saying after, reciting, repeating, reading; a chapter of the Vedas, a subdivision or section; a compilation from the Ṛg or Yajur-vedas.
     anuvākasaṅkhyā anuvāka-saṅkhyā, the fourth of the eighteen Pariśiṣṭas of the Yajur-veda.
     anuvākānukramaṇī anuvākānukra-maṇī (-ka-an-), f. a work referring to the Ṛg-veda, attributed to Śaunaka.

anuvākyā anu-vākyā, f. the verse to be recited by the Hotṛ priest, in which the god is invoked to partake of the offering intended for him.
     anuvākyavat anuvākya-vat or anu-vākyā-vat, ān, atī, at, furnished or accompanied with an Anuvākyā.

anuvācana anu-vācana, am, n. the act of causing to recite; the recitation of mantras or passages of the Ṛg-veda by the Hotṛ in obedience to the injunction (praiṣa) of the Adhvaryu priest.
     anuvācanapraiṣa anuvācana-praiṣa, as, m. an injunction to recite as above.

anuvācita anu-vācita, as, ā, am, before-mentioned, beforenamed.

anūkta anūkta, &c. See s. v., p. 42.

anuvatsara anu-vatsara, as, m. a year; (in astronomy) the fifth of five cycles of twelve years in the Vṛhaspati cycle.
     anuvataram anu-vataram, ind. every year, yearly.

anuvad anu-vad, cl. 1. P. -vadati (with acc.), or A. -vadate, -ditum (with gen.), to imitate in speaking, to mock, to repeat.

anuvāda anu-vāda, as, m. saying after or again, repeating by way of explanation, explanatory repetition or reiteration with corroboration or illustration, explanatory reference to anything already said, translation; any portion of the Brāhmaṇas which comments on, explains or illustrates an injunction (vidhi) previously propounded, and which does not itself propound rules (such a passage is sometimes called anuvāda-va-cana); confirmation; report, rumour, on dit; slander, reviling.

anuvādaka anu-vādaka, as, ikā, am, or anu-vādin, ī, inī, i, repeating with comment and explanation, corroborative, concurrent, conformable, in harmony with. The masculine of the last is also the name of any one of the three notes of the gamut.

anuvādya anu-vādya, as, ā, am, to be explained by an Anuvāda, to be made the subject of one; (am), n. the subject of a predicate.
     anuvādyatva anuvādya-tva, am, n. the state of requiring to be explained by an Anuvāda.

anūdita anūdita. See. s. v., p. 42.

anuvanam anu-vanam, ind. along side of the wood.

anuvarṇ anu-varṇ, cl. 10. P. -varṇayati, -yitum, to mention, describe, recount.

anuvartana, anuvartin, &c. See anu-vṛt.

anuvaśa anu-vaśa, as, m. obedience to the will of another; (as, ā, am), obedient to the will of another.

anuvaṣaṭkāra anu-vaṣaṭkāra, as, m. or anu-vaṣaṭkṛta, am, n. a secondary exclamation of vaṣaṭ, on making an oblation to a deity.

anuvas anu-vas, cl. 1. P. -vasati, -vastum, to dwell near to; to inhabit along with.

anuvāsin anu-vāsin, ī, inī, i, residing, resident.

anuvasita 1. anu-vasita, as, ā, am (fr. rt. vas, to put on), dressed up, wrapped.

anuvasita 2. anu-va-sita, as, ā, am, (for anv-ava-sita, rt. si), fastened to, bound to, attached.

anuvaha anu-vaha, as, m. (rt. vah), one of the seven tongues of fire; ('bearing after.')

anuvā anu-vā, cl. 2. P. -vāti, -tum, to blow upon, fan.

anuvāte anu-vāte, ind. with the wind blowing in the sames direction, with the wind from behind, to windward.

anuvāka anu-vāka. See under anu-vac.

anuvāram anu-vāram, ind. time after time, repeatedly.

anuvāsa anu-vāsa, as, m. or anu-vāsana, am, n. (rt. vās), perfuming the clothes, especially dipping the ends of the clothes in perfumes; perfuming, scenting in general; an oily enema; administering oily enemata.

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anuvāsita anu-vāsita, as, ā, am, scented, perfumed, fumigated; prepared or administered as an enema.

anuvāsya anu-vāsya, as, ā, am, or anu-vāsanīya, as, ā, am, to be scented or fumigated, requiring an enema.

anuvikas anu-vi-kas, cl. 1. P. -kasati, -situm, to blow, expand, as a flower.

anuvikṛ anu-vi-kṛ, cl. 8. P. -karoti, -kar-tum, to follow in shaping.

anuvikṝ anu-vi-kṝ, cl. 6. P. -kirati, -kari-tum, -rītum, to bestrew.

anuvikram anu-vi-kram, cl. 1. A., Ved. -kramate, -mitum, to walk after, follow.

anuvicar anu-vi-car, cl. 1. P. -carati, -ritum, to walk or pass through, to walk up to.

anuvical anu-vi-cal, cl. 1. P. -calati, -litum, to follow in changing place.

anuvicākaś anu-vi-cākaś, Intens., Ved. -cākaśīti, to penetrate with one's vision.

anuvicint anu-vi-cint, cl. 10. P. -cinta-yati, -yitum, to recal to mind.

anuvitan anu-vi-tan, cl. 8. A. -tanute, -nitum, to extend all along or all over.

anuvid 1. anu-vid, cl. 2. P., Ved. -vetti, -veditum, to know thoroughly.

anuvid 2. anu-vid, cl. 6. P. A. -vindati, -te, -veditum, to find, discover; to deem; to marry.

anuvitta anu-vitta, as, ā, am, found.

anuvitti anu-vitti, is, f. finding, obtaining.

anuvidṛś anu-vi-dṛś, cl. 1. P. -paśyati, -draṣṭum, to perceive, view.

anuvidhā anu-vi-dhā, cl. 3. P. -dadhāti, -dhātum, to regulate, lay down a rule: Pass. -dhīyate, to be trained to follow rules; to obey.

anuvidhātavya anu-vidhātavya, as, ā, am, to be performed according to an order.

anuvidhāna anu-vidhāna, am, n. obedience, acting conformably to order.

anuvidhāyin anu-vidhāyin, ī, inī, i, conforming to, compliant, obedient.

anuvinad anu-vi-nad, Caus. P. -nādayati, -yitum, to make resonant or musical.

anuvinard anu-vi-nard, cl. 1. P. -nardati, -ditum, to answer with roars.

anuvinaś anu-vi-naś, cl. 4. P. -naśyati, -naśitum or -naṃṣṭum, to disappear, perish, vanish after or with another.

anuvināśa anu-vi-nāśa, as, m. perishing after.

anuvinda anu-vinda, as, m., N. of a king of Oujein.

anuvipat anu-vi-pat, cl. 1. P. -patati, -titum, to fly away toward (with acc.).

anuvimṛś anu-vi-mṛś, cl. 6. P. -mṛśati, -marṣṭum, -mraṣṭum, to consider, think over.

anuviś anu-viś, cl. 6. P. -viśati, -veṣṭum, to follow.

anuveśa anu-veśa, as, m. or anu-veśana, am, n. entering after, following.

anuviśva anu-viśva, ās, m. pl., N. of a people in the north-east.

anuviṣṭambha anu-viṣṭambha, as, m. the being impeded in consequence of.

anuviṣṇu anu-viṣṇu, ind. after Viṣṇu.

anuvī anu-vī (-vi-i), cl. 2. P. -vyeti, -tum, to follow or join in going off or separating.

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anuvīkṣ anu-vīkṣ (-vi-īkṣ), cl. 1. A. -vīkṣate, -kṣitum, to survey, examine.

anuvīj anu-vīj, cl. 10. P. -vījayati, -yitum, to fan.

anuvṛt anu-vṛt, cl. 1. A. -vartate, poet. P. -vartati, -titum, to go after; to follow, pursue; to attend; obey, respect, imitate; to resemble; to assent, to expect: Caus. P. -vartayati, -yitum, to roll after or forward; to follow up, carry out.

anuvartana anu-vartana, am, n. obliging, serving or gratifying another; compliance, obedience; following, attending; concurring; consequence, result; continuance; supplying form a previous rule.

anuvartanīya anu-vartanīya, as, ā, am, to be supplied from a previous rule.

anuvartin anu-vartin, ī, inī, i, following, compliant, obedient, resembling.
     anuvartitva anuvarti-tva, am, n. the state of being so.

anuvartman anu-vartman, ā, ā, a, following, attending.

anuvṛtta anu-vṛtta, a, ā, am, following, obeying, complying; rounded off; (am), n. obedience, conformity, compliance.

anuvṛtti anu-vṛtti, is, f. following, acting suitably to, having regard or respect to, complying with, the act of continuance, continued course or influence of a preceding rule or assertion on what follows; reverting to; imitating, doing or acting in like manner.

anuvṛdh anu-vṛdh, cl. 1. A. -vardhate, -dhi-tum, to grow, increae.

anuvṛddhi anu-vṛddhi, is, is, i, Ved. increasing (as in clearness or emphasis) in regular ratio.

anuvedi anu-vedi, ind. along the ground prepared for sacrifice.
     anuvedyantam anu-vedy-antam, ind. along the edge of this sacrificial ground.

anuvelam anu-velam, ind. constantly.

anuvellita anu-vellita, am, n. (rt. vel or vell or vehl), bandaging, securing with bandages (in surgery); a kind of bandage applied to the extremities; (as, ā, am), bent in conformity with, bent under.

anuvaineya anuvaineya, N. of a country.

anuvyañjana anu-vyañjana, am, n. a secondary mark or token.

anuvyadh anu-vyadh, cl. 4. P. -vidhyati, -vyad-dhum, to follow in striking; to hit again and again; to wound.

anuviddha anu-viddha, as, ā, am, pierced; obstructed, checked, variegated; full of, abounding in; set (as a jewel).

anuvedha anu-vedha or anu-vyādha, as, m. piercing; obstructing; blending.

anuvyam anu-vyam, ind. (rt. with anu), Ved. behind, after, following.

anuvyavagā anu-vy-ava-gā (-vi-ava-gā), cl. 3. P. -jigāti, -gātum, to come between successively or in succession to another.

anuvyave anu-vy-ave (-vi-ava-i), cl. 2. P. -avaiti, -tum, to follow in intervening or coming between.

anuvyaś anu-vy-aś (-vi-aś), cl. 3. A. -vyaś-nute, -śitum, to overtake, reach.

anuvyākhyā anu-vy-ā-khyā (-vi-ā-khyā), cl. 2. P. -khyāti, -tum, to explain further.

anuvyākhyāna anu-vyākhyāna, am, n. that portion of a Brāhmaṇa which explains or illustrates difficult Sūtras, texts, or obscure statements occurring in another position.

anuvyāharaṇa anu-vyāharaṇa (-vi-ā-haraṇa), am, n. or anu-vyāhāra, as, m. cursing, execration; repeating, repeated utterance.

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anuvyāhārin anu-vyāhārin, ī, iṇī, i, execrating, cursing.

anuvyuccar anu-vy-uc-car (-vi-ud-car), cl. 1. P. -carati, -ritum, to follow in going forth or stepping forward.

anuvyūh anu-vy-ūh (-vi-ūh), cl. 1. P. -vy-ūhati, -hitum, to distribute.

anuvraj anu-vraj, cl. 1. P. -vrajati or poet. A. -vrajate, -jitum, to follow, especially a departing guest, as a mark of respect; to visit seriatim; to obey, do homage.

anuvrajana anu-vrajana, am, n. or anu-vrajyā, f. following as above.

anuvrājya anu-vrājya, as, ā, am, to be followed, as by the relatives of a dead person to the cemetery.

anuvrata anu-vrata, as, ā, am, devoted to, faithful to, ardently attached to; (as), m. a particular kind of Jaina devotee.

anuśak anu-śak, Desid. Caus. P. -śikṣa-yati, -yitum, to teach, instruct.

anuśikṣin anu-śikṣin, ī, iṇī, i, exercising one's self in, practising.

anuśatika anu-śatika, as, ā, am, accompanied with or bought for a hundred (the derivative ānuśātika has Vṛddhi in both members).

anuśaya anu-śaya, &c. See under anu-śī.

anuśara anu-śara, as, m. (rt. śṝ with anu), a Rākṣasa, a sort of demon.

anuśastra anu-śastra, am, n. anything used in place of a regular surgical instrument, as a fingernail or bambu; any subsidiary weapon or instrument.

anuśās anu-śās, cl. 2. P. or poet. A. -śāsti, -te, -situm, to rule, govern; to order; to teach, direct, advise, address; to punish, chastise, correct.

anuśāsaka anu-śāsaka, as, ikā, am, or anu-śāsin, ī, inī, i, or anu-śāstṛ, tā, trī, tṛ, one who governs, instructs, directs or punishes.

anuśāsat anu-śāsat, t, tī, t, instructing, ruling.

anuśāsana anu-śāsana, am, n. instruction, direction, command, giving rules, order, precept, law.
     anuśāsanapara anuśāsana-para, as, ā, am, obedient.

anuśāsanīya anu-śāsanīya or anu-śāsya, as, ā, am, to be instructed.

anuśāsita anu-śāsita, as, ā, am, directed, governed, defined by rule.

anuśāsitṛ anu-śāsitṛ, tā, trī, tṛ, ruling, governing, commanding, directing, a ruler.

anuśiṣṭa anu-śiṣṭa, as, ā, am, taught, revealed; adjudged, done conformably to law.

anuśiṣṭi anu-śiṣṭi, is, f. instruction, teaching, ordering.

anuśiṣya anu-śiṣya, ind. part. having ruled or ordered.

anuśikṣin anu-śikṣin. See anu-śak.

anuśikṣin anu-śikha, as, m., N. of a serpent which at a certain sacrifice officiated as Potṛ priest.

anuśivam anu-śivam, ind. after Śiva.

anuśiśu anu-śiśu, us, f. (an animal) followed by its young (as by a foal, &c.).

anuśī anu-śī, cl. 2. A. -śete, -śayitum, to sleep or spend the night with, to lie along or close, to adhere closely to.

anuśaya anu-śaya, as, m. close connection as with a consequence, close attachment to any object; (in phil.) the consequence itself, the evil result of an act which clings to it and causes the soul after enjoying the temporary freedom from transmigration, which is the reward of its good deeds, to enter other bodies; repentance, regret; hatred; ancient or intense enmity; (ī), f. a disease of the feet, a boil or abscess on the upper part; also one on the head.
     anuśayavat anuśaya-vat, ān, atī, at; see anu-śayin.

anuśayāna anu-śayāna, as, ā, am, repenting, regretting; (ā), f. a particular kind of heroine or female character.

anuśayitavya anu-śayitavya, as, ā, am, to be regretted.

anuśayin anu-śayin, ī, inī, i, having the consequence of an act, connected as with a consequence; devotedly attached to, faithful; repentant, penitent, regretful, sorry for; hating deeply.

anuśāyin anu-śāyin, ī, inī, i, adhering to, lying along or upon.

anuśīlana anu-śīlana, am, n. constant study or pursuit (of a science, &c.), repeated and devoted service.

anuśīlita anu-śīlita, as, ā, am, studied carefully, attended to.

anuśuc anu-śuc, cl. 1. P. -śocati, -citum, to mourn over, regret, bewail: Caus. P. -śocayati, -yitum, to mourn over.

anuśucikā anu-śucikā, f. any ceremony enjoined by the Vedas?. (This word, given by Wilson, is very doubtful.)

anuśoka anu-śoka, as, m. sorrow, repentance, regret.

anuśocaka anu-śocaka, as, ikā, am, grieving, one who repents; occasioning repentance.

anuśocana anu-śocana, am, n. sorrow, repentance.

anuśocita anu-śocita, as, ā, am, regretted, repented of.

anuśocin anu-śocin, ī, inī, i, penitent, regretful, sorrowful.

anuśobhin anu-śobhin, ī, inī, i, shining.

anuśru anu-śru, cl. 5. P. -śṛṇoti, -śrotum, to hear repeatedly, especially from a sacred authority: Desid. A. -śuśrūṣate, to obey.

anuśrava anu-śrava, as, m., Vedic tradition (acquired by repeated hearing).

anuśruta anu-śruta, as, ā, am, handed down by Vedic tradition.

anuṣañja anu-ṣañj (-sañj), cl. 1. A. or Pass. -ṣajjate, -ṣajyate, -ṣaṅktum, to cling to, adhere, be attached to.

anuṣak anu-ṣak or anu-ṣaṭ, ind. in continuous or close order; one after the other [cf. ānu-ṣak].

anuṣakta anu-ṣakta, as, ā, am, closely connected with, supplied from something preceding.

anuṣaṅga anu-ṣaṅga, as, m. close adherence, connection, association, conjunction, coalition, commixture; connection of word with word, or effect with causes; necessary consequence, the connection of a subsequent with a previous act; the nasals connected with certain roots ending in consonants (such as tṛmph); tenderness, compassion.

anuṣaṅgika anu-ṣaṅgika, as, ī, am, consequent, following as a necessary result; connected with, adhering to, inherent, concomitant.

anuṣaṅgin anu-ṣaṅgin, ī, iṇī, i, addicted or attached to; connected with; common, prevailing.

anuṣañjana anu-ṣañjana, am, n. connection with what follows, concord; grammatical relation.

anuṣañjanīya anu-ṣañjanīya, as, ā, am, to be connected, supplied.

anuṣaṇḍa anuṣaṇḍa, as or am (?), m. or n. (?), N. of a place or country (?).

anuṣic anu-ṣic. See anu-sic.

anuṣikta anu-ṣikta, as, ā, am, re-watered or sprinkled.

anuṣeka anu-ṣeka, as, m. or anu-ṣecana, am, n. rewatering or sprinkling over again.

anuṣidh anu-ṣidh (-sidh), Ved., Intens. -seṣidhīti, to bring back.

anuṣṭuti anu-ṣṭuti, is, f. (rt. stu), praise.

anuṣṭubh 1. anu-ṣṭubh (-stubh), cl. 1. P., Ved. -ṣṭobhati, -bhitum, to praise after, to follow in praising.

anuṣṭubh 2. anu-ṣṭubh, p. f. following in praise or invocation; speech; Sarasvatī; a kind of metre consisting of four Pādas or quarter-verses of eight syllables each (so called because it anuṣṭobhati follows with its praise the Gāyatrī, which consists of three Pādas); in later metrical systems, the Anuṣṭubh constitutes a whole class of metres, consisting of four times eight syllables.
     anuṣṭubgarbhā anuṣṭub-garbhā, f. a metre in the Vedas of the class Uṣṇih.

anuṣṭobhana anu-ṣṭobhana, am, n. praising after.

anuṣṭra an-uṣṭra, as, m. no camel, i. e. a bad camel.

anuṣṭhā anu-ṣṭhā (-sthā), cl. 1. P. -tiṣṭhati, -ṣṭhātum, to stand near or by, to follow out, to carry out, attend to, perform, do, practise; to govern, rule, superintend; to appoint: Pass. -ṣṭhīyate, to be done, to be followed: Desid. -tiṣṭhāsati, to be desirous of doing, &c.

anutiṣṭhamāna anu-tiṣṭhamāna, as, ā, am, following, performing, attending to.

anuṣṭha anu-ṣṭha, as, ā, am, standing after, i. e. in succession.

anuṣṭhātavya anu-ṣṭhātavya, as, ā, am, to be done or accomplished.

anuṣṭhātṛ anu-ṣṭhātṛ, tā, m. the undertaker of any work.

anuṣṭhāna anu-ṣṭhāna, am, n. commencing, undertaking; doing or engaging in any work, performance, religious practice; acting in conformity to; (ī), f. performance, action.
     anuṣṭhānakrama anuṣṭhāna-krama, as, m. the order of performing religious ceremonies.
     anuṣṭhānaśarīra anuṣṭhāna-śa-rīra, am, n. (in Sāṅkhya phil.) a body presumed to be intermediate between the liṅga-śarīra or sūkṣma-śarīra and the sthūla-śarīra.
     anuṣṭhānasmāraka anu-ṣṭhāna-smāraka, as, ikā, am, reminding of religious ceremonies.

anuṣṭhāpaka anu-ṣṭhāpaka, as, ikā, am, causing to perform.

anuṣṭhāpana anu-ṣṭhāpana, am, n. the causing to perform an act.

anuṣṭhāyin anu-ṣṭhāyin, ī, inī, i, doing, performing an act.

anuṣṭhi anu-ṣṭhi, is, f., Ved. proper order, succession; only used in inst. anu-ṣṭhyā.

anuṣṭhita anu-ṣṭhita, as, ā, am, done, practised; effected, executed, accomplished; followed, observed; done conformably.

anuṣṭhu anu-ṣṭhu, us, f., Ved. proper order, succession; only used in inst. anu-ṣṭhuyā; (u), ind. in proper order, in regular succession, properly.

anuṣṭheya anu-ṣṭheya, as, ā, am, to be effected, done or accomplished; to be observed; to be proved or established.

anuṣṇa an-uṣṇa, as, ā, am, not hot, cold, chilly, apathetic; lazy, sluggish; (am), n. a blue lotus, Nymphaea Caerulea; (ā), f., N. of a river.
     anuṣṇagu anuṣṇa-gu, us, m. (having cold rays), the moon.
     anuṣṇavallikā anuṣṇa-vallikā, f., N. of a plant, Nīla-dūrbā.
     anuṣṇāśīta anuṣṇāśīta (-ṇa-aś-), as, ā, am, neither hot nor cold.

anuṣṇaka an-uṣṇaka, as, ā, am, not hot, cold, chilly, &c.

anuṣyanda anu-ṣyanda, as, m. (rt. syand), a hind-wheel.

anuṣvadha anu-ṣvadha, as, ā, am, accompanied by food; (am), ind. according to food, through food; after food; after every sacrifice; according to one's will, voluntary.

anusaṃyā anu-saṃ-yā, cl. 2. P. -yāti, -tum, to advance against seriatim, attack one after the other.

anusaṃrakta anu-saṃrakta, as, ā, am, attached or devoted to.

anusaṃvatsaram anu-saṃvatsaram, ind. year after year.

anusaṃvicar anu-saṃ-vi-car, cl. 1. P. -car-ati, -ritum, or Ved. -radhyai, -ritave, -rase, to visit successively, make the round of.

anusaṃviś anu-saṃ-viś, cl. 6. P. -viśati, -veṣṭum, to follow in retiring for sleep.

anusaṃsarpam, anu-saṃsarpam, ind. at each occasion of approaching.

anusaṃsṛ anu-saṃ-sṛ, Caus. P. -sārayati, -yitum, to dismiss.

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anusaṃsmṛ anu-saṃ-smṛ, cl. 1. P. -smarati, -smartum, to remember, to long for (the dead or absent).

anusaṃhitam anu-saṃhitam, ind. according to the Saṃhitā text.

anusaṅkal anu-saṅ-kal (-sam-kal), cl. 10. P. -kālayati, -yitum, to follow in driving.

anusaṅkram anu-saṅ-kram (-sam-kram), cl. 1. P. -krāmati, -kramitum, to walk or go up to, to reach.

anusaṅkhyā anu-saṅ-khyā (-sam-khyā), Caus. P., Ved. -khyāpayati, -yitum, to show, to cause one to observe.

anusaṅgrah anu-saṅ-grah (-sam-grah), cl. 9. P. -gṛhṇāti, -grahītum, to oblige, favour; to salute one by laying hold of the feet.

anusañcar anu-sañ-car (-sam-car), cl. 1. P. -carati, -ritum, Ved. -radhyai, -ritave, -rase, to walk along side, to follow, join; to visit; to pursue, seek after; to penetrate, traverse, cross; to become assimilated: Caus. P. -cārayati, -yitum, to join, become identified or assimilated with.

anusañcaraṇam anu-sañcaraṇam, ind. at each occasion of coming.

anusañcint anu-sañ-cint (-sam-cint), cl. 10. P. -cintayati, -yitum, to meditate.

anusañjvar anu-sañ-jvar (-sam-jvar), cl. 1. P. -jvarati, -ritum, to take after (another) in feeling distressed, to be troubled, become envious.

anusantan anu-san-tan (-sam-tan), cl. 8. P. -tanoti, -nitum, to overspread, diffuse, extend everywhere, to join on, continue.

anusantṛ anu-san-tṝ (-sam-tṝ), cl. 1. P. -tarati, -rītum, Ved. -taradhyai, to follow to the end.

anusandah anu-san-dah (-sam-dah), cl. 1. P. -dahati, -dagdhum, to burn up along the whole length.

anusandiś anu-san-diś (-sam-diś), cl. 6. P. -diśati, -deṣṭum, to assign, to make over.

anusandṛś anu-san-dṛś (-sam-dṛś), cl. 1. P. -paśyati, -draṣṭum, to consider succesively.

anusandhā anu-san-dhā (-sam-dhā), cl. 3. P. A. -dadhāti, -dhatte, -dhātum, to explore, ascertain, inspect, plan, arrange, calm, compose, set in order, aim at.

anusandhātavya anu-sandhātavya, as, ā, am, to be explored, to be investigated, to be looked after, &c.

anusandhāna anu-sandhāna, am, n. investigation, inquiry, searching into, close inspection, setting in order, arranging, planning, aiming at, plan, scheme, congruous or suitable connection; (in the Vaiśeṣika phil.) the fourth step in a syllogism, i. e. the application.

anusandhānin anu-sandhānin or anu-sandhāyin, ī, inī, i, investigating, searching, skilful at concerting plans or continuing schemes.

anusandheya anu-sandheya, as, ā, am, to be investigated, worthy of inquiry or scrutiny, &c.

anusandhyam anu-sandhyam, ind. evening after evening, every twilight.

anusamaya anu-samaya. See under anu-sam-i next col.

anusamaś anu-sam-aś, cl. 5. A. -aśnute, aśitum or -aṣṭum, to overtake, reach.

anusamas anu-sam-as, cl. 4. P. -asyati, -situm, to add further.

anusamācar anu-sam-ā-car, cl. 1. P. -carati, -ritum, Ved. -radhyai, -ritave, -rase, to carry out, accomplish.

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anusamādhā anu-sam-ā-dhā, cl. 3. P. A. -dadhāti, -dhatte, -dhātum, to cilm, compose.

anusamāp anu-sam-āp, Caus. P. -āpayati, -yitum, to complete or accomplish further or subsequently.

anusamāpana anu-samāpana, am, n. regular completion.

anusami anu-sam-i, cl. 2. P. -eti, -tum, to visit conjointly or successively; to join in following or being guided by; to join, become assimilated with.

anusamaya anu-samaya, as, m. regular connection (as of words).

anusamīkṣ anu-sam-īkṣ, cl. 1. A. -īkṣate, -kṣitum, to keep in view, have in view.

anusamudram anu-samudram, ind. along the sea.

anusamprāp anu-sam-prāp (-pra-āp), cl. 5. P. -prāpnoti, -prāptum, to arrive, reach, get.

anusamprāpta anu-samprāpta, as, ā, am, arrived, come.

anusambaddha anu-sambaddha, as, ā, am (rt. bandh), connected with, accompanied by.

anusavanam anu-savanam, ind., Ved. at every sacrifice.

anusātam anu-sātam, ind. according to delight.

anusāma anu-sāma, as, ā, am, conciliated, appeased, friendly.

anusāyam anu-sāyam, ind. evening after evening, every evening.

anusāra anu-sāra, anu-sārin, &c. See under anu-sṛ below.

anusic anu-sic, cl. 6. P. -siñcati, -sektum, to water or sprinkle consecutively; (better spelt anu-ṣic, q. v.)

anusītam anu-sītam, ind. along the furrow.

anusīram anu-sīram, ind. along the plough.

anusū anu-sū, ūs, m., N. of a work.

anusūcaka anu-sūcaka, as, ikā, am (rt. sūc), indicative of, pointing out.

anusūcana anu-sūcana, am, n. pointing out, indication.

anusūpam anu-sūpam, ind. in every condiment.

anusṛ anu-sṛ, cl. 1. P. -sarati, -sartum, to follow: Caus. P. -sārayati, -yitum, to pursue.

anusara anu-sara, as, m. a companion.

anusaraṇa anu-saraṇa, am, n. following, going after; conformity to, consequence of; custom, habit, usage.

anusāra anu-sāra, as, m. going after, following; custom, usage; nature, natural state or condition of anything; prevalence, currency; received or established authority, especially of codes of law; conformity to usage; consequence, result.
     anusāratas anusāra-tas or anusāreṇa, ind. conformably to.

anusāraka anu-sāraka, as, ā, am, or anu-sārin, ī, iṇī, i, following, attendant on, according or conformable to; penetrating, scrutinizing, investigating.

anusāryaka anu-sāryaka, am, n. a fragrant substance.

anusṛta anu-sṛta, as, ā, am, followed, conformed to.

anusṛti anu-sṛti, is, f. going after, following, conforming to; N. of a woman (?).

anusṛp anu-sṛp, cl. 1. P. -sarpati, -sarp-tum or -sraptum, to glide after or towards, to approach.

anusarpa anu-sarpa, as, m. a serpent-like being.

anusṛṣṭa anu-sṛṣṭa, as, ā, am, (rt. sṛj), Ved. created in succession.

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anusev anu-sev, cl. 1. A. -sevate, -vitum, to practise, observe.

anusevin anu-sevin, ī, inī, i, practising, observing, habitually addicted.

anusainya anu-sainya, am, n. the rear of an army.

anusomam anu-somam, ind. near the Soma, as with the Soma.

anuskandam anu-skandam, ind. having gone into in succession.

anustaraṇa anu-staraṇa, as, ī, am (rt. stṛ), strewing round; (ī), f. the cow sacrificed at the funeral ceremony.

anustotra anu-stotra, am, n. praising after; N. of a treatise relating to the Sāma-veda.

anusneham anu-sneham, ind. after (adding) oil.

anuspaṣṭa anu-spaṣṭa, as, ā, am, plain, manifest.

anusphura anu-sphura, as, ā, am, Ved. whizzing (as an arrow).

anusmṛ anu-smṛ, cl. 1. P. -smarati, -smar-tum, to remember, recollect: Caus. P. -smārayati or -smarayati, -yitum, to remind (painfully).

anusmaraṇa anu-smaraṇa, am, n. remembering, repeated recollection.

anusmṛta anu-smṛta, as, ā, am, remembered.

anusmṛti anu-smṛti, is, f. cherished recollection, recalling some idea to the exclusion of all others.

anusyūta anu-syūta or anu-ṣyūta, as, ā, am (rt. siv), sewed consecutively, strung together or connected regularly and uninterruptedly.

anusrayāman an-usra-yāman, ā, m., Ved. not going (in a waggon drawn) by oxen.

anusvāna anu-svāna, as, m. sounding conformably.

anusvāra anu-svāra, as, m. (rt. svṛ), aftersound, the nasal sound which is marked by a dot above the line, and which always belongs to a preceding vowel.
     anusvāravat anusvāra-vat, ān, atī, at, having the Anusvāra.
     anusvāravyavāya anusvāra-vyavāya, as, m. separation between two sounds caused by an Anusvāra.
     anusvārāgama anu-svārāgama (-ra-āg-), as, m. an augment consisting in the addition of an Anusvāra.

anuha anuha, as, m., N. of a son of Vibhrātra and father of Brahma-datta.

anuhava anu-hava, as, m. (rt. hvā for hve), Ved. inviting, stirring up.

anuhā anu-hā, cl. 3. A., Ved. -jihīte, hātum, to grant.

anuhuṅkṛ anu-huṅ-kṛ, cl. 8. A. -kurute, -kartum, to roar in imitation of.

anuhṛ anu-hṛ, cl. 1. P. -harati, -hartum, to imitate, to exhibit; A. -harate, to take after (one's parents).

anuharaṇa anu-haraṇa, am, n. or anu-hāra, as, m. imitation; resemblance.

anuharat anu-harat, an, antī, at, imitating; (an), m., N. of a man (?); (the deriv. ānuhārati takes Vṛddhi in both members).

anuharamāṇa anu-haramāṇa, as, ā, am, imitating.

anuhāraka anu-hāraka, as, ikā, am, imitating.

anuhārya anu-hārya, as, ā, am, to be imitated; (as), m. monthly obsequies on the day of the new moon.

anuhoḍa anu-hoḍa, as, m. a cart (?); (the deriv. ānuhauḍika, takes Vṛddhi in both members.)

anuhrāda anu-hrāda or anu-hlāda, as, m., N. of a son of Hiraṇya-kaśipu.

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anūka anūka, as, am, m. n. (fr. añc with anu), the backbone, spine; the back part of the altar; a former state of existence; (am), n. race, family; peculiarity of race, disposition, character; (ā), f., N. of an Apsaras.

anūkya anūkya, am, n. backbone; flesh on the skull.

anūkāśa anū-kāśa, as, m. (rt. kāś), reflection (of light), clearness; regard, reference.

anūkṣ anūkṣ (anu-ukṣ), cl. 1. A. anū-kṣate, -kṣitum, to sprinkle, bedew.

anūcīna anūcīna, as, ā, am (fr. anv-añc), coming after, successive; anūcīnāham, on the following day.
     anūcīnagarbha anūcīna-garbha, as, ā, am, born in successive order.

anūcya 1. anūcya, am, n., Ved. the board on the side of a couch. (For 2. anūcya, see below.)

anūcyate anūcyate (-nu-uc-), Pass. of anu-vac, q. v., p. 38.

anūkta anūkta, as, ā, am, spoken after, recited after; occurring in the (sacred) text; studied; (am), n. = the next.

anūkti anūkti, is, f. mentioning after, repeated mention, repetition by way of explanation; study of the Veda.
     anūktitva anūkti-tva, am, n. state of requiring repetition or explanation.

anūcāna anūcāna, as, ā, am, devoted to study; one so well versed in the Vedas and Vedāṅgas as to be able to repeat them; one who repeats his lesson after his master; well-behaved.

anūcya 2. anūcya, as, ā, am, to be studied.

anūjji anūj-ji (anu-ud-ji), cl. 1. P. -jayati, -jetum, to follow in being victorious.

anūḍha an-ūḍha, as, ā, am (rt. vah), not borne, not carried; unmarried; (ā), f. an unmarried woman.
     anūḍhamāna anūḍha-māna, as, ā, am, bashful.
     anūḍhāgamana anūḍhā-gamana, am, n. fornication.
     anūḍhābhrātṛ anūḍhā-bhrātṛ, tā, m. the brother of an unmarried woman; the brother of the concubine of a king.

anūti an-ūti, is, f., Ved. not helping, not coming to aid.

anūtkram anūt-kram (anu-ud-kram), cl. 1. P. -krāmati, -kramitum, to follow in going up or out.

anūtta anūtta, as, ā, am (for anu-datta, rt. ), given back.

anūtthā anūtthā (anu-ud-sthā), cl. 1. P. anūttiṣṭhat, anūtthātum, of follow in rising; Ved. to approach.

anūtpat anūt-pat (anu-ud-pat), cl. 1. P. -patati, -titum, to fly up after another (with acc.), raise one's self into the air, jump up afterwards.

anūtpā anūt-pā (anu-ud-pā), cl. 1. P., Ved. -pibati, -pātum, to empty by drinking after another.

anūdaka an-ūdaka, am, n. (for an-udaka), want of water, aridity.

anūdas anūd-as (anu-ud-as), cl. 4. P. -asyati, -situm, to toss up behind or after.

anūdi anūd-i (anu-ud-i), cl. 2. P. -eti, -tum, to follow in going up or out.

anūdita anūdita (-nu-ud-), as, ā, am (rt. vad), spoken after, spoken according to.

anūdya 1. anūdya, as, ā, am, to be spoken to afterwards or in reply to.

anūdya 2. anūdya, ind. having said in reply.

anūdyamāna anūdyamāna, as, ā, am, spoken in reply to, according to.

anūde anūd-e (anu-ud-ā-i), cl. 2. P. anūd-aiti, -tum, to follow in coming up or rising.

