Borooah: English-Sanskrit Dictionary

Based on Borooah, Anundoram: English-Sanskrit Dictionary. Guwahati, Assam : 1971 (= Calcutta : 1877)

Input by Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon (CDSL)
[GRETIL-Version vom 09.02.2018]

This file is based on bor.txt, available at
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Sanskrit Passages
Page References


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description:multibyte sequence:
long a ā
long A Ā
long i ī
long I Ī
long u ū
long U Ū
vocalic r
vocalic R
long vocalic r
vocalic l
vocalic L
long vocalic l
velar n
velar N
palatal n ñ
palatal N Ñ
retroflex t
retroflex T
retroflex d
retroflex D
retroflex n
retroflex N
palatal s ś
palatal S Ś
retroflex s
retroflex S
long e ē
long o ō
l underbar
r underbar
n underbar
k underbar
t underbar

Unless indicated otherwise, accents have been dropped in order
to facilitate word search.

For a comprehensive list of GRETIL encodings and formats see:

For further information see:

[Page 1]

A or (before vowels) AN:
     I This article has no equiv. in Sanskrit and is expressed by the singular number alone: there is a large silk-cotton tree on the banks of the Godavari asti godāvarītīre viśālaḥ śālmalītaruḥ H. i.; there was a king named Cintamani abhūdrājā cintāmaṇirnāma Va.
     II But kaścit (kācit kiñcit) should be added when special attention is directed to the object: a (certain) Yaksha kaścid yakṣaḥ, Me. I 1.; A (certain) saint named Marichi kaścinmarīcirnābha bhaharṣiḥ, D. iii.
     III When it means a species of, viśeṣaḥ bhedaḥ, etc. should be added: Asoka is a tree aśoko vṛkṣaviśeṣaḥ.
     IV When used distributively, (a) expr. by avy. comp. with prati, or, by the repetition of the word in proper agreement with the verb: give (me) 500 sovereign a day pratyahaṃ suvarṇapañcaśatāni dehi, H. iii; (b) the simple gen. may be used in connection with num. adverbs: dinner twice a day dvirahno bhojanam, V. In O. E. sometimes=on, in, for: q. v.: the world runs awheel *cakrairjagaddhāvati.

ABAFT: paścādbhāge (with gen.): abaft the mast *guṇavṛkṣasya paścādbhāge.

     1 tyajati pari- saṃ-, (tyaj, c. l.);
     2 jahāti vi- apa-, (, c. 3.);
     3 ujbhkati sam- pra-, (ujbhk, c. 6.);
     4 ut-sṛjati vi-, (sṛj, c. 6.).

     I Lit. tyaktaḥ (ktā ktaṃ): v. To abandon.
     II Fig.: extremely wicked: q. v.
     1 bhraṣṭaḥ (ṣṭā ṣṭaṃ);
     2 khaṇḍitavṛttaḥ (ttā ttaṃ) (=of a character).

     1 tyāgaḥ;
     2 parityāgaḥ;
     3 utsargaḥ; Ph: a. of wordly connexions: sannyāsaḥ.

     1 abhi-bhavati (bhū, c. 1.);
     2 namayati (c. of nam): v. To humble, to lower.

ABASEMENT: abhibhavaḥ: v. Humiliation.

     1 hepayati (c. of hrī);
     2 lajjayati (c. of lajj).

ABATE (v. t.):
     I To lessen, diminish: q. v. laghayati (nomi.).
     II Leg. t. t., To put down: q. v.

ABATE (v. i.):
     1 kṣīyate (Pass. of kṣi);
     2 pari-hīyate. (Pass. of );
     3 apa-cīyate (Pass. of ci): v. To decrease.

     I Decrease, diminution: q. v.: hrāsaḥ.
     II Diminution of price: Ph. I will make an a. of five per cent *pañcakaṃ śataṃ laghayāmi.
     III Leg. t. t.: v. Failure.

     1 vihārapālinī;
     2 maṭhādhyakṣā.

     1 vihāraḥ;
     2 maṭhaḥ.

     1 vihārapatiḥ;
     2 maṭhādhyakṣaḥ;
     3 maṭhādhīśaḥ.

ABBREVIATE: sam-kṣipati (kṣip c. 6.): v. To contract, shorten.

     1 saṃkṣepaḥ;
     2 samāsaḥ;
     3 saṃgrahaḥ.

ABDICATE (v. i.): *rājyaṃ svādhikāraṃ vā tyajati parityajati.

ABDICATE (v. t.): tyajati pari-, (tyaj, c. i.): V. To resign.

     1 tyāgaḥ parityāgaḥ (when the sense is clear);
     2 rājyatyāgaḥ (=a. of a throne);
     3 padatyāgaḥ; (of an office).

     1 vastiḥ;
     2 udaram: v. Belly.

ABDUCT: harati apa-, (hṛ, c. 1.), Si. i. 51.

     1 haraṇam;
     2 apaharaṇam.

     1 bhramaḥ;
     2 vibhramaḥ;
     3 unmārgagamanam. Ph. a. of mind matibhramaḥ, Sa. vi.: a. of light *tejobhrāntiḥ.

ABET: prot-sāhayati (c. of sah): v. To aid, instigate, encourage.

[Page 2]

     1 protsāhakaḥ;
     2 pravartakaḥ.

ABHOR: jugupptate: v. To hate.

     1 jugupsā;
     2 paramadveṣaḥ; N. B. Const. with loc.

ABHORRENT: v. Repugnant, discordant, inconsistent.

ABIDE (v. i.):
     I To dwell: q. v.: vasati (vas, c. 1.).
     II To stay: q. v.: ava-tiṣṭhate (sthā, c. 1.).

ABIDE (v. t.):
     1 To wait for: q. v.: pratiīkṣate (īkṣ, c. 1.).
     II To endure; q. v. sahate (sah c. 1.).

     1 tiṣṭhati (sthā, c. 1.) (with loc.), B. iii. 53;
     2 avatiṣṭhate (sthā, c. l.)(with loc.), B. iii. 14.

ABIDING (part. adj.):
     1 sthāyin (f. );
     2 sthāsnu (mfn.).

ABIDINGLY: v. Constantly, permanently.

     I Power: q. v.
     1 śaktiḥ;
     2 sāmarthyam; Ph.: to the best or utmost of one's a.:
     1 yāvacchakyam;
     2 yāvacchaktitaḥ.
     II Mental capacity
     1 naipuṣyam;
     2 vaicakṣaṇyam;
     3 pāṭavam.

ABJECT (adj.):
     1 nikṛṣṭaḥ (ṣṭā ṣṭaṃ);
     2 apakṛṣṭaḥ (ṣṭā ṣṭaṃ): v. Base, vile.

ABJECTION, ABJECTNESS: apakṛṣṭatā: v. Meanness, servility.

ABJURATION: *śapathapurvakatyāgaḥ tyāgaḥ (when the sense is clear).

ABJURE (v. t.): *śapathapurvakam or sapratiñjam tyajati pari-, (tyaj, c. 1.).

     1 apādānam;
     2 apādānakārakam.

ABLE (adj.):
     I Competent, having sufficient power:
     1 samarthaḥ (rthā rthaṃ);
     2 śaktaḥ (ktā ktaṃ);
     3 kṣamaḥ (mā maṃ).
     II Possessing mental capacity:
     1 paṭu (mfn.);
     2 nipuṇaḥ (ṇā ṇaṃ); v. Clever, skilful.

     1 śaknoti (śak, c. 5.);
     2 pārayati (pṛ, c. 10.);
     3 pramavati (bhū, c. 1.);
     4 īṣṭe (īś, c. 2.);
     5 kṣamate (kṣam, c. 1.): v. Can.

     1 prabalakāyaḥ (yā yaṃ);
     2 dṛḍhāṅgaḥ (ṅgā ṅgaṃ): v. Robust, strong.

     1 ācamanam (of the mouth);
     2 aṅgasnānam (of the body);
     3 prakṣālanam: v. Washing.

ABLY: i. e. with ability:
     1 nipuṇam;
     2 sapāṭavam.

ABNEGATION: pratyākhyānam: v. Denial, renunciation.

ABOARD: Ph. to get a. nāvamārohati, RAJ.

     I Continuance in a place: avasthitiḥ: v. Residence, stay.
     II Dwelling place:
     1 nivāsaḥ;
     2 ālayaḥ;
     3 niketanam: v. House.

ABOLISH (v. t.): lumpati ava- vi-, (lup, c. 6.) (?).

     1 lopaḥ;
     2 avalopaḥ;
     3 vilopaḥ (?).

     1 gahiṃtaḥ (tā taṃ);
     2 ghṛṇitaḥ (tā taṃ);
     3 ghṛṇākaraḥ (rī raṃ).

ABOMINATE (v. t.):
     1 dveṣṭi, (dviṣ; c. 2.);
     2 garhate (garh, c. 1.): v. To detest, execrate.

     I Hatred: q. v. dveṣaḥ.
     II That which excites hatred:
     1 jugupsitam;
     2 garhitam;
     3 ghṛṇitam.

ABORIGINES: ādimavāsinaḥ (m. pl.) (?).

     1 garbhasrāvaḥ;
     2 garbhapātaḥ;
     3 garbhapatanam;
     4 garbhacyutiḥ. To cause a.:
     1 garbhaṃ pātayati (c. of pat);
     2 bhrūṇahatyāṃ karoti (kṛ, c. 8.) One who causes a.:
     1 bhrūṇahan (f. ghnī);
     2 bhrūṇahatyākārin (f. ṇī): Causing a.:
     1 garbhapātanam;
     2 bhrūṇahatyā.

     I Producing abortion:
     1 garbhapātin (f. );
     2 garbhasrāvin (f. ṇī);
     3 bhrūṇaghna (f. ghnī).
     II Born prematurely:
     1 akālaprasūtaḥ (tā taṃ);
     2 akālajātaḥ (tā taṃ).
     III Fruitless, unsuccessful: q. v.: niṣphala; (lā laṃ).

     1 mudhā;
     2 vṛthā: v. In vain.

ABOUND (v. i.): No equiv: expr. by the corresp. adj s.: among those trees a. ing in good fruits bhūyiṣṭhasambhāvyaphaleṣvamīṣu pādapeṣu, R. xiii. 46; the country of Kimpurusha a. s in curiosities bahukutūhalaḥ kimpuruṣaviṣayaḥ, K.: v. Abundant, full of.

[Page 3]

ABOUT (Prep.):
     I Around: q. v.: paritaḥ (with acc.). Sometimes sim. by the loc.: a. one's neck kaṇṭhe or kaṇṭhadeśe (not kaṇṭhaṃ paritaḥ). Ph.: a. these places itastataḥ.
     II In attendance on: saha (with ins.): v. With.
     III Respecting, concerning: prati (with acc.) (rare in this sense): you have spoken one thing good a. Siva tvayaikamīśaṃ prati sādhu bhāṣitam, Ku. v. 81. N. B. Note the following exx.: is there any mistake a. it kimatra kācidbhrāntiḥ, Vi. iii.; whether mere knowledge a. God leads to emancipation kimīśvaraviṣayaṃ ñjānamātraṃ nirvāṇakāraṇam, Ds.; conversing now a. his father, now a. his mother, now a. Sukanasa antarā pitṛsaktamantarā mātṛsambaddhadhmantarā śukanāsamayaṃ kurvannālāpama; K.; I also want to ask something a. your friend vayamapi mavatyoḥ sakhīgataṃ kimapi pṛcchāmaḥ, Sa. i.; we had some conversation a. the news of the country saṅkayā ca deśavārtānuviddhā kācanāvayorabhūt; D. v.; a. the Lord of the Heavens divodhināthamadhikṛtya; a. the friend of the god of Wind pavanasya sakhāyaṃ nirdiśya; a. the Lord of the (south) quarter dikpatimuddiśya; a. many Nalas anekanalāvalambāṃ; N. xiii. 2. 9. 15. 26.
     IV Near (in time): v. About (adv.) (III) Ph. remained for a. a moment muhūrtamivāsāñcakre, K.; a. the same time tasminneva kṣaṇāntare, D. i.

ABOUT (adv.):
     I Around: q. v.: paritaḥ.
     II Here and there itastataḥ. To go, walk, wander a. parikrāmati (kram, c. 1.).
     III Nearly.
     1 by an altern. com.: we will reach (Patna) in a. a week (lit. in five or six days) pañcaṣairahobhirvayameva tatra gantāraḥ, Mu. v.;
     2 by bah. comp. with upa āsanna adūra etc: a. ten upadaśā: (m. pl.); a. four upacaturāḥ; a. twenty āsannaviṃśāḥ; a. thirty adūratriṃśāḥ;
     3 by prāyaḥ (yā yaṃ) or kalpaḥ (lpā lpaṃ) affixed: a. as high as the knee jānudadhnakalpaḥ (lpā lpaṃ);
     4 of age, by deśīyaḥ (yā yaṃ), affixed: a. 18 years of age aṣṭādaśavarṣadeśīyaḥ (yā yaṃ), D. vi.

ABOUT, BE: udyataḥ (tā taṃ): v. Point of, on the; ready. Ph.: What is the king a. now atha sa rājā kimārambhaḥ samprati, U. ii.

ABOVE (adv.):
     I Overhead:
     1 upari;
     2 ūrddhvam;
     3 upariṣṭāt. From a.:
     1 upariṣṭāt;
     2 ūrddhvataḥ, Ku. xiv. 37.
     II Before:
     1 pūrvam;
     2 prāk.

ABOVE (adj.): pūrvaḥ (rvā rvaṃ), in the a. aphorism pūrveṇa sūtreṇa, S.

ABOVE (Prep.):
     I In a higher place: upari (with gen.) Just a.: uparyupari (with acc.), Just a. the village uparyupari grāmam.
     II In greater number:
     1 by tat. comp. with adhikaḥ (kā kaṃ): in a. half a moment arddhādhikamuhūrtena, RAM.;
     2 by bah. comp. with adhika, a. forty adhikacatvāriṃśaḥ (m. pl.);
     3 by comp. with paraḥ, a. hundred (=hundreds) paraḥśataḥ (tā taṃ); Ki. xiii. 26.
     III Beyond; v. Beyond (prep.) (III).

     1 ativartate (vṛt, c. 1.) Vi. iv.;
     2 adhi or ati (with acc.) (rare): Krishna is a. the gods ati devān kṛṣṇaḥ.

ABRADE: v. To rub, scrape.

ABREAST: pārśvāpārśiva (indec.)

     1 saṅ kṣipati (kṣip, c. 6.);
     2 samā-harati (hṛ, c. 1.);
     3 sam-asyati (as, c. 4.); v. To lessen, shorten.

     1 saṃkṣepaḥ;
     2 pratyāhāraḥ;
     3 samāhāraḥ;
     4 samāsaḥ.

ABROAD (adv.):
     I In a foreign country:
     1 videśe;
     2 deśāntare.
     II To a foreign country:
     1 videśaṃ;
     2 deśāntaram.
     III Not at home bahis.
     IV Widely: q. v.: spreading his rays far a. dūraprasāritakaraḥ, K.

     1 pravasati (vas, c. 1.);
     2 videśe vasati etc. One who is, or, is living a. proṣitaḥ (tā taṃ).

ABROGATE, ABROGATION: v. To repeal, etc.

ABRUPT (adj.):
     I Steep, rugged: q. v.: viṣamaḥ (mā maṃ).
     II Hasty, sudden: q. v.:
     1 ākasmikaḥ (kī kaṃ);
     2 akāṇḍaḥ (ṇḍā ṇḍaṃ).
     III Of style: no equiv.: *bhagnaḥ (bhagnā bhagnaṃ).

ABRUPTLY: sahasā: v. Suddenly, hastily.

     I Steepness: q. v. Haste, Suddenness: q. v.

[Page 4]

ABSCESS: perh. vidradhiḥ.

     1 ātmānaṃ nigūhati (guh, c. 1.): v. To hide;
     2 palāyate: v. To escape.

     I A not being present:
     1 anupasthitiḥ;
     2 By the corresp. adj s v. ABSENT: Ph. how shall I live in his a. ahametasya virahe kathaṃ jīviṣyāmi, Vet.
     II A being abroad:
     1 pravāsaḥ;
     2 pravasanam.
     III Non-existence: abhāvaḥ: first of all, the property goes to the brothers, in their a. to the mother, in mother's a. to the father, and in their a to the husband prathamaṃ sodarāṇāṃ tadabhāve mātuḥ māturabhāve pituḥ eṣāṃ punarabhāve taddhanaṃ bhartuḥ, Da.
     IV Fig.: pl. a. of mind:
     1 anyamanaskatā;
     2 amanoyogaḥ.

ABSENT: (adj.)
     I Not present:
     1 anupasthitaḥ (tā taṃ);
     2 avidyamānaḥ (nā naṃ);
     3 avartamānaḥ (nā naṃ).
     II Heedless: q. v.: anyamanaskaḥ (skā skaṃ).

ABSENT, BE: i. e. To be abroad: pra-vasati (vas, c. 1.).

ABSENT-MINDED: śūnyahṛdayaḥ (yā yaṃ), Sa.

     I One temporarily absent: anupasthitaḥ (tā taṃ): v. Absent.
     II One being abroad:
     1 proṣitaḥ (tā taṃ);
     2 pravāsin (f. ).

ABSOLUTE (adj.):
     I Perfect: q. v.:
     1 nityaḥ (tyā tyaṃ) (=eternal, sometimes used with the same force): it is admitted by all assertors of final emancipation that it is a. nityaśca mokṣaḥ sarvairmīkṣavādibhirupagamyate, S. I. 4.;
     2 paramaḥ (mā maṃ) (=excellent, q. v.).
     II Unconditional, uncontrolled: q. v.: Ph.: for fate has a. power sarvathā pramavati hi magavān vidhiḥ, K. iii. Not relative: kevalaḥ (lā laṃ) (?) the recent philosophy of a. the *ādhunikakaivalyadarśanam or -viñjānam.

ABSOLUTELY: i. e. Entirely:
     1 sarvathā;
     2 ekāntatas.

     I Acquittal: q. v.
     II Religious a.:
     1 nistāraḥ;
     2 niṣkṛtiḥ;
     3 uddhāraḥ.

     I To acquit, exonerate: q. v.: mocayati (c. of muc).
     II In religious sense:
     1 niṣ-tārayati (c. of tṝ,);
     2 ud-dharati (dhṛ, c. i.).

ABSORB (v. t.):
     I To imbibe, suck up:
     1 cūṣati (cūṣ, c. i.);
     2 śoṣayati (c. of śuṣ) (=dry up).
     II Fig.: To engross:
     1 majjati ni-, (masj, c. 6.), old men are a. ed. in thoughts and none clings to the supreme spirit vṛddhastāvaccintāmagnaḥ parame brahmaṇi ko'pi na lagnaḥ;
     2 viśati abhiniviśate (viś, c. 6.) (with acc.) [not so forcible as (1)] became a. ed in thought cintāṃ viveśa, K.

     1 coṣaṇam;
     2 cūṣā;
     3 nipānam;
     4 śoṣaṇam.

ABSTAIN (v. i.):
     1 vi-ramati (ram, c. 1.), a. from this dirty work virama karmaṇo'smānmalīmasāt, D. IV.;
     2 ni-vartayati (c. of vṛt) (with acc.), a. yourself from this unlucky affair nivartayāsmādasadīpsitānmanaḥ, Ku. v. 73.;
     3 ni-vartate (vṛt, c. i.): nivṛttamāṃsastu tatrabhavān janakaḥ, U. IV.

ABSTAIN from food: upa-vasati (vas, c. 1.): v. To fast.

     1 mitāhāraḥ (rā raṃ);
     2 mitāśanaḥ (nā naṃ);
     3 mitabhuj (mfn);
     4 ladhvāhāraḥ (rā raṃ);
     5 ladhvāśin (f. );
     6 yatāhāraḥ (,).

     1 mitāhāreṇa;
     2 mitāśanena;
     3 ladhvāhāreṇa.

     1 mitāhāraḥ;
     2 mitabhojanama;
     3 mitāśanam.

     I In gen. sense, refraining from:
     1 nivṛttiḥ;
     2 viratiḥ;
     3 kṣāntiḥ.
     II From food:
     1 upavāsaḥ;
     2 anaśanam; v. Fasting.
     III From the gratification of animal propensities:
     1 saṃyamanama;
     2 yamaḥ

     I From food:
     1 yatāhāraḥ (rā raṃ): v. Abstemious.
     II In a winder sense: saṃyamin (f. ): v. Continent.

ABSTRACT (v. t.):
     I To separate: q. v.: vi-yojayati (c. of yuj).
     II To filch away, steal: q. v.: apa-harati (hṛ, c. 1.).
     III To abridge: q. v.

ABSTRACT (subs): v. Abridgment, epitome.

[Page 5]

ABSTRACT (adj.):
     I Separate: q. v.
     II As opposed to concrete: perh. sūkṣamaḥ (kṣmā kṣmaṃ): v. Abstruse, refined.

ABSTRACTION: Phil. t. t. *praṇidhānam; padārthānāmaparadharmānanādṛtyaikadharmaṃ prati praṇidhānam. In gen. sense, v. Stealing, separation, etc.

ABSTRUSE: nigūḍhaḥ (ḍhā ḍhaṃ): v. Recondite, obscure.

ABSTRUSENESS: nigūḍhatā: v. Obscurity.

ABSURD: v. Ridiculous, preposterous, inconsistent, unreasonable.

     I Want of sense or judgement:
     1 ānarthakyam;
     2 ayāthārthyam;
     3 asaṅgatiḥ
     II An absurd thing: Ph. what a. kaḥ pramādaḥ.

ADSURDLY: Ph. do not talk a. *alamanarthakapralāpena.

     1 prācuryam;
     2 bhūyastvam;
     3 bāhulyam;
     4 prabhūtatvam.

     1 pracuraḥ (rā raṃ);
     2 prabhūtaḥ (tā taṃ);
     3 bahulaḥ (lā laṃ);
     4 bhūyiṣṭhaḥ (ṣṭhā ṣṭhaṃ);
     5 prājyaḥ (jyā jyaṃ);
     6 bhūri (mfn);
     7 adabhraḥ (bhrā bhraṃ).

ABUSE (v. t.):
     I To revile: q. v.: ākṣipati adhi-, (kṣip, c. 6.);
     2 ā-krośati (krūś, c. 1.);
     3 apa bhāṣate (bhāṣ, c. 1).
     II To make ill use of: Ph. a king who a. his rights goes to hell rājānyāyamācarannarakaṃ gacchati; he a. s his time sa kālaṃ vṛthā nayati kṣipati harati, etc.
     III To violate: q. v. prakurute.

ABUSE (subs):
     I Ill-use:
     1 kuvyavahāraḥ;
     2 durvyavahāraḥ;
     3 kuprayogaḥ (of word);
     4 vṛthāharaṇaṃ (of time):
     II Contumely:
     1 adhikṣepaḥ;
     2 tiraskāraḥ;
     3 ākrośaḥ;
     4 ākṣāraḥ.

ABUSIVE: Ph. a. language ākṣepavacaḥ; a. writer *parūṣalekhakaḥ.

ABUT: v. To adjoin, border on.

     1 gabhīragartaḥ;
     2 gabhīrarandhram;
     3 agādhabilam.

ACACIA: vṛkṣaviśeṣaḥ; śamī (a. suma); śirīṣaḥ (another species).

ACADEMIC: i. e. Belonging to an academy: expr. by tat. comp.

ACADEMICIAN: *vidvatsabhādhiṣṭhātṛ (f. trī).

     I A school: q. v. vidyālayaḥ.
     II A society of learned men:
     1 vidvatsabhā (?);
     2 paṇḍitasabhā (?). The royal a. *laṇḍananagarasya citrakarasabhāḥ.

ACCEDE: anujānāti (ñjā, c. 9): v. To agree, assent.

ACCELERATE: tvarayati (c. of tvar): v. To hasten, quicken.

ACCELERATION: tvarā (?) (Ku. ii. 63): v. Haste.

ACCENT (subs.):
     I In speaking: svaraḥ. The acute a. udāttaḥ; the grave a. anudāttaḥ; the circumflex a. svaritaḥ.
     II A peculiar tone in speaking svaraḥ; with distinct articulation and a. atispaṣṭavarṇasvarasaṃskārayā K. III. An accentual mark: svaracihram (?).
     IV Language, expressions: q. v.

ACCENT (v. t.): sasvaram uccārayati (c. of car) (?).

ACCENTUATE (v. t.): Ph. a. these syllables *eṣāmakṣarāṇāṃ svarān cihnaya (cihn, c. 10).

     I In speaking: svaraḥ.
     II In writing: svaracihvīkaraṇam (?).

ACCEPT (v. t.):
     1 gṛhvāti prati- pari-, (grahva, c. 9): a. ing the benedictions: āśiṣaḥ pratigṛhvantau, R. i. 44; here we should a. the word atha in the sense of succession atrāthaśabdaḥ ānantaryārthaḥ parigṛhyate, S. I. i;
     2 svīkaroti, N. xiv. 49;
     3 aṅgīkaroti, let the real Nala a. the garland aṅgīkarotu paramārthanalaḥ sa mālāṃ, N. xiii. 53;
     4 pratipadyate (pad, c. 4), Si. xv. 22;
     5 pratiicchati (iṣ, c. 6); a. ing presents pratīcchannupāyanāni, K.

     I Lit.:
     1 parigrahaṇīyaḥ (yā yaṃ);
     2 upādeyaḥ (yā yaṃ).
     II Agreeable, pleasant: q. v.:
     1 ruciraḥ (rā raṃ);
     2 manoñjaḥ (ñjā ñjaṃ).

ACCEPTABLE, BE: rocate (ruc, c. 1.) (with dat.): v. To please.

ACCEPTABLENESS: v. Agreeableness, pleasantness.

ACCEPTABLY: ruciram: v. Agreeably, satisfactorily.

     1 parigrahaḥ;
     2 pratigrahaḥ;
     3 svīkaraṇam;
     4 pratipattiḥ.

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ACCEPTATION: arthaḥ: v. Meaning. Ph. according to usual a. the word 'inheritance' conveys property over which ownership is created on the demise of the former owner pūrvasvāmyuparame yatra dravye svatvaṃ tatra nirūḍho dāyaśabdaḥ: Da.

     1 grāhakaḥ;
     2 parigrāhakaḥ;
     3 parigrahītā.

     I Admission, interview: q. v. Ph. the asceties want to gain a. to the king tapasvino devaṃ draṣṭumicchanti, Sa. v.
     II The means of a.
     1 āgamadvāram;
     2 upasarpaṇamārgaḥ, etc.
     III Sexual intercourse: q. v. abhigamanam.
     IV Addition: v. Accession: v. A fit of disease: āgamaḥ: v. Accession.

     I Of places:
     1 gamyaḥ (myā myaṃ);
     2 sugamaḥ (mā maṃ).
     II Of persons:
     1 upasarpaṇīyaḥ (yā yaṃ). Surely kings are a. only at convenient times nanvavasaropasarpaṇīyā rājānaḥ, Sa. vi.;
     2 sulabhadarśanaḥ (nā naṃ) (easily seen). Ph.: not a. to bribe or sexual gratification na dhanastrīdānādinā bhedyaḥ: K. b.

     I The act of joining:
     1 yogaḥ;
     2 saṅgamaḥ.
     II A coming to power. Ph. on his a. to the throne rājyamavāpya etc. or siṃhāsanamāruhya.
     III Increase: q. v. vṛddhiḥ, Ph.: a. of wealth dhanāgamaḥ.
     IV Of disease:
     1 āgamaḥ;
     2 āvirbhāvaḥ;
     3 avatāraḥ.

     1 sahāyaḥ;
     2 sahakārī;
     3 pravartakaḥ: v. Instigator.

ACCIDENCE: upakramaṇikā (?): v. Rudiment.

     I Chance, casualty: q. v. ph. seen by a. samāpattidṛṣṭāḥ, D. v.: v. Accidentally.
     II An unlucky event: durghaṭanam or sim. ghaṭanā (when the sense is clear).
     III A nonessential property:
     1 na prakṛtiḥ;
     2 asahajo dharmaḥ or guṇaḥ (?)

     I Casual, fortuitous: q. v.
     1 daivikaḥ (kī kaṃ) if a. there is no punishment daivike nāsti nigrahaḥ, M. viii. 409;
     2 yādṛcchikaḥ (kī kaṃ) not approving of a. union yādṛcchikīṃ sampattimanabhisamīkṣya, D. vi.; even a. union yadṛcchayāpi yogaḥ, Ki.,
     II Non-essential
     1 asamavāyin (f. );
     2 āhāryaḥ (ryā ryaṃ);
     3 asahajaḥ (jā jaṃ).

     1 daivāt;
     2 daivayogāt;
     3 daivagatyā;
     4 yadṛcchayā;
     5 vidhivaśāt.

     1 praśaṃsāvācaḥ; with various a s of the spectators raṅgagatasya janasyauccāvacāḥ praśaṃsāvācaḥ pratigṛhṇantī, D. vi.;
     2 sādhuvādaḥ, Si. xiv. 47.

ACCLIMATIZE: Ph. many foreigners become a. d to India *bahavo videśinaḥ kālena bhāratavarṣasya jalavāyvādisahiṣṇavo bhavanti.

ACCLIVITY: utsaṅgaḥ: v. Slope, incline.

     I To adapt, conform: Ph. a yourself to the whims of nature vidhivilasitānyanuvartasva (?).
     II To reconcile, adjust: q. v.
     III To supply with conveniences: Ph.: a. me with lodgings *vāsadānena māmupakuru.

     I Adaptation: q. v.: upayogitā.
     II Reconciliation: q. v.
     III Conveniences: Ph.: we received every a. in the inn. sarvopakaraṇānyasmābhiḥ pathikāśrame samadhigatāni.
     IV A loan of money: Ph. a. bill *upakaraṇapatram.

ACCOMPANIED BY: Often expr. by any comp. with sa-: as if a. by attendants sasaciva iva, Ki. x. 14. N. B. Note the fol. exx. a. by Sachi śacīsakhaḥ, R. viii. 32; a. by Rati ratiddhitīyaḥ Ku. iii. 35; a. by his mistress gṛhiṇīsahāyaḥ R. ii. 24.

ACCOMPANIMENT: Ph. singing in a. with drums mṛdaṅgānugatasaṅgītam, Ra. i.

     I To go with:
     1 anu-gacchati anveti, etc.: a. d by some of the chief Kiratas anvītaḥ sa katipayaiḥ kirātavaryaiḥ Ki. xii. 52: v. To go after, follow;
     2 sahacaraḥ (rī raṃ) bhavati (bhū, c. i.) (with gen.);
     3 gacchati yāti etc. with saha and ins.: I will a. you tvayā saha gamiṣyāmi.
     II To play in accompaniment:
     1 anugacchati (gam, c. 1.);
     2 anusarati (sṛ, c. 1.)

ACCOMPLICE: sahāyaḥ: v. Accessory.

     I To complete: q. v. pūrayati (c. of pūr).
     II To perform, execute:
     1 sādhayati (c. of sidh);
     2 niṣpādayati sampādayati (c. of pad);
     3 nivartayati (c. of vṛt);
     4 samā-dadhāti (dhā, c. 3);
     5 karoti (kṛ, c. 8);
     6 diśati (diś, c. 9);
     7 rādhayati (c. of. rādh).
     III To furnish: q. v.

     I Finished, performed:
     1 siddhaḥ (ddhā ddhaṃ);
     2 niṣpannaḥ (nnā nnaṃ);
     3 nivṛttaḥ (ttā ttaṃ)
     II Clever, refined:
     1 viśāradaḥ (dā daṃ);
     2 vicakṣaṇaḥ (ṇā ṇaṃ);
     3 kṛtin (f. ): let the a. enjoy it with pleasure tat suprasannamanasaḥ kṛtino bhajantām, Vi. i. N. B. The last word generally used absol. But see Ki. xiv. 2.

     I The act of accomplishing:
     1 siddhiḥ;
     2 sādhanam;
     3 sampādanam;
     4 niṣpattiḥ;
     5 rāddhiḥ;
     6 nivṛttiḥ.
     II Attainment, acquirement, culture: q. v.

ACCORD (subs.):
     I Agreement, concurrence: q. v.: Ph. let us all with one a. fly up with the net narvairekacittībhūya jālamādāyīṅṅīyatām, H. i., of one's own a. svecchātaḥ.
     II Concord, harmony. q. v.

ACCORD (v.):
     I Trans: v. To grant.
     II Intrans: v. To harmonise, agree.

     1 Comp with anusāreṇa; in a. with it tadanusāreṇa;
     2 Sometimes by the sim. abl. or ins: in a. with the king's command rājāñjayā, in a. with my saying madvacanāt, Mr.: v. According to.

     1 By any. comp. with yathā, a. to rite yathāvidhi; punishing a. to (the nature of) the offence (committed) yathāparādhadaṇḍānāṃ, R. i. 6.;
     2 When indicating order or succession by anukrameṇa krameṇa, or by any comp. with anu-, not a. to (the seniority of) the mother na mātṛkrameṇa; K. b.; a. to regular order anupūrvaśaḥ, M.: v. In accordance with.

ACCORDINGLY (adv.): tathaiva: v. Agreeably, conformably.

ACCORDINGLY (conj.): Often understood or expr. by: circumlocution: Ph. 'the princess is come, come to see her', (saying this) she went and we a. followed her prāptaiveyaṃ bhartṛdārikā āgacchatāṃ draṣṭa mityayāsīt | tāmanvayāva cāvāṃ, D. vi.; he a. followed me tathoktaḥ māmanuvavrāja: v. Consequently, therefore.

ACCOST (v. t.): ā-mantrayati (mantr, c. 10): v. To address.

     1 garbhanirgamaḥ;
     2 prasavaḥ: v. Delivery.

     1 kumārabhṛtyākuśalo bhiṣak, R. iii. 12.;
     2 prajananakuśalaḥ (puruṣaḥ), Sr.

ACCOUNT (subs):
     I Of money: gaṇanā; a. book gaṇanāpatrikā, Raj.; Balancing an a. gaṇanāmekīkṛtya, Raj.; render an a. for me madarthaṃ gaṇanāṃ kuru.
     II Estimation: q. v. gaṇanā.
     III Importance, value, advantage: q. v.
     IV A narrative or description: q. v.
     1 vivaraṇam;
     2 vivṛttiḥ: v. Reason, consideration: q. v.: Ph. on this a. ataḥ, on what a. kimartham or kinnimittam. or no a. na kathañcana; on all a. s sarvathā.

     1 By the abl.: on a. of having no power aprabhutvāt, D.;
     2 Sometimes by the ins especially if the word ends in , on a. of my childhood bālatayā;
     3 By -nimittaḥ (ttā ttaṃ), as we are reduced to this state on a. of the enemy dviṣannimittā yadiyaṃ daśā, Ki. i. 41.: v. For the sake of.

ACCOUNT (v. t.): gaṇayati (gaṇ, c. 10.): v. To consider, esteem.

     I To assign the cause of: kāraṇaṃ darśayati pra-, (c. of dṛś) (with gen.): v. To explain.
     II To render an account: Ph. a. for the money received *yaddhanaṃ prāptaṃ tasya gaṇanāṃ dehi.

ACCOUNTABLE: Ph. I. apprehend you are a. for his death *tvaddoṣāttasya maraṇamāśaṅke; every one is a. to God for his conduct *sarvairīśvarāyātmakāryāṇāṃ nyāyānyāyau pradarśayitavyau.

ACCOUNTANT: perh. gaṇakaḥ; chief a., a.-general gaṇanādhyakṣaḥ, RAJ.

ACCOUTRE (v. t.): saṃ-nahyati (nah, c. 4.): v. To equip, arm.

     1 sannāhaḥ;
     2 sajjāḥ v. Arms, equipment.

     I To trust: q. v.: vi-śvasiti (śvas, c. 2).
     II To send with credentials: pra-hiṇoti (hi, c. 5): To send.

     1 upacayaḥ;
     2 vṛddhiḥ.

ACCURE (v. 1.): v. To result; also to augment.

     1 saṃ-cinoti samā- pra- (ci, c. 5);
     2 saṃ-bibharti (bhṛ, c. 3);
     3 saṃ-gṛhvāti (grah, c. 9);
     4 rāśīkararoti pūgīkaroti etc. (=to amass).

     1 upacīyate (pass);
     2 vardhate (vṛdh, c. i);
     3 sphītaḥ (tā taṃ) bhavati.

     1 sañcayaḥ;
     2 saṃgrahaḥ;
     3 sambhṛtiḥ.

     1 viśuddhatvam;
     2 viśuddhiḥ: v. Correctness, nicety.

ACCURATE: viśuddhaḥ (ddhā ddhaṃ): v. Correct, exact, careful.

ACCURATELY: viśuddham: v. Correctly, exactly

     1 -hatakaḥ (kā kaṃ), the a. moon. candrahatakaḥ, K.;
     2 dagdhaḥ (gdhā gdhaṃ), the a. saint dagdhasiddhaḥ, D. vii.: v. Detestable, execrable.

     1 abhiyogaḥ;
     2 apavādaḥ; made a false a. against her husband bharturmithyāpavādamabhihitavatī, Ver;
     3 abhiśāpaḥ (=false a.).

     1 karmakārakam;
     2 karman (n.).

ACCUSATORY (adj.): i. e. Containing an accusation: apavādagarbhaḥ (rbhā rbhaṃ).

ACCUSE (v. t.):
     1 abhi-yunakti (yuj, c. 7), that I go like an a. d man abhiyukta iva prayāmi, Mr. ix.;
     2 apa-vadati (vad, c. 1.); v. To calumniate.

     1 abhiyoktṛ (f. trī);
     2 abhiyogin (f. ) (rare.)

     1 paricayaṃ karoti, a. ed himself in shooting moveable objects paricayaṃ calalakṣyanipātane  ..karoti, R. ix. 49;
     2 abhyasyati (as, c. 4) v. To practise. Ph.: he who is a. ed to good food *yaḥ sarvadā bhojanaviśeṣairāhāraṃ karoti; a. ed to cheating vañcanāparaḥ (rā raṃ).

ACE: Of cards: *ṭekvā. Ph.: within an a. of piercing: *alpena veddhuṃ na śaśāka.

ACCERBITY: kaṭutā (lit. and fig.): v. Sourness.

ACHE (subs):
     1 pīḍā;
     2 vedanā;
     3 vyathā v. Head- a. etc.

ACHE (v. i.):
     1 vyathate (vyath, c. 1);
     2 pīḍayate (c. of pīḍ). Ph. my head a. s śirovedana māṃ bādhate. Mu. iii.

ACHIEVE (v. t.):
     1 sādhayati (c. of sādh)
     2 niṣpādayati (c. of pad): v. To accomplish.

     I Exploit: q. v.
     1 avadānam measured by your a. avadānasammitāṃ, Sa. vii.
     2 karman (n); v. Deed.
     II In heraldry v. EscukSeon.

ACHROMATIC: *avarṇaḥ (rṇā rṇaṃ): a. telescope *avarṇaṃ dūravīkṣaṇaṃ yena tejoviśleṣeṇa raktapītādyādimavaṇe na dṛśyate.

     I adj. amla: (mlā mlaṃ).
     II Subs.: amlaḥ.

     1 amlatā;
     2 amlatvabh, a. of stomach amlapittaḥ.

ACIDUOUS: īṣadamlaḥ (mlā mlaṃ) (?)

     1 abhyupa-eti (i. c. 2) she a. defeat from me mattaḥ parājayo'bhyupetaḥ, D. ii.;
     2 abhyupa-gacchati (gam, c. 1): I a. I am just so abhyupagataṃ tāvadasmābhirevaṃvidhā eva vayam, Sa. v.;
     3 svīkaroti, D. s.;
     4 aṃgīkaroti, if one would not a. the authority of inference yadi kaścitprāmāṇyamanumānasya nāṅgīkuryāt, D. s.;
     5 pratipadyate (pad, c. 4.), M. viii. 183.

     1 svīkāraḥ;
     2 abhyupagamaḥ;
     3 abhyupāyaḥ;
     4 aṅgīkāraḥ.

ACME: parā koṭiḥ: the a. of joy parāṃ koṭimānandasya, K.

ACONITE: A poison: vatsanābhaḥ.

ACORN: i. e. The fruit of the oak: v. Oak.

     1 śrautaḥ (tī taṃ);
     2 Comp. with śrotra-.

ACOUSTICS: *śabdavidyā.

ACQUAINT (v. t.):
     I To make familiar: parīcayaṃ karoti (kṛ, c. 8) ā-carati (car, c. 1), making himself a. ed with all sciences sarvavidyāparicayamācarataḥ, K. II. To inform: q. v. bodhayati ava-, (c. of budh), you should keep me a. ed with whatever happens there everyday pratyahañca yadyattatra vṛttāntaṃ jātaṃ tadasmi tvayāvabodhyaḥ, D. iii.

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     I Familiar knowledge:
     1 paricayaḥ, out of respect for his a. with all practical arts sakalakalākalāpaparicayabahumānena, K.;
     2 saṃstavaḥ (rare): v. Knowledge, intimacy.
     II A person known;
     1 paricitaḥ (tā taṃ), like old a. s ciraparicitāviva, D. iii.;
     2 saṃstutaḥ (tā taṃ) Ki. iii. 2.

ACQUAINTED WITH: abhiñjaḥ (ñjā ñjaṃ) (with gen.), I am not a. with such affairs evaṃ vidhānāṃ vṛttāntānāmanamiñjāsmi; K.: Ph. we are not a. with love affairs anabhyantarā khalu vayaṃ madanagatasya vṛttāntasya, Sa. iii.

ACQUIESCE: v. To assent, abide by, content with.

ACQUIESCENCE: sammatiḥ: v. Assent.

ACQUIRE (v. t.):
     1 arjati upa-, (arj, c. 1) or commonly, upārjanaṃ karoti (with gen.);
     2 adhi-gacchati (gam, c. 1), to a. fame yaśodhigantum, Ki. iii. 40. v. To gain, obtain.

     I The act of acquiring
     1 arjanam upārjanam, by the a. of knowledge vidyopārjanena, P. i. p.;
     2 adhigamaḥ;
     3 lābhaḥ;
     4 avāptiḥ.
     II Of knowledge: v. Attainment.

     I Acquirement: q. v.
     II The thing acquired lābhaḥ v. Gain.

ACQUIT (v. i.):
     1 muñcati (muc, c. 6.);
     2 mocayati (c. of. muc);
     3 nistārayati (c. of tṝ) (?)

ACQUIT ONESELF: ā-carati (car, c. 1.): v. To conduct.

     1 muktiḥ;
     2 mocanam;
     3 mokṣaḥ.

     I Of debt:
     1 pariśodhaḥ;
     2 niryātanam.
     II A receipt: q. v.

ACRE: bhūmānaviśeṣaḥ.

ACRID (adj.): kaṭuḥ (ṭvī ṭu): v. Pungent, sharp, acrimonious.

     1 kaṭuḥ (ṭvī ṭu);
     2 ugraḥ (grā graṃ);
     3 prakharaḥ (rā raṃ).

     1 kaṭutvam;
     2 prākharyam;
     3 ugratvam.

ACROSS (adv.):
     1 vyatyastaḥ (stā staṃ);
     2 koṇākoṇi (?)

ACROSS (prep.): Ph. I will go a. the river. nadīpāraṃ gamiṣyāmi; a bridge has been laid a. the Son *śonasyopari seturbabandhe.

ACROSTIC: Nearest word citrakāvyam, Kav. i. 8.; *ādyākṣarabandhaḥ.

ACT (v. t.):
     I To do, perform: q. v.
     II On the stage:
     1 abhinayati (, c. 1), Sa. 1.;
     2 pra-yojayati (yuj, c. 10), we should a. Malabikagnimitra in this spring festival mālavikāgnimitramasmin vasantotsave prayoktavyam, Mal.;
     3 nāṭayati (naṭ, c. 10.), Ma. i.: Ph. Urbashi a. ing the part of Lakshmi. lakṣmībhūmikāyāṃ vartamānorvaśī, V. iii. N. B. The sense of a. ing is often expressed by nomi. v. s.: a. the nymph apsarāyate.

ACT (v. i.):
     I To be in action: karoti (kṛ, c. 8): this is not possible that one a. s and another enjoys na hye tat sambhaviṣyatyanyaḥ karotyanyaḥ bhuṅkta iti, D. s.
     II To conduct oneself:
     1 ācarati (car, c. 1): the king has a. ed very ungentlemanly towards Sakuntala tena rājñā śakuntalāyāmanāryamācaritam, Sa. iv. v. To behave;
     2 by nominal verbs: to a. as. a step-mother sapatnāyate; to a. as a tutor gurūyate; to a. like yourself tvadyate.
     III On the stage: abhinayati (, c. 1) v. Act (v. t.) (II).

ACT (subs):
     I A deed: q. v.:
     1 karman (n);
     2 kriyā;
     3 kṛtam.
     II A division of a play: aṅka (mn.)
     III A law: *vidhiḥ Ph.: the last act of life: (jīvanasya) caramadaśā.

     I Agency: Often not expr: water boils by the a. of heat *vāri tapati tāpena. Ph. the a. of the senses indriyāṇāṃ vṛttiḥ, Ku. iii. 72; the a. of love madanasya vyāpāraḥ, Sa. i.
     II Deed, conduct: q. v.
     1 ceṣṭitam;
     2 viceṣṭitam.
     III Gesticulation: q. v. ceṣṭā, M. vii. 63.
     IV Law suit, cause: q. v. kāryam, Mr. xi. V. An engagement, battle: q. v.: yuddham.
     VI In plays etc.: *kāryam: there is much a. in the play *kāryabhulaṃ nāṭakam.:

     1 vyavahāryaḥ (ryā ryaṃ),;
     2 vyavahartavyaḥ (vyā vyaṃ): a. subject vyavahārapadaṃ, M.