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anūddeśa anūddeśa (anu-ud-), as, m. (rt. diś), describing, mentioning according to or conformably with.

anūdhas an-ūdhas, ās, f., Ved. udderless.

anūna an-ūna or an-ūnaka, as, ā, am, whole, entire; having full power; not less, not inferior; (ā), f., N. of an Apsaras.
     anūnaguru anūna-guru, us, us or vī, u, of undiminished weight, very heavy.
     anūnavarcas anūna-varcas, ās, m., Ved. having full splendor.

anūnnī anūn-nī (anu-ud-nī), cl. 1. P. -nayati, -netum, to take out and fill after another.

anūpa 1. anūpa, as, ā, am (fr. ap, q. v., with anu), situated near the water, watery, wet, a watery country; (as), m. pond, bank of a river; a buffalo; N. of a king.
     anūpaja anūpa-ja, am, n. moist ginger.
     anūpadeśa anūpa-deśa, as, m. a marshy country.
     anūpaprāya anūpa-prāya, as, ā, am, marshy.
     anūpavilāsa anūpa-vilāsa, as, m. title of a work.

anūpya anūpya, as, ā, am, being in ponds or bogs (as water).

anūpa 2. anūpa, as, ā, am, (fr. anu-vap), Ved. bestowing in order. (For. 1. anūpa, see above.)

anūpadas anūpa-das (anu-upa-das), cl. 4. P. -dasyati, -situm, to fail (or become extinct) in consequence.

anūpasadam anūpasadam (anu-up-), ind. at every Upasad (a kind of religious ceremony).

anūbandhya anū-bandhya, as, ā, am, (rt. bandh), Ved. to be fastened (as a sacrificial animal); see also anu-bandhya, p. 37.

anūyāja anū-yāja. See anu-yāja, p. 37.

anūrādha anū-rādha, as, ā, am, Ved. causing welfare, happiness; (ā), f. =anu-rādhā, q. v., p. 38.

anūru an-ūru, us, us, u, thighless; (us), m. the charioteer of the sun, the dawn.
     anūrusārathi anūru-sāra-thi, is, m. whose charioteer is Anūru, i. e. the sun.

anūrjita an-ūrjita, as, ā, am, not strong, weak; not proud.

anūrdhva an-ūrdhva, as, ā, am, not high, low.
     anūrdhvabhās anūrdhva-bhās, ās, m., Ved. one whose splendor does not rise, who lights no sacred fires.

anūrmi an-ūrmi, is, is, i, Ved. not waving, not fluctuating; inviolable.

anūlā anūlā, f., N. of a river in Kāśmīra.

anūvṛj anū-vṛj, ṭ, m. f. (?), Ved. a part of the body near the ribs.

anūṣara 1. an-ūṣara, as, ā, am, (fr. ūṣara with 3. a as an expletive or denoting comparison), saline.

anūṣara 2. an-ūṣara, as, ā, am, not saline.

anūṣita anūṣita, as, ā, am (rt. vas with anu), living near another.

anūṣmapara an-ūṣma-para, as, ā, am, (in gram.) not followed by a sibilant.

anūha an-ūha, as, ā, am, thoughtless, careless.

anṛkka an-ṛkka. See an-ṛc below.

anṛkṣara an-ṛkṣara, as, ā, am, Ved. thornless (as a path or a couch).

anṛc an-ṛc, k, k, k, or an-ṛca, as, ā, am, not containing a verse from the Ṛg-veda, hymnless, not conversant with the Ṛg-veda.

anṛkka an-ṛkka or an-ṛcka, as, ā, am, containing no Ṛc.

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anṛju an-ṛju, us, us, u, not straight, crooked, perverse, wicked.

anṛṇa an-ṛṇa, as, ā, am, free from debt.
     anṛṇatā anṛṇa-tā, f. or anṛṇa-tva, am, n. freedom from debt.

anṛṇin an-ṛṇin, ī, inī, i, unindebted, free from debt.

anṛta an-ṛta, as, ā, am, not true, false; (am), n. falsehood, lying, cheating; agriculture.
     anṛtadeva anṛta-deva, as, m., Ved. one whose gods are not true; playing unfairly (?).
     anṛtadviṣ anṛta-dviṣ, ṭ, ṭ, ṭ, Ved. persecuting untruth.
     anṛtamaya anṛta-maya, as, ī, am, full of untruth, false.
     anṛtavadana anṛta-vadana, am, n. or anṛta-bhāṣaṇa, am, n. or anṛtākhyāna (-ta-ākh-), am, n. speaking falsehood, lying.
     anṛtavādin anṛta-vādin, ī, inī, i, or anṛta-vāc, k, k, k, speaking untruth.
     anṛtavrata anṛta-vrata, as, ā, am, false to vows or engagements.

anṛtin anṛtin, ī, inī, i, one who tells untruths, lying, a liar.

anṛtu an-ṛtu, us, m. unfit season.
     anṛtukanyā anṛtu-kanyā, f. a girl before menstruation.

anṛśaṃsa a-nṛśaṃsa, as, ā, am, not cruel, mild.
     anṛśaṃsatā anṛśaṃsa-tā, f. mildness, kindness.

aneka an-eka, as, ā, am, not one, many, much; separated.
     anekakālam aneka-kālam, ind. a long time, for a long time.
     anekakālāvadhi anekakālāvadhi (-la-av-), ind. long since.
     anekakṛt aneka-kṛt, t, m. doing much, epithet of Śiva.
     anekagotra aneka-gotra, as, m. having more families than one, i. e. two, belonging to two families (or to one as an adopted son).
     anekacara aneka-cara, as, ā, am, gregarious.
     anekacittamantra aneka-citta-mantra, as, m. one whose counsels are many-minded.
     anekaja aneka-ja, as, ā, am, born more than once; (as), m. a bird.
     anekatā aneka-tā, f. or aneka-tva, am, n. muchness, manifold condition.
     anekatra aneka-tra, ind. in many places.
     anekadharmakathā aneka-dharma-kathā, f. different exposition of the law.
     anekadhā aneka-dhā, ind. in various ways, often.
     anekadhāprayoga aneka-dhā-prayoga, as, m. using several times.
     anekapa aneka-pa, as, ā, am, drinking oftener than once; (as, ā), m. f. an elephant, beciuse he drinks with his trunk and with his mouth.
     anekabhārya aneka-bhārya, as, ā, am, having more wives than one.
     anekamukha aneka-mukha, as, ā, am, having several faces, having different ways.
     anekayuddhavijayin aneka-yuddha-vijayin, ī, m. victorious in many battles.
     anekarandhra aneka-randhra, as, ā, am, having many holes, weaknesses or troubles.
     anekarūpa aneka-rūpa, as, ā, am, multiform; of various kinds or sorts; fickle, of variable mind.
     anekalocana aneka-locana, as, m. having several (three) eyes, N. of Śiva.
     anekavacana aneka-vacana, am, n. the plural number.
     anekavarṇa aneka-varṇa, (in arithmetic compounded with various words to denote) many unknown quantities (colours representing x, y, z, &c.), e. g. aneka-varṇa-guṇana, multiplication of many unknown quantities. (Similarly, if for guṇana be substituted bhajana 'division', madhyamāha-raṇa 'taking away the middle term', vyavakalana 'subtraction', saṅkalana 'addition', other algebraical processes may be expressed).
     anekavāram aneka-vāram, ind. many times, repeatedly.
     anekavidha aneka-vidha, as, ā, am, of many kinds, in different ways, various.
     anekaśapha aneka-śapha, as, ā, am, cloven-hoofed.
     anekaśabda aneka-śabda, as, ā, am, expressed by several words, synonymous.
     anekaśas aneka-śas, ind. in great numbers, several times, repeatedly, by large numbers or quantities.
     anekākāra anekā-kāra (-ka-āk-), as, ā, am, multiform.
     anekākṣara anekā-kṣara (-ka-ak-), as, ā, am, polysyllabic, having more than one syllable.
     anekāgra anekāgra (-ka-ag-), as, ā, am, engaged in various pursuits.
     anekāc anekāc (-ka-ac), having more than one vowel or syllable (ac in gram. being the technical term for vowel).
     anekārtha ane-kārtha (-ka-ar-), as, ā, am, having more than one meaning (as a word).
     anekārthadhvanimañjarī anekārtha-dhvani-mañ-jarī, f. and anekārtha-saṅgraha, as, m. titles of two works on such words.
     anekāl anekāl (-ka-al), consisting of more than one al or letter (in the technical phras. of gram.).
     anekāśraya anekāśraya (-ka-āś-), as, m. or anekāśrita (-ka-āś-), as, ā, am, (in Vaiśeṣika phil.) dwelling, abiding in more than one.

anekākin an-ekākin, ī, inī, i, not alone, accompanied by.

anekānta an-ekānta, as, ā, am, not alone and excluding every other, uncertain.
     anekāntatva anekānta-tva, am, n. uncertainty.
     anekāntavāda anekānta-vāda, as, m. scepticism.
     anekāntavādin anekānta-vādin, ī, m. a sceptic; a Jaina, an Arhat of the Jainas.

anekīkaraṇa anekī-karaṇa, am, n. making manifold.

anekībhavat anekī-bhavat, an, antī, at, being manifold, i. e. divided in two.

anekīya anekīya, as, ā, am, having several.

anejat an-ejat, an, antī, at (rt. ej with an), not moving, immoveable.

aneḍa an-eḍa, as, m. (an being an expletive or denoting comparison), stupid, foolish.

aneḍamūka an-eḍa-mūka, as, ā, am, deaf and dumb; blind; wicked, fraudulent.

anedya 1. a-nedya, as, ā, am (rt. nid), Ved. not to be blamed.

anedya 2. a-nedya, as, ā, am, (fr. a and nedyas, a contraction of nedīyas?), Ved. not near, infinite.

anena 1. an-ena, as, ā, am, Ved. (according to native authorities) sinless, faultless; (according to German scholars) without a variegated set (of horses). See eta.

anenas an-enas, ās, ās, as, blameless, sinless, not liable to error; N. of various personages.

anenasya an-enasya, am, n. freedom from fault, sin.

anena 2. anena, as, m. (fr. ina and ana for an); this doubtful wrod may signify one who has no superior, 'a sovereign or paramount lord;' see ina and ana for an.

aneman a-neman, ā, ā, a, Ved. to be praised.

aneva an-eva, ind. otherwise (?), or (?).

anehas an-ehas, ā, ā, as (fr. rt. īh with an), Ved. without a rival, incomparable, unattainable; unmenaced, unobstructed; (ā), m. time.

anaikānta an-aikānta, as, ā, am (fr. ekānta), variable, unsteady; (in logic) occasional, as a cause not invariably attended by the same effects.

anaikāntika an-aikāntika, as, ī, am, unsteady, variable, having many objects or purposes.
     anaikāntikatva anaikāntika-tva, am, n. unsteadiness, uncertainty.

anaikya an-aikya, am, n. (eka), want of oneness, plurality, the exitence of many; want of union, anarchy.

anaipuṇa a-naipuṇa or a-naipuṇya, am, n. unskilfulness. See ānaipuṇa.

anaiśvarya an-aiśvarya, am, n. weakness. See ānaiśvarya.

ano ano, ind. no, not. (An unusual form of no.)

anokaśāyin an-oka-śāyin, ī, m. not sleeping in a house (as a beggar).

anokaha an-oka-ha, as, m. not quitting the house, a tree; (oka is for okas, q. v.)

anoṅkṛta an-oṅ-kṛta, as, ā, am, not accompanied by the holy syllable om.

anodita anodita (ana-ud-), as, ā, am, unaddressed (?).

anovāhya ano-vāhya, as, ā, am, to be carried on a carriage.

anaucitya an-aucitya, am, n. unfitness.

anaujasya an-aujasya, am, n. want of vigour.

anauddhatya an-auddhatya, am, n. freedom from haughtiness.

[Page 0043-b]

anaupamya an-aupamya, as, ā, am, unparalleled.

anaurasa an-aurasa, as, m. not one's own son, adopted.

ant ant, cl. 1. P. antati, -titum, to bind [cf. and, īnt].

anta anta, as, m. (fr. rt. am ?), end, limit, boundary, term; end of a texture; end, conclusion; end of life, death, destruction (in these latter senses sometimes neut.); a final syllable, termination; last word of a compound; pause, settlement, definite ascertainment, certainty; whole amount; border; nearness, proximity, presence (e. g. grāmānte, in the neighbourhood of the village); inner part, inside; condition, nature; ante, loc. c. in the end, at last; in the inside; antam at the end of a compound means 'as far as', thus udakāntam, as far as the water; (as, ā, am), near, handsome, agreeable [cf. Goth. andeis, Theme andja; Germ. Ende; Eng. end: with anta are also compared the Greek [greek] Lat. ante; the Goth. anda in anda-vaurd, &c.; and the Germ. ent, e. g. in entsagen].
     antakara anta-kara, as, ī, am, or anta-karaṇa, as, ī, am, or anta-kārin, ī, iṇī, i, causing death, mortal, destructive.
     antakāla anta-kāla, as, m. time of death, death.
     antakṛt anta-kṛt, t, t, t, making an end; (t), m. death.
     antakṛddaśā antakṛd-daśā, ās, f. pl. a sacred book of the Jainas, containing ten chapters.
     antaga anta-ga, as, ā, am, going to the end, thoroughly conversant with.
     antagati anta-gati, is, is, i, or anta-gāmin, ī, inī, i, going to the end, perishing.
     antagamana anta-gamana, am, n. the going to the end of something, finishing; the going to the end, dying.
     antacara anta-cara, as, ī, am, going to the frontiers, walking about the frontiers.
     antaja anta-ja, as, ā, am, last born.
     antajāti anta-jāti, see antya-jāti.
     antatas anta-tas, ind. from the end, from the term; lastly, finally; in the lowest way; in part; within.
     antadīpaka anta-dīpaka, am, n. a figure in rhetoric.
     antapāla anta-pāla, as, m. a frontier-guard.
     antabhava anta-bhava, as, ā, am, being at the end, last.
     antabhāj anta-bhāj, k, k, k, standing at the end (of a word).
     antarata anta-rata, as, ā, am, delighting in destruction.
     antalīna anta-līna, as, ā, am, hidden, concealed.
     antalopa anta-lopa, as, m. the dropping of the final of a word (in grammar).
     antavat anta-vat, ān, atī, at, having an end or term, limited, perishable; (-vat), ind. like the end.
     antavattva antavat-tva, am, n. limited existence, perishableness.
     antavahni anta-vahni, is, m. the fire of the end, by which the world is to be burnt.
     antavāsin anta-vāsin or ante-vāsin, ī, inī, i, dwelling near the boundaries, dwelling close by; (ī), m. a pupil who dwells near or in the house of his teacher; a Cāṇḍāla (who lives at the end of the town).
     antavelā anta-velā, f. hour of death.
     antaśayyā anta-śayyā, f. a bed or mat on the ground; death; the place for burial or burning; bier.
     antasatkriyā anta-satkriyā, f. the funeral ceremonies.
     antasad anta-sad, t, m. a pupil (who dwells near his teacher).
     antastha anta-stha, as, ā, am, standing at the end; see also antaḥ-stha.
     antasvarita anta-svarita, as, m. the Svarita accent on the last syllable of a word; (am), n. a word thus accentuated.
     antādi antādi (-ta-ādi), ī, du. m. end and beginning.
     antāvasāyin antāvasāyin or antāvaśāyin (-ta-av-), ī, m. a barber; a Cāṇḍāla; N. of a Muni or saint; see antyāvasāyin.
     antevāsa ante-vāsa, as, m. a neighbour, a companion, a pupil.
     antevāsi ante-vāsi, ind. in statu pupillari; see anta-vāsin above.
     antodātta antodātta (-ta-ud-), as, m. the acute accent on the last syllable; (as, ā, am), having the acute accent on the last syllable.

antaka antaka, as, m. border, boundary; (as, ā, am), making an end, causing death; (as), m. death; Yama, king or lord of death.
     antakadruh antaka-druh, -dhruk, k, k, Ved. offending or provoking destructive demons, or death, or Yama.

antaki antaki, is, m. wind (?).

antama antama, as, ā, am, next, nearest, intimate (as a friend); Ved. last.

antaya antaya, nom. P. antayati, -yitum, to make an end of.

antika antika, antima, antya, &c. See antika, p. 45.

[Page 0043-c]

antaḥ antaḥ. See antar below.

antaḥkhyā antaḥ-khyā (antar-khyā), cl. 2. P., Ved. -khyāti, -tum, to deprive of, keep back, conceal.

antama antama. See s. v. anta last col.

antar antar, ind. within, between, amongst, in the middle or interior; a particle of assent.

     (As a prep. with loc.) in the middle, in, between, into; (with acc.) between; (with gen.) in, in the middle.

     (When used at the end of a compound) in, into, in the middle of, between, out of the midst of [cf. Zend antare; Lat. inter; Goth. undar].

     Sometimes antar is compounded with a following word like an adjective, meaning interior, internal, intermediate.
     antaḥkaraṇa antaḥ-karaṇa, am, n. the internal and spiritual part of man, the seat of thought and feeling, the mind, the thinking faculty, the heart, the conscience, the soul.
     antaḥkalpa antaḥ-kalpa, as, m. a certain number of years (in Buddhism).
     antaḥkuṭila antaḥ-kuṭila, as, ā, am, internally crooked; fraudulent; (as), m. a couch.
     antaḥkṛmi antaḥ-kṛmi, is, m. a disease caused by worms in the body.
     antaḥkoṭarapuṣpī antaḥ-koṭara-puṣ-pī, a various reading for aṇḍa-koṭara-puṣpī, q. v.
     antaḥkoṇa antaḥ-koṇa, as, m. the inner corner.
     antaḥkopa antaḥ-kopa, as, m. inward wrath.
     antaḥkośa antaḥ-kośa, am, n., Ved. the interior of a store-room.
     antaḥpaṭa antaḥ-paṭa, as, am, m. n. a cloth held between two persons who are to be united (as bride and bridegroom, or pupil and teacher) until the right moment of union is arrived.
     antaḥpadam antaḥ-padam, ind. in the middle of an inflected word.
     antaḥparidhāna antaḥ-paridhāna, am, n. the innermost garment.
     antaḥparidhi antaḥ-paridhi, ind. in the inside of an enclosure.
     antaḥparśavya antaḥ-parśavya or antaḥ-pār-śvya, as, ā, am, being between the ribs (as flesh).
     antaḥpavitra antaḥ-pavitra, the Soma when in the strainingvessel (?).
     antaḥpaśu antaḥ-paśu, ind. from evening till morning (while the cattle is in the stables).
     antaḥpāta antaḥ-pāta or antaḥ-pātya, as, m. (in gram.) insertion of a letter; a post fixed in the middle of the place of sacrifice.
     antaḥpātita antaḥ-pātita, as, ā, am, or antaḥ-pātin, ī, inī, i, inserted, included in.
     antaḥpātra antaḥ-pātra, am, n., Ved. the interior of a vessel.
     antaḥpādam antaḥ-pādam, ind. within the Pāda of a verse.
     antaḥpāla antaḥ-pāla, as, m. one who watches the inner apartments of a palace.
     antaḥpura antaḥ-pura, am, n. the king's palace, the female apartments, gynaeceum; those who live in the female apartments; a queen.
     antaḥpuracara antaḥpura-cara, as, m. guardian of the women's apartments.
     antaḥpurajana antaḥpura-jana, as, m. the women of the palace.
     antaḥpurapracāra antaḥpura-pracāra, as, m. the gossip of the women's apartments.
     antaḥpurarakṣaka antaḥpura-rakṣaka, as, m. or antaḥ-pura-vartin, ī, m. or antaḥpurādhyakṣa (-ra-adh-), as, m. superintendent of the gynaeceum, chamberlain.
     antaḥpurasahāya antaḥ-pura-sahāya, as, m. belonging to the gynaeceum (as an eunuch, &c.).
     antaḥpurika antaḥ-purika, as, m. superintendent of the gynaeceum; (ā), f. a woman in the gynaeceum.
     antaḥpūya antaḥ-pūya, as, ā, am, ulcerous.
     antaḥpeya antaḥ-peya, am, n., Ved. supping up, drinking.
     antaḥprakṛti antaḥ-prakṛti, is, f. the heart, the soul, the internal nature or constitution of a man.
     antaḥprajña antaḥ-prajña, as, ā, am, internally wise, knowing one's self.
     antaḥpratiṣṭhāna antaḥ-pratiṣṭhāna, am, n. residence in the interior.
     antaḥpratiṣṭhita antaḥ-pratiṣṭhita, as, ā, am, residing inside.
     antaḥśara antaḥ-śara, as, m. an internal arrow or disease.
     antaḥśarīra antaḥ-śarīra, am, n. the internal and spiritual part of man.
     antaḥśalya antaḥ-śalya, as, ā, am, having a pin or extraneous body sticking inside.
     antaḥśilā antaḥ-śilā, f., N. of a river.
     antaḥśleṣa antaḥ-śleṣa, as, m. or antaḥ-śleṣaṇa, am, n., Ved. internal support.
     antaḥsañjña antaḥ-sañjña, as, ā, am, internally conscious.
     antaḥsattvā antaḥ-sattvā, f. a pregnant woman; the marking nut (Semecarpus Anacardium L.).
     antaḥsadasam antaḥ-sada-sam, ind. in the middle of the assembly.
     antaḥsāra antaḥ-sāra, as, ā, am, having internal essence; (as), m. internal treasure, inner store or contents.
     antaḥsukha antaḥ-sukha, as, ā, am, internally happy.
     antaḥsenam antaḥ-senam, ind. into the midst of the armies.
     antaḥstha antaḥ-stha, as, ā, am, being in the midst or between; a term applied to the semivowels, as standing between the consonants and vowels; (ā), f. the god of the vital organs; an epithet of one of the Ṛg-veda mantras.
     antaḥsthamudgara antaḥstha-mudgara, as, m. (in anatomy) the malleus of the ear.
     antaḥsveda antaḥ-sveda, as, m. an elephant.
     antaraṃsa antar-aṃsa or antarāṃsa (-rā-aṃ-), as, am, m. n. the part of the body between the shoulders, the breast.
     antaragni antar-agni, is, m. the interior fire, digestive force.
     antaraṅga antar-aṅga, as, ā, am, interior, proximate, related, being essential to, or having reference to the essential part of the aṅga or base of a word.
     antaraṅgatara antaraṅga-tara, as, ā, am, not essential to the base of a word, lit. beyond or external to it.
     antaraṅgatva antaraṅga-tva, am, n. the state or condition of an Antaraṅga.
     antaravayava antar-avayava, as, m. an inner limb or part.
     antarākāśa antar-ākāśa, as, m. the sacred ether or Brahma in the interior part or soul of man.
     antarākūta antar-ākūta, am, n. hidden intention.
     antarāgama antar-āgama, as, m. an additional augment between two letters (in gram.).
     antarāgāra antar-āgāra, as, m. the interior of a house
     antarātman antar-ātman, ā, m. the soul, the inherent supreme spirit; the internal feelings, the heart or mind.
     antarātmeṣṭakam antar-ātmeṣṭakam (-man-iṣ-), ind. in the space between one's self and the (sacrificial) bricks.
     antarāpaṇa antar-āpaṇa, as, m. a market inside (a town).
     antarāya antarāya, see antar-i.
     antarārāma antar-ārāma, as, ā, am, rejoicing in one's self (not in the exterior world).
     antarāla antar-āla or antar-ālaka, am, n. intermediate space; antarāle, in the midst, in midway; (āla is probably for ālaya).
     antarindriya antar-indriya, am, n. an internal organ, of which there are four, viz. manas, buddhi, ahaṅkāra, and citta.
     antarīpa antar-īpa, as, am, m. n. (fr. ap), an island, a promontory.
     antaruṣya antar-uṣya, am, n. (rt. vas), Ved. a secret abode.
     antargaṅgā antar-gaṅgā, f. the Ganges, as supposed to communicate under-ground with a sacred spring in Mysore.
     antargaḍu antar-gaḍu, us, us, u, unprofitable, useless (filled with worms).
     antargata antar-gata, &c.; see under antar-gam.
     antargarbha antar-garbha, as, ā, am, inclosing young; pregnant.
     antargiram antar-giram or antar-giri, ind. among the mountains.
     antargudavalaya antar-guda-valaya, as, m. (in medicine) the sphincter muscle.
     antargūḍhaviṣa antar-gūḍha-viṣa, as, ā, am, having hidden poison within.
     antargṛha antar-gṛha, am, n. an inner apartment of the house; antar-gṛham or antar-geham, ind. in the interior of a house.
     antarghaṇa antar-ghaṇa, as, or antar-ghana, as, m. a place between the entrance-door and the house; N. of a village.
     antarghāta antar-ghāta, as, m. striking in the middle.
     antarja antar-ja, as, ā, am, bred in the interior (of the body, as a worm).
     antarjaṭhara antar-jaṭhara, am, n. the stomach.
     antarjanman antar-janman, a, n. inward birth.
     antarjambha antar-jambha, as, m. the inner part of the jaws.
     antarjalacara antar-jala-cara, as, ī, am, going in the water.
     antarjāta antar-jāta, as, ā, am, inborn, inbred, innate.
     antarjānu antar-jānu, ind. between the knees; (us, us, u), being between the knees.
     antarjñāna antar-jñāna, am, n. inward knowledge.
     antarjyotis antar-jyotis, is, is, is, having the soul enlightened, illuminated.
     antarjvalana antar-jvalana, am, n. internal heat, inflammation.
     antardagdha antar-dagdha, as, ā, am, burnt inwardly.
     antardadhana antar-dadhana, am, n. the distillation of spirituous liquor, or a substance used to cause fermentation.
     antardadhāna antar-dadhāna, as, ā, am, vanishing, disappearing, hiding one's self [cf. antar-dhā].
     antardaśā antar-daśā, f. a technical term in astrology.
     antardaśāha antar-daśāha, am, n. an interval of ten days; so antar-daśāhāt, before the end of ten days.
     antardāva antar-dāva, as, ā, am, Ved. containing fire.
     antardāha antar-dāha, as, m. internal heat, or fever.
     antarduḥkha antar-duḥkha, as, ā, am, afflicted in mind, sad.
     antarduṣṭa antar-duṣṭa, as, ā, am, internally bad, wicked, vile.
     antardṛṣṭi antar-dṛṣṭi, is, is, i, looking into one's own soul.
     antardeśa antar-deśa, as, m., Ved. an intermediate region of the compass.
     antardvāra antar-dvāra, am, n. a private or secret door within the house.
     antardhā antar-dhā, &c.; see. s. v. antar-dhā, p. 45.
     antardhyāna antar-dhyāna, am, n. profound inward meditation.
     antarnagara antar-nagara, am, n. the palace of a king.
     antarniviṣṭa antar-niviṣṭa, as, ā, am, gone within, being within.
     antarniṣṭha antar-niṣṭha, as, ā, am, engaged in internal reflection.
     antarbhavana antar-bhavana, am, n. the interior of a house.
     antarbhāva antar-bhāva, &c.; see antar-bhū, p. 45.
     antarbhāvanā antar-bhāvanā, f. inward meditation or anxiety; a technical term in arithmetic; rectification of numbers by the differences of the products.
     antarbhūmi antar-bhūmi, is, f. the inner part of the earth.
     antarbhauma antar-bhauma, as, ā, am, being in the interior of the earth; subterranean.
     antarmanas antar-manas, ās, ās, as, sad, perplexed.
     antarmukha antar-mukha, as, ā, am, going into the mouth; (am), n. a kind of scissors used in surgery.
     antarmudra antar-mudra (?), sealed inside; N. of a certain form of devotion.
     antarmṛta antar-mṛta, as, ā, am, still-born.
     antaryāma antar-yāma, as, m. the suppression of the breath and voice; a Soma libation during this act.
     antaryāmagraha antar-yāma-graha, as, m. the Soma libation Antar-yāma; the performing of such a libation.
     antaryāmin antar-yāmin, ī, m. checking or regulating the internal feelings; the soul; providence; the supreme spirit as regulating and guiding mankind; Brahmā.
     antaryoga antar-yoga, as, m. deep thought, abstraction.
     antarlamba antar-lamba, as, ā, am, acute-angular; (as), m. a triangle in which the perpendicular falls within, an acute-angled triangle.
     antarlīna antar-līna, as, ā, am, inherent.
     antarloma antar-loma, as, ā, am, covered with hair on the inner side.
     antarvaṃśa antar-vaṃśa, as, m. the gynaeceum; see antaḥ-pura.
     antarvaṃśika antar-vaṃśika, as, m. superintendent of the women's apartments.
     antarvaṇa antar-vaṇa, as, ā, am, situated in a forest; (am), ind. within a forest.
     antarvat antar-vat, ān, atī, at, being in the interior.
     antarvatī antar-vatī, Ved. or antar-vatnī, f. a pregnant woman.
     antarvami antar-vami, is, m. flatulence, indigestion.
     antarvartin antar-vartin, ī, inī, i, or antar-vasat, an, antī, at, internal, included, dwelling in.
     antarvasu antar-vasu, us, m., N. of a Soma sacrifice.
     antarvastra antar-vastra, am, n. an under garment.
     antarvāṇi antar-vāṇi, is, is, i, skilled in sacred sciences.
     antarvāvat antar-vāvat, ān, antī, or atī, at, Ved. abounding internally with precious things, hidden; (vat), ind. inwardly.
     antarvāṣpa antar-vāṣpa, as, m. suppressed tears; (as, ā, am), containing tears.
     antarvāsas antar-vāsas, as, n. an inner or under garment.
     antarvigāhana antar-vigāhana, am, n. entering within.
     antarvidvas antar-vidvas, vān, uṣī, vas, Ved. knowing (the paths) between (earth and heaven); knowing exactly.
     antarvega antar-vega, as, m. internal uneasiness or anxiety; inward fever.
     antarvedi antar-vedi, is, is, i, belonging to the inside of the sacrificial ground; (i), ind. within this ground; (is or ī), f. the Doab or district between the Gaṅgā and Yamunā rivers.
     antarveśman antar-veśman, a, n. the inner apartments, the interior of a building.
     antarveśmika antar-veśmika, as, m. superintendent of the women's apartments.
     antarhaṇana antar-haṇana, am, n. striking in the middle.
     antarhanana antar-hanana, as, m., N. of a village.
     antarhastam antar-hastam, ind. in the hand, within reach of the hand.
     antarhastīna antar-hastīna, as, ā, am, being in the hand or within reach.
     antarhāsa antar-hāsa, as, m. laughing inwardly; suppressed laughter; (am), ind. with suppressed laugh.
     antarhita antar-hita, see antar-dhā, p. 45.
     antarhṛdaya antar-hṛ-daya, am, n. the interior of the heart.
     antastapta antas-tapta, as, ā, am, internally heated or harassed.
     antastāpa antas-tāpa, as, m. inward heat; (as, ā, am), burning inwardly, burning with passion.
     antartuṣāra antar-tuṣāra, as, ā, am, having dew in the interior.
     antastoya antas-toya, as, ā, am, containing water.
     antaspatha antas-patha, as, ā, am, Ved. going within the clefts or hollows (of mountains), being on the way.

antastya antastya, am, n. intestines, bowels, entrails.

antara antara, as, ā, am, being in the interior, interior; near, proximate, related, intimate; lying adjacent to; distant; different from; exterior; (am), n. the interior; a hole, opening; the interior part of a thing, the contents; soul, heart, supreme soul; interval, intermediate space or time; period; term; opportunity, occasion; distance, absence; difference, remainder; property, peculiarity; weakness, weak side; representation; surety, guaranty; respect, regard; (at the end of compounds) different, other, another, e. g. deśāntaram, another country [cf. Goth. anthar, Theme anthara; Lith. antra-s, 'the second;' Lat. alter]. antaram or antara-tas, ind. in the interior, within.
     antaracakra antara-cakra, am, n. a technical term in augury.
     antarajña antara-jña, as, ā, am, knowing the interior, prudent, provident, foreseeing.
     antaratat antara-tat, t, t, t (rt. tan), spreading death or destruction.
     antaratama antara-tama, as, ā, am, nearest; immediate, intimate, internal; like, analogous; (as), m. a congenial letter, one of the same class.
     antaratara antara-tara, as, ā, am, nearer, more intimate.
     antarada antara-da, as, ā, am (rt. for do), cutting or hurting the interior or heart.
     antaradiśā antara-diśā, f. or antarā-diś, k, f. or antar-deśa, as, m. an intermediate region or quarter of the compass.
     antarapūruṣa antara-pūruṣa, as, m. the internal man, the soul.
     antaraprabhava antara-prabhava, as, ā, am, of mixed origin or caste.
     antarapraśna antara-praśna, as, m. an inner question; a question which is contained in and arises from what has been previously stated.
     antarastha antara-stha, as, ā, am, or antara-sthāyin, ī, inī, i, or antara-sthita, as, ā, am, interposed, internal, situated inside, inward; separate, apart.
     antarāpatyā an-tarāpatyā (-ra-ap-), f. a pregnant woman.
     antarābhara anta-rābhara, as, m., Ved. (if fr. antara and ābhara) taking away intervals; (if fr. antarā and bhara) bringing into the midst or near; procuring.

antarā antarā, ind. in the middle, in the interior, inside, within, among, between; on the way, by the way; in the neighbourhood, near, nearly, almost; in the meantime, now and then; for some time; (with acc. and loc.) between, during, without.
     antarāṃsa antarāṃsa, see under antar.
     antarābhavadeha antarā-bhava-deha, as, m. or antarā-bhava-sattva, am, n. the soul in its middle existence between death and regeneration.
     antarāvedi antarā-vedi, is or ī, f. a veranda resting on columns.
     antarāśṛṅgam antarā-śṛṅgam, ind. between the horns.

antarīya antarīya, am, n. an under or lower garment.

antare antare, ind. amidst, among, between.

antareṇa antareṇa, ind. amidst, between; (with acc.) within, between, amidst, during; except, without, with regard to, with reference to, on account of.

antarya antarya, as, ā, am, interior.

antarañj antar-añj, cl. 7. P., Ved. -anakti, aṅktum, -añjitum, to assume, take upon one's self.

antaraya, antarāya, &c. See antar-i.

antarāla antar-āla. See under antar.

antari antar-i, cl. 1. P. -ayati, -etum, to come between; cl. 2. P. -eti, -tum, to stand in any one's way, to separate; to exclude from (with abl.); to pass over, omit; to diappear: Ved., Intens. or Pass. -īyate, to walk to and fro between (as a mediator).

antaraya antar-aya, as, m. impediment, hindrance.

antarayaṇa antar-ayaṇa, am, n. going under, disappearing.

antarāya antar-āya, as, ā, am, going between; (as), m. intervention, obstacle, impediment.

antarita antar-ita, as, ā, am, gone within, interior, hidden, concealed, screened, shielded; departed, retired, withdrawn, diappeared, vanished, perished, dead; separated, detached; impeded, hindered; (am), n. (?) remainder (in arithmetic); a technical term in architecture.

antarikṣa antarikṣa or antarīkṣa, am, n. (either fr. antar, 'within', and īkṣ, 'to see', or fr. antari, loc., and kṣa, 'dwelling within bodies;' kṣa being fr. rt. kṣi), the intermediate space between heaven and earth; (in the Veda) the middle of the three spheres or regions of life; the atmosphere or sky; the air; talc.
     antarikṣakṣit antarikṣa-kṣit, t, t, t, dwelling in the atmosphere.
     antarikṣaga antarikṣa-ga or antarikṣa-cara, as, m. a bird.
     antarikṣaprā antarikṣa-prā, ās, ās, m. f., Ved. filling the sky, irradiating the firmament; travelling through the atmosphere (?).
     antarikṣaprut antarikṣa-prut, t, t, t (rt. pru for plu), Ved. floating over the atmosphere.
     antarikṣaloka antarikṣa-loka, as, m. the intermedite region or sky as a peculiar world.
     antarikṣasaṃśita antarikṣa-saṃśita, as, ā, am, sharpened in the atmosphere.
     antarikṣasad antarikṣa-sad, t, t, t, Ved. dwelling in the atmosphere.
     antarikṣasadya antarikṣa-sadya, am, n., Ved. residence in the atmosphere.
     antarikṣodara antar-ikṣodara (-kṣa-ud-), as, ā, am, having an interior as comprehensive as the atmosphere.
     antarīkṣaga antar-īkṣa-ga, as, ā, am, going in the atmosphere; (as), m. a bird.
     antarīkṣacara antarīkṣa-cara, as, ī, am, moving through the atmosphere.
     antarīkṣajala antarīkṣa-jala or an-tarikṣa-jala, am, n. the water of the atmosphere.

antarikṣya antarikṣya, as, ā, am, atmospheric, aerial.

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anarupātī antar-upātī (-upa-ati-i), cl. 2. P. -upātyeti, -tum, to enter over a threshold or boundary.

antargam antar-gam, cl. 1. P. -gacchati, -gantum, to go between (so as to exclude from, with abl.); to disappear.

antargata antar-gata, as, ā, am, or antar-gāmin, ī, inī, i, gone between or into, being in, included in; being in the interior, internal, hidden, secret; disappeared, perished; slipped out of the memory, forgotten.
     antargatamanas antargata-manas, ās, ās, as, whose mind is turned inwards, engaged in deep thought, sad, perplexed.
     antargatopamā antargatopamā (-ta-up-), f. a concealed simile (the particle of comparison being omitted).

antargā antar-gā, cl. 3. P. -jigāti, -gātum, to go between, separate (so as to exclude from; with abl.).

antardṛś antar-dṛś, cl. 1. P., Ved. -paśyati, -draṣṭum, to look between or into.

antardhā 1. antar-dhā, cl. 3. A. -dhatte, -dhātum, to place within, deposit; to receive within; to hide, conceal, obscure; to hide one's self: Pass. -dhīyate, to be received within, to be absorbed; to be rendered invisible; to disappear, vanish; to cease: Caus. -dhāpayati, -yitum, to render invisible, to cause to disappear.

antardhā 2. antar-dhā, f. concealment, covering, disappearing.

antardhāna antar-dhāna, am, n. disappearance, invisibility; antardhānam i or gam, to disappear; (as), m., N. of a son of Pṛthu.
     antardhānagata antardhāna-gata, as, ā, am, disappeared.
     antardhānacara antardhāna-cara, as, ī, am, going invisibly.

antardhāpita antar-dhāpita, as, ā, am, rendered invisible.

antardhāyaka antar-dhāyaka, as, ikā, am, rendering invisible, concealing.

antardhi antar-dhi, is, m. concealment, covering, disappearance.

antarhita antar-hita, as, ā, am, placed between, separated; covered, concealed, hidden, made invisible, vanished, invisible; hidden from (with abl.).
     antarhitātman antar-hitāt-man (-ta-āt-), ā, m. epithet of Śiva ('of concealed mind').

antarbhū antar-bhū, cl. 1. P. -bhavati, -vitum, to be (contained or inherent or implied) in.

antarbhava antar-bhava, as, ā, am, being within, inward, internal, generated internally.

antarbhavana antar-bhavana, antar-bhāvanā, See s. v. antar.

antarbhāva antar-bhāva, as, m. the being included by, internal or inherent nature or disposition.

antarbhāvita antar-bhāvita, as, ā, am, included, involved, implied.

antarbhūta antar-bhūta, as, ā, am, being within, internal, inner.
     antarbhūtatva antarbhūta-tva, am, n.; see antar-bhāva.

antarbhūmi antar-bhūmi. See under antar.

antaścar antaś-car (antar-car), cl. 1. P. A. -carati, -te, -ritum, Ved. -radhyai to move between, to move within.

antaśchid antaś-chid (antar-chid), cl. 7. P. -chinatti, -chettum, to cut off, to intercept.

antas antas See antar.

anti 1. anti, ind. before, in the presence of, near; (with gen.) within the proximity of, to [cf. Lat. ante, Gr. [greek]].
     antigṛha anti-gṛha, am, n., Ved. a house near one's own dwelling; a place before the house, the neighbourhood of the house.
     antitama anti-tama, as, ā, am, very near.
     antitas anti-tas, ind., Ved. from near.
     antideva anti-deva, as, ā, am, Ved. being in the presence of the gods, near the gods; playing against another, an adversary (at dice).
     antimitra anti-mitra, as, ā, am, Ved. near or at hand with friendship.
     antivāma anti-vāma, as, ā, am, Ved. near with wealth or loveliness.
     antiṣad anti-ṣad, t, t, t, Ved. sitting near.
     antiṣumna anti-ṣumna, as, ā, am, Ved. near with happiness or kindness.
     antyūti anty-ūti, is, is, i, Ved. near with help.

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antika 1. antika, as, ā, am, (with gen. or abl.) near, proximate; compar. nedīyas, superl. nediṣṭha; (am), n. vicinity, proximity, near, e. g. antika-stha, remaining near; (am), ind. (with abl., gen., or as last member of a compound) until, near to, into the presence of; (āt), ind. from the proximity; near, close by; within the presence of; (e), ind. (with gen. or as last member of a compound) near, close by, in the proximity or presence of; (ena), ind. (with gen.) near.
     antikagati antika-gati, is, f. going near.
     antikatā antika-tā, f. nearness, vicinity, contiguity.
     antikāśraya antikāśraya (-ka-āś-), as, m. contiguous support (as that given by a tree to a creeper).

antima 1. antima, as, ā, am, immediately following (in this sense a the last member of a compound, e. g. daśāntima, 'the eleventh'); very near.

antiya antiya, as, ā, am, Ved. near; (am), n. a proximate place.

anti 2. anti, is, f. an elder sister (in theatrical language). For 1. anti, see last col.

antikā antikā, f. an elder sister (in theatrical language; perhaps a corruption of attikā); a fire-place; a plant, Echites Scholaris.

antī antī, f. an oven.

antika 2. antika, as, ā, am (fr. anta), reaching to the end of, reaching to (e. g. nāsāntika, reaching to the nose), lasting till, until.

antima 2. antima, as, ā, am, final, ultimate, last.
     antimāṅka anti-māṅka (-ma-aṅ-), as, m. the last unit, nine.

antya antya, as, ā, am, last in place, in time, or in order; immediately following (used as the last member of a compound, e. g. aṣṭamāntya, 'the ninth'); lowest in place or condition, undermost, inferior, belonging to the lowest caste; (as), m., N. of the plant Cyperus Hexastachyus Communis; (am), n. the number 1000 billions; the twelfth sign of the zodiac; the last member of a mathematical series.
     antyakarman antya-karman, a, n. or antya-kriyā, f. funeral rites.
     antyaja antya-ja, as, ā, am, younger, latest born; of the lowest caste; (as), m. a Śūdra; a man of one of seven inferior tribes; a washerman, currier, mimic, Varuḍa, fisherman, Meda or attendant on women, and mountaineer or forester.
     antyajagamana antyaja-gamana, am, n. intercourse (between a woman of the higher caste) with a man of the lowest caste.
     antyajanman antya-janman, ā, ā, a, or antya-jāti, is, is, i, or antya-jātīya as, ā, am, of the lowest caste.
     antyajāgamana antyajā-gamana, am, n. intercourse (between a man of the higher caste) with a woman of the lowest caste.
     antyadhana antya-dhana, am, n. last member of an arithmetical series.
     antyapada antya-pada or antya-mūla, am, n. (in arithm.) the last or greatest root (in the square).
     antyabha antya-bha, am, n. the last Nakshatra (Revatī); the last sign of the zodiac, the sign Pisces.
     antyayuga antya-yuga, as, m. the last or Kali age.
     antyayoni antya-yoni, is, f. the lowest source; (is, is, i), of the lowest origin.
     antyavarṇa antya-varṇa, as, ā, m. f. a man or woman of the last tribe, a Śūdra.
     antyavipulā antya-vipulā, f., N. of a metre.
     antyāvasāyin antyāvasāyin (-ya-av-), ī, inī, m. f. a man or woman of low caste, the son of a Cāṇḍāla by a Niṣādī, especially one of the following classes: Cāṇḍāla, Śvapaca or executioner, Kṣattṛ, Sūta, Vaidehaka, Māgadha or bard, and Āyogava.
     antyāhuti antyāhuti (-ya-āh-), is, f. funeral oblation or sacrifice.
     antyeṣṭi an-tyeṣṭi (-ya-iṣ-), is, f. funeral sacrifice.
     antyeṣṭikriyā anty-eṣṭi-kriyā, f. funeral ceremonies.

antyaka antyaka, as, m. a man of the lowest tribe.

antra antra, am, n. (contraction of antara; or fr. rt. am?: Gr. [greek]), entrail, intestine; (ī), f., N. of a plant, either Convolvolus Argenteus or Ipomoea Pes Caprae Roth (?).
     antarakūja antara-kūja, as, m. or antra-kūjana, am, n. or antra-vikūjana, am, n. rumbling of the bowels.
     antrandhami antran-dhami, is, f. indigestion, inflation of the bowels from wind.
     antrapācaka an-tra-pācaka, as, m., N. of a plant, Aeschynomene Grandiflora.
     antramaya antra-maya, as, ī, am, consisting of entrails.
     antravṛddhi antra-vṛddhi, is, f. inguinal hernia, rupture.
     antraśilā antra-śilā, f., N. of a river.
     antrasraj antra-sraj, k, f. a kind of garland worn by Nara-siṃha.
     antrāda antrāda (-ra-ād-), as, m. worms in the intestines.

and and, cl. 1. P. andati, -ditum, to bind.

anda anda, as, m. binding.

andu andu, us, f. or andū, ūs, f. or anduka or an-dūka, as, m. the chain for an elephant's feet; a ring or chain worn on the ancle.

andikā andikā, f. (for antikā, q. v.), fireplace.

andolaya andolaya, nom. P. andolayati, yitum, to agitate, to swing.

andolana andolana, am, n. swinging, oscillating.

andolita andolita, as, ā, am, agitated, swung.

andraka andraka, as, m., N. of a king.

andh andh, cl. 10. P. andhayati, -yitum, to be or become blind.

andha andha, as, ā, am, blind; making blind, preventing the sight, dark; (am), n. darkness; turbid water, water; (ās), m. pl., N. of a people.
     andhakāra andha-kāra, as, am, m. n. darkness.
     andhakāramaya andhakāra-maya, as, ī, am, dark.
     andhakārasañcaya andhakāra-sañcaya, as, m. intensity of darkness.
     andhakārita andha-kārita, as, ā, am, made dark, dark.
     andhakūpa andha-kūpa, as, m. a well of which the mouth is hidden; a well over-grown with plants, &c.; a particular hell.
     andhaṅkaraṇa andhaṅ-karaṇa, as, ī, am, making blind.
     andhatamasa andha-tamasa or andha-tāmasa or andhā-tamasa, am, n. great darkness.
     andhatā andha-tā, f. or andha-tva, am, n. blindness.
     andhatāmisra andha-tāmisra, as, m. complete darkness of the soul; (am), n. a division of Tartarus, the second or eighteenth of the twenty-one hells; doctrine of annihilation after death.
     andhadhī andha-dhī, īs, īs, i, mentally blind.
     andhapūtanā andha-pūtanā, f. a female demon causing diseases in children.
     andhamūṣā andha-mūṣā, f. a small covered crucible with a hole in the side.
     andhamūṣikā andha-mūṣikā, f., N. of a grass, Lepeocercis Serrata.
     andhambhāvuka andham-bhāvuka, as, ā, am, or andha-bhaviṣṇu, us, us, u, becoming blind.
     andharātrī andha-rātrī, f., Ved. dark night.
     andhālajī andhālajī (-dha-al-), f. a blind boil, one that does not suppurate.
     andhāhi an-dhāhi (-dha-ahi), is, or andhāhika, as, m. a blind snake, not poisonous; (is, is), m. f., N. of a fish, commonly called kucikā.

andhaka andhaka, as, ā, am, blind; (as), m., N. of an Asura, a son of Kaśyapa and Diti; N. of a descendant of Yadu and ancestor of Kṛṣṇa and his descendants; N. of a Muni.
     andhakaghātin andhaka-ghātin, ī, m. or andhaka-ripu, us, m. or andhakāri (-ka-ari), is, m. or andhakāsuhrid (-ka-as-), m. epithet of Śiva, the slayer or enemy of the Asura Andhaka.
     andhakavarta andha-ka-varta, as, m., N. of a mountain.
     andhakavṛṣṇi andhaka-vṛṣṇi, ayas, pl. m. descendants of Andhaka and Vṛṣṇi.

andhas 1. andhas, as, n., Ved. darkness, obscurity.

andhikā andhikā, f. night; a kind of game, blindman's buff; a woman of a particular character; one of the classes of women; a disease of the eye; another disease; see sarṣapī.

andhīkṛ andhī-kṛ, cl. 8. P. -karoti, -kartum, to make blind, to blind.
     andhīkṛta andhī-kṛta, as, ā, am, made or become blind.
     andhīkṛtātman andhīkṛtātman (-ta-āt-), ā, ā, a, blinded in mind.

andhīgu andhī-gu, us, m., N. of a Ṛṣi.

andhībhū andhī-bhū, cl. 1. P. -bhavati, -vitum, to become blind.
     andhībhūta andhī-bhūta, as, ā, am, become blind.

andhas 2. andha, as, n. (fr. rt. ad, to eat?; Gr. [greek]), food, Soma, ghee, boiled rice; herb in general herb of the Soma plant, Soma juice, juice; grassy ground. (For 1. andhas, see above.)

andhu andhu, us, m. (fr. rt. am or andh?), a well.

andhula andhula, as, m., N. of a tree, Acacia Sirissa.

andhra andhra, as, m., N. of a people, probably modern Telingana; N. of a dynasty; a man of a low caste, the offspring of a Vaideha father and Kārāvara mother, who lives by killing game.
     andhrajāti an-dhra-jāti, is, f. the Andhra tribe.
     andhrajātīya andhra-jātīya, as, ā, am, belonging to this tribe.
     andhrabhṛtya andhra-bhṛtya, ās, m. pl. a dynasty of the Andhras.

anna 1. anna, as, m. (fr. rt. at or am?), the sun.

anna 2. anna, as, ā, am (fr. rt. ad), eaten; (am), n. food or victual in general; food in a mystical sense, or the lowest form in which the supreme soul is manifested, the coarsest envelope of the supreme spirit; boiled rice; bread corn; Ved. water; Viṣṇu; earth.
     annakāma anna-kāma, as, ā, am, desirous of food.
     annakāla anna-kāla, as, m. meal-time, proper hour for eating.
     annakoṣṭhaka anna-koṣṭhaka, as, m. cupboard, granary; Viṣṇu; the sun.
     annagati anna-gati, is, f. the oesophagus, gullet.
     annagandhi anna-gandhi, is, m. dysentery, diarrhoea.
     annaja anna-ja or anna-jāta, as, ā, am, springing from or occasioned by food as the primitive substance.
     annajala anna-jala, am, n. food and water, bare subsistence.
     annajit anna-jit, t, t, t, Ved. obtaining food by conquest.
     annajīvana anna-jīvana, as, ī (?), am, living by food.
     annatejas anna-tejas, ās, ās, as, Ved. having the vigour of food.
     annada anna-da, as, ā, am, or anna-dātṛ, tā, trī, tṛ, or anna-dāyin, ī, inī, i, or anna-prada, as, ā, am, giving food; epithet of Śiva and Durgā.
     annadāna anna-dāna, am, n. the giving of food.
     annadevatā anna-devatā, f. the divinity supposed to preside over articles of food.
     annadoṣa anna-doṣa, as, m. a fault committed by eating prohibited food.
     annadveṣa anna-dveṣa, as, m. want of appetite, dislike of food.
     annapati anna-pati, is, m. possessor of food, an epithet of Savitṛ, Agni, Śiva.
     annapū anna-pū, ūs, m., Ved. purifying food, epithet of the sun.
     annapūrṇa anna-pūrṇa, as, ā, am, filled with or possessed of food; (ā), f. a goddess, a form of Durgā.
     annapūrvā anna-pūrvā (?), f., N. of Durgā.
     annapeya anna-peya, am, n., Ved. another name for the Vāja-peya sacrifice.
     annapralaya anna-pralaya, as, ā, am, being resolved into food or the primitive substance after death.
     annaprāśa anna-prāśa, as, m. or anna-prāśana, am, n. putting rice into a child's mouth for the first time, after oblations to fire, a ceremony performed between the fifth and eighth month: it is one of the sixteen Saṃskāras mentioned in the second book of Manu.
     annabubhukṣu anna-bubhukṣu, us, us, u, desirous of eating food.
     annabrahman anna-brahman, a, n. or annātman (-na-āt-), ā, m. Brahma as represented by food.
     annabhakṣa anna-bhakṣa, as, m. or anna-bhakṣaṇa, am, n. or anna-bhukti, is, f. eating of food.
     annabhāga anna-bhāga, as, m., Ved. a share of food.
     annabhuj anna-bhuj, k, k, k, eating food; (k), m. an epithet of Śiva.
     annamaya anna-maya, as, ī, am, made from food, composed of food or of boiled rice; (am), n. plenty of food.
     annamayakośa annamaya-kośa or annamaya-koṣa, as, m. the gross material body, that which is sustained by food (the sthūla-śarīra).
     annamala anna-mala, am, n. excrement; spirituous liquor.
     annarakṣā anna-rakṣā, f. caution in eating food.
     annarasa anna-rasa, as, m. essence of food, chyle; meat and drink, nutriment, taste in distinguishing food.
     annalipsā anna-lipsā, f. desire for food, appetite.
     annavat anna-vat, ān, atī, at, possessed of food.
     annavastra anna-vastra, am, n. food and clothing, the necessaries of life.
     annavāhisrotas anna-vāhi-srotas, as, n. the oesophagus, gullet.
     annavikāra anna-vikāra, as, m. transformation of food; disorder of the stomach from indigestion; the seminal secretion.
     annavid anna-vid, t, t, t, Ved. knowing food; possessed of food.
     annaśeṣa anna-śeṣa, as, m. leavings, offal.
     annasaṃskāra anna-saṃskāra, as, m. consecrating of food.
     annahartṛ anna-hartṛ, tā, trī, tṛ, taking away food.
     annahoma anna-homa, as, m. a sacrifice connected with the Aśva-medha.
     annākāla annākāla, see anākāla.
     annācchādana annācchādana (-na-ācch-), am, n. food and clothing.
     annāttṛ annāttṛ (-na-at-), tā, m. or annādin (-na-ād-), ī, inī, i, eating food.
     annāda annā-da (-na-ad-), as, ā, am, eating food; (as), m., N. of Viṣṇu.
     annādana annādana (-na-ad-), am, n. eating of food.
     annādya annādya (-na-ad-), am, n. food in general, proper food.
     annādyakāma annādya-kāma, as, m. desirous of food.
     annāyu annāyu, or annāyus (-na-āy-), us, m. living by food, desirous of food.
     annārthin annārthin  (-na-ar-), ī, inī, i, asking for food.
     annāvṛdh annā-vṛdh (final a lengthened), t, t, t, Ved. increasing food.
     annāhārin annāhārin (-na-āh-), ī, iṇī, i, eating food.

annambhaṭṭa annambhaṭṭa, as, m., N. of the author of the Tarka-saṅgraha, or compendium of the Nyāya philosophy, especially the Vaiśeṣika branch.

anya anya, as, ā, at (according to native authorities fr. rt. an, but more probably from a pronom. base a or an), other, different; (with abl. or as the last member of a compound) other than, different from opposed to; another; another person; one of a number; anya anya or eka anya, the one, the other [cf. Zend anya; Armen. ail; Lat. alius; Goth. aljis, Them. alja; Gr. [greek] for [greek] cf. also [greek]].
     anyakāma anya-kāma, as, ā, am, loving another.
     anyakārukā anya-kārukā, f. a worm bred in excrement.
     anyakṛta anya-kṛta, as, ā, am, or anya-kārita, as, ā, am, done by another.
     anyakṣetra anya-kṣetra, am, n. another territory or sphere.
     anyaga anya-ga, as, ā, am, or anya-gāmin, ī, inī, i, going to another, adulterous.
     anyagotra anya-gotra, as, ā, am, of a different family.
     anyacitta anya-citta, as, ā, am, whose mind is fixed on some one or something else.
     anyacodita anya-codita, as, ā, am, moved by another.
     anyacca anyac-ca (-yad-ca), ind. and another, besides, moreover, on the contrary.
     anyaja anya-ja or anya-jāta, as, ā, am, born of another (family, &c.), of a different origin.
     anyajanman anya-janman, a, n. another birth, being born again, metempsychosis.
     anyatā anya-tā, f. difference.
     anyatkāma anyat-kāma, as, ā, am, desirous of something else.
     anyatkṛ anyat-kṛ, to make a mistake in reading, &c.
     anyadartha anyad-artha or anyārtha (-ya-ar-), as, ā, am, having another meaning, purpose, sense.
     anyadurvaha anya-durvaha, as, ā, am, difficult to be borne by another.
     anyadevata anya-devata or anya-devatya or anya-daivata, as, ā, am, having another divinity, i. e. addressed to another divinity.
     anyadharma anya-dharma, as, m. different characteristic; characteristic of another; (as, ā, am,), having different characteristics.
     anyadhī anya-dhī, īs, īs, i, one whose mind is alienated (from God).
     anyanābhi anya-nābhi, is, is, i, of another family.
     anyapara anya-para, as, ā, am, devoted to something else, zealous in something else.
     anyapuṣṭa anya-puṣṭa or anya-bhṛta as, ā, m. f. the kokila or Indian cuckoo, supposed to be reared by the crow.
     anyapūrvā anya-pūrvā, f. a woman previously promised or betrothed to one and married to another.
     anyabhṛt anya-bhṛt, t, m. a crow ('nourishing another;' the crow being supposed to sit upon the eggs of the kokila).
     anyamanas anya-manas, ās, ās, as, or anya-ma-naska or anya-mānasa, as, ā, am, one whose mind is fixed on something else, absent, fickle, versatile; having another mind in one's self, possessed by a demon.
     anyamātṛja anya-mātṛ-ja, as, m. a half-brother, who has the same father but another mother.
     anyarājan anya-rājan, ā, ā, a, having another for king, subject to another.
     anyarāṣṭrīya anya-rāṣṭrīya, as, ā, am, from another kingdom, belonging to another kingdom.
     anyarūpa anya-rūpa, am, n. another form; (eṇa), in another form, disguised; (as, ā, am), changed, altered.
     anyarūpin anya-rūpin, ī, iṇī, i, having another shape.
     anyaliṅga anya-liṅga or anya-liṅgaka, as, ā, am, having the gender of another (word, viz. of the substantive), an adjective.
     anyavarṇa anya-varṇa, as, ā, am, having another colour.
     anyavāpa anya-vāpa, as, m. the kokila or Indian cuckoo ('sowing for others', i. e. leaving his eggs in the nests of other birds).
     anyavījaja anya-vīja-ja or anya-vīja-samudbhava or anya-vījotpanna (-ja-ut-), as, m. ('born from the seed of another'), an adopted son.
     anyavrata anya-vrata, as, m., Ved. following other (than Vedic) observances; devoted to other (gods), infidel, unbelieving.
     anyaśākhaka anya-śākhaka, as, m. a Brāhman who has left his school; an apostate.
     anyasaṅgama anya-saṅgama, as, m. intercourse with another, adulterous intercourse.
     anyasādhāraṇa anya-sādhāraṇa, as, ā, am, common to others.
     anyastrīga anya-strī-ga, as, m. going to another's wife, an adulterer.
     anyādṛkṣa anyā-dṛkṣa, as, ā, am, or anya-dṛś, k, k, k, or anya-dṛśa, as, ī, am, of another kind, like another.
     anyādhīna anyādhīna (-ya-adh-), as, ā, am, subject to others, dependent.
     anyāśrayaṇa anyāśrayaṇa (-ya-āś-), am, n. going to another (as an inheritance).
     anyāśrita anyā-śrita (-ya-ās-), as, ā, am, gone to another.
     anyāsakta anyāsakta (-ya-ās-), as, ā, am, intent on something else.
     anyāsādhāraṇa anyāsādhāraṇa (-ya-as-), as, ī, am, not common to another, peculiar.
     anyoḍhā anyoḍhā (-ya-ūḍh-), f. married to another, another's wife.
     anyotpanna an-yotpanna (-ya-ut-), as, ā, am, begotten by another.
     anyodarya anyodarya (-ya-ud-), as, ā, am, born from another womb; (as), m. a step-mother's son.

anyaka anyaka, as, m. another, other.

anyatama anya-tama, as, ā, am, any one of many, either, any.

anyatara anya-tara, as, ā, at, either of two, other, different; anyatara anyatara, the one, the other; anyatarasyām, loc. f. either way.
     anyataratas anyatara-tas, ind. on one of two sides.
     anyataratodanta anyatarato-danta, as, ā, am, having teeth on one side (only).
     anyataredyus anya-tare-dyus, ind. on either of two days.

anyatas anya-tas, ind. from another; from another motive; on one side (anyataḥ anyataḥ, on the one, on the other side); elsewhere; on the other side, on the contrary, in one direction; towards some other place.
     anyataeta anyata-eta, etas, enī, m. f., Ved. variegated on one side.
     anyataḥkṣṇut anyataḥ-kṣṇut, t, t, t, Ved. sharp on one side.
     anyataḥplakṣā anyataḥ-plakṣā, f., N. of a Lotus pond in Kurukshetra.
     anyatoghātin anyato-ghātin, ī, m., Ved. striking in one direction.
     anyato'raṇya anyato-'raṇya (-tas-ar-), am, n., Ved. a land which is woody here and there, or only on one side (?).
     anyatovāta anyato-vāta, as, m. a certain disease of the eye.

anyatastya anyatastya, as, m. opponent, adversary.

anyatra anya-tra, ind. (equivalent to anyasmin, loc. of anya), elsewhere, in another place (with abl.); on another occasion; (as last member of a comp.) at another time than; otherwise, in another manner; to another place; except, without [cf. Goth. aljathro].
     anyatramanas anyatra-manas, ās, ās, as, whose mind is directed to something else, inattentive.

anyathā anya-thā, ind. otherwise, in a different manner (with atas, itas or tatas = in a manner different from this; anyathā anyathā, in one way, in another way); inaccurately, untruly, falsely, erroneously; from another motive; in the contrary case, otherwise [cf. Lat. aliuta].
     anyathākāra anyathā-kāra, as, m. doing otherwise, changing; (am), ind. otherwise, in a different manner.
     anyathākṛ anyathā-kṛ, to act otherwise, alter, violate (a law), destroy (a hope), &c.
     anyathākṛta anyathā-kṛta, as, ā, am, changed.
     anyathākhyāti anyathā-khyāti, is, f. erroneous conception of spirit; title of a philosophical work.
     anyathātva anyathā-tva, am, n. an opposite state of the case, difference.
     anyathābhāva anyathā-bhāva, as, m. alteration, difference.
     anyathābhūta anyathā-bhūta, as, ā, am, changed.
     anyathāvādin anyathā-vādin or anya-vādin, ī, inī, i, speaking differently; (ī), m. speaking inconsistently; (in law) prevaricating or a prevaricator.
     anyathāvṛtti anyathā-vṛtti, is, is, i, altered, disturbed by strong emotion.
     anyathāsiddha anyathā-siddha, as, ā, am, wrongly defined, wrongly proved or established; effected otherwise, unessential.
     anyathāsiddhatva anyathāsiddha-tva, am, n. or anyathā-siddhi, is, f. wrong arguing, wrong demonstration; that demonstration in which arguments are referred to which are not the true causes.
     anyathāstotra anyathā-stotra, am, n. irony. --(From anyathā comes the nom. verb anyathaya, P. anyathayati, -yitum, to alter.)

anyadā anya-dā, ind. at another time; sometimes; one day, once; in another case [cf. Old Slav. inogda, inuda].

anyadīya anyadīya, as, ā, am, belonging to another.

anyarhi anyarhi, ind. at another time.

anyedyus anye-dyus, ind. on the other day, on the following day; the other day, once.
     anyedyuṣka anyedyuṣka, as, ā, am, occurring every other day, daily, diurnal; (as), m. a quotidian fever.

anyonya anyonya or anyo-'nya, as, ā, am, one another, mutual [this word is said to be fr. anyas, nom. sing. m., and anya; cf. paraspara. In most cases, accordingly, it will be found that the first anya may be regarded as the subject of the sentence, while the latter assumes the acc., inst., gen., or loc. cases as required by the verb; there are many instances, however, in which the first anya, originally a nominative, must be regarded as equivalent to an oblique case]; anyo-nyam or anyonya-tas, ind. mutually.
     anyonyakalaha anyonya-kalaha, as, m. mutual quarrel.
     anyonyaghāta anyonya-ghāta, as, m. mutual conflict, killing one another.
     anyonyapakṣanayana anyonya-pakṣa-nayana, am, n. transposing (of numbers) from one side to another.
     anyonyabheda anyonya-bheda, as, m. mutual division or enmity.
     anyonyamithuna anyonya-mithuna, am, n. mutual union; (as), m. united mutually.
     anyonyavibhāga anyonya-vi-bhāga, as, m. mutual partition (of an inheritance).
     anyonyavṛtti a-nyonya-vṛtti, is, m. mutual effect of one upon another.
     anyonyavyatikara anyonya-vyatikara, as, m. reciprocal action, relation or influence.
     anyonyasaṃśraya anyonya-saṃśraya, as, m. reciprocal relation (of cause and effect).
     anyonyasāpekṣa anyonya-sāpekṣa, as, ā, am, mutually relating.
     anyonyahārābhihata anyonya-hārābhihata (-ra-abh-), as, ā, am, (two quantities) mutually multiplied by their denominators.
     anyonyāpahṛta anyo-nyāpahṛta (-ya-ap-), as, ā, am, taken or secreted from one another, taken secretly.
     anyonyābhāva anyonyābhāva (-ya-abh-), as, m. mutual non-existence, mutual negation, relative difference.
     anyonyāśraya anyonyāśraya (-ya-āś-), as, m. mutual or reciprocal support, connection or dependance; mutually depending.
     anyonyāśrita anyo-nyāśrita (-ya-āś-), as, ā, am, mutually supported or depending.
     anyonyokti anyonyokti (-ya-uk-), is, f. conversation.

anyaṅga a-nyaṅga, as, ā, am, Ved. spotless.
     anyaṅgaśveta a-nyaṅga-śveta, as, ā, am, Ved. white and without spot (as a sacrificial animal).

anyacca, anyatas, anyathā, anyadā, anyonya. See under anya.

anyā a-nyā, f., Ved. (nyā contracted fr. niyā ?), not drying up (as the milk of a cow ?); or anyā, f. of anya, other (the accent being altered ?).

anyāya a-nyāya, as, m. unjust or unlawful action; impropriety, indecorum; irregularity, disorder.
     anyāyavartin anyāya-vartin, ī, inī, i, or anyāya-vṛtta, as, ā, am, acting unjustly; following evil courses.

anyāyin a-nyāyin, ī, inī, i, or a-nyāyya, as, ā, am, unjust, improper, indecorous, unbecoming.

anyūna a-nyūna, as, ā, am, not defective, entire, complete.
     anyūnādhika a-nyūnādhika (-na-adh-), as, ā, am, not too little and not too much; neither deficient nor excessive.

anyokas a-ny-okas, ās, ās, as, not remaining in one's own (okas) habitation.

anvakṣa anv-akṣa, as, ā, am (fr. akṣa, the eye, with anu), following; (am), ind. afterwards; immediately after; directly.

anvakṣarasandhi anv-akṣara-sandhi, is, m. a kind of Sandhi in the Vedas, euphonic conjunction of a vowel and consonant.

anvaṅgam anv-aṅgam, ind. after every member or part.

anvañc anvañc, aṅ, ūcī, ak (fr. rt. añc with anu), following the direction of another, going after, following; lying lengthwise; anūci, loc. c. in the rear, behind; (ak), ind. afterwards.
     anvagbhāvam anvag-bhā-vam, ind. afterwards; friendly disposed.
     anvagbhūya anvag-bhūya, ind. becoming friendly disposed.

anvatī anv-atī (anu-ati-i), cl. 2. P. -atyeti, -tum, to follow in crossing or passing.

anvadhyāyam anv-adhyāyam, ind. according to the chapters (especially of the Veda), according to the sacred texts.

anvaya anv-aya, as, am, m. n. (fr. rt. i with anu, see anv-i), following, succession; (as), m. connection, association, being linked to or concerned with; the natural order or connection of words in a sentence, syntax, construing; logical connection of words; logical connection of cause and effect, or proposition and conclusion; drift, tenor, purport; descendants, race, lineage, family.
     anvayajña anvaya-jña, as, m. a genealogist.
     anvayavat anvaya-vat, ān, atī, at, having a connection (as a consequence), following, agreeing with; belonging to race or family.
     anvayavat anvaya-vat, ind. in connection with, in the sight of.
     anvayavyatireka anvaya-vyatireka, am, n. a positive and negative proposition; agreement and contrariety; species and difference; rule and exception; logical connection and disconnection.
     anvayavyatirekin anvaya-vyatirekin, ī, iṇī, i, (in phil.) affirmative and negative.
     anvayavyāpti anvaya-vyāpti, is, f. an affirmative argument.

anvayin anvayin, ī, inī, i, connected (as a consequence).
     anvayitva anvayi-tva, am, n. the state of being a necessary consequence.

anvarc anv-arc (anu-arc), cl. 1. P. -arcati, -citum, to honour with shouts or songs of jubilee.

anvarj anv-arj (anu-arj), cl. 1. P. -arjati, -jitum, to let go.

anvartitṛ anv-artitṛ, tā, m. (fr. anu-art for anu-arth), Ved. an inviter, one who allows to take.

anvartha anv-artha, as, ā, am, having the meaning obvious, intelligible, clear.
     anvarthagrahaṇa anvartha-gra-haṇa, am, n. the literal acceptation of the meaning of a word (as opposed to the conventional).
     anvarthasañjñā anvar-tha-sañjñā, f. a term whose meaning is intelligible in itself (opposed to such technical terms as bha, ghu, &c.).

anvav anv-av (anu-av), cl. 1. P. -avati, -vitum, to encourage.

anvavakṝ anv-ava-kṝ (anu-ava-), cl. 6. P. -kirati, -karitum or -rītum, to scatter or strew about: Caus. P. -kīrayati, -yitum, to make one scatter about.

anvavakiraṇa anv-avakiraṇa, am, n. scattering about successively.

anvavakram anv-ava-kram (anu-ava-), cl. 1. P. -krāmati, -kramitum, to descend or enter in succession.

anvavagā anv-ava-gā (anu-ava-), cl. 3. P. -jigāti, -gātum, to go and join another.

anvavacar anv-ava-car (anu-ava-), cl. 1. P. -carati, -ritum, to insinuate one's self into, enter stealthily.

anvavacāra anv-avacāra, as, m., Ved. descending and going after.

anvavapā anv-ava-pā, cl. 1. P. -pibati, pātum, to drink after others.

anvavasarga anv-avasarga, as, m. (fr. rt. sṛj with anu and ava), letting down, slackening; friendly invitation; permission to do as one likes.

anvavasita anv-avasita, as, ā, am, (fr. rt. si with anu and ava), fastened to, bound to, attached; see anuvasita.

anvavārj anv-avārj (anu-ava-arj), cl. 1. P. -avārjati, -jitum, to cause to go after or in a particular direction; to visit with anything.

anvave anv-ave (anu-ava-i), cl. 2. P. -avaiti, -tum, to follow, walk up to or get into.

anvavāya anv-avāya, as, m. race, lineage.

anvavāyana anv-avāyana, am, n., Ved. descending and going after.

anvavekṣ anv-avekṣ (anu-ava-īkṣ), cl. 1. A. -avekṣate, -kṣitum, to look at, inspect.

anvavekṣā anv-avekṣā, f. regard, consideration.

anvaś anv-aś (anu-aś), cl. 5. P. A. -aśnoti, -nute, -aśitum or -aṣṭum, to reach, come up to, equal.

anvaṣṭakā anv-aṣṭakā, f. the ninth day in the latter half of the three months following the full moon in Āgrahāyaṇa, Pausha, Māgha, Phālguna.

anvaṣṭakya anvaṣṭakya, am, n. a Śrāddha or funeral ceremony performed on the Anvaṣṭakās.

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anvas anv-as, (anu-as), cl. 2. P., Ved. -asti, to be at hand, to reach.

anvasta anv-asta, as, ā, am (fr. rt. 2. as, asyati), shot along, shot; interwoven (as in silk), chequered.

anvah anv-ah (anu-ah), perf. -āha, to pronounce, especially a ceremonial formula (Gram. 384. b).

anvaham anv-aham (anu-aham), ind. day after day, every day.

anvākram anv-ā-kram (anu-ā-), cl. 1. A. -kramate, -mitum, to ascend towards or to; P. -krāmati, to visit in succession.

anvākhyā anv-ā-khyā (anu-ā-), cl. 2. P. -khyāti, -tum, to enumerate.

anvākhyāna anv-ākhyāna, am, n. enumeration; section; chapter.

anvāgam anv-ā-gam (anu-ā-), cl. 1. P. -gacchati, -gantum, to follow, come after: Desid. -jigāṃsati, to wish or intend to follow.

anvāgā anv-ā-gā (anu-ā-), cl. 3. P., Ved. -jigāti, -gātum, to follow.

anvācakṣ anv-ā-cakṣ (anu-ā-), cl. 2. A. -caṣṭe, Ved. Inf. -cakṣase, to name after.

anvācam anv-ā-cam (anu-ā-), cl. 1. P. -cāmati, -camitum, to follow in rinsing the mouth.

anvācaya anv-ācaya, as, m. (rt. ci), laying down a rule of secondary importance after that which is pradhāna or primary; connecting of a secondary action with the main action (e. g. the conjunction ca is sometimes used anvācaye.)--anvācaya-śiṣṭa, as, ā, am, propounded as a rule or matter of secondary importance.

anvācita anv-ācita, as, ā, am, secondary, inferior.

anvācar anv-ā-car (anu-ā-), cl. 1. P. -carati, -ritum, to follow or imitate in doing.

anvāje anvāje (fr. anu and aj?), only used in connection with rt. kṛ, e. g. anvāje kṛ, to support, aid, assist.

anvātan anv-ā-tan (anu-ā-), cl. 8. P. -tanoti, -nitum, to extend, spread; to overspread, extend over.

anvādā anv-ā-dā (anu-ā-), cl. 3. A. -datte, dātum, to resume.

anvādiś anv-ā-diś (anu-ā-), cl. 6. P. -diśati, -deṣṭum, to name or mention afresh; to employ again.

anvādiṣṭa anv-ādiṣṭa, as, ā, am, mentioned after or according to, employed again; inferior.

anvādeśa anv-ādeśa, as, m. mentioning after, a repeated mention, referring to what has been stated previously, re-employment of the same word in a subsequent part of a sentence, the employment again of the same thing to perform a subsequent operation.

anvādhāna anv-ādhāna, am, n. (fr. rt. dhā with anu and ā), putting fuel (on the three sacred fires), depositing.

anvādhi 1. anv-ādhi, is, m. a bail or deposit delivered to a third person, see anv-āhita below; a second deposit.

anvādheya anv-ādheya or anv-ādheyaka, am, n. property presented after marriage to the wife by her husband's family.

anvāhita anv-āhita, as, ā, am, deposited with a person to be delivered ultimately to the right owner.

anvādhi 2. anv-ādhi, is, m. (rt. dhyai), repentance, remorse, melancholy reflection after (the commission of a bad act).

anvādhya anv-ādhya, as, m. a kind of divinity.

anvānī anv-ā-nī, cl. 1. P. -nayati, -netum, to lead to, to lead along.