ACTIVE (adj.):
     I Agile, nimble:
     1 utthānaśīlaḥ (lā laṃ);
     2 utsāhin (f. ) (=zealous); (3, 4) kṣiprakārin āśukārin (f. ṇī) (=one who does quick);
     5 tīkṣṇakarman (mfn) (sharp worker);
     6 atandritaḥ (tā taṃ) (=not slow).
     II Busy, industrious; q. v.;
     1 karmiṣṭhaḥ (ṣṭhā ṣṭhaṃ)
     2 vyavasāyin (f. )
     III In gram.; Ph. a. verb skarmakakriyā; a. voice kartṛvācyam. --
     IV As opposed to passive: Ph. a. organs karmendriyāṇi (n. pl.); entered into a. life saṃsārakārye vyāpṛtaḥ (tā taṃ) (?)

ACTIVITY (subs.):
     I Agility,:
     1 kṣiprakāritā;
     2 utsāhaḥ v. Zeal.
     II Industry and energy:
     1 udyogaḥ;
     2 vyavasāyaḥ;
     3 avyavasāyaḥ;
     4 karmābhiniveśaḥ;
     5 utthānaśīlatā. Ph. with great a. mahatā yatnena.

     I A doer: q. v.: kartṛ (m).
     II A stage player:
     1 naṭaḥ;
     2 nartakaḥ;
     3 kuśīlavaḥ;
     4 cāraṇaḥ;
     5 śailūṣaḥ;
     6 abhinetṛ (m);
     7 raṅgājīvaḥ;
     8 śailālin (m) (rare).

     1 naṭī;
     2 nartakī;
     3 abhinetrī.

     1 yathārthaḥ (rthā rthaṃ);
     2 Comp. with paramārthaṃ: v. Real, true.

     1 yathārthatā;
     2 tattvam: v. Realty.

     1 paramārthataḥ;
     2 yathārthataḥ: v. Really, truely.

ACTUARY: lekhakaḥ (?) v. Clerk, Registrar.

ACTUATE: pra-ṇudati (nud, c. 6): v. To move, impel, influence.

     1 sūkṣmadarśitā;
     2 kuśāgrabuddhiḥ: v. Sagacity.

ACUTE (adj.):
     I In intellect:
     1 sūkṣmadarśina (f. );
     2 kuśāgrabuddhi (mfn.), R. v. 4.: v. Subtle, shrewd, keen.
     II Of the senses tikṣṇaḥ (kṣṇā kṣṇaṃ): v. Sharp, penetrating.
     III Sharp, pointed: q. v.: Ph. a. angle: v. Angle: a. accent udāttaḥ; a. pain tīvravedanā.

ACUTELY: v. Sharply, kneely, subtly.

     I Of intellect: v. Acumen.
     II Of the senses:
     1 taikṣṇyam;
     2 tejaḥ.

ADAGE: vacanam (when the sense is clear): v. Proverb, saying.

     I An imaginary stone: vajraḥ (Lit. and Fig.).
     II Lode-stone q. v. ayaskāntaḥ.

ADAPT: v. To fit, suit. A. ed: v. Fit, suitable.

ADAPTATIONS: v. Fitness, suitability.

     I To sum up:
     1 yojayati saṃ-, (yuja, c. 10).;
     2 saṃ-kalayati (kal, c. 10).
     II To gain, unite: q. v.: yojayati.
     III To speak in addition aparaṃ ca bravīti (brū, c. 2), abhidadhāti (dhā, c. 3), etc.

ADDER: sarpaviśeṣaḥ.

     1 ātmānaṃ ā-sajjayati (with loc.);
     2 āsajjate (with loc.): v. To devote, give up.

     1 āsaktaḥ prasaktaḥ, or saktaḥ (ktā ktaṃ);
     2 nirataḥ (tā taṃ).

     I The process of adding
     1 saṅkalanam;
     2 saṅkalitam; a. of fractions bhinnasaṅkalitam, Li.
     II The act of adding
     1 yogaḥ;
     2 saṃyogaḥ;
     3 samāyogaḥ;
     4 saṅkanam
     III Anything added yogaḥ: v. Increase.

ADDITIONAL: Ph. on receiving the a. powers *atiriktakṣmatāṃ prāpya; there are additional reasons for his departure *tasya prasthānasyāparāṇi kāraṇāni santi.

ADDLE (adj.):
     1 naṣṭaḥ (ṣṭā ṣṭaṃ) (?);
     2 duṣṭaḥ (ṣṭā ṣṭaṃ) (?) v. Putrid.

ADDLE-HEADED: v. Silly, foolish.

ADDRESS (subs.):
     I A speaking to;
     1 sambodhanam;
     2 abhibhāṣaṇam;
     3 vacanam.
     II A massage of respect: perh. abhivādaḥ.
     III Manner of speaking to another: Ph. of pleasing a. priyambadaḥ (dā daṃ) or miṣṭabhāṣin (f. ṇī) or madhurālāpin (f. ).
     IV Tact, dexterity: q. v. dakṣatā: V. In pl.: of courtship: Ph. his a. es were rejected *tasyāmantraṇaṃ pratyādiṣṭam.
     VI The superscription of a letter: bāhyanāman (n.) get this letter written by Sakatadasa without putting any a.: adattabāhyanāmānaṃ lekhaṃ śakaṭadāsena lekhayitvā Mu. i.
     VII The direction nāmadhamanī (n. du.).

ADDRESS (v. t.):
     I To discourse to:
     1 sambodhayati (budh, c. 10) or sambodhanaṃ karoti;
     2 abhi-bhāṣate sabh- ā- samā-, (bhāṣ, c. 1), he a. es me by my name nāmagrahaṇapūrvakaṃ māṃ sambhāṣate;
     3 abhi-dadhāti (dhā, c. 3), a. me as you have been accustomed to do yathābhyastamabhidhīyatāṃ, U. i.: v. To speak to.
     II To superscribe (as a letter): q. v.: Ph. he a. ed a letter to me sa mahyaṃ patraṃ prāhiṇot.
     III To court, woo: q. v.

ADDUCE (v. t.):
     1 diśati ut- nira-, (diś, c. 6), if a man does not a. witness saying that he has got them sākṣiṇo mama vidyante ityuktā yo na nirdiśati, K. b, M. viii. 56.;
     2 upanyasyati (as, c. 4) a. ing of witness sākṣyupanyāsaḥ, K. b.

ADEPT (adj.):
     1 nipuṇaḥ (ṇā ṇaṃ);
     2 kuśalaḥ (lā laṃ);
     3 paṭu (mfn.).

ADEQUACY: paryāptiḥ v. Sufficiency. N. B. Better expr. by the adj.

ADEQUATE (adj.):
     I Sufficient: q. v. paryāptaḥ (ptā ptaṃ).
     II As applied to men:
     1 upayuktaḥ (ktā ktaṃ);
     2 samarthaḥ (rthā rthaṃ). v. Competent.

ADEQUATELY: Better expr. by the adj.: v. Sufficient, sufficiently.

ADHERE (v. i.):
     1 sajjate (sajj, c. 1), who a. s to my dress ko nu nivasane me sajjate, Sa. iv.;
     2 lagati saṃ-, (lag, c. 1) again a. d to the Sinsapa tree śiṃśapāvṛkṣe punarlalāga, etc. v. To stick, cling to.

ADHERENCE: v. Adhesion.

ADHERENT (subs.): anugāmin (f. ): v. Follower. Ph. Anantasira is an a. of Praharavarma anantasīraḥ prahāravarmaṇaḥ pakṣaḥ, D. iii.: v. Partisan.

ADHESION (subs):
     I Lit.: Sticking to:
     1 saṃlagnatvam;
     2 saṃsaktiḥ
     II Fig. Attachment: q. v.: āsaktiḥ.

ADHESION (adj.): Perh. śyānaḥ (nā naṃ) v. Sticky.

ADIEU (interj.): svasti with dat.

ADIEU (subs):
     1 āmantraṇam;
     2 āpracchanam. To bid a.
     1 āmantrayate (mantr, c. 10). R. vii. 30.;
     1 ā-pṛcchate, (praccha, c. 6). R. viii. 49.

ADJACENT (adj.):
     1 sannihitaḥ (tā taṃ);
     2 sannikṛṣṭaḥ (ṣṭā ṣṭaṃ);
     3 samīpavartin (f. );
     4 nikaṭasthaḥ (sthā sthaṃ);
     5 āsannavartin (f. ).

     1 viśeṣaṇam;
     2 guṇavācakaḥ śabdaḥ.

ADJOIN (v. t.):
     1 lagati saṃ-, (lag, c. 1);
     2 spṛśati, (spṛś, c. 6).

ADJOINING (adj.): saṃlagnaḥ or lagnaḥ (gnā gnaṃ).

ADJOURN (v. t.): Perh. vyā-kṣipati (kṣip, c. 6): a. ed the case till monday *somavāraṃ yāvat kāryaṃ vyācikṣepa: v. To put off, postpone.

ADJOURN (v. i.): Ph. the parliament a. ed for four days *caturdivasaṃ mahāsabhā tyaktakāryāsīt.

ADJOURNMENT: vyākṣepaḥ (?) v. Postponment.

ADJUDGE (v. t.): v. To award, to decree, to sentence.

ADJUDICATE: nirṇayati (, c. 1): v. To decide, judge.

     1 nirṇayaḥ;
     2 nirṇayanam: v. Decision.

     1 saṃyuktaḥ (ktā ktaṃ);
     2 sammilitaḥ (tā taṃ);
     3 anubaddhaḥ (ddhā ddhaṃ).

     I The act adjuring: śāpanam.
     II The form of oath: śapathaḥ.

ADJURE: v. To entreat, beg.

     I To make extact, fit: q. v.
     II To Regulate: q. v. sannidadhāti (dhā, c. 3).
     III Of accounts: v. Account.

ADJUSTMENT: v. Regulation, settlement.

ADJUTANCY: *sahacarapadam.

ADJUTANT (subs):
     I A military officer: *sahacaraḥ.
     II The gigantic crane:
     1 asthibhakṣaḥ;
     2 lohapṛṣṭhaḥ.

ADMEASUREMENT, ADMENSURATION: v. Measurement, mensuration.

     I To manage, execute: q. v. nir-vāhayati (c. of vah): Ph. to a. justice dharmavivecanaṃ karoti (kṛ, c. 8.) M. viii. 21.
     II To give, afford: q. v. dadāti (, c. 3).
     III To tender an oath: śāpayati (c. of śapa).
     IV To manage an estate: *mṛtakasampatteḥ rakṣaṇāvekṣaṇaṃ karoti.

     I Execution, management: q. v.: nirvāhaḥ. Ph. a. of Government śāsanam; a. of justice dharmavivecanam; internal a. prajāsu vṛttiḥ, Ki. i. I. II. The executive part of Government: sacivāḥ (m. pl.).
     III Legal. t. t.: Ph. letters of a. *nirvāhapatram.

ADMINISTRATIVE: Ph. his a. abilities are proverbial *tasya śāsanakāryadākṣyaṃ suprasiddham.

     I A manager: q. v.: nirvāhakaḥ.
     II Of an intestate's property: rakṣakaḥ.

     1 ślādhyaḥ (dhyā dhyaṃ);
     2 praśastaḥ (stā staṃ);
     3 adbhutaḥ (tā taṃ) (=wonderful, q. v.);
     4 anupamaḥ (mā maṃ) (=incomparable, q. v.).

ADMIRABLE (interj.): sādhu suṣṭhu.

     1 sādhu;
     2 suṣṭhu;
     3 In comp., by the words given under Admirable.

     1 nāvikanāyakaḥ, D. vi.;
     2 *raṇapotapatiḥ.

ADMIRALTY: The board of a.: *raṇapotasacivamaṇḍalo; sāmudrikasacivasamājaḥ.

     1 ślāghā;
     2 praśaṃsā;
     3 praśaṃsāvācaḥ (acclamation, q. v.);
     4 vismayaḥ (=wonder, q. v.) Ki. xiii. 17.

ADMIRE (v. t.):
     1 pra-śaṃsati (śaṃs, c. 1), Indra a. d the speed ... balasya śatruḥ praśaśaṃsa śīghratām, Si. i. 52.;
     2 ślāghate (ślāgh, c. 1), a. d by the assembled gods ślāṣito devasaṅghaiḥ, Ki. xviii. 48;
     3 stavīti (stu, c. 2) (some) a. deep sense stuvanti gurvīmabhigheyasampadam, Ki. xiv. 5.: v. To praise.

     I Lit. praśaṃsakaḥ.
     II A lover: q. v.

ADMIRINGLY: Of gazing:
     1 vismayavikasitākṣaḥ (kṣī kṣaṃ), D.;
     2 niścalanibaddhalakṣyeṇa, K.

ADMISSIBLE (adj.): grahyaḥ (hyā hyaṃ), M. viii. 78.

     I Acknowledgment: q. v.: svīkāraḥ.
     II Admittance, entrance:
     1 praveśaḥ;
     2 praveśanam.

ADMIT (v. t.):
     I To allow to enter:
     1 praveśayati, a. them at once avilambitaṃ praveśaya tau, Sa. ii.;
     2 ā-veśayati (c. of viś), a. ing (me) to his hut svakuṭiramāveśya, D. iii.
     II To acknowledge: q. v.:
     1 abhyupaiti (i, c. 2);
     2 abhyupagacchati, (gam, c. 1).
     III To be capable of: Ph. it a. s of no other construction *atrānyo'nvayo nalagati or nopapadyate; it a. s of no delay vilambaṃ na sahate (?).

ADMITTANCE: v. Admission.

ADMITTING THAT: v. Granting.

ADMIXTURE: miśraṇam v. Mixture.

ADMONISH (v. t.):
     1 anu-bodhayati (c. of budh): v. To remind;
     2 upadiśati (diś, c. 6): v. To advise;
     3 upā-labhate (labh, c. 1): v. To reprove.

     1 upadeśakaḥ v. Adviser;
     2 prabodhakaḥ (?): v. Monitor.

     1 upadeśaḥ v. Advice;
     2 upālambhaḥ v. Reproof;
     3 pratyādeśaḥ (?): v. Warning.

ADMONITORY (adj.): upadeśagarbhaḥ (rbhā rbhaṃ).

ADO (subs): v. Trouble, difficulty, bustle.

     1 yauvanam;
     2 tāruṇyam: v. Youth.

ADOLESCENT (adj.): yuvan (f. yuvatī or yunī): v. Young.

ADOPT (v. t.):
     1 gṛhvāti pari- prati-, (grah, c. 9) (Lit. and Fig.) he who a. s a son... yaḥ putraṃ parigṛhvīyāt, M. ix. 171.;
     2 karoti (=to make, applicable only to a. ing children), who should a. and what sort of children. kena kaḥ kriyatāṃ sutaḥ, D. m.: Ph. to a. as a son putrīkaroti (nomi). D. m.

ADOPTER: grahītṛ parigrahītṛ pratigrahītṛ (f. trī) (Lit. and Fig.), D. m.

     1 parigrahaḥ pratigrahaḥ (Lit and Fig.) D. m.;
     2 putrīkaraṇaṃ (=a. as a child), D. m.

     I One who adopts: parigrahītṛ (f. trī): v. Adopter.
     II One who is a. ed:
     1 kṛtrimaḥ (mā maṃ);
     2 dattakaḥ (a son given);
     3 krītaḥ (a son bought). See M. ix. 168. 169. 174. 177.: Ph. a. daughter apatyakṛtikā, U. i.

     1 ārādhanīyaḥ (yā yaṃ);
     2 upāsyaḥ (syā syaṃ);
     3 pūjyaḥ (jyā jyaṃ).

     1 ārādhanā;
     2 upāsanā;
     3 pūjā.

ADORE (v. t.):
     1 upa-āste (ās, c. 2);
     2 upa-tiṣṭhate (sthā, c. 1);
     3 ārādhayati (rādh, c. 10);
     4 pūjayati (pūj, c. 10).

     1 ārādhakaḥ (kā kaṃ);
     2 upāsakaḥ (kā kaṃ);
     3 pūjakaḥ (kā kaṃ).

ADORN (v. t.):
     1 alaṃ-karoti (kṛ, c. 8);
     2 bhūṣayati vi-, (bhūṣ c. 10);
     3 maṇḍayati (maṇḍ, c. 10);
     4 pra-sādhayati (c. of sidh).

     1 alaṅkartṛ (f. trī);
     2 prasādhakaḥ (f. dhikā).

     I Adorning:
     1 bhūṣā;
     2 maṇḍanam;
     3 alaṃkriyā.
     II Ornament: q. v.:
     1 alaṅkāraḥ;
     2 bhūṣaṇam.

ADRIFT: itastataḥ plavamānaḥ (nā naṃ). To set a.: Perh. plāvayati (c. of plu).

ADROIT (adj.):
     1 nipuṇaḥ (ṇā ṇaṃ);
     2 hastavat (f. ): v. Clever, skilful, dexterous.

     1 naipuṇyena;
     2 sapāṭavam;
     3 hastavattayā.

     1 dākṣyam;
     2 naipuṇyam;
     3 hastavattā;
     4 cāturī.

     1 cāṭūktiḥ;
     2 stavaḥ (?);
     3 by false a. s vitathaiḥ stavaiḥ, Si.

ADULATOR: cāṭukāraḥ, v. Flatterer.

     1 cāṭupūrṇaḥ (rṇā rṇaṃ) (?);
     2 praśaṃsāgarbhaḥ (rbhā rbhaṃ);
     3 ślāghāsūcakaḥ (kā kaṃ).

     1 prāptavyavahāraḥ (rā raṃ);
     2 yuvan (f. ): v. Youthful.

ADULTERATE (v. t.): apadravyeṇa miśrayati (miśr, c. 10.) or sim. miśrayati (when the sense is clear). Ph. a. d with water jalasaṃsṛṣṭaḥ (ṣṭā ṣṭaṃ), M.

     1 miśrakaḥ, M xi. 50;
     2 apadravyeṇamiśraṇakartṛ (m), K. b.

ADULTERATION: apadravyamiśraṇaṃ, or sim. miśraṇaṃ (when the sense is clear).

     1 pāradārikaḥ;
     2 pāratalpikaḥ;
     3 parastrīkāmin (m).

     1 vyabhicāriṇī;
     2 parapuruṣasaṅgatā.

     1 vyabhicārin (f. ṇī);
     2 Comp. with vyabhicāra.

     1 vyabhicāraḥ;
     2 pāradāryam;
     3 parastrīgamanam;
     4 parakalatralaṅghanam;
     5 patilaṅghanam;
     6 parapuruṣasaṅgamanam. N. B. Note that 2, 3, and 4 applicable to men only, and 5 and 6 to women only. Ph.: to commit a. with a man parapuruṣaṃ saṃgacchati (gam, c. 1), with a woman parastrīṃ bhajate-ti (maj, c. 1).

ADUMBRATE (v. t.): praticchāyāṃ karoti (kṛ, c. 8) (?).

ADUMBRATION: i. e. the skekS: praticchāyā (?).

     1 dagdhaḥ (gdhā gdhaṃ);
     2 śuṣkaḥ (ṣkā ṣkaṃ): v. Parched.

ADVANCE (v. i.):
     I To move forward:
     1 prayāti, the chariot a. d towards Krishna abhiśauri rathaḥ prayayau, Si. xx. 2.;
     2 uccalati (cal, c. 1), I a. d three or four steps tricaturāṇi padānyudacalam, D. ii.;
     3 abhi-yāti (, c, 2), abhyā-gacchati (gam, c. 1), etc. (with acc.), at once a. d against the lords of the quarters sapadi kakubhāmīśānamabhyāgamat, Ku. xvi. 50.;
     4 abhimukhaṃ yāti vrajati, etc., should a. against the enemy dviṣato'bhimukhaṃ vrajet, Ka. xviii. 2. Ph. the day has a. d dūramadhiruḍhaḥ savitā Sa. iv.
     II To make progress: q. v.: Ph. with his age, he a. d in knowledge vayasā saha ñjānamasya vavṛdhe. Ph.: of a. d age:
     1 gatavayas, H.;
     2 galitavayas, R.;
     3 pariṇatavayas, K.

ADVANCE (v. t.):
     I To bring forward abhimukhaṃ cālayati (c. of cal) or nayati (, c. 1.)
     II To promote, forward: q. v.: varddhayati (c. of vṛdh)
     III To offer or propose (as an opinion): q. v.
     IV To pay before- hand: Ph. a. d 500 rupees for the bridge *setubandhanārthaṃ pañcaśatarūpyamudrāḥ prāgeva dattavān.

ADVANCE (subs):
     I Onward movement:
     1 prayāṇam. v. Going;
     2 āgamanam. v. Coming.
     II Progress, improvement: q. v.: unnatiḥ.
     III Increase of price:. vṛddhiḥ.
     IV A paying beforehand: agrimadānam (?).

ADVANCED-GUARD: nāsīracarāḥ (m. pl.) (after Vi.) and sim. comp.

     1 unnatiḥ.
     2 abhyudayaḥ: v. Promotion.

     I Benefit:
     1 hitam (=good q. v.), for whose a. kasya hitāya;
     2 lābhaḥ (=profit, q. v.), what a. will you derive *tava ko lābho bhaviṣyati;
     3 guṇaḥ = merit, q. v.). they do not know the a. s of riding *aśvārohaṇatuṇānna jānanti.
     II Opportunity: q. v.: avasaraḥ.
     III Superiority: Ph. the enemy had the a. of us in number śatrūṇāṃ saṃkhyāsmadadhikāsīt.

ADVANTAGE (v. t.): upakaroti (kṛ, c. 8): v. To profit.

     1 hitakara: (rī raṃ): v. Beneficial;
     2 lābhāvahaḥ (hā haṃ) v. Profitable;
     3 arthakaraḥ (rī raṃ) (=enriching) To be a.: v. To advantage.

     I Profitably: q. v.
     II Conveniently: q. v.

ADVENT: āgamanam: v. Arrival.

     1 āhāryaḥ (ryā ryaṃ);
     2 āgantukaḥ (kī kaṃ);
     3 bāhyaḥ (hyā hyaṃ) (=external: q. v.).

     I Risk, hazard: q. v.
     II A remarkable achievement:
     1 adbhutaṃ karma, although a boy, Rama is celebrated for his a. s rāmaḥ karmabhiradbhutaiḥ śiśurapi khyātaḥ, Vi. iii.;
     2 caritam, (=the sum total of one's a. s) the a. s of the ten princes daśakumāracaritam.
     III Accident: q. v.

ADVENTURE: v. To venture, dare.

ADVENTURER: sāhasikaḥ (kī kaṃ). A military a.: v. Freebooter.

ADVENTUROUS: sāhasikaḥ (kī kaṃ): v. Bold, rash.

ADVERB: kriyāviśeṣaṇam. Ajal: *kriyāviśeṣakaḥ (kā kaṃ).

     1 vairin (m);
     2 vipakṣaḥ v. Opponent, enemy.

ADVERSATIVE: *virodhasūcakamavyayam yathā--'tu' 'tathāca'.

     1 pratikūlaḥ (lā laṃ);
     2 vipakṣaḥ (kṣā kṣaṃ): v. Inimical, hostile.

     1 vipad (f);
     2 āpad (f): v. Calamity, misfortune.

     1 udāharati (hṛ, c. 1.): if in course of conversation, people were to a. your name kathāprasaṅge na janairudāhṛtāt tavābhidhānāt, Ki. i. 24;
     2 ut-likhati (likh, c. 6): v. To notice, allude.

ADVERTENCE: avadhānam: v. Attention, notice.