[Page 0048-a]

anvānu anv-ā-nu, Intens., Ved. -nonavīti, to sound through.

anvāntrya anv-āntrya, as, ā, am, Ved. being in the entrails.

anvāyatana anv-āyatana, as, ā, am, latitudinal.

anvāyatta anv-āyatta, as, ā, am, (fr. rt. yat with ā and anu), Ved. following after, in accordance with.

anvāyātyā anv-āyātyā, f. a deity invoked by the verb anv-ā-yā.

anvārabh anv-ā-rabh (anu-ā-), cl. 1. A. -rabhate, -rabdhum, to commence; to receive; to touch.

anvārabdha anv-ārabdha, as, ā, am, in contact with.

anvārabhya anv-ārabhya, as, ā, am, to be touched, tangible.

anvārambha anv-ārambha, as, m. or anv-āramabhaṇa, am, n. touching, contact.

anvārambhaṇīyā anv-ārambhaṇīyā, f. an initiatory ceremony.

anvāruh anv-ā-ruh (anu-ā-), cl. 1. P. -rohati, -roḍhum, to follow or join by ascending.

anvārohaṇa anv-ārohaṇa, am, n. (a widow's) ascending the funeral pile after or with the body of a husband.

anvārohaṇīya anv-ārohaṇīya, as, ā, am, belonging to the Anvārohaṇa, or rite of cremation.

anvāviś anv-ā-viś (anu-ā-), cl. 6. P. -viś-ati, -veṣṭum, to enter, occupy, possess, engross.

anvāśri anv-ā-śri (anu-ā-), cl. 1. P. -śrayati, -yitum, to resort to, repair, to go (or come) up to.

anvās anv-ā (anu-ās), cl. 2. A. -āste, -situm, to follow in taking a seat; to be seated at or near or round; to be engaged in (especially in a religious act).

anvāsana anv-āsana, am, n. sitting down after (another), service; regret, affliction; a place where work is done, a manufactory, a house of industry; an unctuous or cooling enema.

anvāsita anv-āsita, as, ā, am, made to sit down after or alongside.

anvāsīna anv-āsīna, as, ā, am, sitting down after, seated alongide of.

anvāsyamāna anv-āsyamāna, as, ā, am, being accompanied by, attended by.

anvāsthā anv-ā-sthā (anu-ā-), cl. 1. P. -tiṣṭhati, -sthātum, to go towards, to meet.

anvāhārya anv-āhārya, as, am, m. n. or anv-ahāryaka, am, n. (rt. hṛ), a certain gift presented to the priests; (am or akam), n. the monthly Śrāddha or funeral repast in honour of the manes, held on the day of new moon; according to Manu, it should be of meat eaten after the presentation of a Piṇḍa or ball or rice.
     anvāhāryapacana anvāhārya-pacana, as, m. the southern sacrificial fire, used in the Anvāhārya sacrifice.

anvāhika anv-āhika, as, ī, am, daily, diurnal.

anvāhita anv-āhita. See anv-ādhāna, p. 47.

anvi anv-i (anu-i), cl. 2. P., Ved. -eti, -tum, -tave, -tavai, to go after or alongside, to follow; to seek; to be guided by; to fall to one's share.

anvaya anv-aya. See s. v., p. 47, col. 1.

anvita anv-ita or anv-īta, as, ā, am, joined, attended, connected with, linked to; having as an essential or inherent part, endowed with, possessed of, possessing; acquired, reached by the mind, understood; following; connected as in grammar or construction.
     anvitārtha anv-itārtha (-ta-ar-), as, ā, am, having a clear meaning understood from the context, perspicuous.

anviti anv-iti, is, f. following after; food (as the companion of the body?).

anvīyamāna anv-īyamāna, as, ā, am, being followed.

anvidh anv-idh or anv-indh (anu-indh), cl. 7. or cl. 1. A. -inddhe or -indhate, -dhitum, to kindle.

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anviṣ 1. anv-iṣ (anu-iṣ), cl. 1. P. -icchati, -eṣitum, -eṣṭum, to desire, seek, seek after, search, aim at.

anviṣ 2. anv-iṣ (anu-iṣ), cl. 4. P. -iṣ-yati, -eṣitum, to go after, seek, search: Caus. -eṣayati, -yitum, to seek.

anviṣṭa anv-iṣṭa or anv-iṣyamāṇa, as, ā, am, sought, required.

anveṣa anv-eṣa, as, m. or anv-eṣaṇa, am, ā, n. f. seeking for, searching, investigating.

anveṣaka anv-eṣaka, as, ikā, am, or anv-eṣin, ī, iṇī, i, or anv-eṣṭṛ, ṭā, ṭrī, ṭṛ, searching, enquiring.

anveṣṭavya anv-eṣṭavya or anv-eṣya, as, ā, am, to be searched, to be investigated.

anvīkṣ anv-īkṣ (anu-īkṣ), cl. 1. A. -īk-ṣate, -ṣitum, to follow with one's looks, to keep looking or gazing, to keep in view.

anvīkṣaṇa anv-īkṣaṇa, am, n. or anv-īkṣā, f. reflection, meditation, searching.

anvīpa anvīpa, as, ā, am, (fr. ap, q. v., with anu), near the water; or (fr. rt. āp with anu), attainable; friendly (?).

anvṛ anv-ṛ (anu-ṛ), cl. 3. P. -iyarti, -artum or -aritum or -arītum (?), to follow; to follow in rising.

anvṛcam anv-ṛcam, ind. verse after verse.

anvṛdh anv-ṛdh (anu-ṛdh), cl. 6. P., Ved. -ṛdhati, -ardhitum, to carry out, accomplish.

anve anv-e (anu-ā-i), cl. 2. P. -aiti, -tum, to come after, to follow as an adherent or attendant.

ap ap (in the Vedas used in sing. and plur., but in the classical language only in plur.), āpas, f. water; air, the intermediate region; the star [greek] Viriginis. Sometimes, particularly in the Vedas, the āpaḥ are considered as divinities. As the last member of a compound, ap may become apa, īpa, ūpa. [Cf. Lat. aqua; Goth. ahva, 'a river;' Old Germ. aha, and affa at the end of compounds; Lith. uppe, 'a river;' perhaps Lat. amnis, 'a river', for apnis; cf. also [greek]].
     apavat apa-vat, ān, atī, at, Ved. watery.
     apaḥsaṃvarta apaḥ-saṃvarta, as, m. (Buddh.) destruction (of the world) by water.
     apāṃvatsa apāṃ-vatsa, as, m., N. of a star ('calf of the waters').
     apāṃnapāt apāṃ-napāt, t, or apāṃ-naptṛ, tā, or apāṃ-garbha, as, or apān-napāt, or apo-napāt, t, &c., m., Ved., N. of Agni or fire as sprung from water.
     apāṃnapatriya apāṃ-napatriya or apāṃ-naptrīya or apo-napatriya or apo-naptrīya, as, ā, am, Ved. relating to Agni.
     apāṃnātha apāṃ-nātha, as, m. the ocean.
     apāṃnidhi apāṃ-nidhi, is, m. the ocean.
     apāmpati apām-pati or ap-pati, is, m. the ocean; N. of Varuṇa.
     apāmpitta apām-pitta or ap-pitta, am, n. fire; a plant.
     apkṛtsna ap-kṛtsna, am, n. deep meditation performed by means of water.
     apcara ap-cara, as, m. an aquatic animal.
     apsaras ap-saras, see s. v.

aptya aptya, apya. See s. v.

apava apava, apsavya, apsā. See s. v.

apsu apsu, for words beginning thus. See apsu-.

ab ab-, for words beginning thus. See ab-indhana, &c.

apa apa, ind. (as a prefix to nouns and verbs, expresses) away, off, back, (opposed to upa, anu, sam, pra), down (opposed to ud).

     When prefixed to nouns, it may sometimes = the neg. particle a, e. g. apa-bhī, fearless; or may express deterioration, inferiority, &c., e. g. apa-pāṭha, q. v.

     (As a separable preposition or adverb, with abl.) away from, on the outside of, without, with the exception of. It is separated only in the Vedas [cf. Gr. [greek] Lat. ab; Goth. af; Eng. of].

apakaruṇa apa-karuṇa, as, ā, am, cruel.

apakalaṅka apa-kalaṅka, as, m. an indelible digrace, a deep stain.

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apakalmaṣa apa-kalmaṣa, as, ā, am, stainless.

apakaṣ apa-kaṣ, cl. 1. P. -kaṣati, -ṣitum, to scrape off.

apakāma apa-kāma, as, m., Ved. aversion, abhorrence; abominableness; deprivation of what is dear; (am), ind. against one's liking, unwillingly.

apakīrti apa-kīrti, is, f. infamy, disgrace.

apakukṣi apa-kukṣi, is, m. a bad or illshaped belly (?). This word may also be used as a bahu-vrīhi and as an avyayī-bhāva.

apakuñja apa-kuñja, as, m., N. of a younger brother of the serpent king Śeṣa.

apakṛ apa-kṛ, cl. 8. P. A. -karoti, -kurute, -kartum, to carry away, remove, drag away; (with gen. or acc.) to hurt, wrong, injure (any one): Caus. -kārayati, -yitum, to hurt, wrong.

apakaraṇa apa-karaṇa, am, n. acting improperly; doing wrong; ill-treating, offending, injuring.

apakartṛ apa-kartṛ, tā, trī, tṛ, injurious, offensive, hostile, inimical, an enemy.

apakarman apa-karman, a, n. discharge (of a debt); evil doing, improper conduct, wickedness; oppression, violence; laziness, incompetence; any impure or degrading act or rite.

apakāra apa-kāra, as, ā, am, acting wrong, offending; (as), m. wrong, offence, injury, hurt; wickedness; oppression, enmity.
     apakāragir apakāra-gir, īs, f. or apa-kāra-śabda, as, m. an offending or menacing speech.
     apakāratā apakāra-tā, f. wrong, offence.
     apakārārthin apakārārthin (-ra-ar-), ī, inī, i, malicious, malevolent.

apakāraka apa-kāraka, as, ikā, am, or apa-kārin, ī, iṇī, i, (with gen.) acting wrong, doing ill (to any one), offending, injuring.

apakṛta apa-kṛta, as, ā, am, done wrong, maliciously, offensively or wickedly committed; observed or practised as a degrading or impure act, as servile duties, funeral rites, &c.; (am), n. injury, offence.

apakṛti apa-kṛti, is, f. oppression, wrong, injury; enmity, opposition; any degrading or impure act or rite.

apakṛtya apa-kṛtya, am, n. damage, injury, hurt.

apakriyā apa-kriyā, f. delivery, clearing off (debts); offence; any impure act or rite.

apakṛt apa-kṛt, cl. 6. P. -kṛntati, -kar-titum, to cut off.

apakṛṣ apa-kṛṣ, cl. 1. and 6. P. A. -karṣ-ati, -te, -kṛṣati, -te, -karṣṭum or -kraṣṭum, to draw off or aside, drag down, carry away, take away, remove; to omit, diminish; to put away; to anticipate something which occurs later (as a word of a sentence); to bend (a bow); to detract, debase, dishonour: Caus. -karṣayati, -yitum, to remove, diminish, detract.

apakarṣa apa-karṣa, as, m. drawing or dragging off or down, detraction, deficiency, diminution, decay; lowering, deterioration, depression; decline, degradation, inferiority, infamy; anticipated performance of a duty; (in poetry) anticipation of a word occurring later.
     apakarṣasama apakarṣa-sama, as, ā, m. f. a sophism in the Nyāya, e. g. 'sound has not the quality of shape as a jar has, therefore sound and a jar have no qualities in common.'

apakarṣaka apa-karṣaka, as, ikā, am, drawing down, detracting (with gen.).

apakarṣaṇa apa-karṣaṇa, as, ī, am, taking away, forcing away, removing, diminishing; (am), n. taking away, depriving of; drawing down; abolishing, denying.

apakṛṣṭa apa-kṛṣṭa, as, ā, am, drawn away, taken away, removed, lost; dragged down, brought down, depressed; low, vile, inferior; (as), m. a crow.
     apakṛṣṭacetana apa-kṛṣṭa-cetana, as, ā, am, mentally debased.
     apakṛṣṭajāti apa-kṛṣṭa-jāti, is, is, i, of a low tribe.
     apakṛṣṭatā apakṛṣṭa-tā, f. or apakṛṣṭa-tva, am, n. inferiority, vileness.

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apakṝ apa-kṝ, cl. 6. P. -kirati, -karitum, rītum, to spout out, spurt, scatter; to throw down; to scrape with the feet.

apakauśalī apa-kauśalī, f. news, information.

apakti a-pakti, is, f. (rt. pac), immaturity; indigestion.

apakva a-pakva, as, ā, am, unripe, immature; undigested.
     apakvatā apakva-tā, f. immaturity; incompleteness.
     apakvabuddhi apakva-buddhi, is, is, i, of immature understanding.
     apakvāśin apakvāśin (-va-āś-), ī, inī, i, eating raw, uncooked food.

apakram apa-kram, cl. 1. P. -krāmati, poet. A. -kramate, -mitum, to go away, fly, retreat, retire from; to glide away; to measure off by steps.

apakrama apa-krama, as, m. going away; passing off or away; flight, retreat.

apakramaṇa apa-kramaṇa, am, n. or apa-krāma, as, m. passing off or away, retiring.

apakramin apa-kramin, ī, iṇī, i, going away, retiring.

apakrī apa-krī, cl. 9. P. A. -krīṇāti, -ṇīte, -kretum, to buy, purchase.

apakruś apa-kruś, cl. 1. P. -krośati, -kroṣ-ṭum, to revile.

apakrośa apa-krośa, as, m. reviling, abusing.

apakṣa a-pakṣa, as, ā, am, without wings; not on the same side or party; adverse, opposed to.
     apakṣatā apakṣa-tā, f. opposition, hostility.
     apakṣapāta a-pakṣa-pāta, as, m. impartiality.

apakṣi apa-kṣi, cl. 5. 9. or 1. P. -kṣiṇoti, -kṣiṇāti, -kṣayati, -kṣetum, to destroy, annihilate; bring to an end: Pass. -kṣīyate, to decline, wane (as the moon).

apakṣaya apa-kṣaya, as, m. decline, decay, wane.

apakṣita apa-kṣita, as, ā, am, waned.

apakṣīṇa apa-kṣīṇa, as, ā, am, declined, decayed, diminished.

apakṣip apa-kṣip, cl. 6. P. A. -kṣipati, -te, -kṣeptum, to throw away or down, take away, remove.

apakṣipta apa-kṣipta, as, ā, am, thrown or cast down or away.

apakṣepaṇa apa-kṣepaṇa, am, n. casting away, throwing down.

apagam apa-gam, cl. 1. P. -gacchati, -gan-tum, to go away, depart; to give way, vanish.

apaga apa-ga, as, ā, am, going away, turning away; (ā), f. a river.

apagata apa-gata, as, ā, am, gone, departed, remote, gone off; dead, diseased.
     apagatavyādhi apagata-vyādhi, is, is, i, one who has recovered from a disease.

apagama apa-gama, as, m. or apa-gamana, am, n. going away; giving way; separation, departure, death.

apagara apa-gara, as, m. (rt. gṝ), reviler.

apagarjita apa-garjita, as, ā, am, thunderless (as a cloud).

apagalbha apa-galbha, as, m., Ved. failing in boldness; abortive; being on the side (not in the middle ?); separated from the oldest by one.

apagā apa-gā, cl. 3. P. -jigāti, -gātum, to go away, vanish, retire.

apagur apa-gur, cl. 6. A. -gurate, sometimes P. -gurati, -ritum, to reject, disapprove, threaten; to inveigh against any one; to deprive of (?): part. of the Intens. apa-jargurāṇa, as, ā, am, Ved. rejecting, &c.

apagāram apa-gāram or apa-goram, ind. having raised.

apaguh apa-guh, cl. 1. P. A. -gūhati, -te, gūhitum, -goḍhum, to conceal, hide.

apagoha apa-goha, as, m., Ved. hiding place; secret.

apagopura apa-gopura, as, ā, am, without gates (as a town).

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apagrah apa-grah, cl. 9. P. A. -gṛhṇāti, -ṇīte, -grahītum, to take away, disjoin, tear off.

apaghana apa-ghana, as, m. (fr. rt. han with apa), a limb or member, as a hand or foot.

apaghāta apa-ghāta, as, m. striking or cutting off; warding off; killing; a violent death.

apaghātaka apa-ghātaka, as, ikā, am, warding off.

apaghātin apa-ghātin, ī, inī, i, murderous, killing. See apa-han.

apaṅktya apaṅktya. See apāṅktya.

apaca a-paca or a-pacamāna, as, m. not cooking; not being able to cook; a bad cook.

apacar apa-car, cl. 1. P. -carati, -ritum, to depart; to act wrongly.

apacarita apa-carita, as, ā, am, gone away, departed, dead; (am), n. fault, offence.

apacāra apa-cāra, as, m. want, absence; defect; fault, improper conduct, offence; unwholesome or improper regimen.

apacārin apa-cārin, ī, iṇī, i, doing wrong, wicked, bad.

apacāy apa-cāy, cl. 1. P. A. -cāyati, -te, -yitum, to fear; to respect, honour.

apacāyita apa-cāyita, as, ā, am, honoured, respected.

apaci 1. apa-ci, cl. 3. P., Ved. -ciketi, -cetum, to pay attention to, to respect; to invite respectfully.

apacita 1. apa-cita, as, ā, am, honoured, respected, saluted; (am), n. honouring, esteeming.

apaciti 1. apa-citi, is, f. honouring, worship, reverence.
     apacitimat apaciti-mat, ān, atī, at, honoured.

apaci 2. apa-ci, cl. 5. P. A. -cinoti, -nute, -cetum, to gather, collect: Pass. -cīyate, to be injured in health or prosperity; to grow less; to wane; (with abl.) to lose anything.

apacaya apa-caya, as, m. diminution, decay, decrease, loss, privation, decline; N. of several planetary mansions.

apacita 2. apa-cita, as, ā, am, diminished, expended, wasted; emaciated, thin.

apaciti 2. apa-citi, is, f. loss; expense; exclusion; compensation; punishing; N. of a daughter of Marīci.

apacī apa-cī, f. a disease consisting in an enlargement of the glands of the neck.

apacetṛ apa-cetṛ, tā, m. a spendthrift.

apacikīrṣā apa-cikīrṣā, f. (rt. kṛ in Desid.), desire of hurting any one.

apacit 1. apa-cit, Caus. P. A. -cetayati, -te, or Ved. -citayati, -te, -yitum, to become faithless: Desid. -cikitati, -te, to wish to leave or to abandon any one.

apacit 2. apa-cit, t, f., Ved. a noxious flying insect.

apacchattra apa-cchattra, as, ā, am, not having a parasol.

apacchāya apa-cchāya, as, ā, am, shadowless, having no shadow, as a deity or celestial being; having a bad or unlucky shadow; (ā), f. an unlucky shadow, a phantom, apparition.

apaccheda apa-cceda, as, m. or apa-cchedana, am, n. (rt. chid), cutting off or away; loss; interruption.

apacyu apa-cyu, cl. 1. A. -cyavate, poet. P. -cyavati, -cyotum, to fall off, to perish, to go off, desert, withdraw: Caus. -cyāvayati, to expel.

apacyava apa-cyava, as, m., Ved. going or coming out; moving down (as a pestle ?).

apacyuta apa-cyuta, as, ā, am, fallen off, departed, gone away, perished.

apajāta apa-jāta, as, m. a bad son who has turned out ill.

apaji apa-ji, cl. 1. P. -jayati, -jetum, to defeat, conquer, to ward, off, keep off or out.

apajaya apa-jaya, as, m. defeat, discomfiture, overthrow.

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apajayya apa-jayya, as, ā, am, conquerable, to be defeated.

apajighāṃsu apa-jighāṃsu, us, us, u (fr. apa-han in Desid.), desirous of keeping off, wishing to avert.

apajihīrṣu apa-jihīrṣu, us, us, u (fr. apa-hṛ, q. v., in Desid.), wishing to carry off or take away.

apajñā apa-jñā, cl. 9. A. -jānīte, -jñātum, to deny, repudiate; to dissemble, conceal; to cause not to be recognized.

apajānāna apa-jānāna, as, ā, am, denying, concealing.

apañcīkṛta a-pañcī-kṛta, am, n. simple elementary substance, not compounded of the five (pañcan) gross elements; the five subtle elements.

apaṭāntara a-paṭāntara (-ṭa-ant-), as, ā, am, not separated by a curtain; adjoining, contiguous.

apaṭī apaṭī, f. a screen or wall of cloth, especially the kanāt or screen surrounding a tent.
     apaṭīkṣepa apaṭī-kṣepa or apaṭā-kṣepa, as, m. tossing aside the curtain; apaṭī-kṣepeṇa, with a toss of the curtain, precipitate entrance on the stage, indicating hurry and agitation.

apaṭu a-paṭu, us, us or vī, u, not clever, awkward, uncouth; ineloquent; sick, diseased.
     apaṭutā a-paṭu-tā, f. or apaṭu-tva, am, n. awkwardness; sickness.

apaṭha a-paṭha, as, m. unable to read, not reading.

apaṇḍita a-paṇḍita, as, ā, am, unlearned, illiterate.

apaṇya a-paṇya, as, ā, am, unsaleable, unfit for sale.

apatakṣa apa-takṣ, cl. 1. P., Ved. -takṣati, -ṣitum or -taṣṭum, to chip off.

apatantraka apa-tantraka, as, m. spasmodic contraction of the body or stomach, emprosthotonos.

apatānaka apa-tānaka, as, m. spasmodic contraction.

apatānakin apa-tānakin, ī, inī, i, affected with spasmodic contraction.

apati a-pati, is, m., Ved. not a husband or master; (is, is, i), without a husband or master, unmarried.
     apatighnī a-pati-ghnī, f. not killing the husband.
     apatitā apati-tā, f. state of being without a husband.
     apatiputra apati-putra, as, ā, am, without a husband and children.
     apativratā a-pati-vratā, f. an unfaithful or unchaste wife.

apatika a-patika, as, ā, am, without a husband.

apatīrtha apa-tīrtha, as, am, m. n. a bad or improper Tīrtha, q. v.

apatṛp apa-tṛp, Caus. P. -tarpayati, -yi-tum, to starve, cause to fast.

apatarpaṇa apa-tarpaṇa, am, n. fasting (in sickness).

apattra a-pattra, as, ā, am, leafless; (ā), f., N. of a plant.

apatnīka a-patnīka, as, ā, am, without a wife.

apatya apatya, am, n. (fr. apa or according to native etym. fr. rt. pat with a, because a family is by offspring prevented from falling into decay); offspring, child, descendant; a patronymical affix.
     apatyakāma apatya-kāma, as, ā, am, desirous of offspring.
     apatyajīva apatya-jīva, as, m., N. of a plant.
     apatyatā apatya-tā, f. state of childhood.
     apatyada apatya-da, as, ā, am, giving offspring; (ā), f., N. of various plants.
     apatyapatha apatya-patha, as, m. the vulva.
     apatyaprathyaya apatya-prathyaya, as, m. a patronymical affix.
     apatyavat apatya-vat, ān, atī, at, possessed of offspring.
     apatyavikrayin apatya-vikrayin, ī, m. a seller of his offspring; a father who receives a gratuity from his son-in-law.
     apatyaśatru apatya-śatru, us, m. 'having his descendants for enemies', a crab (said to perish in producing young).
     apatyasāc apatya-sāc, k, k, k, Ved. accompanied with offspring.
     apatyārthaśabda apatyārtha-śabda (-ya-ar-), as, m. a patronymic.

apatrap apa-trap, cl. 1. A. or poet. P. -trapate, -ti, -trapitum, -traptum, to be ashamed or bashful, turn away the face.

apatrapaṇa apa-trapaṇa, am, n. or apa-trapā, f. bashfulness; embarrassment.

apatrapiṣṇu apa-trapiṣṇu, us, us, u, bashful.

apatras apa-tras, cl. 1. 4. P. -trasati, -syati, -situm, to be deterred, to be afraid of, to flee from in terror.

apatrasta apa-trasta, as, ā, am, (with abl.) afraid of, fleeing or retiring from in terror.

apatha a-patha, am, n. not a way, absence of a road, pathless state, irregularity, deviation; heresy, heterodoxy; the vulva; (as, ā, am,), pathless, roadless; (ā), f., N. of various plants.
     apathagāmin apatha-gāmin, ī, inī, i, going by a wrong road, pursuing bad practices, heretical.
     apathaprapanna apatha-prapanna, as, ā, am, out of place, in the wrong place, misapplied.

apathin a-pathin, -nthās, m. absence of road, pathless state.

apathya a-pathya, as, ā, am, unfit; unsuitable; inconsistent; (in medic.) unwholesome as food or drink in particular complaints.
     apathyanimitta apathya-nimitta, as, ā, am, caused by unfit food or drink.
     apathyabhuj apathya-bhuj, k, k, k, eating what is forbidden.

apad a-pad, t, t, t, or āt, āt or adī, āt, Ved. footless, having no feet; going on a road which does not exist or is unknown (?).

apada a-pada, as, ā, am, footless; having no office; (as), m. a reptile; (am), n. no place, no abode; the wrong place or time; ether.
     apadaruhā a-pada-ruhā or a-pada-rohiṇī, f., N. of a parasitical plant, Epidendron Tesselloides.
     apadastha a-pada-stha, as, ā, am, out of office.
     apadāntara a-padāntara (-da-an-), as, ā, am, not separated by a foot, adjoining, contiguous; (am), n. proximity.

apadakṣiṇam apa-dakṣiṇam, ind. away from the right, to the left side.

apadama apa-dama, as, ā, am, without selfrestraint; of wavering fortune.

apadava apa-dava, as, ā, am, free from forest-fire.
     apadavāpad apadavāpad (-va-āp-), t, t, t, free from the calamity of fire.

apadaśa apa-daśa, as, ā, am, (any number) off ten.

apadas apa-das, cl. 4. P., Ved. -dasyati, -situm, to fail, i. e. become dry.

apadah apa-dah, cl. 1. P. -dahati, -dagdhum, to burn up, to burn out so as to drive out.

apadāna apa-dāna or apa-dānaka, am, n. (rt. dai), correct or pure conduct, approved occupation; a great or noble work; work well or completely done (for avadāna, q. v.).

apadārtha a-padārtha (-da-ar-), as, m. nonentity, nothing.

apadiś apa-diś, cl. 6. P. -diśati, -deṣṭum, to assign, to point out, indicate, betray, to pretend, hold out as a pretext or disguise.

apadiśam apa-diśam, ind. in an intermediate region (of the compass), half a point.

apadiṣṭa apa-diṣṭa, as, ā, am, assigned as a reason or pretext.

apadeśa apa-deśa, as, m. turning away, refusal; pretence, feint, pretext, disguise, contrivance; the second step in a syllogism, accoring to the Vaiśeṣikas, i. e. the statement of the reason, adducing a reason or cause; a butt or mark; place, quarter; fame, reputation.

apadeśin apa-deśin, ī, inī, i, assuming the appearance or semblance of.

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apadeśya apa-deśya, as, ā, am, to be shown, to be stated.

apadṝ apa-dṝ, used in part. of Intens., Ved. apa-dardarat, at, atī, at, tearing open.

apadevatā apa-devatā, f. an evil spirit, a goblin.

apadoṣa apa-doṣa, as, ā, am, free from blame.

apadravya apa-dravya, am, n. any bad thing.

apadvāra apa-dvāra, am, n. a side-entrance (not the regular door).

apadhā apa-dhā, f., Ved. hiding, shutting up.

apadhāv apa-dhāv, cl. 1. P. -dhāvati, -vitum, to depart (from a previous statement), prevaricate.

apadhūma apa-dhūma, as, ā, am, free from smoke.

apadhṛ apa-dhṛ, Caus. P. -dhārayati, -yitum, to carry off.

apadhmā apa-dhmā, cl. 1. P. -dhamati, -dhmā-tum, to blow away or off.

apadhyai apa-dhyai, cl. 1. P. -dhyāyati, -dhyā-tum, to have a bad opinion of, to curse mentally.

apadhyāna apa-dhyāna, am, n. evil thoughts, wickedness.

apadhvaṃs apa-dhvaṃs, cl. 1. P., better A., -dhvaṃsati, -te, -situm, to scold, revile, repel; to fall away, be degraded.

apadhvaṃsa apa-dhvaṃsa, as, m. falling away, degradation, disgrace; concealment.
     apadhvaṃsaja apadhvaṃsa-ja, as, m. a man of a mixed or impure caste (whose father belongs to a lower caste than his mother's).

apadhvaṃsin apa-dhvaṃsin, ī, inī, i, causing to fall, destroying, abolishing.

apadhvasta apa-dhvasta, as, ā, am, reviled, cursed; abandoned, pounded or pounded badly; (as), m. a vile wretch lost to all sense of right.

apadhvānta apa-dhvānta, as, ā, am (rt. dhvan), sounding wrong.

apanata apa-nata, as, ā, am, bulging out.

apanaś apa-naś, cl. 4. P. -naśyati, -naśi-tum and -naṃṣṭum, to disappear, to away.

apanasa apa-nasa, as, ā, am, without a nose.

apanah apa-nah, cl. 4. P. A. -nahyati, -te, -naddhum, to unbind; to loosen.

apanāman apa-nāman, a, n. a bad name; (ā, ā, a), having a bad name.

apanidra apa-nidra, as, ā, am, sleepless.

apanirvāṇa apa-nirvāṇa, as, ā, am, not yet extinct.

apanī apa-nī, cl. 1. P. -nayati, -netum, to lead away or off; to rob, steal, take or drag away; to remove, frighten away; to put off or away (as garments, ornaments, or fetters); to extract, take from; to deny; to except, exclude from a rule: Desid. -ninīṣati, to wish to remove.

apanaya apa-naya, as, m. leading away, taking away; bad policy.

apanayana apa-nayana, am, n. taking away, withdrawing, removing; destroying, healing; acquittance of a debt or obligation.

apanīta apa-nīta, as, ā, am, taken away, removed; paid, discharged; led away from, contradictory; badly executed, spoiled; (am), n. imprudent or bad behaviour.

apanetṛ apa-netṛ, tā, m. a remover, taking away.

apanud apa-nud, cl. 6. P. A. -nudati, -te, -nottum, to remove.

apanutti apa-nutti, is, f. or apa-noda or apa-nodaka, as, m. removing, taking or sending away; expiation.

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apanuda apa-nuda, as, ā, am, removing, driving away.

apanunutsu apa-nunutsu, us, us, u, desirous of removing, expiating.

apanodana apa-nodana, as, ī, am, removing, driving away; (am), n. removing, destroying.

apanodya apa-nodya, as, ā, am, to be removed.

apannagṛha a-panna-gṛha, as, ā, am, Ved. having an indestructible house.

apapad apa-pad, cl. 4. A. -padyate, -pattum, to escipe, run away.

apapāṭha apa-pāṭha, as, m. a mistake in reading; a wrong reading in a text.

apapātra apa-pātra, as, ā, am, using separate vessels (from which no one else will eat); of low caste.

apapātrita apa-pātrita, as, m. a person not allowed by his kindred to eat or drink from a common vessel; a person who has lost his caste.

apapādatra apa-pādatra, as, ā, am, having no protection for the feet, shoeless.

apapāna apa-pāna, am, n. a bad or improper drink.

apapitva apa-pitva, am, n. (for apa-apitva, fr. rt. āp or ap with apa), Ved. severance; turning away, separation.

apapūta apa-pūta, au, m. du. badly formed buttocks; (as, ā, am), having badly formed buttocks.

apapṝ apa-pṝ, cl. 3. P., Ved. -piparti, to take away, remove.

apaprajātā apa-prajātā, f. a female that has had a miscarriage.

apapradāna apa-pradāna, am, n. a bribe.

apapre apa-pre (-pra-i), cl. 2. P. -praiti, -tum, to go away, to withdraw.

apaproṣita apa-proṣita (-pra-uṣ-, rt. vas), am, n., Ved. the having departed, a wrong departure or evil caused thereby.

apabadh apa-badh or apa-vadh (defect. verb), to repel, avert.

apabarhis apa-barhis, is, is, is, not having the portion constituting the Barhis.

apabādh apa-bādh, cl. 1. A. -bādhate, -dhitum, to drive away, repel, remove.

apabāhuka apa-bāhuka, as, m. a bad arm, stiffness in the arm.

apabhaya apa-bhaya, as, ā, am, or apa-bhī, īs, īs, i, fearless, undaunted.

apabharaṇī apa-bharaṇī, f. (fr. rt. bhṛ with apa), the last lunar mansion.

apabhartṛ apa-bhartṛ, tā, trī, tṛ, Ved. taking away, destroying.

apabhāṣ apa-bhāṣ, cl. 1. A. -bhāṣate, -ṣitum, to revile.

apabhāṣaṇa apa-bhāṣaṇa, am, n. abuse, bad words, vituperation.

apabhū apa-bhū, cl. 1. P. -bhavati, -vitum, to be absent.

apabhūti apa-bhūti, is, f., Ved. defect, damage.

apabhraṃśa apa-bhraṃśa or apa-bhraṃsa, as, m. falling down or away; a bad fall; a corrupted word, a corruption; ungrammatical language, the most corrupt of the Prākṛt dialects. (The spelling apa-bhraṃsa is incorrect according to some grammarians.)

apabhraṣṭa apa-bhraṣṭa, as, ā, am, fallen away, corrupted (as a Prākṛt dialect).

apama apama, as, ā, am, (fr. apa), Ved. the most distant, the last; (as), m. the declination in astronomy; the ecliptic.
     apamakṣetra apama-kṣetra, see krānti-kṣetra.
     apamajyā apama-jyā, f. the sine of the ecliptic.
     apamamaṇḍala apama-maṇḍala or apa-maṇḍala or apama-vṛtta, am, n. the ecliptic.

apamanyu apa-manyu, us, us, u, free from grief.

apamarda apa-marda, as, m. (rt. mṛd), what is swept away, dirt.

apamarśa apa-marśa, as, m. (rt. mṛś), touching, grazing.

apamāna apa-māna, as, am, m. n. (rt. man), disrespect, contempt, disgrace.

apamānitra apa-mānitra, as, ā, am, dishonoured, disgraced.

apamānin apa-mānin, ī, inī, i, dishouring, despising.

apamānya apa-mānya, as, ā, am, disreputable, dishonourable.

apamārga apa-mārga, as, m. a by-way.

apamitya 1. apa-mitya, as, ā, am (rt. mi?), Ved. to be thrown away; see under apa-me below.

apamukha apa-mukha, as, ā, am having the face averted; having an ill-formed face or mouth; (am), ind. except or without the face, &c.

apamūrdhan apa-mūrdhan, ā, ā, a, headless.

apamṛj apa-mṛj, cl. 2. P. -mārṣṭi, -mār-jitum, -mārṣṭum, to wipe off, remove.

apamārjana apa-mārjana, am, n. cleansing; shaving, paring, chips.

apamṛṣṭa apa-mṛṣṭa, as, ā, am, cleansed.

apamṛtyu apa-mṛtyu, us, m. sudden death, dying by some accident, not of sickness or decay; a great danger or illness, from which a person, contrary to expectation, recovers.

apamṛṣita apa-mṛṣita, as, ā, am, unintelligible (as a speech).

apame apa-me, cl. 1. A. -mayate, -mātum, to change.

apamitya 2. apa-mitya or apa-mityaka, am, n. debt.

apayaśas apa-yaśas, as, n. disgrace, infamy.
     apayaśaskara apayaśas-kara, as, ī, am, occasioning infamy, disgraceful.

apayā apa-yā, cl. 2. P. -yāti, -tum, to go away, to depart, fall off, go over to.

apayāta apa-yāta, as, ā, am, gone away, having retired.

apayātarvya apa-yātarvya, am, n. to be gone away (used impersonally).

apayāna apa-yāna, am, n. retreat, flight.

apayu apa-yu, cl. 3. P., Ved. -yuyoti, to repel, disjoin.

apara 1. a-para, as, ā, am, having nothing beyond or after, having no rival or superior.
     aparavat a-para-vat, ān, atī, at, having nothing following.

apara 2. apara, as, ā, am (fr. apa), posterior, hinder, later, latter (opposed to pūrva and often occuring as the first member of a comp.); following; western; inferior, lower (opposed to para); other, another (opposed to sva); different (with abl.); distant, opposite. Sometimes apara is used as a conjunction to connect words or sentences, e. g. aparañca, moreover. (as), m. the hind foot of an elephant; (ā), f. the west; the hind quarter of an elephant; the womb; (ī), f., Ved. the future times, future; (am), n. the future; the hind quarter of an elephant; (am), ind. in future, for the future; again, moreover; (eṇa), ind. (with acc.) behind, west, to the west of [cf. Goth. and Old Germ. afar; and the Mod. Germ. aber, in such words as Aber-mal, Aber-witz].
     aparakānyakubja apara-kānyakubja, as, ī, am, situated in the western part of Kānyakubjā.
     aparakāya apara-kāya, as, m. the hind part of the body.
     aparakāla apara-kāla, as, m. another or later period.
     aparagodāna apara-godāna, am, n. (in Buddhist cosmogony) a country west of the Mahā-meru.
     aparaja apara-ja, as, m., Ved. born later, or at the end of the world (the destroying fire).
     aparajana apara-jana, as, m. an inhabitant of the west.
     aparatā apara-tā, f. or apara-tva, am, n. distance; posteriority (in place or time); opposition, contrariety, relativeness; nearness.
     aparatra apara-tra, ind. in another place; ekatra, aparatra, in one place, in the other place.
     aparadakṣiṇam apara-dakṣiṇam, ind. southwest.
     aparanidāgha apara-nidāgha, as, m. the latter part of the summer.
     aparapakṣa apara-pakṣa, as, m. the latter half of the month, the other or opposing side, the defendant.
     aparapakṣīya apara-pakṣīya, as, ā, am, belonging to the latter half of the month.
     aparaparicāla apara-paricāla, ās, m. pl. the western Pañcālas.
     aparapara apara-para, ās, or e, ās, āṇi, pl. one and the other, various.
     aparapraṇeya apara-praṇeya, as, ā, am, easily led by others, tractable.
     aparabhāva apara-bhāva, as, m. existing after, succession, continuation.
     apararātra apara-rātra, as, m. the latter half of the night, the end of the night, the last watch.
     aparaloka apara-loka, am, n. another world, paradise.
     aparavaktrā apara-vaktrā, f. a kind of metre of four lines, having every two lines the same.
     aparavat apara-vat, ind. like what comes after.
     aparavarṣā apara-varṣā, ās, f. pl. the latter part of the rains.
     aparaśarad apara-śarad, t, f. the latter part of the autumn.
     aparasaktha apara-saktha, am, n. the hind thigh.
     aparaspara 1. aparas-para, as, ā, am, one after another; continued, uniterrupted.
     aparasvastika apara-svastika, am, n. the western point in the horizon.
     aparahemanta apara-hemanta, as, am, m. n. the latter part of winter.
     aparahaimana apara-haimana, as, ī, am, belonging to the latter half of the winter season.
     aparāgni aparāgni (-ra-ag-), ī, m. du. the dak-ṣiṇa, i. e. southern, and gārhapatya, i. e. western fire (of a sacrifice).
     aparānta aparānta (-ra-an-), as, ā, am, living at the western border; (as), m. the western extremity, the country or the inhabitants of the western border; the extreme end or term; death.
     aparāntaka aparāntaka, as, m. the same as aparānta; N. of a song; (ikā), f. a metre consisting of four times sixteen mātrās.
     aparāntajñāna aparānta-jñāna, am, n. prescience of one's latter end.
     aparāpara aparāpara (-ra-ap-), ās, or e, ās, āṇi, pl. another and another, various.
     aparārka apa-rārka (-ra-ar-), as, m. the oldest known commentator of Yājñavalkya's law-book.
     aparārkacandrikā aparārka-candrikā, f. the name of his comment.
     aparārdha aparār-dha (-ra-ar-), as, m. the latter, the second half.

aparāhṇa aparāhṇa (-ra-ah-), as, m. afternoon, the last watch of the day.
     aparāhṇatana aparāhṇatana or aparāh-ṇetana, as, ī, am, belonging to or produced in the close of the day.

aparetarā aparetarā (-ra-it-), f. opposite to or other than the west, the east.

aparedyus apare-dyus, ind. on the following day.

aparakra apa-raktu, as, ā, am, colourless, bloodless, pale.

aparati apa-rati, is, f. (rt. ram), stopping, ceasing.

aparava apa-rava, as, m. contest, dispute; discord.
     aparavojjhita aparavojjhita (-va-uj-), as, ā, am, free from dispute, undisturbed, undisputed.

aparaspara 2. a-paraspara, as, ā, am, not reciprocal, not one (by) the other.
     aparasparasambhūta a-paraspara-sambhūta, as, ā, am, not produced one by the other; or (fr. 1. aparas-para above), produced by an uninterrupted series (?).

aparāga apa-rāga, as, m. (rt. rañj), aversion, antipathy, enmity.

aparāc a-parāc, āṅ, ācī, āk, not averted, i. e. fronting, in front.
     aparāṅmukha a-parāṅ-mukha, as, ā, or ī, am, with unaverted face, not turned away; presenting a firm front.

aparājita a-parājita, as, ā, am (rt. ji), unconquered, unsurpassed; (as), m. a poisonous insect; Viṣṇu; Śiva; one of the eleven Rudras; a class of divinities, constituting one portion of the socalled Anuttara divinities of the Jainas; N. of a sage; (ā), f. Durgā; a name applied to several plants, Clitoria Ternatea, Marsilea Quadrifolia, Sesbania Aegyptiaca; a species of the Śarkari metre of four lines, each containing fourteen syllables.
     aparājitādiś aparā-jitā-diś, k, f. the north-east quarter.

aparājiṣṇu a-parājiṣṇu, us, us, u, or a-parājeya, as, ā, am, unconquerable, invincible.

aparādh apa-rādh, cl. 4. or 5. P. -rādhyati, rādhnoti, -rāddhum, to wrong (with gen.), to offened, sin; to annoy, prohibit.

aparāddha apa-rāddha, as, ā, am, sinned; criminal, guilty; erring.
     aparāddhapṛṣakta aparāddha-pṛṣakta, as, or aparād-dheṣu (-dha-iṣ-), us, m. an archer whose arrows always miss the mark.

aparāddhi apa-rāddhi, is, f. wrong, mistake.

aparāddhṛ apa-rāddhṛ, dhā, dhrī, dhṛ, offending, an offender.

aparādha apa-rādha, as, m. offence, transgression, fault; mistake; e. g. aparādhaṃ kṛ, (with gen.) to offend any one.
     aparādhabhañjana aparādha-bhañjana, as, m. the deatroyer of sin, epithet of Śiva.
     aparādhabhañjanastotra aparādhabhañjana-stotra, am, n. a poem of Śaṅkarācārya, in praise of Śiva.

aparādhin apa-rādhin, ī, inī, i, offending; criminal; guilty.
     aparādhitā aparādhi-tā, f. or aparādhi-tva, am, n. criminality, guilt.

aparāparaṇa a-parāparaṇa, as, m. not having descendants or offspring.

aparāmṛṣṭa a-parāmṛṣṭa, as, ā, am, not touched.

aparikalita a-parikalita, as, ā, am, unknown, unseen.

aparikrama a-parikrama, as, ā, am, unable to walk round.

aparikrāmam a-parikrāmam, ind. without going about, standing still.

apariklinna a-pariklinna, as, ā, am, not moist, not liquid, dry.

aparigaṇya a-parigaṇya, as, ā, am, incalculable.

aparigata a-parigata, as, ā, am, unobtained, unknown.

aparigraha a-parigraha, as,  m. non-acceptance, renouncing; deprivation, destitution, poverty; (as, ā, am), destitute of or without attendants.

aparigrāhya a-parigrāhya, as, ā, am, unfit or improper to be accepted, not to be taken.

aparicayin a-paricayin, ī, inī, i (rt. ci), having no acquaintances, misanthropic.

aparicita a-paricita, as, ā, am, unacquainted with, unknown to.

apariceya a-pariceya, as, ā, am, unsociable.

aparicchada a-paricchada, as, ā, am, (rt. chad), without retinue, not wealthy, poor.

aparicchanna a-paricchanna or a-paricchādita, as, ā, am, uncovered, unclothed.

aparicchinna a-paricchinna, as, ā, am, without interval or division, continuous, connected, undistinguished.

apariccheda a-pariccheda, as, m. want of distinction or division; want of arrangement or order; want of discrimination or discernment; want of judgment; continuance.

aparijyāni a-parijyāni, is, f. not growing old; not losing; iṣṭāpūrtasyāparijyāni (-ya-ap-), is, f., N. of a sacrificial ceremony.

apariṇyana a-pariṇayana, am, n. (rt. ), celibacy.

apariṇītā a-pariṇītā, f. an unmarried woman.

apariṇāma a-pariṇāma, as, m. (rt. nam), unchangeableness.
     apariṇāmadarśin a-pariṇāma-darśin, ī, inī, i, not providing for a change, improvident.

apariṇāmin a-pariṇāmin, ī, inī, i, unchanging.

aparitoṣa a-paritoṣa, as, ā, am, unsatisfied, discontented.

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aparipakva a-paripakva, as, ā, am, not quite mature.

aparipara a-paripara, as, ā, am, Ved. not going by a tortuous course.

aparimāṇa a-parimāṇa, as, ā, am, without measure, immeasurable, immense.

aparimita a-parimita, as, ā, am, unmeasured, unlimited, unbounded.
     aparimitaguṇagaṇa aparimita-guṇa-gaṇa, as, ā, am, of unbounded excellences.

aparimeya a-parimeya, as, ā, am, immeasurable, illimitable.

aparimlāna a-parimlāna, as, ā, am, not withering, not decaying; (as), m., N. of a plant, Gompherena Globosa.

apariyāṇi a-pariyāṇi, is, f. not walking about (used in execrations only); a various reading has a-paripāṇi.

aparilopa a-parilopa, as, m. non-violation.

aparivartanīya a-parivartanīya, as, ā, am, not to be exchanged.

apaṃrivādya a-parivādya, as, ā, am (rt. vad), not to be reprimanded.

apariviṣṭa a-pariviṣṭa, as, ā, am, Ved. not enclosed, unbounded.

aparivṛta a-parivṛta, as, ā, am, uninclosed, unsurrounded.

apariśeṣa a-pariśeṣa, as, ā, am, not leaving a reminder, all-surrounding, all-enclosing.

apariṣkāra a-pariṣkāra, as, m. want of polish or finish, moral or physical; coarseness, rudeness.

apariṣkṛta a-pariṣkṛta, as, ā, am, unpolished, unadorned, coarse, rude, morally or physically.

aparisamāptika a-parisamāptika, as, ā, am (rt. āp with pari and sam), not ending, endless.

aparisara a-parisara, as, ā, am, non-contiguous, distant.

apariskanda a-pariskanda, as, ā, am, not moving, motionless.

apariharaṇīya a-pariharaṇīya or a-pari-hārya, as, ā, am, not to be avoided, inevitable; not to be abandoned or lost; not to be degraded.

aparihvṛta a-parihvṛta, as, ā, am, Ved. unafflicted, not endangered; going straightforward.

aparīkṣita a-parīkṣita, as, ā, am (rt. īkṣ), inconsiderate; untried, unproved.

aparīta a-parīta, as, ā, am (rt. i), Ved. unobstructed, irresistible; (as), m., N. of a nation.

aparuṣa a-paruṣa, as, ā, am, not rough, not harsh.

aparupa apa-rūpa, as, ā, or ī, am, deformed, ugly, ill-looking, ill-made, strange, odd-shaped; (am), n. monstrosity, deformity.

aparedyus aparedyus. See under apara.

aparokṣa a-parokṣa, as, ā, am, not invisible; perceptible; (am), ind. (with gen.) in the sight of; (āt), ind. perceptibly, manifestly.

aparokṣaya aparokṣaya, nom. P. aparokṣayati, -yitum, to make perceptible.

aparodha apa-rodha, as, m. (rt. rudh), exclusion, prohibition.

aparṇa a-parṇa, as, ā, am, leafless; (ā), f. N. of Durgā or Pārvatī; (the goddess not having even leaves for food during her performance of religious austerities.)

apartu apartu (apa-ṛtu), us, us, u, Ved. untimely, unseasonable.

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aparyanta a-paryanta, as, ā, am, unbounded, unlimited.

aparyāpta a-paryāpta, as, ā, am (rt. āp), incomplete, unable, insufficient; not enough; unlimited, unbounded.

aparyāya a-paryāya, as, m. want of order or method.

aparvan a-parvan, a, n. no joint or point of junction; a day which is not a parvan, i. e. a certain day in the lunar month, as the full and change of the moon, and the eighth and fourteenth of each half month; (ā, ā, a), without a joint.
     aparvadaṇḍa aparva-daṇḍa, as, m. a kind of sugar-cane.

aparvaka a-parvaka, as, ikā, am, jointless.

apala 1. apala, am, n. a pin or bolt.

apala 2. a-pala, as, ā, am, fleshless.

apalap apa-lap, cl. 1. P. or poet. A. -lapati, -te, -pitum, to explain away, to deny, refuse, conceal; to detract from slander; Caus. A. -lāpayate, -yitum, to outwit.

apalapana apa-lapana, am, n. or apa-lāpa, as, m. denial or concealment of knowledge, evasion, turning off the truth, detraction; concealing, hiding; affection, regard; (in medic.) the part between the shoulder and thye ribs.
     apalāpadaṇḍa apalāpa-daṇḍa, as, m. (in law) a fine laid on one who denies his conviction.

apalapita apa-lapita, as, ā, am, denied, concealed.

apalāpin apa-lāpin, ī, inī, i, one who denies, evades; concealing (with the object in the gen. case).

apalāla a-palāla, as, m., N. of a Rakshas or of a Nāga ('not fond of flesh?').

apalāśa a-palāśa, as, ā, am, Ved. leafless.

apalāṣikā apa-lāṣikā or apa-lāsikā, f. thirst.

apalāṣin apa-lāṣin, ī, inī, i, or apa-lāṣuka, as, ā, am, thirsty; free from desire.

apalita a-palita, as, ā, am, not grey.

apalup apa-lup, used in the acc. case apa-lupam as Ved. inf. of the verb apa-lup, to cut off.

apalpūlanakṛta a-palyūlana-kṛta, as, ā, am, not cleaned by cleansing substances. Some read palpūlana.

apavaktṛ apa-vaktṛ, tā, m., Ved. speaking away, i. e. warning off, averting.

apavācana apa-vācana, am, n. the act of speaking away or warning off, removing.

apavad apa-vad, cl. 1. P. A. -vadati, -te, -ditum, to revile, abuse; (A. only) to disown, deny, contradict: Caus. -vādayati, -yitum, to oppose as unadvisable.

apavadamāna apa-vadamāna, as, ā, am, (with dat.) reviling.

apavaditṛ apa-vaditṛ. See apa-vaktṛ.

apavāda apa-vāda, as, m. evil speaking, reviling, blaming (with the gen.); denial, refutation, contradiction; a special rule setting aside a general one; exception (opposed to utsarga); order, command.
     apavādapratyaya apavāda-pratyaya, as, m. an exceptional affix.
     apavādasthala apavāda-sthala, am, n. case for a special rule or exception.

apavādaka apa-vādaka, as, ikā, am, or apa-vādin, ī, inī, i, reviling, blaming, defaming; opposing, objecting to; excepting, excluding.

apavādita apa-vādita, as, ā, am, blamed, censured; opposed, objected to.

apavādya apa-vādya, as, ā, am, to be censured; to be excepted.

apavadh apa-vadh (defective in most of its tenses, see vadh), to repel, avert.

apavana 1. a-pavana, as, ā, am, without air, sheltered from wind.

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apavana 2. apa-vana, am, n. a grove.

apavaraka apa-varaka, apa-varaṇa, apa-vāraṇa. See apa-vṛ below.

apavarga apa-varga, apa-varjita. See apa-vṛji below.

apavarta apa-varta, &c. See under apa-vṛt.

apavah apa-vah, cl. 1. P. -vahati, -voḍhum, to carry off; to deduct: Caus. P. -vāhayati, -yitum, to have (something) carried off or taken away.

apavāha apa-vāha, as, m. or apa-vāhaṅa, am, n. deduction, subtraction (of fractions); N. of a metre; N. of a people.

apavāhya apa-vāhya, as, ā, am, to be carried away.

apoḍha apoḍha. See s. v., p. 56.

apavāda apa-vāda, &c. See apa-vad above.

apavāsa apa-vāsa, as, m. (rt. vas), Ved. disappearace, going away, vanishing; N. of a plant.

apavikṣata apa-vikṣata, as, ā, am, unwounded; unviolated.

apavighna apa-vighna, as, ā, am, unobstructed, unimpeded; (am), ind. free from obstruction.

apavitra a-pavitra, as, ā, am, impure, unclean.

apavitra apa-viddha and apa-vedha. See apa-vyadh, p. 53.

apaviṣa apa-viṣa, as, ā, am, free from poison; (ā), f. a species of grass, Kyllingia Monocephala.

apaviṣṇu apa-viṣṇu, ind. except or without Viṣṇu.

apavīṇa apa-vīṇa, as, ā, am, having a bad or no lute; (ā), f. a bad lute; (am), ind. without a lute.

apavīravat a-pavīra-vat, ān, atī, at, Ved. not armed with a lance.

apavṛ apa-vṛ, cl. 5. P. -vṛṇoti, -varitum, rītum, to open, uncover, exhibit.

apavaraka apa-varaka, as, m. an inner apartment, the lyingin chamber.

apavaraṇa apa-varaṇa, am, n. covering, screening; garment.

apavāraṇa apa-vāraṇa, am, n. covering, concealment, disappearance.

apavārita apa-vārita, as, ā, am, covered, concealed, disappeared.

apavāritaka apa-vāritaka, am, n. concealed, secret manner; apavāritakena, (in theatrical language) apart, aside (speaking so that only the addressed person may hear; opposed to prakāśam).

apavārya apa-vārya, ind. apart, aside; having concealed.

apavṛta apa-vṛta, as, ā, am, uncovered, opened.

apavṛti apa-vṛti, is, f. uncovering; concealing (?).

apavṛj apa-vṛj, Caus. P. -varjayati, -yi-tum, to quit, get rid of, to pay, to fulfil.

apavarga apa-varga, as, m. completion, end (e. g. pañcā-pavarga, coming to an end in five days); exception (to a rule); gift, donation; the emancipation of the soul from the body and exemption from further transmigration; final beatitude.
     apavargada apavarga-da, as, ā, am, conferring final beatitude.

apavarjana apa-varjana, am, n. abandoning, abandonment; gift or donation, making good a promise, discharging a debt or obligation; final emancipation or beatitude.

apavarjanīya apa-varjanīya, or apa-vṛjya, as, ā, am, to be abandoned, to be avoided.

apavarjita apa-varjita, as, ā, am, abandoned, quitted, got rid of, given or cast away; made good as a promise, discharged as a debt.

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apavarjya apa-varjya, ind. excepting, except.

apavṛkta apa-vṛkta, as, ā, am, finished, completed.

apavṛkti apa-vṛkti, is, f. fulfilment, completion.

apavṛt apa-vṛt, cl. 1. A. -vartate, -titum, to turn away, depart; to turn back, to come to an end.

apavarta apa-varta, as, m. taking away; (in arithmetic or algebra) reduction to a common measure; the divisor, which is applied to both or either of the quantities of an equation.

apavartaka apa-vartaka, as, m. a common measure.

apavartana apa-vartana, am, n. taking away; removal; transferring from one place to another; abbreviation, abridging; reduction of a fraction to its lowest terms; division without remainder; divisor.

apavartita apa-vartita, as, ā, am, taken away; removed; divided by a common measure without remainder.

apavṛtta apa-vṛtta, as, ā, am, reversed, inverted, overturned; ended; (am), n. ecliptic (in astronomy).

apavṛtti apa-vṛtti, is, f. end.

apavyadh apa-vyadh, cl. 4. P. -vidhyati, -vyaddhum, to pierce badly, to throw away, to neglect.

apaviddha apa-viddha, as, ā, am, pierced; thrown away, rejected, dismissed, removed.
     apaviddhaputra apaviddha-putra, as, m. a son rejected by his natural parents and adopted by a stanger; one of the twelve objects of filiation in law.
     apaviddhaloka apaviddha-loka, as, ā, am, dead.

apavedha apa-vedha, as, m. piercing anything in the wrong direction or manner (spoiling a jewel by so piercing it).

apavyaya apa-vyaya, as, m. (rt. i with apa and vi), prodigality.

apavyayat apa-vyayat, an, antī, at, going away.

apavyayamāna apa-vyayamāna, as, ā, am, squandering; denying a debt.

apavyayin apa-vyayin, ī, inī, i, squandering, wasting, prodigal.

apavyādā apa-vya-ā-dā (-vi-ā-dā), cl. 3. P. -dadāti, -dātum, to open.

apavrata apa-vrata, as, ā, am, Ved. disobedient, unfaithful; not performing holy acts, irreligious; perverse.

apaśakuna apa-śakuna, am, n. a bad omen.

apaśaṅka apa-śaṅka, as, ā, am, fearless, having no fear or hestitation; (am), ind. fearlessly.

apaśada apa-śada or apa-sada, as, m. a low man.

apaśabda apa-śabda, as, m. common or vulgar speech; a bad word; any form of language not Sanskṛt; ungrammatical language. See apa-bhraṃśa.

apaśama apa-śama, as, m. cessation.

apaṣiras apa-śiras, ās, ās, as, or apa-śir-ṣa, as, ā, am, or apa-śīrṣan, ā, ā, a, headless.

apaśu a-paśu, us, m. not cattle; (us, us, u), deprived of cattle, poor.
     apaśuhan a-paśu-han, hā, ghnī, ha, not killing cattle.

apaśuc 1. apa-śuc, Intens. P., Ved. -śo-śokti, to disappear, vanish.

apaśuc 2. apa-śuc, k, m. (without sorrow), the soul. apa--śoka, as, ā, am, sorrowless; (as), m. a tree, Jonesia Aśoka.

apaścādaghvan a-paścā-daghvan or a-paścād-daghvan, ā, m., Ved. not staying behind; not coming short of, not being a loser.

apaścima a-paścima, as, ā, am, not having another in the rear, last; having no end.

apaśya a-paśya, as, ā, am Ved., or a-paśyat, -an, antī, at, not seeing.

apaśyanā a-paśyanā, f. not seeing (?).

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apaśraya apa-śraya, as, m., Ved. a bolster; see upa-śraya.

apaśrī apa-śrī, īs, i, deprived of beauty.

apaśvāsa apa-śvāsa, as, m. one of the five vital airs; see apāna.

apaṣṭha apa-ṣṭha, am, n. (rt. sthā), the end or point of the hook for driving an elephant.

apaṣṭhu apa-ṣṭhu, us, us, u, contrary, opposite; perverse; left; (u), ind. contrary, perversely, badly; well, properly; handsomely; (us), m. time.

apaṣṭhura apa-ṣṭhura or apa-ṣṭhula, as, ā, am, opposite, contrary.

apas apas, as, n. (fr. obs. rt. ap), Ved. work, action; sacred act, sacrificial act; water; (ās), m. f. (asas), m. f. pl., Ved. active, skilful in any art: apasas, f. pl., is a name of the hands and fingers which are busy in kindling the sacred fire and in performing the sacrifices; also a name of the three goddesses of sacred speech, or of the three divinities, fire, wind, and sun; also of the active or running waters [cf. Lat. opus].

apastama apas-tama, as, ā, am (superl.), Ved. most active or rapid.

apasya 1. apasya, as, ā, am, active, fit for an act, running away; watery; (ā), f. a kind of brick (twenty are used in building the sacrificial altar); activity; water.

apasya 2. apasya, nom. P. apasyati, to be active.

apasyu apasyu, us, us, u, Ved. active.

apasada apa-sada, as, m. the children of six degrading connections, viz. of a Brāhman with the women of the three lower classes, of a Kshatriya with women of the two lower, and of a Vaiśya with one of the Sūdra; a low man; an outcast (in this sense generally as last member of a comp., e. g. brāhmaṇāpasada).

apasamam apa-samam, ind. last year (?).

apasarjana apa-sarjana, am, n. (rt. sṛj), abandonment; gift or donation; final emancipation of the soul [cf. apa-vṛj].

apasalavi apa-salavi, ind., Ved. to the left (opposed to pra-salavi); the space between the thumb and the forefinger (sacred to the Manes).

apasavya apa-savya, as, ā, am, or apa-savyaka, as, ikā, am, not on the left side, right; opposite, contrary; (am), ind. to the right; the same as apa-salavi.
     apasavyaṃ apasavyaṃ kṛ = pradak-ṣiṇaṃ kṛ, to circumambulate a person keeping the right side towards him; to put the sacred cord on the right shoulder.
     apasavyavat apasavya-vat, ān, atī, at, having the sacred thread worn on the right shoulder, (as during a Śrāddha, &c.)

apasiddhānta apa-siddhānta, as, m. (rt. 1. sidh), an erroneous conclusion.

apasidh apa-sidh, cl. 1. P. -sedhati, -sed-dhum, -sedhitum, to ward off, remove, drive away.

apasṛ apa-sṛ, cl. 1. P. -sarati, -sartum, to walk off, go away: Caus. -sārayati, -yitum, to make or let one go away, to remove.

apasara apa-sara, as, m. excuse, apology.

apasaraṇa apa-saraṇa, am, n. going away. retreating; egress.

apasāra apa-sāra, as, m. going out; egress, passage for going forth; escape.

apasāraṇa apa-sāraṇa, am, n. removing to a distance.

apasārita apa-sārita, as, ā, am, removed, put away, thrown aside.

apasṛp apa-sṛp, cl. 1. P. -sarpati, -sarp-tum, -sraptum, to glide or move off.

apasarpa apa-sarpa or apa-sarpaka, as, m. a secret emissary or agent, spy.

apasarpaṇa apa-sarpaṇa, am, n. going back, retreating.

apasṛpti apa-sṛpti, is, f. going away.

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apaskambha apa-skambha, as, m. Ved. fastening, making firm.

apaskara apa-skara, as, m. any part of a carriage, a wheel, &c.; faeces; anus; vulva.

apaskāra apa-skāra, as, m. the root or under part of the knee.

apaskhala apa-skhala, as, m. leaping off, jumping off; outside of a threshing floor (?).

apatama apas-tama. See under apas.

apastambha apa-stambha, as, m. a vessel in the side of the breat containing vital air.

apastambhinī apa-stambhinī, f., N. of a plant.

apasnāpta apa-snāta, as, ā, am, bathed or bathing after death or mourning, or upon the death of a connection, preparatory to other ceremonies.

apasnāna apa-snāna, am, n. funeral bathiong, upon the death of a connection, after mourning, &c.; impure bathing, or bathing in water in which a person has previously washed.

apaspati ap-pati, is, m., N. of a son of Uttānapāda.

apaspṛś 1. apa-spṛś, cl. 6. P. -spṛśati, -sparṣṭum, -spraṣṭum, to touch.

apasparśa apa-sparśa, as, ā, am, having no touch, insensible.

apaspṛś 2. apa-spṛś, k, k, k, Ved. not letting one's self be touched.

apaspṛś 3. a-paspṛś, k, k, k, Ved. not touching, not hurting.

apasphiga apa-sphiga, as, ā, am, one who has badly formed buttocks; (am), ind. except the buttocks.

apasphur apa-sphur, ūs, ūs, ūs, or apa-sphura, as, ā, am, or apa-sphurat, an, antī, at Ved. bounding or bursting forth, swelling, increasing. According to native authorities, both apa-sphura and apa-sphurat may mean 'injured.'

apasmāra apa-smāra, as, m. or apa-smṛti, is, f. forgetfulness; epilepsy, falling sickness.

apasmārin apa-smārin, ī, iṇī, i, epileptic, convulsed.

apasmṛti apa-smṛti, is, is, i, forgetful.

apasya apasya, apasyu. See under apas.

apasvara apa-svara, as, m. an unmusical note or sound.

apahan apa-han, cl. 2. P. -hanti, -tum, to beat off, ward off, repel, destroy.

apaha apa-ha, as, ā, am, keeping back, repelling, removing, destroying (e. g. śokāpaha, as, ā, am, removing sorrow).

apahata apa-hata, as, ā, am, destroyed, warded off, killed.

apahati apa-hati, is, f. removing, destroying.

apahanana apa-hanana, am, n. or apa-ghāta (q. v.), warding off.

apahantṛ apa-hantṛ, tā, m. beating off, destroying.

apaghātin apa-ghātin, apa-jighāṃsu. See s. v.

apahala apa-hala, as, ā, am, having a bad plough.

apahas apa-has, cl. 1. P. -hasati, -situm, to deride: Caus. P. -hāsayati, -yitum, to deride, ridicule.

apahasita apa-hasita, am, n. or apa-hāsa, as, m. silly or causeless laughter.

apahāsya apa-hāsya, as, ā, am, to be laughed at.

apahasta apa-hasta, am, n. taking or throwing away or off; stealing, plundering.

apahastaya apa-hastaya, nom. P. apa-hastayati, -yitum, to throw away, lose.

apahastita apa-hastita, as, ā, am, thrown away, lost, parted with.

apahā 1. apa-hā, cl. 3. A. -jihīte, -hātum, to go off, come to an end.

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apahā 2. apa-hā, cl. 3. P. -jahāti, -hātum, to leave, abandon.

apahāna apa-hāna, as, ā, am (or fr. 1. apa-hā?), leaving, abandoning; also written apa-hāyana.

apahāni apa-hāni, is, f. leaving; leaving off, abandonment, stopping, vanishing; exception, exclusion.

apahāya apa-hāya, ind. leaving out of view, excepting, except, besides.

apahiṅkāra apa-hiṅ-kāra, as, ā, am, without the syallable him, which is pronounced in singing the Sāma verses.

apahṛ apa-hṛ, cl. 1. P. A. (?) -harati, -te, -hartum, to snatch away, carry off, plunder; to remove, to throw away: Caus. -hārayati, -yitum, to have (anything) carried off.

apaharaṇa apa-haraṇa, am, n. taking away, carrying off; stealing.

apaharaṇīya apa-haraṇīya or apa-hartavya or apa-hārya, as, ā, am, to be taken away, carried off, stolen, &c.; to be taken back or resumed.

apahartṛ apa-hartṛ, tā, m. (with gen. or acc.) taking away; expiating.

apahāra apa-hāra, as, m. taking away, stealing; spending another person's property; secreting, concealment; e. g. ātmāpahāraṃ kṛ, to conceal one's real character.

apahāraka apa-hāraka, as, ikā, am, or apa-hārin, ī, iṇī, i, one who takes away, seizes, steals, &c.; a plunderer, a thief.

apahāraṇa apa-hāraṇa, am, n. causing to take away, spoiling.

apahṛta apa-hṛta, as, ā, am, taken away, carried off, stolen, &c.; taken back, resumed.
     apahṛtavijñāna apahṛta-vi-jñāna, as, ā, am, bereft of sense.

apahelā apa-helā, f. disrespect, contempt.

apahnu apa-hnu, cl. 2. A. -hnute, -hnotum, to conceal, disguise; to refuse, deny, disown.

apahnava apa-hnava, as, m. concealment of knowledge; denial of or turning off of the truth; dissimulation; appeasing, satisfying; affection, love.

apahnuta apa-hnuta, as, ā, am, concealed, denied.

apahnuti apa-hnuti, is, f. denial, concealment of knowledge; a figure of rhetoric, applying a description or simile to other than its obvious application.

apahnuvāna apa-hnuvāna, as, ā, am, concealing, denying.

apahnotṛ apa-hnotṛ, tā, trī, tṛ, one who conceals or denies or disowns.

apahāsa apa-hrāsa, as, m. diminishing, reducing.

apāk apāk, ind. westward, southward; see apāc next col.

apāka 1. apāka, as, ā, am (fr. apa), situated aside or behind; distant; coming from a distant place; incomparable.
     apākacakṣas apāka-cakṣas, ās, m., Ved. looking or shining far; of incomparable brightness.

apākā apākā or apākāt, ind., Ved. aside, distant.
     apākestha apā-ke-stha, as, ā, am, Ved. standing behind.

apāktāt apāktāt, ind., Ved. from behind, from the west.

apapāka 2. a-pāka, as, ā, am (rt. pac), immature, raw, unripe, undigested; (as), m. immanturity, indigestion.
     apākaja a-pāka-ja, as, ā, am, not produced by cooking or ripening; original; natural.
     apākaśāka apāka-śāka, am, n. ginger.

apākin a-pākin, ī, inī, i, unripe, undigested.

apākṛ apā-kṛ (apa-ā-), cl. 8. P. A. -karoti, -kurute, -kartum, or Ved. -kartos, to remove, drive away, keep away; to take away; to reject (an opinion); to cast off, reject; to desist from, to drop; to free one's self from; to pay.

apākaraṇa apā-karaṇa, am, n. driving away, removal; payment, lipuidation.

apākariṣṇu apā-kariṣṇu, us, us, u, driving away; excelling.

apākaeman apā-kaeman, a, n. payment, liquidation.

apākṛta apā-kṛta, as, ā, am, taken away, removed, destroyed, void of; paid.

apākṛti apā-kṛti, is, f. taking away, removal.

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apākṛṣ apā-kṛṣ (apa-ā-), cl. 1. 6. P. A. -karṣati, -te, -kṛṣati, -te, -karṣṭum, -kraṣṭum, to turn off or away, to avert.

apākṝ apā-kṝ (apa-ā-), cl. 6. P. -kirati, -karitum, -rītum, to throw any one off; to abandon to contemn.

apākram apā-kram (apa-ā-), cl. 1. P. poet. A. -krāmati, -kramate, -kramitum, to retire from.

apākṣa apākṣa (apa-ak-), as, ā, am, present, perceptible; (as, ī, am), eyeless, having bad eyes.

apāṅkta a-pāṅkta or a-pāṅkteya or a-pāṅktya, as, ā, am, not in a line or row; not in the same degree or class, unworthy, inadmissible into society, ejected from caste, excluded, outcast.
     apāṅktyopahata a-pāṅktyopahata (-ya-up-), as, ā, am, defiled or contaminated by the presence of impure or improper persons.

apāṅga apāṅga (apa-aṅ-) or apāṅgaka, as, ā, am, maimed, crippled; wanting or deformed in some limb; (as), m. the outer corner of the eye (sometimes as last member of a feminine comp. ending in ā or ī); a sectraial mark or circlet on the forehead; N. of Kāma, the god of love; a plant, Achyranthes Aspera.
     apāṅgadarśana apāṅga-darśana, am, n. a side glance, a leer, a wink.
     apāṅgadeśa apāṅga-deśa, as, m. the place round the outer corner of the eye.
     apāṅganetra apāṅga-netra, as, ā, am, having eyes with beautiful outer angles.

apāc apāc or apāñc, ṅ, cī, k (fr. añc with apa), going or situated backwards, behind; western (opposed to prāñc); southern (opposed to udañc); (k), ind. behind, westward, southward.

apācī apācī, f. the south.
     apācītarā apācītarā (-cī-it-), f. the north, i. e. other than the south.

apācīna apācīna, as, ā, am, situted backwards, behind; western; turned back; southern.

apācya apācya, as, ā, am, western, southern.

apāj apāj (apa-aj), cl. 1. P. apājati, jitum, to drive away.

apāñc apāñc (apa-añc), cl. 1. P. A. apāñc-ati, -te, -citum, to push away, to drive away.

apāṭava a-pāṭava, am, n. awkwardness, inelegance; sickness, disease.

apapāṭhya a-pāṭhya, as, ā, am, illegible.

apāṇigrahaṇa a-pāṇigrahaṇa, am, n. celibacy.

apāṇipāda a-pāṇi-pāda, as, ā, am, without hands and feet.

apātra a-pātra, am, n. a worthless or common utensil; an inferior, undeserving or worthless person, unfit as a recipient, unworthy to receive gifts.
     apātrakṛtyā a-pātra-kṛtyā, f. or a-pātri-karaṇa, am, n. acting unbecomingly, doing degrading offices (as for a Brāhman to receive wealth improperly acquired, to trade, to serve a Śūdra, and to utter an untruth); excommunication, disqualification.
     apātradāyin apātra-dāyin, ī, inī, i. giving to the undeserving.
     apātrabhṛt apātra-bhṛt, t, t, t, supporting the unworthy, cherishing the undeserving.

apād a-pād, footless. See apad, p. 50.

apādya a-pādya, as, ā, am, anything (as water) unfit for the feet.

apādā apā-dā (apa-ā-), cl. 3. A. -datte, dātum, to take off or away, to remove.

apādāna apā-dāna, am, n. taking away, removal, ablation; a thing from which another thing is removed; the sense of the fifth or ablative case.

apādābhāj a-pādādi-bhāj (-da-ād-), k, k, k, not standing at the beginning of a Pāda.

apādāntīya a-pādāntīya, as, ā, am, not standing at the end of a Pāda.