ADVERTISE (v. t.):
     I To inform: q. v.: ñjapayati (c. of ñjā).
     II To publish a notice of:
     1 *vi-ñjāpayati (c. of ñjā);
     2 *dhopayati (dhuṣ, c. 10): Ph. a. d a horse for sale in the Soma Prakasa *vikreyo ghoṭaka iti somaprakāśapatrikāyāṃ viñjāpayāmāsa.

     I Information: q. v. A public notice:
     1 *vijñāpanam;
     2 ghoṣaṇā.

ADVERTISER: *ghoṣakaḥ.

     I Counsel:
     1 upadeśaḥ;
     2 śāsanam;
     3 anuśāsanam. To give a. may be expr. by śāsti etc.: what sort of friend is he who does not give good a. to his master sa kiṃsakhā sādhu na śāsti yo'dhipam, Ki. i. 5: v. To advise.
     II Intelligence: q. v. saṃvādaḥ.

ADVISABLE: yuktaḥ (ktā ktaṃ) B. xii. 15. v. Prudent, expedient.

ADVISABILITY: aucityam: v. Expediency.

ADVISE (v. t.)
     I To give advise:
     1 upadiśati (diś, c. 6). there is nothing to a. you te nālpamapyupadeṣṭavyamasti, K.;
     2 śāsti anu-, (śās, c. 2), a. me what is to be done with this wealth kiṃ vidheyamanayārthasampadā śādhi....māṃ, Si. xiv. 11. N. B. These verbs may take two acc. s.
     II To inform: q. v.: ñjāpayati (c. of ñjā).

ADVISEDLY: v. Designedly, purposely. Ph. a. cruel pratipattiniṣṭuraḥ, R. viii. 65.

     1 upadeṣṭṛ (m);
     2 upadeśakaḥ;
     3 śāsakaḥ (rare in this sense).

ADVOCACY: No equiv.: *abhibhāṣaṇam: v. Defence, vindication, recommendation.

ADVOCATE (v.): *abhibhāṣate (bhāṣ, c. 1): v. To plead, defend, vindicate.

ADVOCATE (subs):
     I A pleader: *abhibhāṣakaḥ; ukilaḥ: II. A. defender, vindicator: q. v. *abhibhāṣakaḥ.

ADVOWEE: *dharmavṛttidaḥ (dā daṃ).

ADVOWSON: *dharmavṛttidānam.

     1 vāsiḥ (m) or vāsī (f);
     2 takṣaṇī.

     I Lit.:
     1 vāyavaḥ (vī vaṃ);
     2 vāyusambhavaḥ (vā vaṃ) (=produced in the air);
     3 vaihāyasaḥ (=through the air). Ph. a. flight:
     1 nabhogatiḥ;
     2 viyadutpatanaṃ; a. spirit nabhaścaraḥ (rī raṃ). --
     II Fig.: lofty: vyomaspṛś (mfn) and sim. comp.

     1 kulāyaḥ;
     2 nīḍaḥ: v. Nest.

AEROLITE: Perh. gaṇḍaśailaḥ; *vāyūpalaḥ.

AEROMANCY: *vāyugatyā bhaviṣyaśubhāśubhakathanam.

AEROMETER: *bhāramāpaḥ; vāyvādīnāṃ bhāramāpakayantraviśeṣaḥ.

AERONAUT: vimānayātṛ (f. trī); nabhaścaraḥ (rī raṃ).

AESTHETICS: *ruciviñjānam.

AFAR: dūrāt (from a.) A. off dūrasthaḥ (sthā sthaṃ).

     1 madhurālāpatā;
     2 miṣṭabhāṣitā;
     3 saujanyam;
     4 praśrayaḥ.

     1 madhurālāpaḥ (pā paṃ);
     2 miṣṭamāṣin (f. ṇī): v. Courteous.

     1 saujanyena;
     2 praśrayeṇa: v. Courteously.

AFFAIR: kāryam, state a. s rājakāryāṇiḥ v. Business.

AFFECT (v. t.):
     I To act upon, infuence: Ph. I am a. ed with pain in the feet mama pādayoḥ pīḍā sañjātā; as if a. ed with devil piśācopahatamiva.
     II Of feeling Ph. a. ed with sorrow śokāmibhūtaḥ (tā taṃ); a. ed with joy harṣākulaḥ (lā laṃ); a. ed with those lamentations āhatastaiḥ paridevitākṣaraiḥ; his speech did not a. the audience *tasyoktiḥ śrotṛvargahṛdayānina jagrāha or śrotṛvargahṛdayeṣvavakāśaṃ na lebhe
     III To aspire to, aim at: q. v.
     IV To love: q. v. V. To concern: q. v.
     VI To make a mere show of. Ph. a. ing quarrel kṛtakakalahaṃ kṛtvā, Mu. iii.; a. ing anger sakṛtakakopaṃ Sa. i.: v. To feign.

     I Assumed:
     1 kṛtakaḥ (kā kaṃ), restraining his a. anger kṛtakaṃ kopaṃ saṃhṛtya, Mu. iii.;
     2 kṛtrimaḥ (mā maṃ), un-a. love akṛtrimaṃ prema, Ki. iii. 37.: v. False, feigned.
     II Moved
     1 taralaḥ (lā laṃ), I am a. by your manners tāvakairanubhāvaistaralāḥ smaḥ, N. v. 24;
     2 galitaḥ (tā taṃ) (=melted): v. To affect (II)
     III Unnatural and offensive: Perh. kṛtakaḥ (kā kaṃ): v. Unnatural.

     1 By the adj: v. Affected;
     2 sāṭopaṃ (=boastfully)

AFFECTING (adj.): karuṇaḥ (ṇā ṇaṃ) (=pathetic, q. v.): v. To affect (II).

AFFECTINGLY: karuṇam spoke a. karuṇamabhihitam, K. x. 58: v. Pathetically.

     I Love:
     1 snehaḥ;
     2 anurāgaḥ;
     3 praṇayaḥ (conjugal or friendly a.);
     4 preman (n) v. Love;
     5 vātsalyam (parental a.);
     6 hārdam (rare). N. B. Note that these words agree with the loc.: I said I feel a. for this child as for my own aurasa ivāsmin vatse vatsalateti mayā vijñāpitaḥ, D. iii.
     II An attribute or property: Ph. a. s of the mind manovṛttayaḥ; a. s of bodies śārīradharmāḥ.
     III Disease: q. v.: Ph. remover of all rheumatic a. s sarvavātavikāranut, Sr.

     1 snigdhaḥ (gdhā gdhaṃ);
     2 praṇayin (f. ), a. heart praṇayi hṛdayam Me. i. 10;
     3 vatsalaḥ (lā laṃ) (applied to parents);
     4 bhaktimat (f. ) (of dutiful affection towards parents and elder relatives);
     5 premaparaḥ (rā raṃ).

     1 snigdhabh;
     2 sānurāgam;
     3 prītyā.

AFFECTIONATENESS: snigdhatā: v. Affection

AFFIANCE (subs):
     I Marriage contract:
     1 vivāhasambandhaḥ;
     2 vāgdānaṃ (only of the female by her guardian).
     II Trust, confidence: q. v. viśvāsaḥ.

AFFIANCE (v. t.):
     I To betroth: q. v. pratiśṛṇoti (śru, c. 5), a. d to me mahyaṃ pratiśrutā.
     II To trust, confide: q. v.: viśvasiti (śvas, c. 2).

AFFIDAVIT: *śapathapūrvā viñjaptiḥ: Ph. he made an a. that he is a bachelor *akṛtodvāho'smīti śapathapūrvakaṃ vijñāpayāmāsa.

     I To adopt: q. v. II.: To ally; q. v.
     III To receive into a society: Ph. a. d to the Calcutta University *kalikātāviśvavidyālayasaṃśilaṣṭaḥ (ṣṭā ṣṭaṃ).

     I Adoption: q. v.
     II Filiation: q. v.

AFFINITY: sambandhaḥ (general and matrimonial): v. Relative, connection.

     I To assert positively: vadati (vad, c. 1): v. To assert.
     II To confirm, establish: q. v.: draḍhayati (nomi).

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AFFIRMANT: vādin (f. ): v. Asserter.

     I Assertion: q. v.: uktiḥ.
     II Confirmation, establishment: q. v.: Ph. on solemn a. pratijñāpūrvakam (?).

     I Declaratory of what exists astitvasūcakaḥ (kā kaṃ)
     II Expressing assent svīkārasūcakaḥ (kā kaṃ)
     III Confirmative: v. To confirm, etc.

AFFIRMATIVE (subs).: Ph. 'yes' is an a. atha kiṃ svīkāre; one maintains the a., the other the negative eko'stitvamaparo nāstitvaṃ bravīti.

AFFIX: pratyayaḥ: a. to verbs kṛt; a. to nouns taddhitaḥ.

     1 pīḍayati (pīḍ, c. 10);
     2 kliśnāti (kliś, c. 9);
     3 ardati (ard, c. 1.).

     1 pīḍākaraḥ (rī raṃ);
     2 vyathakaḥ (kā kaṃ).

     I Misforune, calamity: q. v.
     II Distress, grief; q. v.

AFFLUENCE: samṛddhiḥ: Opulence, riches.

AFFLUENT: samṛddhaḥ (ddhā ddhaṃ): v. Opulent, rich.

AFFLUX: pravāhaḥ (?): v. Flow.

     I To give, yield, supply: q. v.: dadāti (, c. 3)
     II To be able to sell or expend without imprudence: Ph. he can a. to keep four servants *sa caturo bhṛtyān rakṣituṃ śaknoti; he can a. to spend 500 Rs. a day *sa pratyahamakleśena pañcaśatarūpyamudrā vyayituṃ samarthaḥ.

     1 dvandvam;
     2 kalahaḥ;
     3 ḍimbaḥ;
     4 ḍamaraḥ (rare).

     1 mīṣayate (c. of bhī);
     2 trāsayati (c. of tras): v. To frighten.

AFFRIGHT (subs).:
     1 trāsaḥ;
     2 sādhvasam: v. fear, terror.

AFFRONT (v. t.): avamanyate (man, c. 4): v. To insult.

AFFRONT (subs).:
     1 apamānam:;
     2 avamānanāḥ v. Insult.

AFFUSE (v. t.): siñcati ni-, (sic, c. 6): v. To pour.

     1 sekaḥ;
     2 niṣekaḥ;
     3 abhiṣekaḥ.

AFLOAT: plavamānaḥ (nā naṃ), or by the verb; I was a. for the day and the whole night tāvadaploṣi yāvadapāsaradvāsaraḥ śarvarī ca sarvā, D. vi. Fig.: the rumour is a. bahulībhūto'yamarthaḥ, Sa. vi.: v. To get abroad.

AFOOT (adv.):
     I Lit.: padbhayām, did she go a. on in a carriage kimasau padbhayāṃ gatā uta pravahaṇena ? Mr. ix.
     II FIG., in action: prārabdhaḥ (bdhā bdhaṃ), good men do not abandon what is set a. prārabghamuttamaguṇā na parityajanti, P: v. To begin, undertake.

AFOREGOING: v. Foregoing.

     1 pūrvoktaḥ (ktā ktaṃ);
     2 prāguktaḥ (ktā ktaṃ).

     1 purā;
     2 pūrvakāle v. Formerly.

     1 bhītaḥ (tā taṃ);
     2 śaṅkitaḥ (tā taṃ): v. Fearful.

     1 bibheti (bhī, c. 3) (with abl.): I am a. to allow girls to live publicly bibhemi kanyakānāṃ prakāśāvasthānāt, D. iv.: v. To fear;
     2 śaṅkate (with acc.): v. To apprehend.

     1 punar;
     2 punarapi: v. Again.

     I subs: *(nāvaḥ) paścādbhāgaḥ
     II Adv.: v. Abaft.

AFTER (prep.):
     I Behind: q. v.: anu (with acc.): to go a. anugacchati; to run a. anudravati.
     II At a later time:
     1 By abl.: seen a. a long time bahordṛṣṭaṃ kālāt, U. ii. N. B. This const. is very rare;
     2 anantaraṃ (with abl. or crude base): a. his father pituranantaraṃ, R. ix. 1.; a. 16 years ṣoḍaśavarṣānantaraṃ, D.; just a. his order vacanāntarameva, K.;
     3 paraṃ (with abl.): a. childhood bālyāt paraṃ Ku. i. 31.;
     4 ūrddham (with abl.) a. childbirth ūrddhaṃ prasūteḥ, R. xiv. 66;
     5 arvāk (with abl.) (rare);
     6 When time is specified, by loc. or loc. absolute of words signifying motion: a. the rainy season atīte varṣuke kāle, B. vii. 18.; a. a few days katipayadivasāvagame, K.; tato gateṣu katipayadineṣu, D. (N. B. note that itaḥ (=from this time) and tataḥ (=from that time) are sometimes prefixed in such cases for the sake of precision);
     7 Sometimes by part. s: a. bathing with the water of the cascade nirbharajalanivartitasnānavidhiḥ, K. III. In an inferior degree to: anu (with acc.): a. the acquisition of friends mitralābhamanu, Ki. xiii. 53.
     IV In imitation of:
     1 anu (with acc.), every thing yours is a. me, but you do not feel the pain of separation from your beloved (wife) sarvaṃ māmanu te priyāvirahajāṃ tvaṃ tu vyathāṃ mānubhūḥ, V. iv.;
     2 anurūpaḥ (pā paṃ).

AFTER (adj.):
     I Subsequent, succeeding, later: q. v.
     II More aft.: Ph. the a. sails *paścādbhāgasthāni vāyuvasanāni.

AFTER (adv.): of time: paścāt: soon a. kiñcitpaścāt, Me. i. 10.; long a. cirāt, Ra. iv.; how long a. kiyaccireṇa, Sa. vi. For phrases like many years a. (=a. many years): v. After (prep.) (II).

AFTER-AGES: āyatiḥ (?) v. Posterity.

AFTER-NOON (subs):
     1 parāhṇaḥ;
     2 uparāhṇaḥ;
     3 vaikālaḥ.

AFTER-NOON (adj.):
     1 aparāhvatanaḥ (nī naṃ);
     2 āparāhvikaḥ (kī kaṃ);
     3 vaikālikaḥ (kī kaṃ).

AFTER-PAINS: prasavavedanā.

AFTER-PIECE: *uparūpakam *anunāṭakam.

     1 anuboghaḥ:
     2 uttaracintā (?)

     1 paścāt;
     2 pareṇa (rare): v. After (adv.), then, thereupon.

AGAIN (adv.):
     I Once more;
     1 punar;
     2 bhūyas;
     3 punarapi. a. and a.:
     1 punaḥpunaḥ;
     2 bhūyobhūyaḥ;
     3 vāraṃvāraṃ;
     4 asakṛt.
     II Moreover: q. v. anyacca Ph.: sleeping never to wake a. apratiboghaśāyin (f. ), R. viii. 58.

     I Abreast of, facing:
     1 prati-, a. the hostile army pratyarisainyaṃ, R. vii. 55.; a. the wind pratyanilaṃ, Ku. iii. 31.;
     2 Comp. with abhi (rare), a. the enemy abhyamitraṃ, Ki. xvi. 5.;
     3 abhimukhaṃ (in comp. or with gen.) should advance a. the enemy dviṣatobhimukhaṃ vrajet Ka. xviii. 2.
     II In opposition to: Ph. (subjects) should not act a. their king rājanyaviruddhābhirvṛttibhirvatiṃtavyam Mu. i.; I have never acted a. yours wishes pratikūlaṃ na ca te mayā kṛtam; Ku. ii. 7.; if she, a. her caste..... yadiyamatikramya svakulagharmam, D. ii.
     III In provision for: Ph. a. misfortune āpadarthe, H. IV. Upon: q. v.; v. also the verbs to which it is joined.

AGAPE: jṛmbhamānaḥ (nā naṃ): v. Gaping.

AGARIC: v. Mushroom, touchwood.

AGATE: śavalamaṇiviśeṣaḥ Perh. gomedaḥ.

     I Time of life:
     1 vayas, and what is his a. kiyadvā vayaḥ, K.; of the same a. savayas, (mfn.), R. v. 65.; of advanced a. galitavayas (mfn.) (poet.) R. iii. 70.; your majesty is still of a. vayaḥstha eva prabhuḥ, Sa. vi.;
     2 āyus (=the whole term of one's life): when the king passed the 61st year of his a. ekaṣaṣṭimatikramya varṣān bhūpatirāyuṣaḥ, Raj.
     II An epoch: q. v. yugam the golden a.
     1 kṛtayugam;
     2 satyayugam.

     1 comp. with varṣa vatsara, etc.: thirteen years of a. trayodaśavarṣaḥ (rṣā rṣaṃ) D. iii.; one who has completed twenty years pūrṇaviṃśativarṣaḥ (rṣā rṣaṃ,) M. ii. 212.;
     2 comp. with varṣīyaḥ (yā yaṃ) etc.: twenty years of a. viṃśativarṣīṃyaḥ (yā yaṃ), H. iv.;
     3 comp. with vayaskaḥ (skā skaṃ): v. Aged (II): Ph. about 18 years of a. aṣṭādaśavarṣadeśīyaḥ (yā yaṃ), D. vi.; below two years ūnadvivārṣikaḥ (kī kaṃ), M. v. 68.: above 90 years of a. navatyadhikavayas (mfn.), K. b.; who has not reached 25th. year of his a. aprāptapañcaviṃśatim Sr.

     I OLD: q. v.:
     1 vṛddhaḥ (ddhā ddhaṃ) (as animals);
     2 purāṇaḥ (ṇā ṇaṃ); (as trees etc.).
     II Of a certain age: vayaskaḥ (skā skaṃ), a. ten years daśavarṣavayaskaḥ (skā skaṃ): v. Age, of.

     I Action: q. v.
     II Instrumentality: kartṛtvam, the a. of God is visible everywhere *sarvatreśvarasya kartṛtvaṃ draṣṭavyam, Ph. through my a. matkartṛkaḥ (kā kaṃ); the burning power of iron is through the a. of applied fire ayaso dagdhṛtvaṃ svasaṃyuktāgnidvārakam, S. p. b.
     III The business of an agent: śākhā (=branch): v. Agent.

     I One who acts for another:
     1 pratinidhiḥ;
     2 pratihastaḥ.
     II An actor: q. v. kartā;
     III An active power: śaktiḥ (with gen.); fire is a powerful a. *agnerūrjasvalā śaktiḥ.

AGGLOMERATE: piṇḍīkaroti (kṛ, c. 8.): v. To collect.

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AGGLUTINATE: v. To glue, stick to.

     1 vardhayati vi- saṃ-, (c. of vṛdh);
     2 tanoti (tan, c. 8.);
     3 sphāvayati (c. of sphāy);
     4 āpyāyayati (c. of pyai);
     5 edhayati (c. of edh).

     1 vṛddhiḥ;
     2 vivṛddhiḥ;
     3 vardhanam. v. Advancement, exaltation, enlargement.

AGGRAVATE (v. t.):
     I To enhance: q. v. vardhayati vi-, (c. of vṛdh)
     II To exaggerate: q. v.
     III To provoke or irritate: q. v.

     I Enhancement: q. v.:
     1 vṛddhiḥ;
     2 upacayaḥ.
     II Exaggeration: q. v.
     III Provocation, irritation: q. v.

AGGREGATE (v. t.): saṃgṛhvāti (grah c. 9.): v. To bring together.

     1 samaṣṭiḥ;
     2 samudāyaḥ;
     3 nicayaḥ; sañcayaḥ.

AGGREGATE (adj.): Expr. by the subs.: also v. Total, whole.

     I An aggregate: q. v.
     II The act of aggregating;
     1 samāhāraḥ;
     2 saṃgrahaḥ. v. Collection.

     1 ākramaṇam, v. Attack;
     2 prathamāpakāraḥ (=first act of mischief).

     1 pūrvāpakāro, B. ix. 102.;
     2 yaḥ prathamaṃ hinasti (hiṃs, c. 7.), ākrāmati, etc.

AGGRESSIVE: ākramaṇaśīlaḥ (lā laṃ) (?): v. Mischievous.

     1 vyathayati (c. of vyath);
     2 kliśnāti (kliś, c. 9.): v. To grieve, injure.

     1 bhayaviplutaḥ (tā taṃ);
     2 sādhvasopahataḥ (tā taṃ);
     3 vismayākulaḥ (lā laṃ).

     1 caṭulaḥ (lā laṃ);
     2 cañcalaḥ (lā laṃ) v. Nimble.

AGILITY: v. Nimbleness, briskness.

     I Pasturing: cāraṇam.
     II The rate paid for it: cāraṇaśulkam (?).

     I Lit.:
     1 kṣobhayati vi-, (c. of kṣubh);
     2 dhūnayati vi-, (c. of dhū) v. To shake;
     3 vi-loḍayati (c. of luḍ).
     II Fig.
     1 kṣobhayati;
     2 ākulīkaroti. v. To disturb, excite.
     III Discuss, debate: q. v.

AGITATED,: i. e. excited:
     1 ākulaḥ (lā laṃ);
     2 viklavaḥ (vā vaṃ).

     1 kṣubhyati (kṣubha, c. 4.);
     2 ākulībhavati (bhū, c. 1.);
     3 hvalati vi-, (hval, c. 1.).

     I Commotion:
     1 kṣobhaḥ;
     2 viloḍanam;
     3 vidhūnanam.
     II Mental a.:
     1 kṣobhaḥ;
     2 vyākulatā.
     III Discussion: q. v.: vicāraṇam.

AGITATOR: Ph. political a. s. *rājyavikṣobhakāḥ.

     1 nakharogaḥ;
     2 cipyam.

     1 sagotraḥ (trā traṃ);
     2 sanābhi (mfn): v. Kinsman.

AGNUS CASTUS: pādapaviśeṣaḥ.

AGO: Ph. 1927 years a. itaḥ pūrvaṃ saptaviṃśatyuttaronaviṃśatiśattamavarṣe, Tārānāth; six months a. itaḥ ṣaṇmāsāt pūrvam; long a. purā; not very long a. anatipūrvam (?); how long a. kiyatpūrvam (?); sometime a. kiñcitpūrvam (?).

AGOG: kutūhalin (f. ): v. Eager, longing.

     1 calaḥ (lā laṃ);
     2 pracalaḥ (lā laṃ);
     3 pracalitaḥ (tā taṃ).

     1 santāpayati (c. of tap);
     2 nitarāṃ vyathayati (c. of vyath).

     1 santāpakaraḥ (rī raṃ);
     2 vyathakaḥ (kā kaṃ): v. Excruciating.

     1 yātanā (physical);
     2 ādhiḥ (mental);
     3 santāpaḥ (gen. mental);
     4 tīvravedanā (gen. physical);
     5 vyathā v. Pain.

     1 kṣetrasambanghaḥ (ndhā ndhaṃ) (?);
     2 bhūmiviṣayakaḥ (kā kaṃ) (?).

AGREE (v. t.): v. To admit.