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apādhvan apādhvan (apa-adh-), ā, m. a bad road.

apān apān (apa-an), cl. 2. A. apāniti, nitum, to breathe out or away, to expire, respire.

apāna apāna, as, m. expiration, breathing out (opposed to prāṇa); that of the five vital airs which goes downwards and out at the anus; (am), n. the anus; ventris crepitus.
     apānadā apāna-dā, ās, m. Ved. giving the vital air Apāna.
     apanadvāra apana-dvāra, am, n. the anus.
     apānapavana apāna-pavana, as, m. the vital air Apāna.
     apānapā apāna-pā, ās, m., Ved. protecting the Apāna.
     apānabhṛt apāna-bhṛt, t, f. cherishing the vital air, a sacrificial brick.
     apānavāyu apāna-vāyu, us, m. the air Apāna; ventris crepitus.

apānud apā-nud (apa-ā-), cl. 6. P. A. -nudati, -te, -nottum, to remove, repel, repidiate.

apānṛta apānṛta (-pa-an-), as, ā, am, free from falsehood, true.

apānnapāt apān-napāt or apaṃ-napāt, &c. See under ap, p. 48.

apāpa a-pāpa, as, ā, am, or a-pāpin, ī, inī, i, sinless, virtuous, pure.
     apāpakāśin a-pāpa-kāśin, ī, inī, i, not ill-looking; not revealing evil.
     apāpakṛt a-pāpa-kṛt, t, t, t, not committing sin.
     apāpavasyasa a-pāpa-vasyasa, am, n., Ved. non-increase of evil; health, prosperity.
     apāpaviddha a-pāpa-viddha, as, ā, am, not afflicted with evil.

apām apām. See under ap, p. 48.

apāmārga apā-mārga, as, m. (rt. mṛj), N. of a plant (Achyranthes Aspera), employed very often in incntations, in medicine, in washing linen, and in sacrifices.

apāmārjana apā-mārjana, am, n. cleansing, keeping back, removing (of diseases and other evils).

apāmṛtyu apā-mṛtyu, us, m. sudden death; see apa-mṛtyu.

apāya apāya. See under ape.

apār apār (apa-ṛ), cl. 5. P. apārṇoti, apārtum, -ritum or -rītum (?), to remove; to open.

apāra 1. apāra, am, n. the opposite bank of a river; the same as pāra, q. v.

apāra 2. a-pāra, am, n. (in the Sāṅkhya) a bad shore, i. e. a kind of mental indifference or acquiescence (tuṣṭi); it may also mean the reverse of pāra or of pārapāra, i. e. the reverse of mental acquiescence; (as, ā, am), shoreless, unbounded, boundless, interminable; an epithet of heaven and earth; out of reach; inexhaustible.
     apārapāra a-pārapāra, am, n. non-acquiescence.

apāraka a-pāraka, as, ikā, am, or a-pārayat, an, antī, at, incompetent, impotent.

apāraṇīya a-pāraṇīya, as, ā, am, out of reach.

apāramārthika a-pāramārthika, as, ī, am, not concerned about the highest truth.

apārch apārch (apa-ṛch), cl. 6. P. apārcch-ati, -chitum, to go away, retire.

apārjita apārjita, as, ā, am (rt. ṛj with apa), flung away.

apārṇa apārṇa, as, ā, am (rt. ard), distant, far.

apārtha apārtha (apa-ar-), as, ā, am, or apārthaka, as, ikā, am, without any object, useless, unprofitable; unmeaning; (am), n. incoherent argument.
     apārthakaraṇa apārtha-karaṇa, am, n. a false plea in a lawsuit.

apāla a-pāla or a-pālana or a-pālita, as, ā, am, unguarded, unprotected, undefended.

apālaṅka apālaṅka, as, m., N. of a plant, Cassia Fistula.

apālamba apā-lamba, as, m., Ved. the hinder part of a carriage; mechanism to stop a carriage (?).

apāli apāli (apa-ali-), is, is, i, free from ali or bees, &c.

apapāvṛ apā-vṛ (apa-ā-), cl. 5. P., Ved. -vṛṇoti, -varitum, -rītum, to open; to cover; (in the first sense apāvṛ is said to be for apa-vṛ, the final of apa being lengthened.)

apāvṛta apā-vṛta, as, ā, am, open, laid open; covered, concealed, enclosed; unrestrained, self-willed.

apāvṛti apā-vṛti, is, f. or apā-varaṇa, am, n. laying open, enclosing, surrounding; covering, concealing, screening.

apāvṛt apā-vṛt (apa-ā-), cl. 1. A. -vartate, -titum, to turn away, to return, to abstain from, to come to nought.

apāvartana apā-vartana, am, n. turning away or from; retreat, returning; repulse.

apāvṛt apā-vṛt, t, t, t, Ved. returning.

apāvṛtta apā-vṛtta, as, ā, am, (with abl.) turned away from; averted; abstaining from, rejecting, despising; reversed, repelled; (am), n. the rolling on the ground (of a horse).

apāvṛtti apā-vṛtti, is, f. retreat, returning; repulse.

apāśyā a-pāśyā, f. no great number of noose or fetters (i. e. a few).

apāśraya 1. apāśraya (-apa-āś-), as, ā, am, helpless, destitute.

apāśraya i. apā-śri (apa-ā-), cl. 1. P. -śra-yati, -yitum, to resort to; to use, practice.

apāśraya 2. apā-śraya, as, m. refuge, recourse, the person or thing to which recourse is had for refuge; an awning spread over a court or yard.

apāśrita apā-śrita, as, ā, am, resting on; resortuing to.

apāṣṭi apāṣṭi, is, f., Ved. the heel.

apāṣṭha apā-ṣṭha, as, m., Ved. barb of an arrow; (am), n. what remains of the Soma plant after it has been pressed out.
     apāṣṭhavat apāṣṭha-vat, ān, atī, at, Ved. having barbs; (vat), ind. like the remainder of the Soma plant (?).

apās apās (apa-as), cl. 4. P. apāsyati, situm, to fling away, throw, away or off, to discard; to scare, drive away; leave behind, leave in a deserted condition; to desert, to take no notice of, disregard; reject.

apāsana apāsana, am, n. throwing away; quitting, foregoing, discarding; killing, slaughter.

apāsita apāsita, as, ā, am, thrown or cut down, injured, destroyed.

apāsta apāsta, as, ā, am, thrown off, set aside; driven away, expelled; aboundoned, discarded; disregarded, contemned.

apāsya apāsya, ind. having thrown away or discarded, having left, having disregarded, having excepted.

apāsyat apāsyat, an, antī, at, discarding, throwing off, &c.

apāsaṅga apā-saṅga, as, m. (rt. sañj), a quiver; also upāsaṅga.

apāsaraṇa apā-saraṇa, am, n. (rt. sṛ), departing, departure, removal.

apāsṛta apā-sṛta, as, ā, am, gone, departed, gone away.

apāsi apāsi (apa-asi), is, is, i, having a bad or no sword.

apāsu apāsu (apa-asu), us, us, u, lifeless.

apāhā apā-hā (apa-ā-), cl. 3. P. -jahāti, hātum, to leave, omit, reject.

apāhāya apā-hāya, ind. exceptiong; except.

api api, or sometimes pi (as a particle or preposition prefixed to verbs and nouns), expresses placing near or over, uniting to, annexing, reaching to, proximity, &c. [cf. Gr. [greek] Zend api; Germ. and Eng. prefix be]; in later Sanskṛt its places seems frequently supplied by abhi.

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     (As a separable adv.) and, also moreover, besides, assuredly, surely; api api or api-ca, as well as; na vāpi or na apivā or na nacāpi, neither, nor; cāpi, (and at the begining of a sentence) api-ca, moreover.

api api is often used to express emphasis, in the sense of even, also, very; e. g. anyad api, also another, something more; adyāpi, this very day, even now; tathāpi, even thus, notwithstanding; yady api, even if, although; yadyapi tathāpi, although, nevertheless; na kadācid api, never at any time: sometimes in the sense of but, only, at least, e. g. muhūrtam api, only a moment.

api api may be affixed to an interrogative to make it indefinite. e. g. ko 'pi, any one; kutrāpi, anywhere.

api api imparts to numerals the notion of totality, e. g. caturṇām api varṇānām, of all the four castes.

api api may be interrogative at the beginning of a sentence.

api api may strengthen the original force of the potential. or may soften the imperative, like the English 'be pleased to;' sometimes it is a mere expletive.

api tu api tu, but, but yet.

apitva api-tva, am, n., Ved. having part, share.
     apitvin api-tvin, ī, inī, i, Ved. having part, sharing.

apināma api-nāma, perhaps, in all probability.

apikakṣa api-kakṣa, as, m., Ved. the region of the arm-pits and shoulder-blades, especially in animals; N. of a man; (ās), m. pl. the descendants of this man.

apikakṣya api-kakṣya, as, ā, am, Ved. connected with the region of the arm-pits, or that which binds to the kakṣa.

apikarṇa api-karṇa, am, n., Ved. the region of the ears.

apikṛt api-kṛt, cl. 6. P. -kṛntati, -kar-titum, to cut off.

apikṣi api-kṣi, Caus. -kṣāpayati, -yi-tum, to annihilate, to make away with.

apigam api-gam, cl. 1. P. -gacchati, -gan-tum, to go into, enter, approach, join; to approach a woman.

apigata api-gata, as, ā, am, gone into, entered, come near, approached, joined.

apigā api-gā, cl. 3. P. -jigāti, -gātum, to enter, get into, mingle with.

apigīrṇa api-gīrṇa, as, ā, am, praised, celebrated.

apigrah api-grah, cl. 9. P. A. -gṛhṇāti, -ṇīte, -grahītum, to receive; to stop; to close (the mouth, nose, &c.).

apigṛhya api-gṛhya Ved., or api-grāhya, as, ā, am, to be received.

apighas api-ghas, cl. 1. P. -ghasati, -ghas-tum, to eat off or away.

apicchila a-picchila, as, ā, am, clear, free from sediment or soil.

apija api-ja, as, m. born after, born again; epithet of several divinities.

apiṇḍa a-piṇḍa, as, ā, am, without funeral cakes.

apit 1. a-pit, t, t, t (rt. pi), Ved. not swelling, dry; waterless.

apit 2. a-pit, t, t, t, (in gram.) not having the it or Anu-bandha p.

apitṛ a-pitṛ, tā, m. not a father.

apitṛka a-pitṛka, as, ā, am, not ancestral or paternal, uninherited; fatherless.

apitrya a-pitrya, as, ā, am, uninherited, not ancestral or paternal.

apidah api-dah, cl. 1. P., Ved. -dahati, -dagdhum, to singe.

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apidūbh api-dṛbh, cl. 6. P., Ved. -dṛbhati or -dṛmbhati, -darbhitum, to reply upon.

apido api-do, cl. 4. P., Ved. -dyati, -dātum, to cut off.

apidhā api-dhā, cl. 3. P. A. -dadhāti, -dhatte, -dhātum, to put to, shut, close, cover, conceal.

apidhāna api-dhāna or pi-dhāna, am, n. covering, concealment; a cover, a lid, a cloth for covering.
     apidhānavat api-dhāna-vat, ān, atī, at, Ved. having a cover; concealed.

apidhi api-dhi, is, m. concealment.

apihita api-hita or pi-hita, as, ā, am, shut, covered, concealed.

apinah api-na or api-nah, cl. 4. P. -nahyati, -naddhum, to tie on, fasten.

apinaddha api-naddha or pi-naddha, as, ā, am, tied on; clothed, accoutred.

apinī api-nī, cl. 1. P. -nayati, -netum, to lead towards or to, bring to a state or condition.

apipad api-pad, cl. 4. A. -padyate, -pattum, to go in, enter.

apipāsa a-pipāsa, as, ā, am, free from thirst; satified.

apapipṛc api-pṛc, cl. 7. P. A., Ved. -pṛṇakti, pṛṅkte, -parcitum, to mix with.

apiprāṇa api-prāṇa, as, ī, am, Ved. breathing upon, viivfying, animating (?).

apibaddha api-baddha, as, ā, am, fastened; connected with.

apibhāga api-bhāga, as, ā, am, Ved. having part in, sharing in.

apimṛṣ api-mṛṣ, cl. 4. P. A. -mṛṣyati, -te, -marṣitum, to forget, neglect.

apivṛ api-vṛ, cl. 5. P. -vṛṇoti, -varitum, rītum, to conceal.

apivṛta api-vṛta, as, ā, am, concealed, covered.

apivrata api-vrata, as, m. sharing in the same religious acts, related by blood.

apiśarvara api-śarvara, as, ā, am, Ved. contiguous to the night; being at the beginning or end of the night; (am), n. evening-time or morningtime.

apiśala apiśala, as, m., N. of a man; (ās), m. pl. the descendants of Apiśala.

apiśas api-śas, f. (only used in abl.), Ved. slitting, ripping up.

apiśuna a-piśuna, as, ā, am, unmalicious, upright, honest.

apiṣṭuta api-ṣṭuta, as, ā, am (rt. stu), praised.

apisic api-sic, cl. 6. P. -siñcati, -sektum, to sprinkle with.

apihita api-hita. See api-dhā.

api apī (api-i), cl. 2. P. apy-eti, -tum, to go in or near, to enter into or upon; to come near, approach; to partake, have a share in; to suffer; to join; to pour out (as a river); to dissolve; to enter the other world, to die.

apiyat api-yat, an, atī, at, comiong near.

apīta 1. apīta, as, ā, am, gone into, entered, approached.

apīti apīti, is, f., Ved. entering into, encountering, joining battle, junction; dissolving.

apyaya apy-aya, coming near, union. See s. v.

apicya apīcya, as, ā, am (fr. api-añc), Ved. secret, hidden (incorrectly for apīvya, q. v.).

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apījū apī-jū, ūs, ūs, u, Ved. stirring up, impelling.

apīḍana a-pīḍana, am, n. or a-pīḍā, f. not giving pain, gentleness, kindness.

apīḍayat a-pīḍayat, an, antī, at, without distressing, not paining.

apīta 2. a-pīta, as, ā, am, not drunk.

apītvā a-pītvā, ind. not having drank, without drinking.

apīnasa apī-nasa or pī-nasa, as, m. (apī for api and nasa for nāsikā), dryness of the nose, want of the pituitary secretion and loss of smell, cold.

apīvṛta apī-vṛta = api-vṛta, as, ā, am, covered.

apīvya apīvya, as, ā, am, very hansome, most excellent (?).

apuṃs a-puṃs, -pumān, m. not a man, a eunuch.
     apuṃstva apuṃs-tva, am, n. the state of a eunuch.

apuṃskā a-puṃskā, f. without a husband.

apuccha a-puccha, as, ā, am, tailless; (ā), f. the tree Dalbergia Śiśu.

apuṇya a-puṇya, as, ā, am, unclean, impure, wicked, bad.
     apuṇyakṛt apuṇya-kṛt, t, t, t, acting wickedly, wicked, bad.

aputra a-putra, as, m. not a son; (as, ā, am), or a-putraka, as, ikā, am, having no son, sonless.
     aputratā aputra-tā, f. sonlessness.

aputrikā a-putrikā, f. the daughter of a sonless father, who herself has no male offspring; (as), m. the father of such a daughter.

apunar a-punar, ind. not again, once for ever.
     apunaḥprāpya a-punaḥ-prāpya, as, ā, am, irrecoverable.
     apunaranvaya a-punar-anvaya, as, ā, am, not returning, dead.
     apunarāvṛtti a-punar-āvṛtti, is, f. final exemption from life or transmigration.
     apunardīyamāna a-punar-dīyamāna, as, ā, am, not being given back.
     apunarbhava a-punar-bhava, as, m. not being again; exemption of the soul from further transmigration, final beatitude.
     apunarbhāva a-punar-bhāva, as, m. not being born again.

apurāṇa a-purāṇa, as, ā, am, or a-purātana, as, ī, am, not old, modern, new.

apuruṣa a-puruṣa, as, ā, am, unmanly.
     apuruṣārtha a-puruṣārtha (-ṣa-ar-) as, m. a rite which is not for the benefit of the sacrificer; not the chief object of the soul.

apuro'nuvākyaka a-puro-'nuvākyaka, as, akā, or ikā, am, without a Puronuvākyā.

apurorukka a-purorukka, as, ā, am, without a Puroruc.

apuṣkala a-puṣkala, as, ā, am, not eminent; mean, low.

apuṣṭa a-puṣṭa, as, ā, am, unnourished, lean; soft.

apuṣpa a-puṣpa, as, ā, am, not flowering; (as), m. the glomerous fig tree.
     apuṣpaphala a-puṣpa-phala or a-puṣpa-phala-da, as, ā, am, bearing fruits without flowering; having neither flowers nor fruits; (as), m. the jack tree, Artocarpus Integrifolia, the glomerous fig-tree.

apus apus, us, n., Ved. shape; the same as vapus, q. v.

apūjaka a-pūjaka, as, ikā, am, irreverent, irreligious.

apūjā a-pūjā, f. irreverence, disrespect.

apūjita a-pūjita, as, ā, am, not reverenced or worshipped, contemned, disregarded.

apūjya a-pūjya, as, ā, am, not to be worshipped or rebered.

apūta a-pūta, as, ā, am, impure; not having received the invocatory rite.

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apūpa apūpa, as, m. cake of flour, meal, &c.; a sort of bread; wheat; honey-comb (?).
     apūpanābhi apūpa-nābhi, is, m., Ved. having a navel which consists of or is decorated with cake.
     apūpamaya apūpa-maya, as, ī, am, consisting of cake.
     apūpavat apūpa-vat, ān, atī, at, accompanied with cake.
     apūpāpihita apūpāpihita (-pa-ap-), as, ā, am, covered with cake.

apūpīya apūpīya, as, ā, am, belonging to cake.

apūpya apūpya, am, n. flour, meal.

apūraṇī apūraṇī f. the silk cotton tree, Bombax Heptaphyllum.

apūruṣa a-pūruṣa, as, ā, am, lifeless, inanimate; soulless; unpeopled.
     apūruṣaghna a-pūruṣa-ghna, as, m., Ved. not killing men.

apūrṇa a-pūrṇa, as, ā, am, not full or entire, imperfect, incomplete, deficient; (am), n. an incomplete number, a fraction.
     apūrṇakāla apūrṇa-kāla, as, ā, am, premature; (as), m. incomplete time.
     apūrṇakālaja apūrṇa-kāla-ja, as, ā, am, born before the proper time, abortive.
     apūrṇatā apūrṇa-tā, f. incompleteness.

apūryamāṇa a-pūryamāṇa, as, ā, am, not being full, incomplete.

apūrva a-pūrva, as, ā, am, unpreceded, unprecedented; not having existed before, quite new; unparalleled, incomparable, wonderful, extraordinary; not first; (in Pāṇini) preceded by a or ā; (am), n. the remote or unforeseen consequence of an act, as heaven of religious rites; a consequence not immediately preceded by its cause.
     apūrvakarman apūrva-karman, a, n. a religious rite or sacrifice, the power of which on the future is not before seen.
     apūrvatā apūrva-tā, f. or apūrva-tva, am, n. the being unpreceded, not having existed before, incomparableness, &c.
     apūrvapati a-pūrva-pati, is, f. one who has had no husband before.
     apūrvavat apūrva-vat, ind. singularly, unlike anything else.
     apūrveṇa a-pūrveṇa, ind. never before.

apūrvīya a-pūrvīya, as, ā, am, referring to the remote or unforeseen consequence of an act.

apūrvya a-pūrvya, as, ā, am, Ved. unpreceded, first; having nothing similar before one's self, incomparable, unheard of.

apṛkta a-pṛkta, as, ā, am, unmixed, uncombined; (as), m. (in Pāṇini) a word or an affix consisting of a single letter, i. e. of one not combined with another; (in the Prātiśākhyas) the preposition ā and the particle u.

apṛṇat a-pṛṇat, a, atī, at, Ved. not filling, not propitating by gifts; stingy.

apṛthak a-pṛthak, ind. not separately, with, together with, collectively.
     apṛthagdharmasīla apṛthag-dharma-sīla, as, ā, am, of the same religion.
     apṛthagdhī apṛthag-dhī, īs, īs, i, regarding God in all things.

apṛṣṭa a-pṛṣṭa, as, ā, am, unasked, unaddressed, not spoken to.

ape ape (apa-i), cl. 2. P., cl. 1. A. apaiti, apāyate. apaitum, to go away, withdraw, retire, run away, escape, vanish; to be wanting, to be omitted; to start.

apāya apāya, as, m. going away, departure; destruction, death, annihilation; injury, detriment, loss; misfortune, evil, ill, calamity, danger; end (of a word).

apāyin apāyin, ī, inī, i, going away, departing, vanishing, perishable.

apeta apeta, as, ā, am, escaped, departed, gone; having retired from, free from (with abl. or as last mamber of a comp.).
     apetabhī apeta-bhī, īs, īs, i, one whose fear is gone.
     apetarākṣasī apeta-rākṣasī, f., N. of a plant, Ocimum Sanctum.

apeya apeya, as, ā, am, removed (?).

apehi apehi. See s. v. next col.

apekṣ apekṣ (apa-īkṣ), cl. I. A. ape-kṣate, -ṣitum, to look away, to look round, to look about for something; to have some desing; to have regard to, to respect; to look for, wait for, except, hope; to require, to have an eye to; with na, not to like.

apekṣaṇa apekṣaṇa, am, n. or apekṣā, f. looking round or about; (with the object either in loc. or as the preceding member of a compound) consideration, reference, regard; connection of cause with effect or of individual with species; expectation, hope, desire, need, requirement.
     apekṣayā apekṣayā, with reference to.
     apekṣābuddhi apekṣā-buddhi, is, f. a mental process in the vaiśeṣika philosophy, the faculty of arranging and methodising; clearness of understanding.

apekṣaṇīya apekṣaṇīya or apekṣitavya or apekṣya, as, ā, am, to be considered or regarded, to be looked for or expected, to be wished, desired, or required; desirable.

apekṣita apekṣita, as, ā, am, considered, regarded, referred to, looked for, expected; wished, hoped, required; (am), n. consideration, reference, regard.

apekṣin apekṣin, ī, iṇī, i, (with the object in gen. or as the preceding member of a compound) considering, respecting, regarding, looking to; looking for, expecting, hoping, requiring.

apekṣya apekṣya, ind. having considered, having regard to, with regard or reference to.

apaej apej (apa-ej), cl. 1. A. apejate, -jitum, to remove, drive away. (See Gram. 784. a)

apendra apendra (-pa-in-), as, ā, am, without Indra.

apapeya a-peya, as, ā, am, unfit for drinking, undrinkable.

apeśala a-peśala, as, ā, am, not clever, inexpert.

apeśala a-peśas, ās, ās, as, Ved. formless, shapeless.

apeṣ 1. apeṣ (apa-iṣ), cl. 4. A. apeṣyate, ṣitum, to strive after, aspire to.

apeṣ 2. apeṣ (apa-īṣ), cl. 1. A. apeṣate, ṣitum, to withdraw from, to retire.

apehi apehi (imperative of rt. i with apa), at the beginning of several compounds, means excluding, expelling, denying admission; e. g. apehi-pra-kasā, f. a. ceremony where people are not admitted.
     apehibāṇijā apehi-bāṇijā, f. a. ceremony from which merchants are excluded.
     apehivātā apehi-vātā, f., N. of a plant useful in expelling wind (Poederia).

apaiśuna a-paiśuna, am, n. integrity, honesty, uprightness.

apogaṇḍa a-pogaṇḍa, as, ā, am, not under sixteen years of age; achild or infant; timid, fearful; flaccid; having a limb too many or too few.

apocchad apocchad (apa-ud-chad), cl. 10. P. A. -chādayati, -te, -yitum, to uncover.

apoḍha apoḍha, as, ā, am (fr. rt. vah with apa), carried off, removed, taken away.

apotkṛṣ apot-kṛṣ (apa-ud-kṛṣ), cl. 1. 6. P. A. -karṣati, -te, -kriṣati, -te, -karṣṭum, -kraṣṭum, to separate, disjoin.

apodaka apodaka (-pa-ud-) as, ā, am, waterless, water-tight; not watery, not fluid; (ikā), f. a pot-herb, Basella Rubra or Lucida.

apodi apod-i (apa-ud-i), cl. 2. P. -eti, -tum, to go away altogether, to give way, to withdraw.

apoditya apod-itya, as, ā, am, to be completely gone away from or left.

apoddhārya apod-dhārya, as, ā, am (fr. rt. hṛ with apa and ud), liable to have something taken away.

aponapāt apo-napāt, &c. See under ap.

apobh apobh (apa-ubh), cl. 6. P., Ved. apo-bhati, -ombhati, -bhitum, to bind, fetter.

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aporṇu aporṇu (apa-ūrṇu), cl. 2. P. A. aporṇauti, -ṇoti, -ṇute, -ṇavitum, -ṇuvitum, to uncover, to unveil, to open; A. to uncover one's self.

apoṣ apoṣ (apa-uṣ), cl. 1. P., Ved. apoṣati, apocchati, to dispel darkness (said of the dawn).

apoh apoh (apa-ūh), cl. 1. P. A. apohati, -te, -hitum, to strip off, to push away, to frighten away; to remove, to heal (sickness); A. to keep away from one's self, to avoid, to give up; (in disputation) to object, to deny, to reason, argue.

apoha apoha, as, m. or apohana, am, n. pushing away, removing; removal of doubt by the exercise of the reasoning faculty; reasoning, arguing.

apohanīya apohanīya or apohya, as, ā, am, to be taken away, or removed, or expiated.

apohita apohita, as, ā, am, taken away, removed; established by reason.

apauruṣa a-pauruṣa, am, n. unmanliness, cowardice; superhuman power; (as, ā, am), unmanly, cowardly; superhuman.

apauṣkalya a-pauṣkalya, am, n. immaturity.

apta apta, as, ā, am (fr. obs. rt. ap for later āp), Ved. obtained; watery (?).

aptas aptas, as, n. a sacrificial act.

aptu aptu, us, m., Ved. busy, active, diligent; the body; Soma; a sacrificial animal.

aptur aptur, ūs, m., Ved. active, busy; giving water; running as water.

aptūrya aptūrya, am, n., Ved. zeal, activity; the giving of water.

aptoryāma aptor-yāma, as, or aptor-yāman, ā, m., Ved., N. of a sacrificial ceremony, and of a verse in the Sāma-veda closing that ceremony [cf. vairāja].

aptya aptya, as, ā, am, active, spacious; watery (?).

apna apna, as, m. or apnas, as, n., Ved. possession, property; work, sacrificial act; progeny; shape [cf. Lat. ops].
     apnahstha apnah-stha, as, m., Ved. superintending work.
     apnarāj apna-rāj, ṭ, m., Ved. possessing property; illustrious through work.
     apnasvat apnas-vat, ān, atī, at, Ved. productive, having sacrificial acts or work.

apnavāna apnavāna, as m., Ved. having progeny; the arm; N. of a Ṛṣi; poor (?).

apya apya, as, ā, am, obtainable, to be reached; active, belonging to or connected with work or sacrificial acts, watery.

appa appa, as, m., N. of an author of a book on prosody.

appati appati, is, m. See under ap.

appadīkṣita appadīkṣita or apyadīkṣita or apyayadīkṣita, as, m., N. of an author of the sixteenth century.

appita ap-pitta, am, n. fire; see under ap.

apyac apy-ac, yaṅ, īcī, yak (rt. añc), reaching, gone into, hidden.

apyatyarj apy-aty-arj (api-ati-), cl. 1. P., Ved. -arjati, -jitum, to add over and above.

apyaya apy-aya, as, m. (fr. rt. i with api, see apī), approach, meeting, joining; pouring out; entering, vanishing; junction; (e. g. svāpyaya, entering into one's self, absorption.)
     apayayadīkṣita apayaya-dīkṣita, as, m., N. of a Drāviḍa saint and writer, the author of various works, celebrated as a Śaiva, and thought to be an incarnation of Śiva; (also apyāya- or apyai-, &c.)

apyayana apy-ayana, am, n. union, joining; copulating.

apyardham apy-ardham, ind., Ved. within proximity, near.

apyas apy-as (api-as), cl. 2. P. -asti, (with loc. or with an adv. of place) to be in anything; to be closely connected with, to belong to.

apyuta apy-uta = api and uta, q. v.

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aprakaṭa a-prakaṭa, as, ā, am, unmanifested, unapparent, obscure.

aprakampa a-prakampa, as, ā, am, unsaken, literally and metaphorically; firm, steady; unanswered, unrefuted.
     aprakampatā aprakampa-tā, f. firmness, stability, unanswerableness.

aprakara a-prakara, as, ā, am, not acting excellently.

aprakaraṇa a-prakaraṇa, am, n. not the principal topic, not relevant to the main subject.

aprakṛta a-prakṛta, as, ā, am, not principal, not relevant to the main topic under discussion, not chief; occasional or incidental, not natural.

aprakṛti a-prakṛti, is, f. not the inherent or inseparable property, accidental property or nature; spritual being.

aprakarṣita a-prakarṣita, as, ā, am, not exceeded, not more than; unsurpassed.

aprakṛṣṭa a-prakṛṣṭa, as, ā, am, low, vile; (as), m. a crow.

aprakalpaka a-prakalapaka, as, ikā, am, not prescribing as obligatory.

aprakḷpta a-prakḷpta, as, ā, am, not explicity enjoined.

aprakāṇḍa a-prakāṇḍa, as, ā, am, stemless; (as), m. a bush, a shrub.

aprakāśa a-prakāśa, as, ā, am, not shining, dark; self-illuminated; not visible, hidden, secret; not manifest or evident; (am), ind. in secret; (as), m. indistinctness, secresy, a secret.

aprakāśaka a-prakāśaka, as, ikā, am, not rendering bright; making dark.

aprakāśamāna a-prakāśamāna or a-prakāśita, as, ā, am, not manifested, undivulged, unrevealed, not evident or public.

aprakāśya a-prakāśya, as, ā, am, not to be manifested or divulged.

apraketa a-praketa, as, ā, am, Ved. indiscriminate, unrecognizable.

aprakṣita a-prakṣita, as, ā, am, Ved. undiminished, undecayed.

aprakhara a-prakhara, as, ā, am, dull, obtuse; bland, mild.

apragama a-pragama, as, ā, am, going too fast for others to follow, not to be surpassed.

apragalbha a-pragalbha, as, ā, am, not arrogant, modest.

apragīta a-pragita, as, ā, am, not chaunted aloud.

apraṇa a-praguṇa, as, ā, am, confounded, perplexed.

apragrāha a-pragrāha, as, ā, am, unrestrained, unbridled.

apracaṅkaśa a-pracaṅkaśa, as, ā, am, Ved. without power of seeing; not beautiful (?).

apracura a-pracura, as, ā, am, little, few.

apracetas a-pracetas, ās, ās, as, Ved. deficient in understanding, foolish.

apracetita a-pracetita, as, ā, am, unknown.

apracodita a-pracodita, as, ā, am, undesired, not bidden or commanded; undeclared, not said; unasked.

apracchedya a-pracchedya, as, ā, am, inscrutable.

apracyuta a-pracyuta, as, ā, am, unmoved; (with abl.) not fallen or deviating from, observing, following.

apraja a-praja, as, ā, am (rt. jan), without progeny, childless; unborn; unpeopled; (ā), f. not bearing, unprolific, having no child.

aprajajñi 1. a-prajajñi, is, is, i (rt jan), without progeny.

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aprajas a-prajas, ās, ās, as, without progeny, childless.
     aprajastā aprajas-tā, f. or aprajas-tva or aprajās-tva, am, n. childlessness.

aprajāta a-prajāta, as, ā, am, childless, having no progeny.

aprajajñi 2. a-prajajñi, is, is, i (rt. jñā), Ved. inexperienced, inexpert.

apraṇīta a-praṇīta, as, ā, am (rt. ), unconsecrated, profane, common; (am), n. the act of frying clarified butter without consecrated water.

apraṇodya a-praṇodya, as, ā, am (rt. nud), not to be turned away.

aprata a-prat, n, tī, t (rt. prā), Ved. not affluent; apratā, inst. c. without wealth.

apratarkya a-pratarkya, as, ā, am, not to be discussed; incomprehensible by reason, undefinable.

apratāpa a-pratāpa, as, m. want of brilliancy, dulness; meanness, want of dignity.

aprati a-prati, is, is, i, Ved. without opponents, irresistible; unequalled; (i), ind. irresistibly. --1. aprati-rūpa, as, ā, am, of unequalled form, incomparable [cf. 2. a-pratirūpa, p. 58].
     apratirūpakathā aprati-rūpa-kathā, f. incomparable or unanswerable discourse.
     aprativīrya aprati-vīrya, as, ā, am, of irresistible power.

apratikara a-pratikara, as, ā, am, trusted, trusting, confidential.

apratikarman a-pratikarman, ā, ā, a, of unparalleled deeds.

apratikāra a-pratikāra or a-pratīkāra, as, m. not remedying, non-requital, non-retalination; (as, ā, am), irremediable, helpless, defenceless.

apratikārin a-pratikārin, ī, iṇī, i, not remedying, not counteracting.

apratigṛhya a-pratigṛhya, as, ā, am, one from whom one must not accept anything.

apratigrāhaka a-pratigrāhaka, as, ikā, am, not accepting.

apratigrāhya a-pratigrāhya, as, ā, am, not to be taken, unacceptable.

apratigha a-pratigha, as, ā, am (rt. han), not to be kept off, not to be vanquished.

apratidvandva a-pratidvandva, as, ā, am, not having an adversary in battle; not to be vanquished; irresistible.
     apratidvandvatā apratidvandva-tā, f. unrivalledness.

apratidhura a-pratidhura, as, ā, am, Ved. without a match in carrying burdens or the yoke (said of a horse).

apratidhṛṣṭa a-pratidhṛṣṭa, as, ā, am, not to be opposed, irresistible.
     apratidhṛṣṭaśavas apratidhṛṣṭa-śavas, ās, ās, as, Ved. of irresistible power.

apratidhṛṣya a-pratidhṛṣya, as, ā, am, Ved. irresistible.

apapratipakṣa a-pratipakṣa, as, ā, am, without a rival or opponent.

apratipaṇya a-pratipaṇya, as, ā, am, not to be bartered or exchanged.

apratipatti a-pratipatti, is, f. non-ascertainment; non-performance, failure; neglect, disregard.

apratipad a-pratipad, t, t, t, not stopping; not to be depended on.

apratipanna a-pratipanna, as, ā, am, unascertained, unaccomplished, neglected.

apratibandha a-pratibandha, as, m. absence of obstruction; (as, ā, am), unimpeded, undisputed, direct (inheritnce), not collateral or presumptive.

apratibala a-pratibala, as, ā, am, of unequalled power.

apratibodhavat a-pratibodhavat, ān, atī, at, without the sense of personal consciousness.

apratibruvat a-pratibruvat, an, atī, at, Ved. not speaking agaist, not contradicting.

apratibha a-pratibha, as, ā, am, modest, bashful; (ā), f. shyness, timidity.

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apratima a-pratima, as, ā, am, unequalled, incomparable, without a match.

apratimanyūyamāna a-pratimanyūyamāna, as, ā, am, Ved. being unable to show one's resentment to another, or to retaliate anger for anger.

apratiyatna a-pratiyatna, as, m. natural or spontaneous state or condition.

apratiyogin a-pratiyogin, ī, inī, i, without adversary; not opposed (to one another), having no opposite.

apratiratha a-pratiratha, as, m. having no antagonist, an invincible warrior; N. of a Ṛṣi; (am), n., N. of a hymn composed by Apratiratha.

apratirava a-pratirava, as, ā, am, uncontested, undisputed.

apratirūpa 2. a-pratirūpa, as, ā, am, not corresponding with, unfit. (For 1. see under a-prati.)

apratilabdhakāma a-pratilabdha-kāma, as, ā, am, unsatiated in one's desires.

apratiṣiddha a-pratiṣiddha, as, ā, am (rt. 2. sidh), unprohibited, unforbidden.

apratiṣedha a-pratiṣedha, as, m. non-prohibition, non-negation.

apratiṣkuta a-pratiṣkuta, as, ā, am, Ved. not to be kept off, not to be resisted, not contradicted, not refused.

apratiṣṭha a-pratiṣṭha, as, ā, am, having no solid ground, fluctuating; thrown away, unprofitable; infamous, disreputable; (as), m., N. of a hell; (ā), f. instability, absence of reputation, ill-fame, dishonour.

apratiṣṭhāna a-pratiṣṭhāna, as, ā, am, Ved. without solid or firm ground; (am), n. instability.

apratiṣṭhita a-pratiṣṭhita, as, ā, am, unsettled, unfixed; unconsecrated; uncelebrated, obscure.

apratisaṅkrama a-pratisaṅkrama, as, ā, am, having no intermixture.

apratisaṅkhya a-pratisaṅkhya, as, ā, am, unobserved.
     apratisaṅkhyanirodha apratisaṅkhya-nirodha, as, m. the unobserved nullity or annihilation of an object.

apratihata a-pratihata, as, ā, am, uninterrupted, unobstructed, irresistible; unaffected, unimpaired, indestructible, uninjured; not disappointed.
     apratihatanetra apratihata-netra, as, m., N. of a Buddhist deity (whose eyes are unimpeded).

apratīkāra a-pratīkāra. See under a-pra-tikara, p. 57.

apratīkṣam a-pratīkṣam, ind. without looking backward.

apratīta a-pratīta, as, ā, am (rt. i with prati), unapproached, unattackable; unopposed; unintelligible, not understood.
     apratītatā apratīta-tā, f. unintelligibleness.

apratīti a-pratīti, is, f. the state of not being understood; mistrust, want of confidence.

apratītta a-pratītta, as, ā, am (for a-pra-tidatta, fr. rt. with prati), Ved. not given back.

apratīpa a-pratīpa, as, m., N. of a king of Magadha.

apratula a-pratula, as, m. want of weight, want, necessity.

apratta a-pratta, as, ā, am (for a-pradatta, fr. rt. with pra), not given away; (ā), f. not given away in marriage, a girl.

apratyakṣa a-pratyakṣa, as, ā, am, not present to the sight, invisible, imperceptible; unknown.
     apratyakṣatā apratyakṣa-tā, f. imperceptibility.
     apratyakṣaśiṣṭa a-praty-akṣa-śiṣṭa, as, ā, am, not distinctly taught.