AGREE (v. i.):
     I To concur: tathaiva or evaṃ manyate (man, c. 4). In some cases, by circumlo.: my views about jail discipline a. with yours *kārāgāraśāsanaviṣayamatānyāvayorabhinnāni; they a. as to the omniscience of God *īśvarasya sarvajñatvaviṣaye teṣāmaikamatyam.
     II To yield, assent:
     1 sammataḥ (tā taṃ) bhavati;
     2 gṛhṇāti pari-, (grah, c. 9) (with acc.): v. To accept.
     III To resemble: q. v.: saṃvadati (vad, c. 1); the characters a. with each other saṃvadantyakṣarāṇi, Mu. v.
     IV To stipulate: q. v.: abhyupaiti; we sent messengers to Kāmamanjari, a. ing that he, who would be sought for by her, would carry the ensign of victory kāmamañjarī yaṃ kāmayate sa haratu sumagapatākāmityabhyupetya prāhiṇuva tasyai dūtān, D. ii. Ph. at the hour a. d upon nirdiṣṭasamaye. V. Of food: Ph. One should eat what a. s with him hitamaśniyāt, Sr.
     VI Gram. t. t.: Ph. a verb a. s with its nominative in number and person *vacanapuruṣaviṣaye kriyā kartāramanugacchati.

     I Pleasing
     1 manoñjaḥ (ñjā ñjaṃ);
     2 hṛdyaḥ (dyā dyaṃ);
     3 abhimataḥ (tā taṃ);
     4 ramyaḥ (myā myaṃ);
     5 rucikaraḥ (rī raṃ)
     II Suitable, confirmable, consistent: q. v.

     I Pleasantness: q. v. manojñatā.
     II Consistency, agreement: q. v.

     I Pleasantly: q. v.
     II Consistently, in accordance with; q. v.: a. to his command tasyājñānusāreṇa.

     I Compact;
     1 saṃvid, to violate an a. saṃvidaṃ minatti (bhid, c. 7), atikrāmati (kram, c. 1), etc., M.;
     2 niyamaḥ;
     3 samayaḥ;
     4 pratijñā.
     II Harmony of opinions or feelings:
     1 aikyam;
     2 aikamatyam;
     III Conformity, consistency: q. v.:
     1 sādṛśyam;
     2 anurūpam.

AGRICULTURE: kṛṣiḥ, The science of a. kṛṣividyā.

     1 karṣakaḥ;
     2 kṛṣikaḥ;
     3 kṛṣijīvī;
     4 kṛṣivalaḥ.

AGROUND: Ph. the boat is a. *bhūmiṃ spṛśati nauḥ.

     I An intermittent fever:
     1 viṣamajvaraḥ;
     2 kampajvaraḥ: a quotidian a. anyedyuṣkaḥ, a tertian a. tṛtīyakaḥ, a quartan a. caturthakaḥ Sr.
     II The ague-fit:
     1 vepathuḥ;
     2 kampaḥ.

AH (inter):
     1 (of grief etc.), v. Alas;
     2 aho (of surprise etc.) v. Oh;
     3 āḥ (of contempt etc.), ah ! frowning at me āḥ mayyeva bhrakuṭīdharaḥ saṃvṛttaḥ, Vi.

AHA (inter): aho (in all the senses of the English word).

AHEAD: v. Forward. To go a.: v. Go on. To get a.: q. v.

AID (subs):
     I Assistance, help:
     1 sāhāyyam;
     2 sāhāyakam.
     II An auxiliary, a helper:
     1 sahāyaḥ;
     2 sāhāyyakārī.

AID (v. t.): sāhāyyaṃ karoti (with gen.): v. To assist, help.

AIDE-DE-CAMP: *sahacaraḥ.

AIL (v. t.): Ph. what a. s thee kā te pīḍā ?: v. III, unwell.

AILING (adj.):
     1 pīḍitaḥ (tā taṃ);
     2 bādhitaḥ (tā taṃ): v. III, unwell.

     1 pīḍā;
     2 bāghā;
     3 vyathā;
     4 ātaṅkaḥ.

AIM (subs):
     I The object aimed at:
     1 lakṣayam;
     2 śaravyam;
     3 lakṣaṃ.
     II The direction of a missile weapon: sandhānam.
     III A purpose, intention: q. v. cikīrṣitam.

AIM (v.):
     I To direct an arrow etc.: lakṣīkṛtya kṣipati asyati, etc. Ph.: a. ing at Siva harabaddhalakṣyaḥ, Ku.
     II To aspire, endeavour to attain:
     1 ākāṅkṣati (kāṅkṣ, c. 1), a. ing at your post padakāṅkṣiṇā te, Ku.;
     2 īpsati (desi. of āp).

AIR (subs):
     I The atmosphere:
     1 vāyuḥ;
     2 marut;
     3 mātariśvan (m).
     II The space occupied by air:
     1 vāyuvartman;
     2 vyoman (n.): v. Sky.
     III Air in motion:
     1 vāyuḥ;
     2 pavanaḥ;
     3 anilaḥ;
     4 vātaḥ;
     5 samīraṇaḥ;
     6 gandhavahaḥ. Ph. for taking a. vāyusevanārtham; the vital a. prāṇaḥ
     IV Manner, mien, look: q. v.: ākṛtiḥ
     V A tune or melody: q. v.: rāgaḥ, Ph.: to take a.: i. e. to get abroad: q. v.: bahulībhavati.

AIR (v. t.):
     I To admit the fresh air: supravātaḥ (tā taṃ) karoti.
     II To dry: q. v. ātape dadāti (, c. 3) (to expose to the sun).

     1 vyomayānam;
     2 vimānam.

AIR-BLADDER: *vāyukoṣaḥ.

AIR-GUN: *vāyuvandukaḥ.

     I A walk or ride in the air: vāyusevanaṃ or vāyuparisevanaṃ.
     II An exposure to air: v. To air.

AIR-PUMP: *vāyuniṣkāsanayantram.

AIR-SHAFT: (in mines):
     1 vāyucchidram;
     2 ālokapathaḥ (?).

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AIRY (adj.):
     I Consisting of air.
     1 vāyavaḥ (vī vaṃ);
     2 vāyumayaḥ (yī yaṃ).
     II Relating to air: Ph. took an a. flight viyadutpapāta, N. or vihāyasā jagāma; the a. regions vāyuvartman pravahamārgaḥ.
     III Open to air: suvātaḥ (tā taṃ).
     IV Vain, trifling:
     1 śūnyaḥ (nyā nyaṃ);
     2 asāraḥ (rā raṃ). V. Gay, lively: q. v.

AISLE: No equiv.: prakoṣṭhaḥ may be used.

     I Related by blood:
     1 sagotraḥ (trā traṃ);
     2 sanābhi (mfn.).
     II Allied by nature:
     1 saddaśaḥ (śā śaṃ);
     2 rūpaḥ (pā paṃ) affixed.

ALABASTER: śvetaprastaraviśeṣaḥ.

ALACK (inter.): ahaha: v. Alas.

     1 utsāhaḥ v. Zeal;
     2 autsukyam: v. Eagerness.

     I Alarm-cry: no equiv.: why don't you rouse your master by raising an a. kimityuccaiḥ śabdaṃ kṛtvā svāminaṃ na jāgarayasi, H. II. Terror, fright, consternation: q. v.:
     1 trāsaḥ;
     2 paritrāsaḥ;
     3 udvegaḥ.

ALARM (v. t.):
     1 udvejayati (c. of vij), summon Vasantasenā's mother without a. ing her vasantasenāmātaramanudvejayannāhvaya, Mr. ix.;
     2 ākulayati (nomi.) (=to fill with anxiety);
     3 trāsayati (c. of tras): v. To terrify.

ALARMED (adj.):
     1 udvignaḥ (gnā gnaṃ);
     2 ākulaḥ (lā laṃ): v. Anxious
     3 trastaḥ (stā staṃ) (=terrified);
     4 vidhuraḥ (rā raṃ) (rare).

     1 udvijate (vij, c. 6);
     2 trasyati (tras, c. 4) v. To dread.

ALARM-BELL: *vidhuraghaṇṭā śatrorāgamanādisūcanāya yā ghaṇṭā vādyate.

ALARMING (adj.):
     1 udvegakaraḥ (rī raṃ);
     2 trāsajananaḥ (nī naṃ): v. Dreadful.

ALARUM: *prabodhaghaṇṭā.

     1 ahaha, a. ! the buds of the tree of Rāvana's impolicy are as if scattered around ahaha ! rakṣapaterdurvinayaviṭapikorakāḥ paritaḥ prakīrṇā iva, Vi. vi.;
     2 hāhā, a. my Queen, my heart is bursting, my joints loosening hāhā devi ! sphuṭati hṛdayaṃ straṃ sate dehabandhaḥ, U. iii.;
     3 , a. what has befallen hā kimidamāpatitam, K.;
     4 hanta, a. you will be the first enemy of the man who never had an enemy hanta jātamajātāreḥ prathamena tvayāriṇā, Si. ii. 102.;
     5 bata a. when you hear what has befallen me mamādya vṛttāntamimaṃ batoditā, N. i. 139.

ALB: *kṛṣṭadharmapurohitaparihitaṃ śuklāprapadīnam.

ALBATROSS: *jālapādaḥ samudrapakṣiviśeṣaḥ.

ALBEIT: yadyapi: v. Although.

ALBINO: śvetakāyaḥ (yā yaṃ).

ALBUGO: śuklam; cakṣūrogaviśeṣaḥ.

ALBUM: photographic a. *ālekhyapustakam; a. for inserting quotations *vacananiveśaḥ.

ALBUMEN: Perh. śvetam (of eggs); majjā (in the scientific sense) (?)

     1 rasāyanavid (?);
     2 rasasiddhaḥ (?);
     3 rasajñaḥ (?)

     1 rasāyanaṃ (?);
     2 rasasiddhiḥ (?);
     3 rasāyana-vidyā (?).

ALCOHOL: *madyasāraḥ; *surāvījam.

ALCOVE: garbhagṛhaṃ (?): v. Recess.

ALCYON: matsyaraṅgaḥ: v. Kingfisher.

ALDER: vṛkṣaviśeṣaḥ.

ALDERMAN: *laṇḍanādi-nagarasya meyaranāmnaḥ pradhānanāyakasya nimnastho'dhikāribhedaḥ; pauravṛddhaḥ.

ALE: yavasuraṃ: v. Beer. a. brewer: v. Brewer.

ALE-HOUSE: śauṇḍikālayaḥ Sa. v.; *yavasurāpaṇaḥ.

ALE-HOUSE-KEEPER: śauṇḍikaḥ (f. ); *yavasuravikrayin (f. ṇī).

ALEE: i. e. on or towards the lee: v. Lee.

ALEMBIC: bakaḥ (?); bakayantram.

ALERT: v. WakSful, vigilant; also nimble, brisk.

ALERTNESS: v. Briskness, wakSfulness, sprightliness.

ALEXANDRINE (subs): caturdaśākṣaraśchandoviśeṣaḥ.

ALGEBRA: vījagaṇitam; A. ist. vījagaṇitaviśāradaḥ (dā daṃ).

     1 by tat. comp.;
     2 *vījagaṇitaviṣayakaḥ (kā kaṃ).

ALIAS: Ph. Rama a. Rāmanānda *rāmaḥ yasya rāmānanda ityaparanāma.

ALIBI: Ph. the prisoner proved an a. *vandī sthānāntarasthitiṃ pratipādayāmāsa.

ALIEN (subs): videśin (f. ): v. Foreigner

ALIEN (adj.):
     I Not native videśīyaḥ (yā yaṃ)
     II Unconnected: q. v. aprāsaṅgikaḥ (kī kaṃ)
     III Adverse: q. v.: viruddhaḥ (ddhā ddhaṃ).

ALIENABLE: *hastāntarīkaraṇīyaḥ (yā yaṃ); parairādeyaḥ (yā yaṃ).

ALIENATE (v. t.):
     I Of property: hastāntaraṃ karoti or hastāntarīkaroti (?)
     II Of affection: Perh. vighaṭayati (c. of ghaṭ); viśleṣayati (c. of śilaṣ)

     I Of property: hastāntarīkaraṇam (?).
     II Of affection:
     1 vighaṭanam (?);
     2 viśleṣaṇam (?).
     III Of mind: unmādaḥ.

     I To get down; q. v.: ava-tarati (tṝ, c. 1).
     II To settle on (as bees): patati ni-, (pat, c. 1), the swan a. ed on the ground papāta bhūmau haṃsaḥ N. iii. 1.

ALIKE (adj.):
     1 sadṛśaḥ (śā śaṃ);
     2 tulyaḥ (lyā lyaṃ): v. Like, similar.

ALIKE (adv.): samaṃ: v. Equally, similarly.

ALIMENT: āhāraḥ v. Food, nourishment.

ALIMENTARY (adj.): v. Nourishing. The a. canal *āhāravāhinī.

ALIMONY: grāsācchādanam. K. b.

     I Living: q. v.: jīvat (f. ntī).
     II Active, lively: q. v.

ALIVE, BE: jīvati, tell me, is my darling a. kathaya jīvati me priyā, Ma. ix.

     1 kṣāraḥ;
     2 sarjjiḥ (?)

ALL (adj.)
     1 sarvaḥ: (rvā rvaṃ); all of them, enjoying a. pleasures at a. times, reached the pinnacle of happiness sarvaeva sarvakālaṃ sarvasukhānyabhanuvantaḥ parāṃ koṭimānandasyādhyagacchan, K.;
     2 sakalaḥ (lā laṃ);
     3 samastaḥ (stā staṃ);
     4 nikhilaḥ (lā laṃ), knowledge of a. characters, erudition in the languages of a. countries, attainments in a. the Shastras sakalalipiñjhānaṃ nikhiladeśīyamāṣāpāṇḍityaṃ samastaśāstracāturyam, D;
     5 akhilaḥ (lā laṃ);
     6 kṛtsnaḥ (snā snaṃ);
     7 samagraḥ (grā graṃ);
     8 samudāyaḥ affd., or the abode of a. essence of beauty saundaryasārasamudāryānaketanaṃ vā, Ma. ii. Ph. the Supreme Spirit is a. joy ānandamayaḥ paramātmā, S. i. 13.: v. Full of; by a. means, one ought not to do anything without consideration sarvathā avicāritaṃ karma na kartavyam H. i.; at a. events antataḥ; a. along pūrvāvadhi; a. around sarvataḥ.

ALL (subs): sarva; I want to hear a. about it sarva śrotumicchāmi. Ph.: a. I can yathāśakti; a. of a sudden sapadi; in a. sākalyena; does not breathe at. a. na manāgapyucchvasiti; K.; you are not kind at a. tvayi dayāleśo'pi na vidyate; a. you have to say is this *idameva or kevalamidameva tvayā vācyam...

     1 sarvajayin (f. );
     2 sarvadamanaḥ (nā naṃ).

     1 sarvadhvaṃsin (f. );
     2 sarvaṅkaṣaḥ (ṣā ṣaṃ).

     1 sarvaṃsahaḥ or sarvasahaḥ (hā haṃ);
     2 sarvasahiṣṇu (mfn.)

     1 sarvatejomayaḥ (yā yaṃ);
     2 sarvapratāpavat (f. ).

ALL-KNOWING: sarvañjaḥ (ñjā ñjaṃ);
     2 sarvavid (mfn.).

     1 sarvavyāpin (f. );
     2 sarvagataḥ (tā taṃ).

     1 sarvaśaktimat (f. );
     2 sarvaśaktisamanvitaḥ (tā taṃ).

     1 sarvadarśin (f. );
     2 sarvadraṣṭṭa (f. ṣṭrī).

     1 sarvañjaḥ (ñjā ñjaṃ);
     2 sarvañjānamayaḥ (yī yaṃ).

ALLAY (v. t.); śamayati pra-, (c. of śam), a. s the heat śamayati paritāpaṃ Sa. iv.: v. To appease, mitigate.

     1 vacanam;
     2 uktiḥ v. Assertion, plea.

ALLEGE (v. t.):
     I To affirm, to assert: q. v.: prati-jānīte (jñā, c. 9).
     II To cite, quote.: q. v.: udā-harati (hṛ, c. 1).

ALLEGIANCE: bhaktiḥ, they took an oath of a. to Caesar *vayaṃ sijārathaktā iti śapathaṃ cakruḥ.

ALLEGORICAL: rūpakamayaḥ (yī yaṃ) (?): v. Figurative.

ALLEGORICALLY: Expr. by the adj.

     I To turn into allegory: *rūpakakrameṇa varṇayati (varṇa, c. 10)
     II To interpret allegorically: *rūpakārthaṃ saṃ-yojayati (c. of. yuj).

ALLEVIATE (v. t.):
     1 śamayati pra-, (c. of śam):
     2 laghayati (nomi.): v. To mitigate.

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     I Mitigation: q. v.: upaśamaḥ
     II Extenuation: q. v.

ALLEY (subs): A walk in a garden:
     1 udvānapathaḥ;
     2 udyānavartman (n);
     3 vīthiḥ v. Avenue.
     II A narrow passage: saṅkīrṇapathaḥ.

ALLIANCE: A union between states: sandhiḥ; offensive and defensive a. parasparopakārasandhiḥ, H. iv.: v. Treaty, league.
     II Union arising from marriage: sambandhaḥ matrimonial a. vaivāhikaḥ sambandhaḥ.

     1 nakraḥ;
     2 kumbhīraḥ.

ALLITERATION: anuprāsaḥ.

ALLOCUTION: v. Address.

ALLODIAL: Ph. a. land niṣkarabhūmiḥ (?). a. land belonging to a Brahmin brahmottaraḥ (?).

ALLODIUM: i. e. freehold estate: v. Freehold.

ALLOT (v. t.):
     I Distribute: q. v. vi-bhajati (bhaj, c. 1)
     II To grant, assign: q. v.: dadāti (, c. 3).

     I The act of allotting:
     1 vimāgaḥ;
     2 vimajanam.
     II That which is allotted: aṃśaḥ v. Share.

ALLOW (v. t.):
     I To concede, permit:
     1 anu-manyate (man, c. 4), if you a. me space in (your) flower-bed yadi kusumāstaraṇe'vakāśamanumanyase, Sa. iii.;
     2 anu-medate (mud, c. 1), now none is a. ed egress or ingress without a pass idānīṃ na kopyamudrālāñchito niṣkramituṃ praveṣṭuṃvānumodyate, M. v.;
     3 anu-jānāmi (jñā, c. 9) v. To permit.
     II To grant, bestow: q. v. dadāti (, c. 3).
     III To acknowledge: q. v. svīkaroti (kṛ, c. 8).

ALLOWABLE: v. Lawful, permissible. Not a.: v. Forbidden.

     I Acknowledgment: q. v.: svīkāraḥ.
     II Permission: q. v.: anujñā.
     III That which is allowed: no equiv.: vṛttiḥ, of the Pandits enjoying my a. s. maddattāṃ vṛttiṃ bhuñjānānāṃ paṇḍitānāṃ, P.

ALLOWANCE, make: vigaṇayati (gaṇ, c. 10), making a. for the temptations of youth *yauvanasya pralobhanāni vigaṇayya: v. To consider.

ALLOY (v. t.): miśrayati (miśr, c. 10): v. To mix: Ph., a. ed with pain duḥkhopasṛṣṭaḥ (ṣṭā ṣṭaṃ), D. s.; being a. ed with pain duḥkhasaṃbhinnatayā, D. s.

ALLOY (subs.):
     I Any compound of two or more metals: miśradhātuḥ.
     II Evil mixed with good: Ph. enjoyed pleasures without a. *avimiśritāni sukhānyanubabhṛva.

     1 uddiśya or lakṣīkṛtya vadati abhidhatte, etc. (in speaking);
     2 lakṣīkaroti (=to point, refer); what ! this alludes to me kathamiyaṃ kathā māmeva lakṣīkaroti, Sa. vii. Ph. this mythological story is here a. d to (?) --iti paurāṇikī kathātrānusandheyā, M. n.

ALLURE (v. t.):
     1 ākarṣati (kṛṣ, c. 1.), men are a. d by these sweet (but) false words ābhistāvanmadhurābhiranṛtavāgmirākṛṣyante viṣayiṇaḥ, Sa. v.;
     2 harati (hṛ, c. 1.): even an old man like myself is, as a rule, a. d by pleasures hriyate viṣayaiḥ prāyo varṣīyānapi mādṛśaḥ, Ki. xi. 10.;
     3 pralobhayati, (c. of lubh) v. To tempt.

ALLUREMENT: pralobhanam: v. Temptation, enticement.

ALLURING (adj.):
     1 hārin (f. ṇī);
     2 pralobhakaḥ (kā kaṃ);
     3 ākarṣakaḥ (kī kaṃ) (rare).

ALLUSION: Ph. his a. to my poverty *mama dāridrpaṃ lakṣīkṛtya sa yaduvāca; there is not the least a. of Krishna in the Rig Veda *ṛgvede kṛṣṇasyābhāso'pi na lakṣyate v. To allude.

ALLUVIAL: Ph. a. accretion *payovastabhūmiḥ.

ALLY (subs): mitram, M.

ALLY (v. t.)
     I To unite or connect: sambandhaṃ karoti saṃbadhnāti (bandh, c. 9.)
     II To form an alliance with (between states).: sandhiṃ karoti or saṃdadhāti (dhā, c. 3.).

ALMANAC: pañjikā; a. maker pañjikākāraḥ (?)

     1 sarvaśaktimattvam;
     2 sarvaśaktitvam.

     1 sarvaśaktimat (f. );
     2 sarvaśakti (mfn.);
     3 sarvaśaktisamanvitaḥ (tā taṃ).

ALMOND: vādāmam. Bitter a. tiktavādāmam. A. tree vādāmavṛkṣaḥ.

ALMONER: *bhikṣāvitaraṇakārī.

     1 prāyaḥ (yā yaṃ), it is a. morning now prabhātaprāyā rajanī, Sa. iv;
     2 kalpaḥ (lpā lpaṃ), a. well prasannakalpaḥ, D. ii.; a. undertaken pratipannakalpam. Ku. iii. 14;
     3 bhūyiṣṭhaḥ (ṣṭhā ṣṭhaṃ), a. extinguished nirvāṇabhūyiṣṭham, Ku. iii. 52. N. B. Note that these words are placed after adjectives or part. adj. s and that, therefore, when in Englsh a. qualifies verbs, it should be expressed in Sanskrit by corresp. part. adj. s: when I had a. finished *avasitaprāye mama vākye.

     1 bhikṣā;
     2 bhaikṣam. To beg a. bhikṣate (bhikṣ, c. 1).

     1 dānadharmaḥ;
     2 bhikṣādānam.

     1 daridraśālā (?);
     2 anāthāśramaḥ. (?).

ALOE: ghṛtakumārī. a. wood. aguruḥ.

     I On high: ūrdhvam.
     II In the air:
     1 vihāyasā;
     2 ākāśapathena.

ALONE (adj.)
     I Without anybody else: ekākin (f. ), he could not remain a. even for a moment without him nimiṣamapi tena vinā sthātumekākī na śaśāka, K. v. Solitary.
     II One out of many: ekaḥ (kā kaṃ) (with eva or kevalam), let Bhāgurāyana a. accompany me bhāgurāyaṇa eka eva māmanugacchatu, Mu. iv.; let my intellect a. remain with me ekā kevalam.....buddhistu mā gānmama, Mu. i.
     III By itself: kevalaḥ (lā laṃ), policy a. is cowardice kātaryaṃ kevalā nītiḥ R. xvii. 47. Ph. let imperiality be a. āstāñcakravartitā, D. viii.: v. To let alone.

ALONG (prep.): anu, (in comp. or with acc.), a. the bank anukaccham; flows a. the city of Oudh vahatyayodhyāmanu rājadhānīm, R. A. with: saha (with ins.): v. With. A. side pārśvataḥ. All a. prathamāvadhi. A. of: v. On account of.

ALONG (adv.): v. Onward, forward.

     1 uccaiḥ or uccaiḥsvareṇa (with a loud voice);
     2 muktakaṇṭham (with loosened throat);
     3 prakāśam (openly). To call a.: śabdāyate (nomi.).

ALPHABET: varṇamālā. a. ically:
     1 varṇakrameṇa;
     2 varṇānusāreṇa.

     1 prāgeva;
     2 pūrvameva. Sometimes by sim. eva: he is a. come sa āgata eva; the sun is already up udita eva bhāskaraḥ.

ALSO: api; Chandrāpida a. entered into thoughts candrāpīḍo'pi cintāṃ viveśa, K.; not only he who speaks ill of the great but a. he who hears na kevalaṃ yo mahato'pabhāṣane śṛṇoti tasmādapi yaḥ sa Ku. v. 53.

ALTAR (subs.):
     1 vediḥ;
     2 caityam.

ALTER (v. t.):
     1 karoti (kṛ, c. 8.) (when the sense is clear): he concluded that the merchant had a. ed the R into S. rephe sakāraṃ vaṇijā kāritaṃ niścikāya saḥ, Raj.;
     2 By means of anyaḥ (nyā nyat), bhinnaḥ (nnā nnaṃ) etc.: as if you are a. ed in appearance tvamanyamākāramivābhipannaḥ, Ki., iii. 46.;
     3 parivartayati (c. of vṛt). c. l.)v. To change.

ALTER (v. i.): parivartate (vṛt, c. 1.) v. To change, vary.

ALTERABLE (adj.): parivartanīyaḥ (yā yaṃ) v. Changeable.

     1 parivṛttiḥ;
     2 pariṇāmaḥ;
     3 vipākaḥ;
     4 vikāraḥ. N. B. The last three words refer to change in form etc. v. Change.

ALTERCATE (v. i.):
     1 kalahāyate (nomi);
     2 vi-vadate (vad, c. 1.) v. To wrangle.

     1 kalahaḥ;
     2 vivādaḥ. v. Quarrel, wrangling.

ALTERNATE (adj.): Comp. with paryāya-; with a. victory and defeat paryāyajayāvasādāṃ, Ki. xvii. 18.; a. angles *paryāyakoṇau (m. dual); a. leaves *paryāyadalāni (n. pl.).

ALTERNATE (v. i.): Ph. the flood and ebb tides a. with each other *paryāyeṇa velānāṃ vṛddhikṣayau bhavataḥ or velānāṃ paryāyavṛddhikṣayau.

ALTERNATE (v. t.): Ph. to a. labour with repose *paryāyeṇa śramaviśrāmau karoti.

ALTERNATELY: paryāyeṇa anukrameṇa (=in regular order).

     1 paryāyakramaḥ;
     2 paryāyavṛttiḥ;
     3 parivṛttiḥ. (=change: q. v.)

     1 vikalpaḥ;
     2 pākṣikaḥ Ph.: which a. shall
     I choose 'be a deserter of my wife' or 'be polluted with the touch of another's wife' dāratyāgī bhavāmyāho parastrīsparśapāṃśulaḥ, Sa. v.

     1 api: we remember that Vidura and others a. born Sudras were possessed of superior knowledge viduraprabhṛtayaḥ śūdrayoniprabhavā apiviśiṣṭavijñānasampannāḥ smaryante, S. iii. 34. She will surely move a. she may be in a painting, will practise jugglery a. she may consist of a doll, will deceive a. she may be engraved niyatamiyamālekhyagatāpi calati pustamayyapīndrajālamācarati utkīrṇāpi vipralabhate, K.;
     2 yadyapi, a. we cannot extirpate pain, still we can put it down, yadyapi na sannirūdhyate duḥkhaṃ tathāpi tadabhibhavaḥ śakyaḥ kartum, T.

ALTITUDE: ucchrāyaḥ v. Height.

     I Wholly, completely,: q. v.:
     1 sarvathā;
     2 aśeṣataḥ
     II Conjointly: q. v.: samam.

     1 sphaṭī (f.);
     2 sphaṭikāriḥ.

     I Perpetually, constantly: q. v.:
     1 sadā;
     2 sarvadā;
     3 satatam;
     4 sarvakālam;
     5 aniśam.
     II Invariably: q. v.: niyatam.

     1 prasabham;
     2 prasahya;
     3 balāt.

AMALGAM: miśradhātuḥ (?)

AMALGAMATE: miśrayati (miśr, c. 10.): v. To mix, combine.

AMALGAMATION: miśraṇam v. Mixture, combination.

AMANUENSIS: lekhakaḥ; yo'nyasya bhāṣitānusāreṇa likhati.

     I The plant: amlānaḥ.
     II The flower: amlānapuṣpam etc.

AMASS (v. t.):
     1 saṃ-cinoti (ci, c. 5.);
     2 saṃ-marati (bhṛ, c. 1): v. To accumulate.

AMATEUR: yaḥ (yā yaṃ) ātmavinodanārthaṃ saṅgītādikalāṃ sevate.

AMATORY (adj.):
     1 rasikaḥ (kā kaṃ);
     2 śṛṅgārarasapradhānaḥ (nā naṃ) (such as a. verses);
     3 premakaraḥ (rī raṃ) (=producing love, such as a. potions);
     4 kāmin (f. ). v. Amorous.

AMAZE (v. t.): vismāyayati (c. of smi): v. To astonish.

AMAZED (adj.): vismayākulaḥ (lā laṃ): v. Astonished.

AMAZEDLY (adv.):
     1 savismayam:
     2 vismayena;
     3 By the adj.

AMAZEMENT: vismayaḥ: v. Astonishment.

AMAZING (adj.): vismayakaraḥ (rī raṃ): v. Astonishing.

AMAZINGLY: expr. by the adj.: v. Amazing v. Also excessively.

AMAZON: *pahminī; raṇapriyā.

     1 dūtaḥ,
     2 rājadūtaḥ. Ph. the English a. at Berlin *vārlinasya iṃlaṇḍīyarājadūtaḥ or iṃlaṇḍīyarājamantrī.

     1 dautyam;
     2 rājadautyam;
     3 dūtyaṃ: v. Ambassador.

AMBER (subs):
     1 tailasphaṭikaḥ;
     2 tṛṇamaṇiḥ.

AMBERGIES: ambaram (?)

AMBIENT: (adj.):
     1 vyāpakaḥ (kā kaṃ);
     2 pariveṣṭakaḥ (kā kaṃ): v. To encompass.

     1 sandehaḥ;
     2 sandigdhatā;
     3 sandigdhāryatā.

     1 sandigdhaḥ (gdhā gdhaṃ);
     2 sandigghārthaḥ (rthā rthaṃ). Ph. it is a. here whether the word vandyāṃ means 'captive' or 'adorable' atravandyāmiti kiṃ vandībhūtāyāmuta vandanīyamiti sandehaḥ Sah.

AMBIGUOUSLY: expr. by the adj.: Ph. you have spoken a. *sandigdhaṃ tava bhāṣitam.

     1 maṇḍalam;
     2 cakram: v. Circuit, compass.

     1 spṛhā;
     2 ākāṅkṣā;
     3 yaśolipsā (for fame);
     4 rājyalobhaḥ (for royalty);
     5 gauravalālasā (for esteem);
     6 and sim. com. s.

     1 yaśaskāmaḥ (mā maṃ) (for fame);
     2 uccapadābhilāṣin (f. ṇī) (for high post) etc. v. Desirous of, eager. Ph. a. for your post padakāṃkṣiṇā te Ku. iii. 4.

AMBLE (subs)
     1 dhauritakam;
     2 dhoritam.

AMBLE (v.):
     1 Perh. dhorati (dhor, c. 1);
     2 dhoritagatyā calati.

AMBLER: dhauritaśīlaḥ (lā laṃ) (?)

AMBROSIA: amṛtam: v. Nectar.

AMBULATORY: cariṣṇu (Mfn.): v. Movable.

     I The place: parābhiyogāya nibhṛtāvasthānam.
     II The men: parābhiyogāya nibhṛtasthāpitasainyam. to lie in a.: nibhṛtaṃ tiṣṭhati (sthā, c. 1)

AMELIORATE, AMELIORATION: v. To improve, improvement.

AMEN: o or ābh. In non-ecclesiastical sense: tathāstu; evamastu.

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     I Submissive, compliant: q. v.: anuvidhāyin (f. ).
     II Accountable to: Ph. a. to our government *asmākaṃ śāsanāyattāḥ.

AMEND (v. i.): śudhyati (śudh c. 4): v. To mend, improve.

AMEND (v. t.): śodhayati (c. of śudh): v. To correct, improve.

     I Correction, improvement: q. v.: śodhanam.
     II A secondary resolution in a bill or motion: *śodhanam.

AMENDS: v. Compensation, satisfaction. To make a.; v. To recompense, atone for

     1 ramyatā;
     2 manoñjatā: v. Agreeableness.

AMERCE: daṇḍayati (daṇḍ, c. 10) (with double acc.): v. To fine.

     1 daṇḍaḥ;
     2 arthadaṇḍaḥ (=fine, q. v.).

AMETHYST: ānīlaḥ maṇiviśeṣaḥ.

AMIABILITY: manoñjatā;
     2 ramaṇīyatā;
     3 suśīlatā, (good behaviour);
     4 priyambhāvukatā (rare).

     1 suśīlaḥ (lā laṃ) (=of good behaviour);
     2 premārhvaḥ (rhā rhaṃ) (=deserving of affection);
     3 ramyaḥ (myā myaṃ) (=pleasant, agreeable)

AMIABLY: prītyā: v. lovingly, affectionately.

AMICABLE: maitraḥ (trī traṃ): v. Friendly, kind.

     1 madhye (with gen.), a. four fires havirbhujāṃ caturṇāṃ madhye, K. xiii. 41.;
     2 by adj. s madhyagataḥ (tā taṃ), etc. Ku. v. 20.

AMISS (adv.): expr. by the adj. s:
     1 ayuktaḥ (ktā ktaṃ);
     2 sāparādhaḥ (dhā dhaṃ) etc.: v. Wrong.

AMITY: maitrī: v. Peace, friendship.

AMMONIA: niśādalaḥ.

AMMONIAC: niryāsaprabhedaḥ.

AMMUNITION: yuddhopakaraṇam: (now=gunpowder, shot) q. v.

AMNESTY: kṣamā (=pardon, the meaning determined by the context).

     I Amidst: q. v.: madhye (with gen.).
     II Making part of a number of:
     1 madhye (with gen.), a. his very many sons atiprabhūtānāṃ sutānāṃ madhye, K.;
     2 by loc., Rambhā a. women and Rāma a. kings nārīṣu rambhā nṛpatiṣu rāmaḥ.

     I Prone to love:
     1 kāmin (f. rnā);
     2 kāmukaḥ (kā kaṃ);
     3 premaśīlaḥ (lā laṃ).
     II In love: v. Enamoured.
     III Pertaining to love: kāma- (in comp.): v. Amatory.

     1 sānurāgam: v. Affectionately;
     2 sakāmam.

AMOUNT (subs): v. Sum.

AMOUNT (v. i.) Ph. a. ing to a lac lakṣyasaṃkhyakaḥ (kā kaṃ); these races together a. to fourteen etānyekatra caturdaśakulāni, K.; ascertain what the balance a. s to *kiyadavaśiṣṭamiti parijñāyatām; your argument a. s to this *etadabhiprāyakaste tarkaḥ.

AMOUR: praṇayaḥ (=love), secret a. guptapraṇayaḥ (?).

AMPHIBIOUS: bhūjalacaraḥ (rā raṃ) (?); pādin (f. ). Sr.

     1 raṅgaḥ;
     2 raṅgabhūmiḥ.

     I Specious: q. v.: viśālaḥ (lā laṃ)
     II Abundant, copious: q. v. pracuraḥ (rā raṃ).
     III Not brief: vistṛtaḥ (tā taṃ).

     I Spaciousness: q. v.: viśālatā.
     II Abundance: q. v.: prācuryam.

     I Enlargement: q. v.
     II Of speech: vistaraḥ or vistāraḥ.

AMPLIFY: vistarataḥ or vistāreṇa varṇayati upa-, (varṇ, c. 1): v. To enlarge.

AMPLITUDE I. Extent: q. v.: vistāraḥ.
     II Greatness: q. v.: mahattvam.

AMPLY: pracuram: v. Abundantly, sufficiently, fully.

AMPUTATE: chinatti (chid, c. 7): v. To cut off.

AMPUTATION: aṅgacchedaḥ or sim. chedaḥ (when the meaning is clear).

     1 rakṣākāṇḍaḥ; Sa. vii.;
     2 kavaca (mn.).

     I To entertain the mind agreeably:
     1 vi-nodayati (c. of nud), how shall I a. myself kenedānīmātmānaṃ vinodayāmi, V. ii.;
     2 rañjayati (c. of rañj), the prince was very much a. ed by his long description of his past valour, beauty and fortune atītasvaśauryarūpavibhavavarṇanāvācālena tena sutarāmarajyata rājaputraḥ, K. II. To delude: q. v.: chalayati (nomi.).

     1 rajyate;
     2 vinudyate (pass).

     1 vinodaḥ;
     2 vinodanam: v. Diversion, entertainment.

PASTIME. To afford a.:
     1 rañjayati
     2 prīṇayati (c. of prī).

AMUSER: vinodayitṛ (m.): v. To amuse.

AMUSING (part. adj.): vinodin (f. ): v. Pleasing.

AN: v. A.

ANABAPTISM: *yauvanamajjanavāditvam: v. Anabaptist.

ANABAPTIST: *yauvanamajjanavādin (m.) kṛṣṭadharmānu yāyiṃnāṃ madhye ye yauvane jalamajjanotsavamanuśāsati.

ANACHRONISM: kālagaṇanābhramaḥ (?).

ANAGRAM: *akṣaraviparyāsaḥ; śabdasyākṣarāṇāṃ bhinnasamāveśenānyaśabdakalpanam.

ANALOGICAL: Ph. a. argument upamānam.

ANALOGICALLY: sādṛśyāt; sādṛśyatas; tulyarūpatayā.

     1 sadṛśaḥ (śā śaṃ);
     2 tulyaḥ (lyā lyaṃ);
     3 tulyarūpaḥ (pā paṃ).

ANALOGY: sādṛśyam: v. Resemblance, similarity.

     I Philo. t. t.: no equiv.: *viśleṣaḥ.
     II Synopsis: q. v.

ANALYTIC, ANALYTICAL: *viśleṣakaḥ (f. ṣikā, n. pakaṃ).

ANALYZE (v. t.): *vi-śleṣayati (c. of śilaṣ); viśleṣya parīkṣate (īkṣ, c. 1).

     1 arājakaḥ (kā kaṃ) (without a king);
     2 viplutaḥ (tā taṃ) ( =turbulent);
     3 *viplavakārin (f. ṇī) (=anarchist).

ANARCHIST: *rājyaviplavakārin (f. ṇī).

     1 rājyaviplavaḥ;
     2 prajāviplavaḥ, Vi. iii.

     1 śāpaḥ (?);
     2 abhiśāpaḥ (?) v. Curse, excommunication.

ANATHEMATIZE: śapati abhi-, (śap, c. 1): v. To curse, excommunicate.

     1 vyavacchedavidyāviṣayakaḥ (kā kaṃ);
     2 by tat. comp.

ANATOMIST: *vyavacchedavidyāviśāradaḥ or. -kuśalaḥ.

ANATOMIZE: vyavacchinatti (chid, c. 7): v. To dissect.

ANATOMY: *vyavacchedavidyā.

ANGESTOR: pūrvapuruṣaḥ, In. pl.:
     1 pūrvapuruṣaḥ;
     2 pūrvajāḥ;
     3 pitaraḥ;
     4 pūrve, I have excelled my c. s pūrve tiraskāritāḥ, Vi. v.

ANCESTRAL: pitṛpaitāmahaḥ (hī haṃ) P. v. Paternal.

     I Ancestors: q. v.
     II Birth, or honourable descent:
     1 anvayaḥ;
     2 vaṃśaḥ. Ph.: of good or noble a.:
     1 abhijātaḥ (tā taṃ);
     2 abhijanavat (f. ) Sa. iv.

ANCHOR (subs): naubandhanalauhayantrabhedaḥ; *laṅagaram. Ph. the arms of an a., *laṅgaradantāḥ (m. pl.): the eye of an a. *laṅgaracchidrama; to cast a. *laṅgaraṃ prakṣipati; to weigh a. laṅgaram uttolayati (tul, c. 10.)

ANCHOR (v.): laṅgaraṃ prakṣipati (kṣip, c. 6.) (with gen.) a. ed off Benares *upavārāṇasi laṅgaraṃ pracikṣepa, or laṅgareṇa nāvaṃ babandha.

     I The place: *laṅgarasthānam.
     II The duty: *laṅgaraśulkam.

     1 yatiḥ;
     2 sannpāsin (m). v. Hermit.

ANCHOVY: *heriṃjātīyaḥ kṣudramatsyaviśeṣaḥ.

ANCIENT (adj.):
     1 purāṇaḥ (ṇā ṇaṃ);
     2 purātanaḥ (nī naṃ);
     3 prācīnaḥ (nā naṃ);
     4 cirantanaḥ (nī naṃ);
     5 prākkālīnaḥ (nī naṃ);
     6 pūrvakālīnaḥ (nā naṃ):
     7 prākkālīnaḥ (nā naṃ): v. Old.

ANCIENT (subs):
     I Flag: q. v.: patākā.
     II An ensign: q. v.: patākin (f. )

     1 pūrvakāle;
     2 purā. v. Formerly.

     1 vṛddhā (m. pl.), U. v.;
     2 cirantanāḥ (m. pl.), S.: v. Antiquity.

ANCILLARY: v. Supplemental.

     I In case of subs. and adj. s: (a) by dva. comp.: summer a. spring grīṣmavasantau; father a. mother mātāpitarau; or, sim. pitarau [so brother a. sister bhrārarau; son a. daughter putrau; father-inlaw a. mother-in-law śvaśurau]; with his superior birth, asceticism, erudition, valour a. deeds amijanatapovidyākriyātiśayairnijaiḥ, Vi. ii.; exhausted, tremulous, and (therefore) pleasant alasalalitamugdhāni, U. i.;
     6 by ca (enclitic): fresh youth, incomparable beauty, a. superhuman prowess abhinavayauvanatvamapratimarūpatvamamānuṣaśaktitvaṃ ca, K. II. In case of numerals:
     1 By a comp. with adhikaḥ (kā kaṃ), or uttaraḥ (rā raṃ): one hundred a. two dvadhikaṃ śataṃ or sim., dvavādhikaśataṃ: three thousand a. sixty-eight aṣṭaṣaṣṭayu ttaratrisahasraṃ;
     2 By a comp. with sa-: after a reign of 18 years a. thirteen days so'ṣṭādaśābdān kṣamāṃ bhuktvā satrayodaśavāsarān, Raj.;
     3 by ca (very rare), Vi.
     III In case of verbs, generally by participles: go a. speak this to the minister gatvaivamamātyaṃ brū hi, Sa. vi.; then he alighted (from the horse) a. tied it up to a. branch of a tree, a. then approached a. saluted Siva a. then again gazed on the same lady tato'vatīrya taruśākhāyāṃ baddhvā turagamupasṛtya praṇamya trilocanāya tāmeva yoṣitaṃ cakṣuṣā punarnirūpayāmāsa, K. v. (iv).
     IV In connecting sentences:
     1 By ca (never at the beginning): (these remembrances) burn my body a. rend my heart dehaṃ dahanti hṛdayaṃ ca vidārayanti; Ma. x.;
     2 Sometimes ca is omited: behave so that you will not be laughed at by men, will not be censured by the good, will not be reviled by the seniors tathā prayatethāḥ yathā nopahasyase janaiḥ na nindāse sādhubhiḥ na dhikkriyase gurūbhiḥ, K. V. In Interrogation, generally by (enclitic): who is he, whose son, a. what is his name ? ko'sau kasya vāpatyaṃ kimabhidhāno vā? K.; O. fair lady, who are you, whose spouse, a. what is your object for coming to me ? kā tvaṃ śubhe kasya parigraho vā kiṃ vā madabhyāgamanakāraṇaṃ te, R. xiv. 8.

AND THEN: denoting immediate sequence:
     1 tadanu in childhood a. then again in youth śaiśave tadanu yauvane punaḥ U. i.;
     2 tataḥ, a. then allowed his son to go tato'nujñe gamanaṃ sutasya B. i. 23.;
     3 tadanu ca (very rare), Vi. ii. v. and (III).

AND YET: tathāpi: v. YET.

ANDROGYNAL, ANDROGYNOUS (adj.): v. Hermaphrodite.

     1 kathā;
     2 upākhyānam: v. Story

ANEURISM: Perh. nāḍībraṇam.

     1 punar;
     2 punarapi: v. Again.

     I Lit.: devadūtaḥ; gandharvaḥ.
     II Fig: as a term of endearment:
     1 priyatamā;
     2 preyasīḥ v. Love, darling.

     I Belonging to angels: by tat. comp.
     II Resembling angels:
     1 divyaḥ (vyā vyaṃ);
     2 amānuṣaḥ (ṣī saṃ).

ANGER (subs):
     1 krodhaḥ;
     2 kopaḥ, to give way to a. kopavaśaṃ gacchati, V. iv.; restraining his a. kopaṃ nigṛhgan, B. xii. 81.;
     3 roṣaḥ;
     4 amarṣaḥ, void of a. amarṣaśūnyaḥ (nyā nyaṃ), Ki. i. 33.;
     5 manyuḥ deeprooted a. possessed (him) manyurabhajadavagādataraḥ, Si. xv. 2.;
     6 saṃrambhaḥ;
     7 rūṣ, (f.);
     8 krudh (f.);
     9 rūṣā.

ANGER (v. t.):
     1 kopayati (c. of kup);
     2 krodhaṃ manyu karoti (with gen.)

ANGLE (subs): (I) koṇaḥ;
     2 asnaḥ. Right a. samakoṇaḥ; obtuse a. *viṣamakoṇaḥ; acute a. samonakoṇaḥ sūkṣmakoṇaḥ; alternate a. viparyastakoṇaḥ.

ANGLE (v).:
     1 Perh. vaḍiśayati (nomi.);
     2 vaḍiśena matsyān vidhyati (vyadh, c. 4.), or gṛhvāti (grah, c. 9.).

     I One who angles matsyavedhakaḥ v. fisherman.
     II A species of fish: matsyaviśeṣaḥ.

ANGLICISM: *iṃrejabhāṣārītiḥ.

ANGLICIZE (v. t.): *iṃrejayati (nomi.).

ANGLING (subs).: vaḍiśena matsyabandhanam, or matsyadhāraṇam.

ANGLING-ROD: Perh. vaḍiśadaṇḍam.