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apratyaya a-pratyaya, as, m. distrust, disbelief, doubt; not an affix; (as, ā, am), distrustful (with loc.); having no affix.
     apratyayastha a-pratyaya-stha, as, ā, am, (in gram.) not pertaining to an affix.

apratyākhyāta a-pratyākhyāta, as, ā, am, uncontradicted, unrefuted, assented to.

apratyākhyāna a-pratyākhyāna, am, n. non-refutation.

apratyākhyeya a-pratyākhyeya, as, ā, am, not to be contradicted, undeniable.

apratyṛta a-pratyaṛta, as, ā, am, not attacked.

aprathita a-prathita, as, ā, am, unpublished; unnoted, unknown, not celebrated.

apradīptāgni a-pradīptāgni (-ta-ag-), is, is, i, dyspeptic.

apradugdha a-pradugdha, as, ā, am, Ved. not milked to the end.

apradṛpita a-pradṛpita, as, ā, am, Ved. not proud, not arrogant; not humbled, not careless (?).

apradhāna a-pradhāna, as, ā, am, not principal, subordinate, secondary.
     apradhānatā apradhāna-tā, f. or apradhāna-tva, am, n. subordination, inferiority.

apradhṛṣya a-pradhṛṣya, as, ā, am, not to be vanquished, invincible.

aprapadana a-prapadana, am, n., Ved. a bad place of refuge.

aprabala a-prabala, as, ā, am, inefficacious, weak.

aprabha a-prabha, as, ā, am, without radiance, obscure; dull; mean.

aprabhu a-prabhu, us, us, u, wanting power, unable, incompetent (with loc.).
     aprabhutva aprabhu-tva, am, n. want of power, insufficiently.

aprabhūta a-prabhūta, as, ā, am, insufficient, inadequate.

aprabhūti a-prabhūti, is, f. little effort.

apramatta a-pramatta, as, ā, am, not careless, careful, attentive, vigilant, sober.

apramāda a-pramāda, as, m. care, vigilance; (as, ā, am), careful, cautious, steady; (am), ind. attentively, carefully; without interruption.

apramādin a-pramādin, ī, inī, i, careful, attentive.

apramada a-pramada, as, ā, am, without pleasure, joyless.

apramaya a-pramaya, as, a, am, Ved. unlimited, imperishable.

apramā a-pramā, f. a rule which is no authority (see a-pramāṇa); incorrect knowledge.

apramāṇa a-pramāṇa, as, ā, am, immeasurable, unlimited; without weight or proof, without authority; (am), n. a rule which is no standard of action.
     apramāṇavid a-pramāṇa-vid, t, t, t, incapable of weighing evidence.
     apramāṇaśubha apramāṇa-śubha, ās, m. pl. of immeasurable virtue; N. of a class of Buddhist divinities.
     apramāṇābha apramāṇābha (-ṇa-ābha), ās, m. pl. of unlimited splendor; N. of a class of divinities in Buddhism.

apramāṇika a-pramāṇika, as, ā, am, unauthorized; properly a-prāmāṇika, q. v.

apramita a-pramita, as, ā, am, unbounded, unmeasured; not proved, not established by authority.

aprameya a-prameya, as, ā, am, immeasurable; unfathomable, inscrutable; not to be proved.
     aprameyātman aprame-yātman (-ya-āt-), ā, m. of inscrutable spirit, an epithet of Śiva.
     aprameyānubhāva aprameyānubhāva (-ya-an-), as, ā, am, of unlimited energy.

apramāyuka a-pramāyuka, as, ā, am, Ved. not dying suddenly (?), immeasurably long (?).

apramīya a-pramīya, as, ā, am, Ved. not to be killed.

apramūra a-pramūra, Ved. or a-pramūrcchita, as, ā, am, not foolish, prudent.

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apramṛṣya a-pramṛṣya, as, ā, am, not to be destroyed, indestructible.

apramoda a-pramoda, am, n. inability to remove pain.

aprayatna a-prayatna, as, m. absence of effort, indifference, laziness; (as, ā, am), not energetic, indifferent, apathetic, not devoted to (with loc.).

aprayāṇi a-prayāṇi, is, f. not going, not moving.

aprayāpaṇi a-prayāpaṇi or a-prayāpani, is, f. not causing to go on; not alloeing to progress.

apaprayāvam a-prayāvam, ind. (rt. yu), Ved. without interruption, attentively.

aprayucchat a-prayucchat, an, antī, at Ved. unceasing, careful, attentive.

aprayuta a-prayuta, as, ā, am, Ved. unaltered, continual.

aprayutvan a-prayutvan, ā, ā, a, Ved. not separate, combined, careful.

aprayāsa a-prayāsa, as, m. ease, absence of trouble.

aprayoga a-prayoga, as, m. non-applicability, bad application.

aprayojaka a-prayojaka, as, ikā or akā, am, inapplicable, causeless, irrelevant.

apralamba a-pralamba, as, ā, am, not slow, quick, expeditious.

apravartaka a-pravartaka, as, ikā, am, abstaining from action, inert; not exciting to action.

apravartana a-pravartana, am, n. the act of refraining from, not engagingin; not exciting to any action.

apravṛtta a-pravṛtta, as, ā, am, not acting, not engaged in, not commwenced, not instigated.

apravṛtti a-pravṛtti, is, f. not proceeding; abstaining from action, inertion; non-excitement; (in medic.) suppression of the natural evacuations, constipation, ischury, &c.

apravīṇa a-pravīṇa, as, ā, am, unskilful.

apravīta a-pravīta, as, ā, am, Ved. unapproached; not approaching (to impregnate); not impregnated.

apravṛddha a-pravṛddha, as, ā, am, not excessively grown.

apraveda a-praveda, as, ā, am, Ved. difficult to be found or obtained; silent (?).

apraśakta a-praśakta, a-praśakti, probably for a-prasakta, a-prasakti, q. v. below.

apraśasta I. a-praśasta, as, ā, am (rt. śaṃs), not praised, worthless, contemptible; not approved, forbidden.

apraśasya a-praśasya, as, ā, am, not praiseworthy, not good.

apraśasta 2. a-praśasta, as, ā, am (rt. śās), Ved. indocile, disobedient.

aprasakta a-prasakta, as, ā, am (rt. sañj), not addicted, not attached to; moderate, temperate.

aprasakti a-prasakti, is, f. or a-prasaṅga, as, m. nonaddiction, non-attachment, moderation.

aprasanna a-prasanna, as, ā, am (rt. sad), not quiet, not clear, turbid, muddy; displeased, dissatisfied, unfavourable.

aprasāda a-prasāda, as, m. disfavour, disapprobation.

aprasādya a-prasādya, as, ā, am, not to be propitiated; unappeasable, implacable.

aprasava a-prasava, as, ā, am (rt. su or ), not being prolific; (as), m. the not being born.

aprasūta a-prasūta, as, ā, am, not having offspring, barren, childless.

aprasahya a-prasahya, as, ā, am, intolerable, insufferable.

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aprasiddha a-prasiddha, as, ā, am, not settled or established; unknown, uncelebrated; unusual, uncommon, of no real existence, not current or generally known.
     aprasiddhapada aprasiddha-pada, am, n. an obsolete word.

aprastuta a-prastuta, as, ā, am, unconnected with, irrelevant, unsuitable to the time or subject; not principal, not being the chief subject-matter; accidental or extraneous; not ready.

aprastāvika a-prastāvika, as, ī, am, irrelevant to the subjectmatter.

aprahata a-prahatta, as, ā, am, unhurt, intact; untilled, waste; uncultivated.

aprahan a-prahan, ā, ā, a, or a-prahantṛ, tā, trī, tṛ, not hurting.

aprahita a-prahita, as, ā, am, Ved. not stirred up, not sent out, unassailed (by foes).

aprākṛta a-prākṛta, as, ā, am, not principal; not original; special, particular; not vulgar.

aprāgrya a-prāgrya, as, ā, am, secondary, subordinate.

aprācīna a-prācīna, as, ā, am, modern, recent; not eastern, western.

aprājña a-prājña, as, ā, am, unlearned, ignorant; unconscious.
     aprājñatā aprājña-tā, f. ignorance, unconsciousness.

aprāṇa a-prāṇa, as, ā, am, or a-prāṇin, ī, inī, i, inanimate, lifeless.

aprādhānya a-prādhānya, am, n. inferiority, subordination.

aprāpta a-prāpta, as, ā, am (rt. āp with pra), unobtained; unarrived; unproved.
     aprāptakāla aprāpta-kāla, as, ā, am, out of season, inopportune, ill-timed; under age; (am), n. an irregular debate.
     aprāptayauvana aprāpta-yauvana, as, ā, am, not arrived at puberty.
     aprāptavyavahāra a-prāpta-vyavahāra or aprāpta-vayas, ās, ās, as, a minor in law; under age, not of years to engage in law or public business.
     aprāptāvasara aprāptāvasara (-ta-av-), as, ā, am, unseasonable, inopportune.

aprāpti a-prāpti, is, f. non-attainment, non-acquisition, scarcity.

aprāpya a-prāpya, ind. not having found; (as, ā, am), unobtainable, unattainable, scarce.

aprāmāṇika a-prāmāṇika, as, ī, am, unauthentic, unwarranted, unauthoritative, unworthy of being trusted or believed.

aprāmāṇya a-prāmāṇya, am, n. absence or insufficiency of proof or authority.

aprāmisatya a-prāmi-satya, as, ā, am (rt. with pra), Ved. of unimpaired truthfulness; unalterably true.

aprāyatya a-prāyatya, am, n. impurity, ungovernableness.

aprāyu a-prāyu, us, us, u, Ved. assiduous, unceasing, not going forth (?).

aprāyus a-prāyus, us, m., Ved. not ceasing; with undeparted life, with unimpaired or ever brilliant vigour.

apriya a-priya, as, ā, am, disagreeable, disliked; unkind, unfriendly; (as), m. a foe, an enemy; N. of a Yaksha; (ā), f. a sort of skeat fish, Silurus Pungentissimus.
     apriyakara apriya-kara, as, ā or ī, am, or apriya-kārin, ī, iṇī, i, doing an unkindness; unfriendly, ill-disposed.
     apriyabhāgin apriya-bhāgin, ī, inī, i, unfortunate.
     apriyavādin apriya-vādin, ī, inī, i or apriyaṃ-vada, as, ā, am, speaking unkindly or harshly.

aprīti a-prīti, is, f. dislike, aversion, unfriendliness, enmity; pain.
     aprītikara aprīti-kara, as, ī, am, unkind, adverse; disagreeable, offensive.
     aprītyātmaka aprīty-ātmaka, as, ikā, am, consisting of pain.

apretarākṣasī apreta-rākṣasī, f., N. of a plant, Ocimum Sanctum; see apeta-rākṣasī, p. 56.

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apreman a-preman, a, n. dislike, aversion; (ā, ā, a), unfriendly.

apraiṣa a-praiṣa, as, ā, am, not invoked with a praiṣa (q. v.) mantra.

aproṣivas a-proṣivas, -vān, -ṣuṣī, -vat (rt. vas, perf. part.), Ved. not gone away, staying.

aprauḍha a-prauḍha, as, ā, am, not arrogant, timid, gentle; (ā), f. an unmarried girl, or one very recently married and not come to womanhood.

aplava a-plava, as, ā, am, without a ship; not swimming.
     aplaveśa a-plaveśa (-va-īśa), as, ā, am, unable to swim.

apvā apvā, f. (fr. apa or fr. obs. rt. ap?), disease; danger; the region of the throat or neck.

apsa 1. ap-sa, as, m., Ved. giving or yielding (ap) water [cf. ap-sā below].

apsa 2. a-psa, as, m., Ved. not destroying.

apsara ap-sara, as, m. water-goer, any aquatic animal (see etym. of next).

apsaras apsaras, ās, or apsarā, f. (fr. ap, q. v., and rt. sṛ, 'going in the waters or between the waters of the clouds'); certain female divinities, who reside in the sky and are the wives of the Gandharvas; they have the faculty of changing their shapes, are very fond of bathing, and are said to have been produced at the churning of the ocean.
     apsaraḥpati apsa-raḥ-pati, is, m. Indra, lord of the Apsarasas.
     apsarastīrtha apsa-ras-tīrtha, am, n. a pool in which the Apsarasas bathe.
     apsarāpati apsarā-pati, is, m. lord of the Apsarasas; N. of the Gandharva Śikhaṇḍin.

apsarāya apsarāya, nom. A. apsarāyate, -yitum, to behave like an Apsaras.

apsava apsava, as, ā, am, Ved. (if from apsas) possessed of form or shape; (if from ap) giving water.

apsavya apsavya, as, ā, am, fit for water, being in the water.

apsas apsas, as, n. (fr. obs. rt. ap), Ved. cheek; shape, beauty (?).

apsā ap-sā, ās, m. (fr. ap and rt. san), Ved. giving water.

apsu 1. a-psu, us, us, u, Ved. without food; not beautiful (?).

apsu 2. apsu (loc. pl. of ap, q. v.), in the water or waters. This word forms the first member of various compounds, thus:
     apsukṣit apsu-kṣit, t, m., Ved. dwelling within the clouds, in the region between heaven and earth.
     apsucaru apsu-caru, as, ī, am, Ved. going in the waters.
     apsuja apsu-ja, as, ā, am, or apsu-jā, ās, ās, m. f., Ved. born in the waters.
     apsujit apsu-jit, t, t, t, Ved. vanquishing between the waters or in the region of the clouds.
     apsumat apsu-mat, ān, atī, at, possessed of what is in the waters; mot losing one's nature in the water (e. g. the lightning does not lose his fiery nature in the clouds); containing the word apsu.
     apsuyoga apsu-yoga, as, m. the connecting power in water.
     apsuyoni apsu-yoni, is, m., Ved. born from the waters.
     apsuvāh apsu-vāh, ṭ, m., Ved. driving in water.
     apsuṣad apsu-ṣad, t, t, t, Ved. dwelling in the waters.
     apsusoma apsu-soma, as, m. Soma in water; a cup filled with water.
     apsusaṃśita apsu-saṃśita, as, ā, am, Ved. raised or excited in the waters.

aphala a-phala, as, ā, am, unfruitful, barren; vain, unproductive; deprived of virility; (as), m., N, of a plant, Tamarix Indica; (ā), f. the Aloe plant, Aloes Perfoliata; another plant, Flacourtia Cataphracta.
     aphalakāṅkṣin a-phala-kāṅkṣin, ī, iṇī, i, disintereted, not looking to beneficial consequendces.
     aphalatā aphala-tā, f. or aphala-tva, am, n. barreness, unprofitableness.
     aphalaprepsu a-phala-prepsu, us, us, u, one who desires no recompense.

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aphalgu a-phalgu, us, us, u, not vain, prodictive, profitable.

aphulla a-phulla, as, ā, am, unblown.

aphena 1. a-phena, as, ā, am, frothless, without scum or foam.

aphena 2. a-phena, am, n. (corruption of ahi-phena, foam of a snake?), opium.

abaddha a-baddha, as, ā, am, or a-baddhaka, as, ikā, am (rt. bandh), unbound, at liberty; unmeaning, nonsensical.
     abaddhamukha abaddha-mukha, as, ā, am, foul-mouthed, scurrilous; mendacious.

abadhya 1. a-badhya, as, ā, am, unmeaning, nonsensical.

abandhaka a-bandhaka, as, ikā, am, not binding; (as), m., N. of a man; (ās), m. pl. the descendants of this man.

abandhana a-bandhana, as, ā, am, without fetters, free.

abandhya a-bandhya. See s. v. below.

abandhra a-bandhra, as, ā, am, Ved. without bonds or ligatures, falling asunder.

abadha a-badha, as, m. (rt. badh), not killing; (ā), f. a segment of the base of a triangle, see a-vadha.
     abadhārha abadhārha (-dha-ar-), as, ā, am, not worthy of death.

abadhya 2. a-badhya, as, ā, am, not to be killed, inviolable; see also a-vadhya.
     abadhyabhāva abadhya-bhāva, as, m. immunity, sacredness of character, as, that of an ambassador.

abandhu a-bandhu, us, us, u, without kindered, without companions, friendless.
     abandhukṛt abandhu-kṛt, t, t, t, Ved. causing want of companions.

abāndhava a-bāndhava, as, ā, am, having no relation or kindered, lone, unacknowledged, unowned.

abandhya a-bandhya, as, ā, am, not barren, not unfruitful, fruitful, productive.

abala a-bala, as, ā, am, weak, feeble, infirm; (as), m., N. of a plant, Tapia Crataeva; N. of a king of Magadha; (ā), f. a woman; one of the ten Buddhist earths; (am), n. want of strength, weakness [with abala have been compared, Goth. ubils, Them. ubila; Mod. Germ. uebel; Eng. 'evil]. --Abala-dhanvan, ā, ā, a, possessing a weak bow.
     abalābala abalābala (-la-ab-), as, m. 'neither powerful nor powerless;' an epithet of Śiva.

abalāsa a-balāsa, as, ā, am, not consumptive.

abalīyas abalīyas, ān, asī, as, weaker.

abalya a-balya, am, n. weakness, sickness.

abahu a-bahu, us, us, or vī, u, not many, few.
     abahvakṣara abahv-akṣara, as, ā, am, or abahv-ac, c, c, c, having not more than two syllables.

abādha a-bādha, as, ā, am, unobstructed, unrestrained; free from pain; (ā), f. segment of the base of a triangle [cf. a-badhā under a-badha above].

abādhaka a-bādhaka, as, aikā, am, or a-bādhita, as, ā, am, unimpeded, unobstructed; unrefuted.

abādhya a-bādhya, as, ā, am, improper to be opposed or pained.

abāndhava a-bāndhava. See a-bandhu.

abāliśa a-bāliśa, as, ā, am, not childish.

abālendu a-bālendu (-la-in-), us, m. full moon.

abāhya a-bāhya, as, ā, am, not exterior, internal; without an exterior.

abindhana ab-indhana, as, m. 'having (ap) water for fuel', submarine fire.

abibhīvas a-bibhīvas, ān, bhyuṣī, at, or a-bibhyat, at, atī, at, Ved. fearless, confident.

abuddha a-buddha, as, ā, am, unwise, foolish.
     abuddhatva a-buddha-tva, am, n. foolishness.

abuddhi a-buddhi, is, f. want of understanding; ignorance; stupidity; (is, is, i), ignorant, stupid.
     abuddhipūrva a-buddhi-pūrva or a-buddhi-pūrvaka, as, ā, am, not preceded by intelligence; beginning with non-intelligence; (am), ind. ignorantly.
     abuddhimat abuddhi-mat, ān, atī, at, unwise, ignorant, foolish.

abudh a-budh, bhut, t, t, or a-budha, as, ā, am, stupid, foolish; (as), m. a fool.

abudhya a-budhya, as, ā, am, Ved. not to be perceived; not to be awakened.

abudhyamāna a-budhyamāna, as ,ā, am, not being awake.

abodha a-bodha, as, m. ignorance, stupidity; (as, ā, am), ignorant, stupid; puzzled, perplexed.
     abodhagamya a-bodha-ga-mya, as, ā, am, incomprehensible.

abodhanīya a-bodhanīya, as, ā, am, unintelligible; not to be awakened or aroused.

abudhna a-budhna, am, n., Ved. 'having nobottom or root', the air or intermediate region.

abja ab-ja, as, ā, am (fr. ap and rt. jan), born in water; (as), m. the conch; the moon; the tree Barringtonia Acutangula; Dhanvantari, physician of the gods, produced at the churning of the ocean; N. of a son of Viśala; (am), n. a lotus; a large number of millions.
     abjaja abja-ja, as, m. an epithet of Brahmā (sprung at the creation from the lotus, which arose from the navel of Viṣṇu).
     abjadṛś abja-dṛś, k, k, k, or abja-nayana, as, ā, am, or abja-netra, as, ā, am, lotus-eyed, having large fine eyes.
     abjabāndhava abja-bāndhava, as, m. the sun (friend of the lotus).
     abjabhava abja-bhava, as, m. Brahmā, a Brāhman.
     abjabhoga abja-bhoga, as, m. the root of a lotus.
     abjayoni abja-yoni, is, m. eopithet of Brahmā [cf. abja-ja].
     abjavāhana abja-vāhana, as, m. epithet of Śiva, 'carrying the moon' on his forehead.
     abjahasta abja-hasta, as, m. the sun (represented as holding a lotus in one hand).

abjā ab-jā, ās, m., Ved. born in water.

abjinī abjinī, f. a multitude of lotus flowers.
     abjinīpati abjinī-pati, is, m. the sun.

abjas abjas, as, n. shape, beauty [cf. apsas].

abjit ab-jit, t, t, t (fr. ap and rt. ji), Ved. conquering waters.

abda ab-da, as, ā, am, (fr. ap and rt. ), giving water; (as), m. a cloud; a year; the grass Cyperus Rotundus; N. of a mountain.
     abdatantra abda-tantra, am, n., N. of an astronomical work.
     abdavāhana abda-vāhana, as, m., N. of Śiva (? borne on a cloud or bearing the clouds).
     abdaśata abda-śata, am, n. a century.
     abdasahasra abda-sahasra, am, n. a thousand years.
     abdasāra abda-sāra, as, m. a kind of cimphor.
     abdārdha abdārdha (-da-ar-), am, n. a half year.

abdayā abdayā, ind., Ved. out of desire of giving water.

abdi ab-di, is, m., Ved. a cloud.
     abdimat abdi-mat, ān, atī, at, Ved. possessed of clouds, giving water, impregnating (?).

abdurga ab-durga, am, n. (see ap), a fortress surrounded by a moat or lake.

abdevatāka ab-devatāka or ab-daivata, as, ā, am (see ap), having the waters as divinities, praising the waters.

abdhi ab-dhi, is, m. (fr. ap and rt. dhā), a pond, lake; the ocean; sometimes used to denote the numerals 4 or (?) 7.
     abdhikapha abdhi-kapha, as, m. cuttle fish bone, being considered as the forth of the sea.
     abdhija abdhi-ja, as, ā, am, born in the ocean; (au), m. the aśvins; (ā), f. spirituous liquor.
     abdhijhaṣa abdhi-jhaṣa, as, m. a sea-fish.
     abdhidvīpā abdhi-dvīpā, f, earth; an island surrounded by the ocean.
     abdhinagarī abdhi-nagarī, f., N. of Dvārakā, the capital of Kriṣṇa.
     abdhinavanītaka abdhi-na-vanītaka, as, m. the moon.
     abdhiphena abdhi-phena, as, m. cuttle fish bone.
     abdhimaṇḍūkī abdhi-maṇḍūkī, f. the pearl oyster.
     abdhiśayamna abdhi-śayamna, as, m., N. of Viṣṇu, sleeping on the ocean at the periods of the destruction and renovation of the world.
     abdhisāra abdhi-sāra, as, m. a gem.
     abdhyāgni abdhya-agni, is, m. submarine fire.

abbhakṣa ab-bhakṣa, as, ā, am (fr. ap and rt. bhakṣ), living upon water; (as), m. a snake.

abbhakṣaṇa ab-bhakṣaṇa, am, n. living upon water, a kind of fasting.

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abbhra ab-bhra. See abhra, &c.

abrahmacarya a-brahmacarya, as, ā, am, unchaste.

abrahmacaryaka a-brahma-caryaka, am, n. incontinence, coition.

abrahmaṇya a-brahmaṇya, am, n. act not proper for a Brāhman; an unbrahmanical or sacrilegious act; in theatrical language an exclamation, meaning 'help!' 'to the rescue!' 'a disgraceful deed is perpetrated!'

abrahman a-brahman, ā, ā, a, Ved. unaccompanied by devotion or devotional hymns, wanting in knowledge or divine wisdom; separated from the Brāhmans.
     abrahmatā abrahma-tā, f., Ved. want of devotion or true divine knowledge.
     abrahmavid a-brahma-vid, t, t, t, not knowing Brahma or the supreme spirit.

abrāhmaṇa a-brāhmaṇa, as, m. not a Brāhman; (as, ā, am), without Brāhman.

abrāhmaṇya a-brāhmaṇya, am, n. violation of sanctity, or of the duty of a Brāhman.

abruvat a-bruvat, an, atī, at, not speaking, silent.

abrūkṛta abrū-kṛta, am, n. making (abrū) a growling; indistinctness of speech caused by shutting the lips.

abliṅga ab-liṅga, am, n. (see ap), a sūkta or verse addressed to the waters.

abvindu ab-vindu, us, m. (see ap), a tear.

abh abh. See ambh.

abhakta 1. a-bhakta, as, ā, am, unbelieving, not devoted, not worshipping; not attached to, detached, unconnected with; not accepted.

abhakti a-bhakti, is, f. want of devotion to, want of faith, unbelief, incredulity.
     abhaktimat abhakti-mat, ān, atī, at, undevoted to, unbelieving.

abhakta 2. a-bhakta, as, ā, am, not eaten.
     abhaktacchandas a-bhakta-cchandas, as, n. or a-bhakta-ruc, k, f. want of appetite.

abhakṣa a-bhakṣa, as, m. or a-bhakṣaṇa, am, n. not eating anything, fasting.

abhakṣya a-bhakṣya, as, ā, am, not to be eaten.
     abhakṣyabhakṣaṇa a-bhakṣya-bhakṣaṇa, am, n. eating of prohibited food.
     abhakṣyabhakṣin abhakṣya-bhakṣin, īm, iṇī, i, eating forbidden food.

abhaga a-bhaga, as, ā, am, without enjoyment, unfortunate.

abhagna a-bhagna, as, ā, am, unbroken, entire; uniterrupted.

abhaṅgura a-bhaṅgura, as, ā, am, unbroken; firm; undisturbed.

abhajyamāna a-bhajyamāna, as, ā, am, not being detached, associated, attended with.

abhadra a-bhadra, as, ā, am, not good, bad, wicked; (am), n. badness, sin, wickedness.

abhaya a-bhaya, as, ā, am, unfearful, not dangerous, secure; fearless, undaunted; (as), m., N. of Śiva; a son of Dharma; (ā), f. a plant, Terminalia Citrina; (am), n, absence or removal of fear, peace, safety, security; N. of a sacrificial hymn; the root of a fragrant grass, Andropogon Muricatum.
     abhayagirivāsin abhaya-giri-vāsin, ī, m. dwelling on the mountain of safety; N. of a division of Kātyāyana's pulpils.
     abhayagirivihāra abhaya-giri-vihāra, as, m. Buddhist monastery on the Abhayagiri.
     abhayaṅkara abhayaṅ-kara, as, ā, am, or abhayaṅ-kṛt, t, t, t, causing peace of safety.
     abhayajāta abhaya-jāta, as, m., N. of a man.
     abhayaḍiṇḍima abhaya-ḍiṇḍima, as, m. a war-drum.
     abhayada a-bhaya-da or abhayan-dada or abhayam-prada, as, ā, am, giving fearlessness or safety; (as), m. an Arhat of the Jainas; N. of a king, the son of Manusyu and father of Su-dhanvan.
     abhayadakṣiṇā abhaya-dakṣiṇā, f. promise or present of protection from danger; a gift to a Brāhman, which he may receive even from a Śūdra.
     abhayadāna abhaya-dāna or abhaya-pradāna, am, n. giving assurance of safety or protection.
     abhayapattra abhaya-pattra, am, n. (a modern term), a written document or paper granting assurance of safety, a safe conduct.
     abhayavacana abhaya-vacana, am, n. or abhaya-vāc, k, f. assurance of safety, encouragement.
     abhayasani abhaya-sani, is, is, i, Ved. giving safety.
     abhayānanda abhayānanda (-ya-ān-), as, m., N. of a man.

abhartṛkā a-bhartṛkā, f. an unmarried woman; a widow.

abhava a-bhava, as, m. non-existence; destruction, end of the world.

abhavanīya a-bhavanīya or a-bhavitavya, as, ā, am, what is not to be, what will not be.

abhavanmatayoga a-bhavan-mata-yoga or a-bhavan-mata-sam-bandha, as, m. (in rhetoric) a defect in composition; want of harmony between the ideas, which are to be expresse, and the words by which they are expressed.

abhavya a-bhavya, as, ā, am, not to be, not predestined; what ought not to be, improper, inauspicious.

abhastra a-bhastra, as, ā, am, without bellows.

abhastrakā a-bhastrakā or a-bhastrikā or a-bhastrākā, f. a badly made or inferior pair of bellows. The former two are said to mean also, 'a small woman who has no bellows.'

abhāga a-bhāga, as, ā, am or a-bhāgin, ī, inī, i, not sharing or dividing.

abhāgya a-bhāgya, as, ā, am, unfortunate, wretched.

abhāva a-bhāva, as, m. non-existence, absence; non-entity, negation, nullity, the seventh category in Kaṇāda's system; annihilation, death.

abhāvanā a-bhāvanā, am, f. n. absence of judgment or right perception; absence of religious meditation or contemplation.

abhāvanīya a-bhāvanīya, as, ā, am,  not to be inferred or contemplated, inconceivable.

abhāvayitṛ a-bhāvayitṛ, tā, trī, tṛ, not perceiving, not inferrring, not comprehending.

abhāvin a-bhāvin, ī, inī, i or a-bhāvya, as, ā, am, what is not to be or will not be, not destined to be.

abhāṣaṇa a-bhāṣaṇa, am, n. not speaking, silence.

abhi abhi, ind. (a prefix to verbs and nouns, expressing) to, towards, into, over, upon.

     (As a prefix to verbs of motion) it expresses the notion of moving or going towards, approaching, &c.

     (As a prefix to nouns not derived from verbs) it expresses superiority, intensity, &c.; e. g. abhi-tāmra, abhi-nava, q. v.

     (As a separable adverb or preposition) it expresses (with acc.) to, towards, in the direction of, against; in, into, to; for, for the sake of; on account of; on, upon, with regard to; by, before, in front of; over. It may even express one after the other, severally; e. g. vṛkṣam vṛkṣam abhi, tree after tree [cf. Gr. [greek] Lat. ob; Zend aibi; Goth. bi; Old High Germ. bī].

abhika abhika, as, ā, am, lustful, libidnous; (as), m. a lover, a husband. Some regard this as derived from abhi-kam [cf. anika].

abhitarām abhi-tarām, abhi-tas. See s. v.

abhikam abhi-kam, perf. -cakame, -kamitum, to desire, love.

abhikāma abhi-kāma, as, m. affection, desire; (as, ā, am), affectionate, loving, desirous, with obj. in acc. or gen.; (am), ind. with desire.

abhikāmika abhi-kāmika, as, ā, am, voluntary.

abhikamp abhi-kamp, cl. 1. A. -kampate, -pitum, to tremble vehemently, to shake: Caus. -kampayati, -yitum, to stir, allure.

abhikāṅkṣ abhi-kāṅkṣ, cl. 1. P. -kāṅkṣati, -ṣitum, to ask, request, long for, desire; to strive.

abhikāṅkṣā abhi-kāṅkṣā, f. longing, wish, desire.

abhikāṅkṣita abhi-kāṅkṣita, as, ā, am, longed for, wished, desired.

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abhikāṅkṣin abhi-kāṅkṣin, ī, iṇī, i, longing for, wishing, desiring.

abhikāla abhi-kāla, as, m., N. of a town; see Rāmāyaṇa II. 68.

abhikāś abhi-kāś, Intens., Ved. -cākaśīti, -cākaśyate, to illuminate, irradiate; to look on, to perceive.

abhikuts abhi-kuts, cl. 10. P. A. -kutsyati, -te, -yitum, to revile, to inveigh against.

abhikuṣ abhi-kuṣ, cl. 9. P. -kuṣṇāti, -koṣitum, to pull, to tear.

abhikūj abhi-kūj, cl. 1. P. -kūjati, -jitum, to twitter, warble, coo.

abhikṛ abhi-kṛ cl. 8. P. -karoti, -kartum, to do with reference to or in behalf of; to procure, effect; to render, make: Desid. -cikīrṣati, to wish to do; to long for.

abhikaraṇa abhi-karaṇa, am, n. effecting; incantation.

abhikṛti abhi-kṛti, is, f., N. of a metre, containing one hundred syllables.

abhikṛtvan abhi-kṛtvan, vā, vari, m. f., Ved. magical; a magician, a spirit (producing diseases?).

abhikṛṣ abhi-kṛṣ, cl. 1. 6. P. A. -karṣati, -te, -kṛṣati, -te, -karṣṭum or -kraṣṭum, to overpower, to pull-down.

abhikṝ abhi-kṝ, cl. 6. P. -kirati, -karitum or -rītum, to pour over, throw over, cover; to fill.

abhikḷp abhi-kḷp, cl. 1. A. -kalpate, -pitum or -ptum, to be adequate to, to answer; to have the same meaning: Caus. -kalpayati, -yitum, to put in order.

abhikḷpta abhi-kḷpta, as, ā, am, prepared, produced.

abhiknūy abhi-knūy, cl. 1. A. -knūyate, -yitum, to bemoisten, bedew.

abhikratu abhi-kratu, us, m., Ved. insolent, haughty (as an enemy).

abhikrand abhi-krand, cl. 1. P. -kradati, -ditum, to shout at, roar at, to neight or whinny at.

abhikranda abhi-kranda, as, m. a shout.

abhikram abhi-kram, cl. 1. P. A., cl. 4. P. -krāmati, -kramate, -krāmyati, -kramitum, to step or go near to, approach; to fly at, attack; to step upon; to undertake, begin: Caus. -kramayati, -yitum, to bring near.

abhikrama abhi-krama, as, m. assault, attack; ascending, mounting; undertaking, attempt, beginning.
     abhikramanāśa abhi-krama-nāśa, as, m. unsuccessful effort.

abhikramaṇa abhi-kramaṇa, am, n. or abhi-krānti, is, f. stepping near, approaching.

abhikrānta abhi-krānta, as, ā, am, approached; attacked, begun.

abhikrāntin abhi-krāntin, ī, inī, i, one who has undertaken; conversant with (with loc.).

abhikrāmam abhi-krāmam, ind. having stepped near.

abhikrī abhi-krī, cl. 9. P. A. -krīṇāti, -ṇīte, -kretum, to buy for a certain purpose.

abhikrudh abhi-krudh, cl. 4. P. -krudhyati, -kroddhum, to be angry with (with acc.).

abhikruś abhi-kruś, cl. 1. P. -krosati, -kroṣṭum, to cry out at, call out to; to call to any one in a scolding manner; to lament with tears, to bemoan.

abhikrośaka abhi-krośaka, as, m. a reviler, one who calls out; a herald (?).

abhikṣattṛ abhi-kṣattṛ, tā, m., Ved. murderer, destroyer.

abhikṣadā abhi-kṣadā, f., Ved. (according to native interpretation) destroying, a destroyer. It is better, perhaps, to divide thus, a-bhikṣa-dā, ās, m. giving without having been asked.

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abhikṣam abhi-kṣam, cl. 1. A. -kṣamate, -kṣantum, to be gracious, propitious, to allow, to pardon.

abhikṣar abhi-kṣar, cl. 1. P. A. -kṣarati, -te, -ritum, Ved. -radhyai, to flow near or round, to pour on.

abhikṣip abhi-kṣip, cl. 6. P. -kṣipati, -kṣeptum, to fling at (as the lash of a whip at a horse), to insult; to excel.

abhikṣipat abhi-kṣipat, an, atī or antī, at, surpassing.

abhikhan abhi-khan, cl. 1. P. A. -khanati, -te, -nitum, to dig up, to turn up (the soil).

abhikhyā 1. abhi-khyā, cl. 2. P., Ved. -khyāti, -tum, to see, view, perceive; to cast a kind or gracious look upon any one, to be gracious: in later Sanskṛt the rt. khyā conveys the idea of telling, making known: Caus. -khyāpayati, -yitum, to make known.

abhikhyā 2. abhi-khyā, f. look, view; splendor; beauty; fame, glory; notoriety; telling; calling, addressing; a name, appellation.

abhikhyāta abhi-khyāta, as, ā, am, become known, manifested.

abhikhyātṛ abhi-khyātṛ, tā, trī, tṛ, Ved. looking, supervising, superintending.

abhikhyāna abhi-khyāna, am, n. fame, glory.

abhigam abhi-gam, cl. 1. P. -gacchati, -gan-tum, to go near to, approach (with acc.); to follow; to meet with, to find; to cohabit, have intercourse with a woman; to undertake; to get, gain, obtain: Caus. -gamayati, -yitum, to cause to obtain, to cause to apprehend, to explain.

abhigacchat abhi-gacchat, an, antī, at, approaching, &c.

abhigata abhi-gata, as, ā, am, approached, &c.

abhigantṛ abhi-gantṛ, tā, m. one who approaches, one who has intercoure with a woman; one who understands.

abhigama abhi-gama, as, m. or abhi-gamana, am, n. approaching, visiting; sexual intercourse.

abhigamya 1. abhi-gamya, as, ā, am, to be visited; accessible; inviting.

abhigamya 2. abhi-gamya, ind. having approached.

abhigāmin abhi-gāmin, ī, inī, i, having intercourse with.

abhigara abhi-gara. See abhi-gṝ below.

abhigarj abhi-garj, cl. 1. P. -garjati, -jitum, to roar at, to bawl at; to raise savage or ferocious cries.

abhigarjana abhi-garjana, am, n. ferocious roaring, uproar.

abhigarjita abhi-garjita, am, n. a savage cry, uproar.

abhigā abhi-gā, cl. 3. P. -jigāti, -gātum, to go near to, to approach, arrive at; to get, gain.

abhigāh abhi-gāh, cl. 1. A. -gāhate, -hitum, gāḍhum, to penetrate into.

abhigup abhi-gup, cl. 1. P. -gopāyati, -gop-tum, or Caus. -gopayati, -yitum, to guard, protect.

abhigupta abhi-gupta, as, ā, am, guarded, protected, hidden, concealed.

abhigupti abhi-gupti, is, f. guarding, protecting.

abhigoptṛ abhi-goptṛ, tā, trī, tṛ, guarding, protecting.

abhigur abhi-gur, cl. 6. P. A. -gurati, -te, -ritum, to assent, agree, approve of.

abhigūrta abhi-gūrta, as, ā, am, approved of, destined for (an offering, &c.), accompanied with applause (?).

abhigūrti abhi-gūrti, is, f., Ved. making resolution or effort, song of praise, hymn (?).

abhigṝ abhi-gṝ, cl. 9. P. A., Ved. -gṛṇāti, -ṇīte, -garitum or -rītum, to call to or address with approbation; to join in; to welcome, praise; to approve of, to accept propitiously, to allow.

abhigara abhi-gara, as, m., Ved. song of praise; praising.

abhigai abhi-gai, cl. 1. P. -gāyati, -gātum, to call to, to sing to; to fill with song; to enchant; to sing, celebrate in song.

abhigras abhi-gras, cl. 1. A. -grasate, -si-tum, to overcome.