     1 sakopam;
     2 sakrodham;
     3 saroṣam;
     4 sāmarṣam.

     1 kruddhaḥ (ddhā ddhaṃ);
     2 kupitaḥ (tā taṃ): v. Enraged.

     1 krudhyati (krudh, c. 4.);
     2 kuṣyati (kup, c. 4.);
     3 rūṣyati (rūṣ, c. 4.) N. B. These verbs are const. with dat. or with prati and acc.: a. with the king of Chedi kruddhasya caidyaṃ prati Si. i. 75.

     1 manastāpaḥ (a. of mind);
     2 yātanā ( =bodily pain): v. Agony.

     1 koṇaviśiṣṭaḥ (ṣṭā ṣṭaṃ) (?);
     2 sāsnaḥ (snā snaṃ) (?).

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ANIMADVERSION: upālambhaḥ: v. Reproof, censure.

ANIMADVERT (v. i.): v. To observe, remark, censure.

     I Any living creature:
     1 prāṇin (m);
     2 jīvaḥ;
     3 cetanaḥ. (=a rational a.) ;
     4 jantuḥ (usually applied to lower a. s only);
     5 janmin (m);
     6 janmavat (m.) II. A beast: q. v.:
     1 bhṛgaḥ;
     2 paśuḥ.

ANIMAL (adj.): Expr. by gen. of above: Ph. a. food āmiṣam: v. Or meat; a. pleasures viṣayāḥ or viṣayasukhāni (pl.): a. passions indriyāṇi (n. pl.) (lit. organs of sense), or, kāmādayaḥ ṣaḍripavaḥ; the a. kingdom *jīvasṛṣṭiḥ nikhilaprāṇivargaḥ

     1 sūkṣmajīvaḥ;
     2 atikṣudrajantuḥ.

ANIMATE: (v. t.):
     I To give life to:
     1 jīvayati (c. of jīv);
     2 jīvaṃ sañcārayati (c. of car), P. II. FIG.: To encourage, incite q. v.:
     1 āśvāsayati (c. of śvas);
     2 protsāhayati (c. of sah).

     I Alive: sajīvaḥ (vā vaṃ): Ph. a. being
     1 jīvaḥ;
     2 prāṇī.
     II Lively, vigorous: q. v.:
     1 praphullaḥ (llā llaṃ);
     2 ullasaḥ (sā saṃ).

     I Bestowal of life:
     1 jīvanadānam;
     2 jīvasañcāraḥ.
     II life: q. v.: jīvanam.
     III liveliness, vivacity: q. v.
     1 praphullatā;
     2 ullāsaḥ.

     1 dveṣaḥ;
     2 vidveṣaḥ;
     3 vairam;
     4 virodhaḥ.

     1 atichatrā,
     2 chatrā.

     1 gulpha (mn.);
     2 ghuṭikā;
     3 ghuṭiḥ.

     1 nūpuram;
     2 pādāṅgadam;
     3 tulākoṭiḥ;
     4 mañjīram.

     1 ākhyānavid; Vi. (?);
     2 ākhyānaracakaḥ (?).

     1 ākhyānacayaḥ (?);
     2 itihāsaḥ (?);
     3 *vārṣikavṛttāni.

     1 prathamavarṣaphalāni (n. pl.) (?).

     1 *pratapati (tap, c. 1.)

     I To subjoin: Ph. I. a. a list of articles for sale *lekhānte vikreyadravyāṇi nirdiṣṭāni.
     II To unite: saṃ-yojayati (c. of yuj).

     1 saṃyojanam;
     2 saṃyogaḥ: v. Union.

     1 ut-chinatti samut- (chid, c. 7.);
     2 unmūlayati (mūl, c. 10):
     3 ut-sādayati (c. of sad);
     4 pra-lāyayati (c. of );
     5 vilopayati (c. of lup): v. To destroy.

     1 ucchedaḥ samucchedaḥ;
     2 lopaḥ vilopaḥ;
     3 kṣayaḥ;
     4 pralayaḥ (rare, except with reference to the a. of the world): v. Destruction.

     1 vārṣikaḥ (kī kaṃ);
     2 sāṃvatsarikaḥ (kī kaṃ). The a. of Krishna's birth janmāṣṭamī; the a. of Rāma's birth rāmanavamī.

     1 ṭīkāṃ karoti likhati or racayati (with gen.);
     2 vyākhyāti (khyā, c. 2.): v. To explain.

     1 ṭīkā;
     2 ṭippanī;
     3 vyākhyā.

     1 ghoṣayati (ghuṣ, c. 10.): v. To proclaim;
     2 vi-jñāpayati (c. of jñā): v. To inform;
     3 pra-kāśayati sanni-, (c. of kāś) Ki. xiii. 35;
     4 abhi-dadhāti or dhatte (dhā, c. 3), the drum a. ed the departure (of the nymphs) prasthānaṃ samabhidadhe mṛdaṃganādaḥ, Ki. vii.
     I v. To speak;
     5 ākhyāti (khyā, c. 2.), to a. this to the king of Nishādha ākhyātuṃ vṛttametanniṣadhanarapatau, N. iii. 132. v. To tell.

     1 khyāpanam;
     2 viñjāpanam: v. Proclamation, publication.

ANNOUNCER: ākhyāpakaḥ;
     2 viñjāpakaḥ;
     3 prakāśakaḥ.

     1 bādhate (bādh, c. 1.);
     2 dunoti (du, c. 5.);
     3 ardati (ard, c. 1.).

     1 bādhā;
     2 viṅmbanā;
     3 duḥkhaṃ. v. Trouble, vexation.

     1 bādhakaḥ;
     2 viḍmbakaḥ;
     3 kadaryakaḥ.

ANNOYING (adj.) v. Troublesome, vexatious.

ANNUAL (adj.):
     1 vārṣikaḥ (kī kaṃ);
     2 sāṃvatsarikaḥ (kī kaṃ);
     3 ābdikaḥ (kī kaṃ).

ANNUAL (subs):
     I An a. plant: oṣadhiḥ.
     II A book appearing a. ly *vārṣikam or *vārṣikapustakam.

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     1 varṣe varṣe;
     2 prativarṣam;
     3 prativatsaram; etc.

ANNUITANT *vārṣikavṛttibhogin (f. ) and sim. comp. s.

ANNUITY: *vārṣikavṛttiḥ And sim. comp. s.

ANNUL lumpati ava- vi-, (lup, c. 6.) (?).

     1 maṇḍalākāraḥ (rā raṃ);
     2 golākāraḥ (rā raṃ);
     3 valayākāraḥ (rā raṃ).

ANNULMENT: lopaḥ vi- ava-, (?).

     1 khyāpanam;
     2 viñjāpanam;
     3 prakāśanam.

     1 śūlaghnaḥ (ghnī ghnaṃ);
     2 pīḍāśamakaḥ (kā kaṃ) (?).

     I To besmear; q. v.:
     1 limpati (lip, c. 6.), as if a. ing, as if filling my sense of smell, anulimpantamiva pūrayantamiva ghrāṇondriyam, K.;
     2 anakti abhi-, (añj, c. 7.), Sa. v.;
     3 digdhe (dih c. 2.) a. ed with nectar as well as poison digdho'mṛtena ca viṣeṇa ca, Ma. 1.;
     4 samālabhate (labh, c. 1.), I will prepare auspicious ointments maṅgalasamālambhaṃ viracayāmi, Sa. iv.
     II To consecrate by unction: abhiṣiñcati (sic, c. 6.), B. iii. 2.

ANOINTER: vilepakaḥ: v. To anoint.

     1 vilepanam;
     2 abhyañjanam;
     3 samālambhaḥ;
     4 abhiṣekaḥ (=consecration).

     1 vidhiviruddhaḥ (ddhā ddhaṃ) (?);
     2 aniyamaparaḥ (rā raṃ) (?);
     3 avidhi (mfn.) (?).

     1 vighivirodhaḥ;
     2 avidhiḥ (?);
     3 aniyamaḥ (?).

     I Quickly, soon: q. v.: sapadi.
     II Again: q. v. Ph. ever and a. yadā tadāḥ v. Often, frequently.

     1 *anirdiṣṭalekhakābhidhānaḥ (nā naṃ)
     2 adattapraṇetṛsaṃjñaḥ (jhā ñjaṃ); etc.

     1 *anirdiṣṭalekhakābhidhānam;
     2 *adattapraṇetṛsaṃjñam.

     1 anyaḥ (nyā nyat), it is impossible that one acts and a. enjoys na hye tat sambhaviṣyatyanyaḥ karotyanyo bhuṃkta iti, D. s.: a. day anyedyuḥ;
     2 paraḥ (rā raṃ), a.'s wife parastrī, a.'s property parasvam;
     3 aparaḥ (rā raṃ), a. dearer to you than myself mattaḥpriyatarastavāparo janaḥ, K.;
     4 in some case by antara affixed, took her to a. king rājāntaraṃ nināya, R. vi. 26.: v. Different. N. B. Note that para is gen. confined to comp. and apara is gen. used with a qualifying subs. Note also that anya and apara do not gen. mean a.'s in comp.: v. Another's.

ANOTHER, One (reciprocal): v. One another.

     1 anyadīyaḥ (yā yaṃ);
     2 parakīyaḥ (yā yaṃ).

ANSWER (v. t.):
     I To reply:
     1 kathayati (kath, c. 10.), (first) a. my these four questions and then drink water mamaitān caturo praśnān kathayitvā jalaṃ piva, Mah.;
     2 bravīti (brū, c. 2.), if you do not a. my questions,
     I will eat you na cedvūvīṣi praśnānaśnāmi tvāṃ, D. vi.;
     3 uttaraṃ dadāti (, c. 3.) (with gen.);
     4 pratilikhati ( =to write back, q. v.). N. B.
     1 and
     2 are not applicable to writing.
     II To refute: q. v.
     III To correspond to, suit: q. v.
     IV To pay: q. v. Ph: this will a. my object anena saphalasamohito bhavāmi.

ANSWER (v. i.):
     I To make a reply: uttaraṃ dadāti.
     II To speak in reply:
     1 prativakti (vac, c. 1.);
     2 prativadati (vad, c. 1.);
     3 pratibhāṣate (bhāṣ, c. 1.).
     III To render an account to: expressed by circumlo.: you will have to a. to your master for the sums received *tvayā yaddhanaṃ labdhaṃ tasya viśeṣavṛttāntaḥ svāmine nivedayitavyaḥ.
     IV To serve for.: q. v.

ANSWER (subs):
     1 uttaraṃ;
     2 prativacanam;
     3 pratyuktiḥ;
     4 prativākyam. N. B. The last three words are applicable only to speaking in reply, while the first uttaraṃ is applicable also to legal replies and solutions of problems.

     I Refutable: khaṇḍanīyaḥ (yā yaṃ).
     II Responsible, accountable: q. v.
     III Correspondent, proportionate, suited: q. v.

     1 pipīlikā (the common small red a.);
     2 pipīlikaḥ (a large black a.).

ANT-EATER: pipīlikākhādako jantubhedaḥ.

     1 virodhaḥ;
     2 pratidvandvam;
     3 paryavasthānam.

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     1 virodhin (f. );
     2 pratidvandvin (f. );
     3 paryavasthātṛ (f. trī): v. Opponent.

ANTAGONISTIC: virodhin (f. ): v. Opposed.

ANTARCTIC: *dakṣiṇakendrīyaḥ (yā yaṃ). A. pole *dakṣiṇakendram.

ANTECEDENT (adj.): v. Prior, previous.

ANTECEDENT (subs): Ph. whose a. s are not known *yasya pūrvacaritamavijñātam.
     II In logic: pūrvapakṣaḥ.
     III In gram.: *pūrvasaṃjñā.

ANTECHAMBER: Perh. prāgvaṃśaḥ; *upaśālā.

ANTEDATE: Ph.: he a. d the letter *agrimadivasaṃ patre sanniveśayāmāsa.

ANTEDELUVIAN: pralayapūrvakālīnaḥ (nā naṃ).

     1 kṛṣṇasāraḥ (the black spotted a.);
     2 ṛṣyaḥ (the painted a.);
     3 mṛgaḥ (f. ) (the general term for a. s, deer etc.)

ANTENNA: Of insects: Perh. śuṇḍam.

     I Preceding in time: v. Prior, previous.
     II Befor in place: agraḥ: (grā graṃ), the a. part (as of a month): agrabhāgaḥ.

     1 sūktam;
     2 stotram: v. Hymn, song.

ANTHER: *parāgakoṣaḥ.

ANTHOLOGY: kusumasaṃgrahaḥ (Lit. and Fig.)

ANTHONY'S FIRE: udardaḥ: v. Erysipelas.:

ANTIBILIOUS: pittaghnaḥ (ghnī ghnaṃ).

ANTICHRIST: The great adversary of Christ: *pratikṛṣṭaḥ.

     I To foresee: Ph. old men can a. what is coming vṛddhabuddhiranāgataṃ paśyati Vi.; even a. ing his death tasya bhāvimaraṇaṃ jānannapi.
     II To be before in doing: Ph. I a. d his designs by removing to London *tasyāśayaṃ nirūpya laṇḍanamahaṃ jagāma; Scipio a. d Hannibal in crossing the Po. *henibālasyāmiprāyaṃ jñātvā sipiyaḥ prāgeva ponadīmuttatāra.

ANTICIPATION: Expr. by circumlo.: v. To anticipate.

     I Any remedy: q. v.: pratikāraḥ.
     II For poison: viṣaghnauṣadham etc. A dealer in a. s:
     1 viṣavaidyaḥ;
     2 jāṅgalikaḥ,
     3 narendraḥ.
     III For fever: jvaraghnauṣadham.

     1 srotoñjanam;
     2 kāpotam;
     3 sauviram;
     4 yāmunam. These words properly mean sulphuret of a.

ANTIPATHY: vidveṣaḥ: Hatred, aversion.

ANTIPHRASIS: Nearest word nihatārthatvam, Sah. vii.; *viparītārthatvam.

     I The opposite part of the globe: *pratilomam; bhūgolasyādhobhāgam.
     II Those who inhabit it: *pratilobhā. Ph. the a. and those who live in other parts of the globe, live just as comfortably as we do here anākulāstiryagadhaḥ sthitāśca tiṣṭhanti te tatra vayaṃ yathātra, S. s.

ANTIQUARIAN (adj.): Ph. a. knowledge prākkālīnaviṣayavijñānam.

ANTIQUARIAN, ANTIQUARY (subs): *prākkālīnaviṣayeṣu paṇḍitaḥ abhijñaḥ, etc. (?).

ANTIQUATED (adj.): apracalitaḥ (tā taṃ): v. Obsolete, oldfashioned.

ANTIQUE (adj.): prācīnaḥ (nā naṃ): v. Ancient, old.

ANTIQUE (subs):
     1 prācīnadravyam (?);
     2 purāṇadravyam (?).

     I The ancients:
     1 vṛddhāḥ (m. pl.);
     2 pūrve (m. pl.);
     3 cirantanāḥ (m. pl.);
     4 prācīnāḥ or prācīnalokāḥ (m. pl.) etc.
     II The ancient time:
     1 prākkālaḥ;
     2 pūrvakālaḥ.
     III Ancientness:
     1 prācīnatvam;
     2 purāṇatvam;
     3 purātanatvam.
     IV The remains of a.:
     1 prācīnadravyam (=an old thing);
     2 prākkālīnaviṣayaḥ ( = antiquarian subject).

ANTITHESIS: nearest word virodhaḥ, Sah. x.

ANTITYPE: ādarśaḥ.

ANTLER: hariṇaśṛṅgam (or simp. śṛṅgam when the meaning is clear).

ANTLERED: śṛṅgin (f. ṇī): v. Horned.


     1 gudam;
     2 guhyam;
     3 pāyuḥ;
     4 apānam.

     1 śūrmiḥ (m.);
     2 sūrmī (f.).

ANXIETY: utkaṇṭhā;
     2 udvegaḥ (restless a.);
     3 cintā: v. Care;
     4 vyākulatā: v. Agitation;
     5 utkalikā;
     6 raṇaraṇakaḥ (rare).

     I Beset with anxiety:
     1 utkaṇṭhitaḥ (tā taṃ);
     2 udvignaḥ (gnā gnaṃ);
     3 vyākulaḥ (lā laṃ);
     4 cintitaḥ (tā taṃ);
     II Solicitous, cager:
     1 vyagraḥ (grā graṃ);
     2 utsukaḥ (kā kaṃ).
     III Causing anxiety:
     1 udvegakaraḥ (rī raṃ);
     2 utkaṇṭhāpradaḥ (dā daṃ).

ANXIOUS, TO BE: unmanāyate (nomi.), a. to see darśanāyonmanāyamānaḥ, D.

     I With anxiety:
     1 sotkaṇṭham;
     2 sodvegam;
     3 by the adj. v. Anxious (I).
     II Eagerly: by the adj.: v. Anxious (II)

     1 kaścit (kācit kiñcit), have you got a. one named Vimardaka kimasti kaścidvimardako nāmātrabhavataḥ; D. ii.: is there a. doubt about it kimatra kācidbhrāntiḥ Vi.: I could not find a. thing in the house gṛhaṃ praviśyana kiñcinmayā samāsāditam, Mr. iii.;
     2 ko'pi, (kāpi kimapi), a. one else anyaḥ ko'pi etc.;
     3 kaścana (kācana kiñcana) (rare). Ph. in the ab-sense of a. witness sākṣyabhāve; without a. wisdom jñānaṃ vinā; what power has Dhananjaya or a. body else even to take the name of your son kā śaktirasti dhanañjayasyānyasya vā nāmāpi grahītuṃ te tanayasya, Vi. ii. N. B. When a. means any one or anything whatever, it is expr.: (a) by yaḥ kaścit etc. a. one could be a witness in a house or in a forest antarveśmanyaraṇye vā yaḥ kaścit sākṣyaṃ kuryāt, M. viii. 69.; I want to give even the gold bracelet of my hand to a. one (I meet) svahastasthamapi suvarṇakaṅakaṇaṃ yasmaikasmaiciddātumicchāmi; (b) by yaḥ...... saḥ etc., they can attack a. number of horsemen *yāvānaśvavārānadhigacchanti tāvānevāmiyoktuṃ śakruvanti.

     1 yena kena prakāreṇa;
     2 yathā tathā.

     1 itaḥ param (=from this time);
     2 tataḥ param ( =from that time). I will not think any more of other girls na cintayemitaḥ paramitaranārīṃ, D. iii.

     1 kutrāpi, a. else anyatra kutrāpi;
     2 kvacidapi, N. kiii. 55. Ph. go a. you like gaccha yatheccham, N. i. 143.; die a. you like yatra tatra vā prāṇatyāgaṃ kuru, Vi. vi.; I do not allow you to go a. ele from here ito'nyato na vo gantumanumanye, Sa. iiii.

AORIST: no equiv.: anadyatanabhūtaḥ (=indefinite past).

AORTA: hṛdayasya vāmakoṣanirgatā raktavahā bṛhannāḍī.

APACE: satvaram: v. Quickly, rapidly.

     I Separately: q. v.: pṛthak.
     II At a distance: dūre.
     III Privately:
     1 vijane;
     2 nibhṛtam. Ph.: a. from this, there is no other fault in the man. etadbhinnastasya doṣo nāsti.

APARTMENT: koṣṭhaḥ: v. Room. The inner a. s antaḥpuram. The attendants on the inner a. s antarvaṃśikāḥ puruṣāḥ D. i.

     I Void of passion:
     1 vītarāgaḥ (gā gaṃ);
     2 vītaspṛhaḥ (hā haṃ);
     3 nispṛhaḥ (hā haṃ);
     4 udāsaḥ (sā saṃ);
     5 virāgin (f. ).
     II Indifferent: q. v.

     I Stoicism:
     1 verāgyam;
     2 audāsyam.
     II Indifference.

APE (subs.): pucchahīno vānaraḥ; kapibhedaḥ.

APE (v. t.): v. To imitate, copy.

     I Adj. recakaḥ (kī kaṃ).
     II Subs.: recakaḥ: v. Purgative.

     1 chidram;
     2 randhram; v. Opening, fissure.

     1 cūḍā;
     2 śikharam: v. Tip, point.

     1 sūtram;
     2 vacanam: v. Maxim.

APHORISTIC: Ph. the method of the book is a. *sūtrairgrathito granthaḥ.

APIARY: *madhumakṣikāśālā: v. Bee-hive.

APIECE: ekaikaḥ (kā kaṃ): v. Each.

APISH: v. Foolish, foppish.

APOCALYPSE: prakāśanam: v. Revelation.

APOCOPE; *antyākṣaralopaḥ; *antyākṣaralopālaṅkāraḥ.

APOCRYPHA: kṛṣṭīyopavedaḥ; *upadharmapustakam.

APOGEE: uccaḥ; candrakāntimaṇḍalasya pṛthivyā daviṣṭhapadam.

     1 kṣamāṃ prārthayate or yācate;
     2 marṣayati (mṛṣ, c. 10.), a. to the king for what we said amongst ourselves against etiquette marṣayata lokapālaṃ yadasmābhirviśrabdhapralāpinībhirūpacārātikrameṇa bhaṇitam. Sa. iii.;
     3 anu-nayati (, c. 1.) ( =to propitiate).

APOLOGUE: kathā: v. Fable.

     I An excuse for a fault: Ph. to make an a. kṣamāprārthanāṃ karoti; to accept an a. anunayavacanaṃ parigṛhvāti (after ge.): v. Excuse.
     II An apologetic treatise; no equiv.: *prativādaḥ.

     1 vacanam:
     2 vākyam: v. Saying, maxim.

     I subs.: sanyāsarogin (f. ṇī).
     II Adj.: Expr. by tat. comp.

APOPLEXY: sanyāsarogaḥ.

     1 svagharmatyāgaḥ (=abandonment of one's religion);
     2 svamatatyāgaḥ ( = a. of one's principles);
     3 paradharmāśrayaḥ (taking another religion): v. Desertion.

     1 *svadharmatyāgin (f. );
     2 yaḥ (yā yat) svadharmaṃ svamataṃ svapakṣaṃ vā parityajya paradharmaṃ paramataṃ parapakṣaṃ vā avalambate āśrayati, etc.

APOSTATIZE: svadharmaṃ svamataṃ svapakṣaṃ vā tyajati parityajati; svadharmāt svamatāt vā bhraṃsate (bhraṃs, c. 1.), cyavate (cyu, c. 1.).

     1 *īśvaradūtaḥ;
     2 maharṣiḥ. A. -Ship *īśvaradautyam.

     I In Rhe.: sambodhanam.
     II In gram.: *aminidhānam.

     1 sambodhayati (c. of budh);
     2 āhvayati (hve, c. 1.).: v. To address.

     1 *auṣadhakāraḥ;
     2 bhiṣaj (m) ( =physician, q. v.).

APOTHEOSIS: v. Deification.

APPAL: vi-trāsayati saṃ-, (c. of tras): v. To terrify.

APPARATUS: upakaraṇam: v. Tools, instruments.

APPAREL (subs.): paricchadaḥ: v. Dress, attire.

APPAREL (v.): v. To dress, clothe, attire.