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abhigrasta abhi-grasta, as, ā, am, subdued, overcome.

abhigrah abhi-grah, Ved. -grabh, cl. 9. P. A. -gṛhṇāti, -ṇīte, Ved. -gṛbhṇāti, -ṇīte, -grahītum, to seize, catch, take hold of; accept; to set (as a blossom); to lay together, to fold; to receive (as a guest): Caus. -grāhayati, -yitum, to catch, surprise in the act; to let one's self be caught; e. g. rūpābhi-grāhita, as, ā, am, taken in the very act.

abhigṛhīta abhi-gṛhīta, as, ā, am, seized, taken hold of.
     abhigṛhītapāṇi abhigṛhīta-pāṇi, is, is, i, having the hands joined.

abhigradha abhi-gradha, as, m. attack, onset; defiance, challenge; seizing, robbing, plundering; authority, weight.

abhigrahaṇa abhi-grahaṇa, am, n. robbing, seizing anything in presence of the owner.

abhigharṣaṇa abhi-gharṣaṇa, am, n. (rt. ghṛṣ), rubbing, friction; possession by an evil spirit.

abhighāta abhi-ghāta, as, m. (rt. han), striking, attack, infliction of injury, damage; striking back, driving away, warding off; abrupt or vehement articulation of Vedic texts; (am), n. the combination of the fourth letter of any class with the first or third letter; of the second with the first letter; and of the third with the second letter of any class.

abhighātaka abhi-ghātaka, as, ikā, am, keeping back, removing.

abhighātin abhi-ghātin, ī, inī, i striking, attacking, hurting; inflicting injury; (ī), m. an assailant, enemy.

abhighṛ abhi-ghṛ, Caus. P. -ghārayati, -yi-tum, to cause to trickle down; to sprinkle with.

abhighāra abhi-ghāra, as, m. ghee or clarified butter, dropping it on the oblation.

abhighāraṇa abhi-ghāraṇa, am, n. the act of sprinkling ghee, besprinkling.

abhighārita abhi-ghārita, as, ā, am, sprinkled (as ghee), dropped upon.

abhighārya abhi-ghārya, as, ā, am, to be sprinkled.

abhighrā abhi-ghrā, cl. 1. P. -jighrati, -ghrā-tum, to snuffle, smell at; to bring the nose close to another's forehead in caressing, or as a taken of affection.

abhicakṣ abhi-cakṣ, cl. 2. A. -caṣṭe, -ṣṭum, to look at, view, perceive; to oversee; to cast a kind or gracious look upon any one; to address, to assail with harsh language; to call.

abhicakṣaṇa abhi-cakṣaṇa, am, n., Ved. caution, means of defence; magic remedy; (ā), f., Ved. viewing, indicating (?).

abhicakṣya abhi-cakṣya, as, ā, am, to be spoken of everywhere.

abhicar abhi-car, cl. 1. P. -carati, -ritum, Ved. -ritave, -vai, -rase, -radhyai, to act wrongly towards any one; to be faithless (as a wife); to charm, enchant, exorcise; to possess.

abhicara abhi-cara, as, m. a servant.

abhicaraṇa abhi-caraṇa, am, n. enchanting, exorcising.

abhicaraṇīya abhi-caraṇīya, as, ā, am, fit for enchanting or exorcising.

abhicarat abhi-carat, an, antī, at, employing spells or enchantments.

abhicaritu abhi-caritu, us, f., Ved. enchanting.
     abhicaritos abhi-cari-tos, to enchant.

abhicāra abhi-cāra, as, m. exorcising, incantation, employment of spells for a malevolent purpose; magic, one of the Upapātakas or minor crimes.
     abhicārakalpa abhicāra-kalpa, as, m. title of a work on incantations, belonging to the Atharva-veda.
     abhicārajvara abhicāra-jvara, as, m. a fever caused by magical spells.
     abhicāramantra abhicāra-mantra, as, m. a formula or prayer for working a charm, an incantation.
     abhicārayajña abhicāra-yajña or abhicāra-homa, as, m. a sacrifice for the same purpose.

abhicāraka abhi-cāraka, as, ikā, am, or abhi-cārin, ī, iṇī, i, enchanting, exorcising, conjuring; a conjurer, a magician.

abhicāraṇīya abhi-cāraṇīya or abhi-cārya, as, ā, am, to be enchanted.

abhicārita abhi-cārita, as, ā, am, enchanted, charmed.

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abhicākaśīti abhi-cākaśīti. See abhi-kāś, p. 61, col. 1.

abhicint abhi-cint, cl. 10. P. -cintayati, -yitum, to reflect on.

abhicihnya abhi-cihnaya, nom. P. -cihna-yati, -yitum, to mark, characterize.

abhicud abhi-cud, Caus. P. -codayati, -yi-tum, to impel, drive; to inflame, animate, embolden; to invite; to fix, settle; to announce, inquire for.

abhicaidya abhi-caidya, as, m., N. of Śiśupāla.

abhicchad abhi-cchad (-chad), cl. 10. P. -cchādayati or cchadayati, -yitum, to cover over.

abhicchāyam abhi-cchāyam, ind., Ved. in darkness.

abhijagmivas abhi-jagmivas, vān, muṣī, vat, perf. part. of abhi-gam, q. v., p. 61, col. 2.

abhijan abhi-jan, cl. 4. A. -jāyate, -jani-tum, to be born for or to; to claim as one's birthright; to be born or produced; to be reproduced or born again; to become.

abhija abhi-ja, as, ā, am, produced all round.

abhijana abhi-jana, as, m. family, race; descendants; ancestors; noble descent; the head or ornament of a family; native country; fame, notoriety.
     abhijanavat abhijana-vat, ān, atī, at, of noble descent.

abhijanitu abhi-janitu, us, f., Ved. the being born or produced.
     abhijanitos abhi-janitos, to produce.

abhijāta abhi-jāta, as, ā, am, produced all around; born in consequence of; born, produced; noble, well-born; obtained by birth, inbred; fit, proper; wise, learned; handsome; (am), n. nativity.
     abhijātatā abhijāta-tā, f. high birth, nobility.

abhijāti abhi-jāti, is, f. descent, birth.

abhijap abhi-jap, cl. 1. P. -japati, -pitum, to mutter over or whiper to.

abhijabh abhi-jabh, Intens., Ved. -jañjabh-yate, to try to swallow, open the mouth to do so.

abhijalp abhi-jalp, cl. 1. P. -jalpati, -pi-tum, to address, to accompany with remarks; to advocate, to settle by conversation.

abhiji abhi-ji, cl. 1. P. -jayati, -jetum, to conquer completely, to acquire by conquest: Desid. -jigīṣati, to try to win, to attack.

abhijaya abhi-jaya, as m. conquest, complete victory.

abhijit abhi-jit, t, t, t, victorious; born under the constellation Abhijit; (t), m., N. of Viṣṇu; of a Soma sacrifice, part of the great sacrifice Gavām-ayana; N. of a son of Punarvasu, or of his father; (t), f., N. of a star (a Lyrae); one of the Nakshatras or lunar mansions; (t), n. the eighth Muhūrta of the day; midday.
     abhijinmuhūrta abhijin-muhūrta, as, m. the eighth Muhūrta, or period comprising twenty-four minutes before and twenty-four after midday.

abhijita abhi-jita, as, m., N. of an asterism.

abhijiti abhi-jiti, is, f., Ved. victory, conquest.

abhijighraṇa abhi-jighraṇa, am, n. the act of smelling at or touching the forehead of another with the nose. See abhi-ghrā, p. 61, col. 3.

abhijuṣ abhi-juṣ, cl. 6. A., or Ved. P. -juṣate, -ti, -joṣitum, to visit, to frequent, to be pleased with, to be contented with, to like.

abhijuṣṭa abhi-juṣṭa, as, ā, am, visited, frequented, surrounded by, possessed of.

abhijṛmbh abhi-jṛmbh, cl. 1. A. -jṛmbhate, -bhitum, to open the mouth wide (for swallowing).

abhijñā abhi-jñā, cl. 9. P. A. -jānāti, -nīte, jñātum, to recognize, perceive, know, be or become aware of; to acknowledge, agree to, own.

abhijña abhi-jña, as, ā, am, knowing, skilful, clever; (with gen.) one who understands or is conversant with;

     (ā), f. remembrance, recollection, recognition; supernatural science or faculty, of which five are enumerated, viz. 1. taking any form at will; 2. hearing to any distance; 3. seeing to any distance; 4. penetrating men's thoughts; 5. knowing their state and antecedents.

abhijñāna abhi-jñāna, am, n. remembrance, recollection; knowledge; ascertainment; a sign or token of remembrance.
     abhijñānapattra abhijñāna-pattra, am, n. certificate.
     abhijñānaśakuntala abhijñāna-śakuntala, am, n. title of a play of Kālidāsa, i. e. (the nāṭaka or play) on the subject of 'token-(recognized)-Śakuntalā.'

abhijñāpaka abhi-jñāpaka, as, ikā, am, making known, informing.

abhijñāya abhi-jñāya, ind. having recognized.

abhijñu abhi-jñu, ind., Ved. on the knees, up to the knees.

abhijval abhi-jval, cl. 1. P. -jvalati, -litum, to blaze forth, burst into flame.

abhiḍīna abhi-ḍīna, am, n. (rt. ḍī), act of flying towards.

abhitaṃs abhi-taṃs, cl. 1. 10. P., Ved. -taṃsati, -situm, -sayati, -yitum, to shake out of, to rob.

abhitaḍ abhi-taḍ, cl. 10. P. -tāḍayati, -yi-tum, to thump, hit, knock, beat, wound, bruise; (in astron.) to eclipse the greater part of a disk.

abhitāḍita abhi-tāḍita, as, ā, am, knocked, struck.

abhitan abhi-tan, cl. 8. P. -tanoti, -nitum, to stretch or spread in front of or across or over; to place in front of.

abhitap abhi-tap, cl. 1. P. -tapati, -ptum, to irradiate with heat, to heat; to pain, distress: Pass. -tapyate,  to suffer intensely: Caus. -tāpayati, -yitum, to distress.

abhitapta abhi-tapta, as, ā, am, scorched, burnt, afflicted.

abhitāpa abhi-tāpa, as, m. extreme heat; agitation, affliction, emotion; great pain.

abhitarām abhi-tarām, ind. (compar. fr. abhi), nearer to.

abhitarj abhi-tarj, cl. 1. P. or poet. A. -tar-jati, -te, -jitum; cl. 10. P. or poet. A. -tarjayati, -te, -yitum, to scold, abuse.

abhitas abhi-tas, ind. (Lat. apud, Eng. about), near to, towards; near, in the proximity or presence; (with acc.) on both sides; before and after; on all sides, everywhere, about, round; quickly; entirely.
     abhitobhāva abhito-bhāva, as, m. the state of being on both sides.
     abhitorātram abhito-rātram, ind., Ved. near the night, i. e. either just at the beginning or end.
     abhito'sthi abhi-to-'sthi (-tas-as-), is, is, i, surrounded by bones.

abhitāmra abhi-tāmra, as, ā, am, dark-red, very red, murry-coloured.

abhitigmaraśmi abhi-tigmaraśmi, ind. towards the sun.

abhitṛd abhi-tṛd, cl. 7. P., Ved. -tṛṇatti, -tarditum, to burst open; to let out; get at, procure.

abhitṛp abhi-tṛp, Caus. P. -tarpayati, -yitum, to satiate, refresh.

abhitṛpta abhi-tṛpta, as, ā, am, satiated, refreshed.

abhitṝ abhi-tṝ, cl. 1. P. -tarati, -ritum or -rītum, to overtake, get up to.

abhitti a-bhitti, is, f. not splintering or breaking.

abhitvar abhi-tvar, cl. 1. A. -tvarate, -ritum, to be in haste.

abhitsar abhi-tsar, cl. 1. P., Ved. -tsarati, -ritum, to catch, entrap.

abhidakṣiṇam abhi-dakṣiṇam, ind. to or towards the right.

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abhidadhat abhi-dadhat, at, atī, at, addressing. See 1. abhi-dhā below.

abhidarśana abhi-darśana. See abhi-dṛś below.

abhidaṣṭa abhi-daṣṭa, as, ā, am (rt. daṃś), bitten.

abhidah abhi-dah, cl. 1. P. -dahati, -dag-dhum, to singe, burn.

abhidā abhi-dā, cl. 3. P. -dadāti, -dātum, to give, bestow (for a purpose).

abhidāpana abhi-dāpana, am, n. the being trampled on by elephants as a punishment (?).

abhidās abhi-dās, cl. 1. P., Ved. -dāsati, -situm to consider and treat as an enemy.

abhidigdha abhi-digdha, as, ā, am (rt. dih), besmeared, especially with poison.

abhidipsu abhi-dipsu, us, us, u (dips, Desid. of rt. dambh), Ved. wishing to deceive, inimical, cunning.

abhidiś abhi-diś, cl. 6. P. -diśati, -deṣṭum, to point out.

abhidiṣṭa abhi-diṣṭa, as, ā, am, pointed out.

abhiduṣ abhi-duṣ, cl. 10. or Caus. P. -dūṣayati, -yitum, to contyaminate, to wound.

abhiduṣṭa abhi-duṣṭa, as, ā, am, contaminated, polluted.

abhidūṣita abhi-dūṣita, as, ā, am, wounded, injured.

abhidūti abhi-dūti, ind. to or towards a female messenger.

abhidṛś abhi-dṛś, cl. 1. P. -paśyati, -dra-ṣṭum, to look at: Caus. P. -darśayati, -yitum, to show, point out; to show one's self, i. e. appear: Pass. -dṛśyate, to be visible, be in view, appear; to be considered or thought.

abhidarśana abhi-darśana, am, n. seeing; becoming visible, appearance.

abhidyu abhi-dyu, us, us, u, Ved. directed to heaven, tending or going to heaven; heavenly, bright; (us), m. a half month.

abhidyut abhi-dyut, cl. 1. A. -dyotate, -ti-tum, to burn.

abhidru abhi-dru, cl. 1. P. and poet. A. -dravati, -te, -drotum, to run up to or near; to attack, overrun, infest.

abhidrutya abhi-drutya, as, ā, am, run towards, attacked.

abhidrutya abhi-drutya, ind. having attacked.

abhidruh 1. abhi-druh, cl. 4. P. -druhyati, -drogdhum, -droḍhum, to hate, seek to injure or maliciously assail.

abhidrugdha abhi-drugdha, as, ā, am, injured, oppressed. 2. abhi-druh, -dhruk, k, k, Ved. seeking to injure, inimical, cunning.

abhidruhyamāṇa abhi-druhyamāṇa, as, ā, am, being injured or oppressed.

abhidroha abhi-droha, as, m. injuring, hurting, oppression, cruelty.

abhidhanv abhi-dhanv, cl. 1. P. A., Ved. -dhanvati, -te, -vitum, to come up in haste.

abhidharma abhi-dharma, as, m. the supreme truth according to the Buddhists, the dogmas of Buddhist philosophy or metaphysics.
     abhidharmakośa abhidharma-kośa, as, m. title of a work on the preceding.
     abhidharmapiṭaka abhi-dharma-piṭaka, as, m. 'basket of metaphysics', title of that section of Buddhist writings which contains the abhi-dharma.

abhidharṣaṇa abhi-dharṣaṇa, am, n. (rt. dhṛṣ), possession by demoniac spirits.

abhidhṛṣṇu abhi-dhṛṣṇu, us, us, u, Ved. overpowering, subduing (with acc.).

abhidhā 1. abhi-dhā, cl. 3. P. A. -dadhāti,  -dhatte, -dhātum, to set forth, explain, tell, speak to, address, say, name; A., Ved. to receive; P. (corruption of abhi-dhāvati?), to assail: Pass. -dhīyate, to be named or called.

abhidhā 2. abhi-dhā, f. name, appellation; the literal power or sense of a word; a word, sound; (ās, ās), m. f., Ved. naming; praised; invoked (?).
     abhidhādhvaṃsin abhidhā-dhvaṃsin, ī, inī, i, losing one's name.
     abhidhāmūla abhidhā-mūla, as, ā, am, founded on the literal meaning of a word.

abhidhātavya abhi-dhātavya, as, ā, am, to be told or named, to be manifested.

abhidhāna abhi-dhāna, am, n. telling, naming, speaking, speech, manifesting; (as, am), m. n. a name, title, appellation, expression, word; a vocabulary, a dictionary.
     abhidhānacintāmaṇi abhidhāna-cintāmaṇi, is, m. title of Hemacandra's vocabulary of synonyms (the jewel that gives every word that can be imagined).
     abhidhānatva abhidhāna-tva, am, n. the state of being used as a name or expression.
     abhidhānamālā abhidhāna-mālā, f. a dictionary.
     abhidhānaratnamālā abhi-dhāna-ratnamālā, f. title of Halāyudha's vocabulary.

abhidhānaka abhi-dhānaka, am, n. a sound, a noise.

abhidhānī abhi-dhānī f., Ved. a halter, a rope.

abhidhānīya abhi-dhānīya, as, ā, am, to be named.

abhidhānya abhi-dhānya, ind. having said, having called.

abhidhāyaka abhi-dhāyaka, as, ikā, am, or abhi-dhāyin, ī, inī, i, naming, expressing, expressive of, denominating; telling, speaking.
     abhidhāyakatva abhidhāyaka-tva, am, n. the state of being expressive.

abhidhāyam abhi-dhāyam, ind. expressing.

abhidhitsā abhi-dhitsā, f. desire of expressing or naming.

abhidheya abhi-dheya, as, ā, am, to be named or mentioned; to be expressed, to be spoken of; (am), n. signification, meaning.
     abhidheyarahita abhidheya-rahita, as, ā, am, having no sense or meaning, unmeaning, nonsensical.

abhihita abhi-hita, abhi-hiti. See s. v. below.

abhidhāv abhi-dhāv, cl. 1. P. A. -dhāvati, -te, -vitum, to run up towards, to rush upon, attack.

abhidhāvaka abhi-dhāvaka, as, ikā, am, running up, hastening towards, assailing; an assailant.

abhidhāvana abhi-dhāvana, am, n. running up, pursuit, chase, attack.

abhidhṛ abhi-dhṛ, Caus. P. -dhārayati, -yitum, to uphold, maintain.

abhidhyai abhi-dhyai, cl. 1. P. -dhyāyati, -dhyātum, to consider, reflect, mediate upon.

abhidhyā abhi-dhyā, f. covering another's property; desire, wish, loging for in feneral.

abhidhyāna abhi-dhyāna, am, n. desiring, longing for; wish; meditation, profound thought.

abhidhyāyat abhi-dhyāyat, an, antī, at, covering, desiring.

abhidhyāyamāna abhi-dhyāyamāna, as, ā, am, being meditated on.

abhidhvan abhi-dhvan, cl. 1. P. -dhvanati, -nitum, to resound, shout.

abhinakṣ abhi-nakṣ, cl. 1. P. -nakṣati, -kṣitum, to encompass; Ved. to bring, to approach, come to, arrive at.

abhinad abhi-nad, cl. 1. P. -nadati, -ditum, to sound towards a person (with acc.); to sound, raise a noise: Caus. -nādayati, -yitum, to cause to sound, fill with noise: Pass. to resound.

abhinaddha abhi-naddha, as, ā, am (rt. nah), bound, tied round, fastened on or upon.
     abhinaddhākṣa abhi-naddhākṣa (-dha-ak-), as, ī, am, blindfold.

abhinand abhi-nand, cl. 1. P. A. -nandati, -te, -ditum, to rejoice at, salute, welcome, address, congratulate; to praise, applaud, approve, respect, care for; to acknowledge: Caus. -nandayati, -yitum, to gladden.

abhinanda abhi-nanda, as, m. rejoicing, delighting; applauding; wish, desire; N. of a commentator or commentary on the Amara-kosha; N. of another author; (ā), f. delight, wish.

abhinandana abhi-nandana, am, n. delighting, rejoicing; praising, applauding, approving; wish, desire; (as), m. the fourth Jaina Arhat of the present Avasarpiṇī.

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abhinandanīya abhi-nandanīya or 1. abhi-nandya, as, ā, am, to be acknowledged or applauded.

abhinandita abhi-nandita, as, ā, am, delighted, made happy, saluted, applauded, &c.

abhinandin abhi-nandin, ī, inī, i, rejoicing at, wishing, desiring, &c.

abhinandya 2. abhi-nandya, ind. having rejoiced at, having gladdened.

abhinabhyam abhi-nabhyam, ind., Ved. towards the clouds or heaven.

abhinam abhi-nam, cl. 1. P. -namati, -nan-tum, to bow, bend, curve; to turn towards a person.

abhinata abhi-nata, as, ā, am, bent, inclined.

abhinamra abhi-namra, as, ā, am, bent, deeply bowed or curved.

abhinaya abhi-naya. See 1. abhi-nī, p. 64.

abhinard abhi-nard, cl. 1. P., ep. also A. -nardati, -te, -ditum, to roar towrads.

abhinava abhi-nava, as, ā, am, quite new or young, very young, fresh; not having experience.
     abhinavacandrārghavidhi abhinava-candrārgha-vidhi (-ra-ar-), is, m. a ceremony performed at the time of the new moon.
     abhinavayauvana abhinava-yauvana, as, ā, am, youthful.
     abhinavavaiyākaraṇa abhi-nava-vaiyākaraṇa, as, m. one who has just begun grammar.
     abhinavodbhid abhinavodbhid (-va-ud-), t, m. a new bud.

abhinavībhū abhinavī-bhū, cl. 1. P. -bhavati, -vitum, to become new.
     abhinavībhūta abhinavī-bhūta, as, ā, am, renewed.

abhinaś abhi-naś, cl. 1. P. A., Ved. -naśati, -te, -śitum, to attain, seize; to assail.

abhinah abhi-nah, cl. 4. P. A. -nahyati, -te, -naddhum, to bind up (as the eyes).

abhinahana abhi-nahana, am, n. a bandage (especially over the eyes.)

abhināsikāvivaram abhi-nāsikāvivaram, ind. to the opening of the nose.

abhiniḥstan abhi-niḥ-stan (-nir-stan), cl. 1. P. -stanati, -nitum, to sound.

abhiniṣṭāna abhi-niṣṭāna, as, m. a sound which dies away; the Visarga; a letter of the alphabet.

abhinikram abhi-ni-kram, cl. 1. P.A., cl. 4. P. -krāmati, -kramate, -krāmyati, -kramitum, to tread down.

abhinigad abhi-ni-gad, cl. 1. P. -gadati, -ditum, to speak to.

abhinidhana abhi-nidhana, am, n., N. of certain verses of the Sāma-veda.

abhinidhāna abhi-nidhāna, am, n. putting on; an euphonic suppression or weakening (in the pronunciation of words), especially the suppression of an initial a after e, o.

abhinidhīyamāna abhi-nidhīyamāna, as, ā, am, being suppressed.

abhinidhyai abhi-ni-dhyai, cl. 1. P. -dhyāyati, -dhyātum, to investigate.

abhininī abhi-ni-nī, cl. 1. P. A. -nayati, -te. -netum, to pour out (water &c.) upon.

abhininṛt abhi-ni-nṛt, cl. 4. P., Ved. -nṛt-yati, -nartitum, to accomplish step by step, repeat separately.

abhinipat abhi-ni-pat, Caus. P. -pātayati, -yitum, to throw down.

abhinipīḍ abhi-ni-pīḍ, cl. 10. P. -pīḍayati, -yitum, to press, squeeze, trouble.

abhinipīḍita abhi-nipīḍita, as, ā, am, exceedingly pained, tormented.

abhinimluc abhi-ni-mluc, cl. 1. P. -mlocati, -citum, to set (as the sun) upon a person (while some act is being done by him).

abhiniyukta abhi-niyukta, as, ā, am (rt. yuj), occupied in.

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abhinirgam abhi-nir-gam, cl. 1. P. -gacchati, -gantum, to go out, go away from.

abhinirjita abhi-nirjita, as, ā, am (rt. ji), conquered.

abhinirṇud abhi-nir-ṇud (-nir-nud), cl. 6. P. A. -ṇudati, -te, -ṇottum, to drive out, frighten away, remove.

abhinirdiś abhi-nir-diś, cl. 6. P. -diśati, -deṣṭum, to point out, indicate, appoint, characterize.

abhinirbharts abhi-nir-bharts, cl. 10. A. or P. -bhartsayate, -ti, -yitum, to scold, threaten.

abhinirmita abhi-nirmita, as, ā, am (rt. ), made, created.

abhinirmukta abhi-nirmukta, as, ā, am (rt. muc), left, quitted (by the sun when it sets), i.e one asleep at sunset.

abhiniryā abhi-nir-yā, cl. 2. P. -yāti, -tum, to march out.

abhiniryāṇa abhi-niryāṇa, am, n. march of an assailant, invansion.

abhinirvṛtta abhi-nirvṛtta, as, ā, am, accomplished.

abhinirvṛtti abhi-nirvṛtti, is, f. accomplishment.

abhinivarta abhi-nivarta, as, m. turning towards; (am), ind. having turned towards.

abhiniviś abhi-ni-viś, cl. 1. A. -viśate, -veṣṭum, to enter into possession of; to sit down in or be settled in, to occupy: Caus. -veśayati, -yitum, to make one enter into or sit down, apply, &c.

abhiniviṣṭa abhi-niviṣṭa, as, ā, am, well versed or proficient in, conversant or familiar with; intent on; attentive, engrossed; endowed with; determined; (am), n. persevering.
     abhiniviṣṭatā abhiniviṣṭa-tā, f. state of being so.

abhiniveśa abhi-niveśa, as, m. application, perseverance, intentness, study, ffection, devotion; determination to effect a purpose or attain an object; tenacity, adherance; ignorant fear causing death (?).

abhiniveśita abhi-niveśita, as, ā, am, made to enter into, plunged into.

abhiniveśin abhi-niveśin, ī, inī, i, intent upon, devoted to, determined.

abhiniśam abhi-ni-śam, cl. 4. P. -śāmyati, -śamitum, or Caus. P. -śāmayati, -yitum, to observe, perceive.

abhiniścita abhi-niścita, as, ā, am (rt. ci), quite convinced of.

abhiniṣkārin abhi-niṣ-kārin, ī, iṇī, i (rt. kṛ), Ved. intending anything evil agait, injuring.

abhiniṣkṛta abhi-niṣkṛta, as, ā, am, directed against (as an evil action).

abhiniṣkram abhi-niṣ-kram (-nis-kram), cl. 1. P. A., cl. 4. P. -krāmati, -kramate, -krāmyati, -kramitum, to go out or forth, to lead towards.

abhiniṣkramaṇa abhi-niṣkramaṇa, am, n. going forth; (with buddhists) leaving the house in order to become an anchorite.

abhiniṣkrānta abhi-niṣkrānta, as, ā, am, gone out or forth.

abhiniṣṭāna abhi-niṣṭāna. See abhi-niḥ-stan last col.

abhiniṣpat abhi-niṣ-pat (-nis-pat), cl. 1. P. -patati, -titum, to fly away, rush out; to spring forth, shoot forth.

abhiniṣpatana abhi-niṣpatana, am, n. issuing, sallying.

abhiniṣpad abhi-niṣ-pad (-nis-pad), cl. 4. A. -padyate, -pattum, to come to; to enter into, become (with acc.); to appear: Caus. -pādayati, -yi-tum, to bring to help to.

abhiniṣpatti abhi-niṣpatti, is, f. completion, end, termination; appearance (?).

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abhiniṣpanna abhi-niṣpanna, as, ā, am, finished, completed.

abhinihnava abhi-nihnava, as, m. (rt. hnu), denial.

abhinī 1. abhi-nī, cl. 1. P. -nayati, -netum, to bring near, conduct towards, adduce, introduce, quote; represent dramatically, act.

abhinaya abhi-naya, as, m. indication of a passion or purpose by look, gesture, &c.; acting, dramatic action expressive of sentiment, dramatic personification.

abhinīta abhi-nīta, as ā, am, brought near, adduced; performed; highly finished or ornamented; fit, proper; friendly, kind, patient; impatient, passionate (?).

abhinīti abhi-nīti, is, f. gesture, expressive gesticulation; friendship, civility, kindness.

abhinīyamāna abhi-nīyamāna, as, ā, am, being brought near, &c.

abhinetavya abhi-netavya or abhi-neya, as, ā, am, to be represented dramatically.

abhinetṛ abhi-netṛ, tā, trī, m. f. an actor, an actress.

abhinī 2. abhi-nī (abhi-ni-i), cl. 2. P. -nyeti, -tum, to go in to, to approach a woman.

abhinila abhi-nīla, as, ā, am, very black, very dark.

abhinu 1. abhi-nu, cl. 2. 6. P. -nauti, -nuvati, -navitum or -nuvitum, to extol, praise.

abhinu 2. abhi-nu, cl. 1. A., Ved. -navate, to turn one's self towards.

abhinud abhi-nud, cl. 6. P. A. -nudati, -te, -nottum, to push, press: Caus. -nodayati, -yitum, to excite, to spur or urge on.

abhinna a-bhinna, as, ā, am (rt. bhid), uncut, unbroken; unchanged, unaltered, not different; undivided, one; same, identical; (as), m. an integer, a whole number (in arithmetic).
     abhinnatā abhinna-tā, f. wholeness identity.
     abhinnaparikarmāṣṭaka abhinna-parikarmāṣṭaka (-ma-aṣ-), am, n. eight processes in working integers or whole numbers.
     abhinnātman abhinnātman (-na-āt-), ā, ā, a,  of undaunted spirit, firm.

abhinyas abhi-ny-as (-ni-as), cl. 4. P. -asyati, -situm, to depress.

abhinyāsa abhi-nyāsa, as, m. a kind of fever.

abhinyubj abhi-ny-ubj (-ni-ubj), cl. 6. P. -ubjati, -jitum, to press down, to hold down.

abhipac abhi-pac, cl. 1. P. A. -pacati, -te, -paktum, to boil up (as milk).

abhipaṭhita abhi-paṭhita, as, ā, am, denominated, named.

abhipat 1. abhi-pat, cl. 1. P. -patati, -titum, to fly near, hasten near; to assail; to fall down, fall; to fall into, come into; to overtake in flying: Caus. -pātayati, -yitum, to throw on or down.

abhipatana abhi-patana, am, n. approaching, assailing, seizing; falling into.

abhipat 2. abhi-pat, cl. 4. A., Ved. -patyate, to be master or lord over, to possess.

abhipad abhi-pad, cl. 4. A. -padyate, -pat-tum, to draw near, approach; to come up (as an auxiliary), assist; to honour; to seize, catch, overpower, master; to take possession of; to accept; to undertake, devote one's self to anything.

abhipatti abhi-patti, is, f. drawing near, approaching.

abhipannam abhi-pannam, as, ā, am, gone near; approached, obtained; flown, fugitive; seeking refuge; subdued; unfortunate, calamitous; guilty; removed to a distance, dead.

abhipadma abhi-padma, as, ā, am, exceedingly handsome (lit. superior to the lotus).

abhipariglāna abhi-pariglāna, as, ā, am (rt. glai), tired, exhausted.

abhiparipru abhi-pari-plu, cl. 1. A. -plavate,  -plotum, to stream or flow so as to inundate, to overflow.

abhiparipluta abhi-paripluta, as, ā, am, overwhelmed, overflowed, filled with; shaken; attacked, affected by.

abhipariṣvañj abhi-pari-ṣvañj (-svañj), cl. 1. A. -ṣvajate, -ṣvaṅktum, to embrace.

abhiparīta abhi-parīta, as, ā, am (rt. i with abhi-pari), surrounded, overpowered by, overwhelmed with.

abhipare abhi-pare (-parā-i), cl. 2. P. -paraiti, -tum, to go away towards.

abhiparye abhi-pary-e (-pari-ā-i), cl. 2. P. -paryaiti, -tum, to go about; glide away, pass away.

abhipā 1. abhi-pā, cl. 1. P. -pibati, -pātum, to drink of.

abhipīta abhi-pīta, as, ā, am, watered (as cattle), filled with drink.

abhipā 2. abhi-pā, cl. 2. P. -pāti, -tum, to protect: Caus. P. -pālayati, -yitum, to protect, to assist.

abhipatva abhi-pitva, am, n. (for abhi-apitva, fr. obs. rt. ap; see apa-pitva), Ved. approaching, visiting, putting up (for the night at an inn), close or departure of day, evening; dawn; sacrifice.

abhipīḍ abhi-pīḍ, cl. 10. P. -pīḍayati, -yi-tum, to oppress, torment, afflict.

abhipīḍita abhi-pīḍita, as, ā, am, harassed.

abhiputh abhi-puth, Caus. P. -pothayati, -yitum, to throw with violence; dash against.

abhipuṣpa abhi-puṣpa, as, ā, am, covered with flowers; (am), n. an excellent flower.

abhipū abhi-pū, cl. 1. A., Ved. -pavate, -vitum, to be cleared, to flow purified towards or for; to blow against; to make bright, glorify.

abhipūj abhi-pūj, cl. 10. P. -pūjayati, -yi-tum, to honour, approve, assent to.

abhipūjita abhi-pūjita, as, ā, am, honoured; approved.

abhipūjyamāna abhi-pūjyamāna, as, ā, am, being greatly reverenced.

abhipūrvam abhi-pūrvam, ind. one after the other.

abhipūṇ abhi-pṛṇ, cl. 6. P. -pṛṇati, -par-tum, to be filled; to be glad.

abhipṝ abhi-pṝ, cl. 3. 9. P. -piparti, -pṛṇāti, -paritum or -rītum, to fill: Pass. -pūryate, to fill one's self, become full: Caus. -pūrayati, -yitum, to fill, make full; to load with, cover with; to present with; to master completely.

abhipūraṇa abhi-pūraṇa, am, n. filling.

abhipūraṇa abhi-pūraṇa, as, ā, am, full of (with inst. or gen.); filled; fraught; laden.

abhipyai abhi-pyai, cl. 1. A., Ved. -pyāyate, -pyātum or -pyāyitum, to swell, to abound with.

abhiprakamp abhi-pra-kamp, Caus. P. -kamp-ayati, -yitum, to stir, allure.

abhiprakāś abhi-pra-kāś, cl. 1. 4. A. -kāśate, kāśyate, -śitum, to become visible, to show one's self.

abhiprakram abhi-pra-kram, cl. 1. P. A., cl. 4. A. -krāmati, -kramate, -krāmyati, -kramitum, to go up to, approach.

abhiprakṣar abhi-pra-kṣar, cl. 1. P. A. -kṣarati, -te, -ritum, Ved. -radhyai, to stream towards a place.

abhiprakṣal abhi-pra-kṣal, cl. 10. P. -kṣāl-ayati, -yitum, to clean thoroughly, polish up.

abhipragāh abhi-pra-gāh, cl. 1. A. -gāhate,  hitum, -gāḍhum, to penetrate, dip, or plunge into, join: Caus. -gāhayati, -yitum, to immerse, dip.

abhipragai abhi-pra-gai, cl. 1. P. -gāyati, gātum, to begin to praise.

abhipracakṣ abhi-pra-cakṣ, cl. 2. A., Ved. -caṣṭe, -ṣṭum, to throw light upon; to see (?).

abhipracud abhi-pra-cud, Caus. P. -codayati, -yitum, to impel, induce, persuade.

abhipracyu abhi-pra-cyu, cl. 1. A. -cyavate, -cyotum, to move towards, arrive at.

abhiprach abhi-prach, cl. 6. P. -pṛcchati, -praṣṭum, to ask or inquire after.

abhiprajan abhi-pra-jan, Caus. P.