APPARENT (adj.):
     I Visible: q. v. prādurbhūta. (tā taṃ).
     II Evident, clear: q. v.:
     1 vyaktaḥ (ktā ktaṃ);
     2 sphuṭaḥ (ṭā ṭaṃ);
     3 spaṣṭaḥ (ṣṭā ṣṭaṃ).
     III Seeming (as opposed to real):
     1 prakāśaḥ (śā śaṃ);
     2 prakaṭaḥ (ṭā ṭaṃ);
     3 bāhyaḥ (hyā hyaṃ) ( =external, q. v.): v. Feigned, false.

     I Plainly, clearly: q. v.: vyaktam.
     II Ostensibly, seemingly:
     1 prakāśaṃ;
     2 prakaṭaṃ, Si. xvi. 19.;
     3 bahiḥ ( =externally, q. v.), a. sweet, but really unfriendly madhuraṃ bahirantarapriyam, Si. xvi. 17.

     I Appearance: q. v.:
     II A ghost, phantom: q. v.: chāyā.

APPARITOR: no equiv.: dūtaḥ; anucaraḥ.

APPEAL (subs.):
     I Leg. t. t.: *punarvicāraprārthanā. A court of a. *ye prāḍvivākāḥ punarvicāraprārthanāṃ śrotumarhanti or śṛṇvanti.
     II Reference to some one as an authority or witness: Ph. to make an a. to pramāṇayati (nomi.).
     III Resort, recourse: q. v.
     IV An address of entreaty: prārthanā.

APPEAL (v. i.):
     I Leg. t. t.: punarvicāraṃ prārthayate (arth, c. 10.).
     II To refer to another as an authority: pramāṇayati: Ph. I a. to gods about it atra viṣaye mama devāḥ sākṣiṇastiṣṭhanti.
     III To implore, entreat: q. v.
     IV To excite, affect: q. v.

APPEAR (v. i.):
     I To be visible:
     1 āvirbhavati or prādurbhavati, a herd of deer a. ed mṛgāṇāṃ yūthamāvirbabhūva, R. ix. 55.;
     2 prādurasti (as, c. 1.) R. xi. 63.;
     3 dṛśyate athi- prati-, (pass. of dṛś) (=to be seen) not restricted to real life as
     1 and (2).; a swan a. ed in their dream tayoḥ svapne kaścijjālapādaḥ pratyadṛśyata, D. i.
     II To show one's self: Ph. she does not a. before me sā matsamakṣaṃ nāgacchati (not darśanaṃ dadāti, see R. xix. 7.).
     III To be out: nirgacchati, an article a. ed in the Induprakāsha about so and so *amukaviṣayakaḥ prabandha induprakāśapatrikāyāṃ nirgataḥ.
     IV Leg. t. t: to be present:
     1 upatiṣṭhati (sthā, c. 1.);
     2 Perh. darśanaṃ dadāti. V. To seem: q. v. pratibhāti (bhā, c. 2.).
     VI To be evident or clear: q. v.

     I The act of becoming visible;
     1 āvirbhāvaḥ (=actual a. especially of invisible spirits). who wants to make his a. (in this world) yaścāvirbhāvamicchati, Mah.;
     2 by the verb: v. To appear (I);
     3 prādurbhāvaḥ (rare), Kuv.
     II Act of being present:
     1 upasthitiḥ;
     2 darśanam, he who stands a security for one's a. yo yasya pratibhūstiṣṭherśanāya. M. viii. 58.
     III personal a.:
     1 ākāraḥ;
     2 ākṛtiḥ. of good a.: sudṛśyaḥ (śyā śyaṃ).
     IV Semblance, mere show: Ph. outward a. vāhyākṛtiḥ; has an a. of justice nyāyamivāvabhāsate, Ki. xiv. 7.: v. Apparently (II). V. A phenomenon: q. v.:
     VI Probability, likelihood: q. v.

APPEASABLE: śamanīyaḥ (yā yaṃ): v. Placable.

     1 śamayati pra- upa-, (c. of śam);
     2 sāntvayati upa- pari-, (sāntva, c. 10): v. Calm, propitiate.

     1 śāmyati (śam, c. 4.);
     2 pra-sīdati (sad, c. 1.).

APPEASER: śamayitā; praśamayitā. v. To appease.

APPEASING (subs.):
     1 śāntiḥ;
     2 praśāntiḥ;
     3 sāntvanā.

APPELLANT: *punarvicāraprārthin (f. ); nideśabhaṅgārthin (f. ).

APPELLATE: Ph. a. jurisdication *punarvicārādhikāraḥ; a. court ye prāḍvivākāḥ punarvicāraprārthanāṃ śrotumarhanti.

APPELLATION: nāmadheyam; v. Name.

APPELLATIVE: i. e. common:
     1 sādhāraṇaḥ (ṇā ṇaṃ);
     2 sāmānyaḥ (nyā nyaṃ).

APPEND: anubadhnāti (bandh, c. 9.) (?).

APPENDAGE: Ph. a house with its a. s *sopakaraṇaṃ gṛhaṃ; virtue is an a. of belief in God *sadācāra āstikyabuddhimanubadhnātiḥ, v. Concomitant.

APPENDIX: pariśiṣṭam.

APPERTAIN: v. To belong. A. ing to: v. belonging to.

APPETENCE: v. Appetite, desire.

     I Any mental desire:
     1 kāmaḥ;
     2 rāgaḥ; v. Desire, longing.
     II actual desire for food:
     1 kṣudhā;
     2 bubhukṣā;
     3 aśanāyā.

     1 praśaṃsati (śaṃs, c. 1.) v. To praise;
     2 gāyati upagāyati (gai, c. 1.) Ki. xvii. 47.;
     3 vandate pari-, (vand, c. 1.), a. ed by the chiefs of the clans gaṇapatibhiḥ parivanditena, Ki.

     I Acclamation: q. v.: praśaṃsāvācaḥ (f. pl.).
     II Praise: q. v. praśaṃsā. N. B. Clapping the hands is not a sign of a. in Sanskrit, but the reverse, Si. xv. 39.

     I A tree: *ātāvṛkṣaḥ.
     II Its fruits: ātāphalam.
     III Of the eye: tārā: v. Pupil.

     I Application: q. v.
     II In pl., instruments: q. v.: upakaraṇāni. (n. pl.).

APPLICABILITY: Expr. by circumlo.: v. Applicable, apply (v. i.) (1).

APPLICABLE: lagat (f. ntī), the fine-toothed (lady) hearing the whole speech equally a. to Indra and Nala ākarṇya tulyamakhilāṃ sudatī lagantīmākhaṇḍale'pi ca nale'pi ca vācametāṃ, N. iii. 8. Ph. equally a. to Yama and Nala śamananaiṣadhayoḥ samānaḥ N. iii. 20.; to be a. lagati (lag, c. 1) (with loc.).

     1 arthī;
     2 prārthayitā;
     3 yācakaḥ: v. Petitioner.

     I The act of putting to: prayogaḥ samprayogaḥ, by the a. of fire or heat agnyātapasaṃprayogāt, R. v. 54.
     II The thing applied: prayogaḥ, should seize (them) by wet leather or by other a. s ārdra carmaṇānyairvā prayogairgṛhvīyāt, Sr.
     III Petition: q. v.:
     1 prārthanā;
     2 yācñā.
     IV attention, assiduity: q. v.:
     1 abhiniveśaḥ;
     2 manoyogaḥ. V. Use, employment; prayogaḥ Ki.
     VI Relation, reference: q. v.

APPLY (v. i.):
     I Refer or relate to:
     1 lagati (lag, c. 1) (with loc.) N. xiii. 8.;
     2 vartate (vṛt, c. 1) (only in certain cases), here the word 'light' a. s to God atra jyotiḥśabdaḥ brahmaṇi vartate, S. iii. 40.
     II To solicit, have recourse to: q. v.: prārthayate (arth, c. 10.).

APPLY (v. t.):
     I To lay or put on:
     1 prayojayati or yunakti or yūṃkte (yuj, c. 10. and 7.), do not a. liniment at night nālepaṃ rātrau prayuñjīta, Sr.;
     2 ni-veśayati (c. viś), a. ing the shell to his lower lip adharauṣṭhe jalajaṃ niveśya, R. vii. 63. Ph.: a. ing the bit to your mouth khalīnaṃ mukhe prakṣipya, P. iv. 7.; he a. d his hand to my breast sa mamorasi hastaṃ dadau.
     II To use, refer: prayojayati or yunakti, or yuṃkte, we a. the words like 'sun' to it tasminnādityādayaḥ śabdāḥ prayujyante, S. iii. 32.
     III To use for a particular purpose, to devote: prayojayati.
     IV To fix closely, incline: mano yacchati (, c. 1), dadāti (, c. 3), nidadhāti (dhā, c. 3), or yunakti (yuj, c. 7).

APPOINT (v. t.):
     I To make or nominate:
     1 yunakti or yaṃkte ni- vini-, (yuj, c. 7), as a king a. s officers over villages etc. yathā rājā grāmādiṣvadhikṛtānviniyuṃkte, Up.;
     2 karoti (kṛ, c. 8) v. To make;
     3 nidadhāti sanni-, (dhā, c. 3) Ki. i. 22. v. To place;
     4 vyā-diśati (diś, c. 6) Ku. iii. 13. v. To order.
     II To ordain, prescribe: q. v.: nirdiśati.

APPOINTED, WELL: i. e. well equipped:
     1 susajjitaḥ (tā taṃ);
     2 parikalpitaḥ (tā taṃ).

     I The act of appointing:
     1 niyogaḥ;
     2 viniyogaḥ.
     II Station, position: padam.
     III Stipulation, agreement: q. v. samayaḥ (rare in this sense). IV. A. command, decree: q. v.: niyogaḥ. v. Equipment: q. v. sajjā.

APPORTION: vi-bhajati pravi- saṃvi-, (bhaj c. 1): v. To distribute, allot.

     1 vibhāgaḥ (=distribution, q. v.);
     2 parikalpanam (=assignment, q. v.).

     1 upayuktaḥ (ktā ktaṃ);
     2 upapannaḥ (nnā nnaṃ);
     3 saṅgataḥ (tā taṃ): v. Suitable, Fit, pertinent.

     1 Expr. by the adj.;
     2 sthāne;
     3 prastāvasadṛśam.

APPOSITENESS: Ph. your remark is characterized by a. saṅgataṃ tava bhāṣitam: v. Apposite.

APPOSITION: ekānvayaḥ (?).

APPRAISE (v. t.): bhūlyaṃ nirūpayati (rūp, c. 10), nirdhārayati (dhṛ, c. 10).

     1 bhūlyanirūpaṇam;
     2 mūlyanirdhāraṇam: v. Valuation.

     1 mūlyanirūpakaḥ;
     2 mūlyanirdhārakaḥ: v. Valuer.

APPRECIABLE: upalabhyaḥ (bhyā bhyaṃ) (=perceptible, q. v.).

     1 mūlyaṃ or guṇāguṇaṃ jānāti (jñā, c. 9), avagacchati (gam, c. 1);
     2 bahumanyate (man, c. 4) (=to think much of).

     1 mūlyaviñjānam (?);
     2 guṇāguṇavijñānam (?).

     I To arrest: q. v.:
     1 dharati (dhṛ, c. 1);
     2 gṛhvāti (grah, c. 9).
     II To comprehend, conceive: q. v.:
     1 upalabhate (labh, c. 1.);
     2 avagacchati (gam, c. 1.)
     III To believe, suppose: q. v.: śaṅkate (śaṅka, c. 1), I a. Bharata has come out to meet me śaṅake.......pratyudgato māṃ bharataḥ, R. xiii. 64.
     IV To fear śaṅkate ā- vi- pari-, a. ing defeat from you viśaṅkamāno bhavataḥ parābhavaṃ, Ki. i. 7.

     I The act of seizing:
     1 grahaṇam;
     2 dhṛtiḥ (rare).
     II Arrest: q. v.: āsodhaḥ.
     III Conception, comprehension, understanding: q. v.: Ph. a man of quick a. tīkṣṇabuddhiḥ, a man of dull a. sthūlabudviḥ.
     IV Opinion, notion: q. v.: matam. V. Fear of future evil:
     1 śaṅklā;
     2 āśaṅkā.

     1 śaṅkitaḥ (tā taṃ);
     2 śaṅkānvitaḥ (tā taṃ). to be a. śaṅkate.

APPRENTICE (subs): no equiv.: antevāsin (f. ) (=disciple) may be used.

APPRENTICE (v): Ph. he was a. d to me for five years *pañcavarṣaparyantaṃ sa mama niyamabaddho'ntevāsyāsīt.

APPRENTICESHIP: antevāsitvam. (?); niyamabaddhāntevāsitvam.

APPRISE OF: vi-ñjāpayati (c. of ñjā): v. To inform.

     I To come or go near:
     1 upa-sarpati (sṛp, c. 1);
     2 upa-sarati samupa-, (sṛ, c. 1);
     3 upa-sīdati upā-, (sad, c. 1);
     4 samīpaṃ nikaṭaṃ, etc. gacchati (gam, c. 1), yāti (, c. 2), etc.: v. Go near;
     5 upagacchati samupa-. N. B. Observe that samīpaṃ etc. are cons. with the gen., all the other verbs take the acc.
     II To approximate, resemble: q. v.

APPROACH (subs):
     I The act of approaching:
     1 āsannatā (=the act of being near);
     2 upāgamaḥ;
     3 āgamaḥ (=arrival).
     II A means of a. ing:
     1 upasarpaṇamārgaḥ (?);
     2 upāgamadvāram (?).

APPROACHABLE: upasarpaṇīyaḥ (yā yaṃ): v. Accessible.

APPROACHING (part. adj.):
     1 āsannaḥ (nnā nnaṃ), whose death was a. āsannaśarīrapātaḥ, Ku. iii. 44;
     2 abhyarṇaḥ (rṇā rṇaṃ), a. separation, abhyarṇaviraha-, K.;
     3 upoḍhaḥ (ḍhā ḍhaṃ), Ki. xvii. 54.;
     4 sannikṛṣṭaḥ (ṣṭā ṣṭaṃ).

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     I Acclamation:
     1 dhanyavādaḥ;
     2 sādhuvādaḥ, you will receive a. throughout the world yāvat saṃsāramaṇḍalamavāpnuhi sādhuvādam, Si. xiv. 87.
     II Assent, approval: q. v.

     I To set apart for a particular purpose:
     1 ni-yojayati vini- pra-, (yuj, c. 10.);
     2 upa-kalpayati (kḷp, c. 10.).
     II To take to one's self:
     1 ātmasāt karoti (kṛ, c. 8.), what princes strive to a. even by misdeeds duritairapi kartumātmasāt prayatante nṛpasūnavo hi yat, R. viii. 2;
     2 svāyattaḥ (ttā ttaṃ) or svādhīnaḥ (nā naṃ) (agreeing with the object) karoti, M. n. (not very common).

     I Apposite, suitable: q. v.: upapannaḥ (nnā nnaṃ), this epithet is very a. for the breeze upapannaṃ viśeṣaṇamasya vāyoḥ V. ii.
     II Peculiar: q. v.

     1 upapannam;
     2 yuktam: v. Fitly, suitably.

APPROPRIATENESS: Fitness: suitableness.

     1 prayogaḥ;
     2 viniyogaḥ;
     3 upakalpanam (?).

     1 anumodanam (rare);
     2 sammatiḥ (=assent);
     3 by the verb, you have received my a. mayānumodito'si: v. Also approbation.

     I To be pleased with:
     1 anumodate (mud, c. 1) (gen. with the acc. of the person whose measures etc. are a. d), none of his brothers could oppose or a. (his determination) na kaścana bhrātṛṣu teṣu śakto niṣeddhu māsīdanumodituṃ vā. R. xiv. 43; without obtaining a. al of my mother mātrānanumoditā; K.;
     2 rocate abhi-, (ruc, c. 1) (with dat. of the person who a. s), if you ask me,
     I do not a. even of their quarrel yadi māṃ pṛcchasi tadaiteṣāṃ vivāda eva na me rocate, Mal. i.;
     3 anu-manyate (man, c. 4) (rare in this sense), D. iv.:
     II To prove: q. v.
     III To commend: q. v.

     1 parīkṣitaḥ (tā taṃ) (=tried);
     2 abhimataḥ (tā taṃ) (=accepted).

APPROVER. leg.t. t.: yaḥ svayaṃ doṣaṃ pratipadya sahāyānapyabhiyunakti.

APPROXIMATE (adj.): āsannaḥ (nnā nnaṃ): v. Near, next.

     I To approach: q. v.
     II To resemble: q. v.

APPROXIMATION: Ph. this is only an a. to truth *etanne diṣṭhameva satyasyaḥ v. Near, next.

APRICOT: susvāduḥ phalaviśeṣaḥ.

APRIL: uttaracaitrapūrvavaiśākhānuvādīyurupīyavatsarasya caturtho māsaḥ.

     I An article of dress: yutakam. (?)
     II A covering for the legs: *carmamayaḥ jaṅghāpracchadaḥ jaṅdhātrāṇam.
     III A piece of lead to cover the vent of a cannon: no equiv. pidhānam (=covering) may be used.

APROPOS: sthāne: v. Opportunely, seasonably.

APSIS: mandoccaḥ (mandaḥ =the lower a., uccaḥ =the higher a.) The line of apsides: mandoccarekhā (?).

     I Fit, suitable: q. v.: upayuktaḥ (ktā ktaṃ).
     II Inclined, prone:
     1 by śīlaḥ (lā laṃ) in comp., a. to forget vismaraṇaśīlaḥ (lā laṃ);
     2 in some cases by a deriv: a. to break bhaṅguraḥ (rā raṃ); a. to fall pātukaḥ (kā kaṃ), not a. to perish avinaśvaraḥ (rā raṃ).
     III Ready, prompt: q. v.

     I Tendency, propensity: expr. by śīlatā or by deriv.: a. to break bhaṅguratā: v. Apt (ii).
     II Fitness, Suitableness: q. v. upayogitā.
     III Readiness in learning: of remarkable a. tīkṣṇabuddhi. (mfn.): v. Sharp.

     1 yathocitam;
     2 yathopapannam: v. Fitly, suitably.

APTNESS: v. Aptitude.

AQUA-FORTIS: (nitric acid): *tīkṣṇarasaḥ.

AQUARIUS: kumbharāśiḥ, or simply, kumbhaḥ.

     I Pertaining to water: jala (in comp.): a. animal:
     1 jalajantuḥ;
     2 yādasa (n).
     II Pertaining to water: jalacaraḥ or jalecaraḥ (rī raṃ).
     III Born in water:
     1 jalajaḥ (jā jaṃ);
     2 vārijaḥ (jā jaṃ); etc.

     1 jalapraṇālī;
     2 jalavāhinī (?).

     1 jalamayaḥ (yī yaṃ);
     2 abhmayaḥ (yī yaṃ): v. Watery.

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AQUILINE: Ph. one who has a. nose śukanāsaḥ (sā saṃ); tuṅgaghoṇaḥ (ṇā ṇaṃ).

ARABESQUE: *gṛhabhittyādāvutkīrṇakusumādyalaṅkāraviśeṣaḥ āravālaṅkāraḥ.

     1 kṛṣiyogyaḥ (gyā gyaṃ);
     2 halyaḥ (lyā lyaṃ). A. land: halyam.

     I An arbitrator: q. v. madhyasthaḥ.
     II A lord, master: īśaḥ.

     1 svecchayā;
     2 svecchātaḥ;
     3 svakāmataḥ.

     I Depending on mere will: Ph. an a. decision *icchānurūpo nirṇayaḥ; a. conduct svecchācāritā or kāmacāritā; it was a. on your part to arrest me *tvaṃ svecchayā māṃ dhṛtavān.
     II Absolute, despotic:
     1 svecchācārin (f. ṇī):
     2 kāmacārin. (f. ṇī);
     3 uddāmaḥ (mā maṃ) (without any control).

ARBITRATE: nirṇayati (, c. 1): v. To decide.

ARBITRATION: nirṇayaḥ (=decision: q. v.).

ARBITRATOR: madhyasthaḥ: v. Umpire.

     1 kuñjaḥ;
     2 nikuñjaḥ: v. Bower.

ARC: vṛttakhaṇḍam (a. of a circle): v. Arch.

ARCADE: Perh. toraṇagṛham.

ARCH (subs.) toraṇa (mn) (properly=an arched gateway, but may, by analogy, be applied to other arches).

ARCH (v):
     I To cover with an arch: toraṇaṃ nyasyati (as, c. 4) (after Mu.) or toraṇena pracchādayati (chad c. 10).
     II To bend, curve: q. v.

ARCH (adj.): caturaḥ (rā raṃ): v. Cunning, sly.

ARCHAEOLOGIST: *purāṇasāhityavid; prākkālīnasāhityādiviṣayeṣu paṇḍitaḥ.

ARCHAEOLOGY: *purāṇasāhityam; prākkālīnasāhityādiviṣayakā vidyā.

ARCHAISM: *prācīnaprayogaḥ: A. s occurring in the Mahābhārata, Rāmāyana, Manu, etc. are called ārṣaprayogaḥ.

ARCHANGEL: *īśvarasya pradhānadūtaḥ.

ARCHBISHOP: *kṛṣṭīyasampradāyeṣu sarvapradhānācāryaḥ.

ARCHBISHOPRIC: *kṛṣṭīyasampradāyeṣu yaḥ sarvapradhānācāryaḥ tasyādhikāraḥ.

ARCHDEACON: *īlaṇḍadeśe viśapasya nimnastho dharmopāsakaḥ.

     I The office of an archdeacon: *ārcaḍikanapadam.
     II His residence: *ārcaḍikanāvāsaḥ.
     III His jurisdiction *ārcaḍikanasyādhikāraḥ.

ARCHDUCHY: Ph. a. of Baden vādenarājyam: v. Kingdom.

ARCHDUKE (m.), Archduches (f.): upādhiviśeṣaḥ; *uparājaḥ (m), uparāñjī (f.).

     I Covered with an arch: nyastatoraṇaḥ (ṇā ṇaṃ) (?), an a. gateway toraṇam.
     II In the form of an arch, curved:
     1 bhugnaḥ (gnā gnaṃ);
     2 kuñcitaḥ (tā taṃ).

     I A bowman: q. v.: dhānuṣkaḥ.
     II The constellation: dhanus (n.)

     1 dhanurvidyā (the art);
     2 śarābhyāsaḥ (the practice).

ARCHETYPE: ādarśaḥ: v. Pattern, model.

ARCHIEPISCOPAL: i. e. belonging to an archbishop: expr. by tat. comp.

ARCHIPELAGO: dvīpasamūhaḥ; dvīpasaṅghātaḥ; etc.

     I Lit.:
     1 vāstuvidyopajīvin (m), K. b.;
     2 sthapatiḥ, P. i. 1.;
     3 śilpin (n.) (=artisan, but may be appropriately used when the sense is clear), R. II. Fig.: a maker: q. v.: kartā.

ARCHITECTURAL: expr. by comp., a. skill nirmāṇakauśalama.

     1 vāstuvidyā;
     2 gṛhanirmāṇaśilpam (?);
     3 śilpam (when the sense is clear). Si. iii. 35.

ARCHITRAVE: no equiv.: *upastambhaḥ.

     I Records: *prācīnapatrasañcayaḥ.
     II The place where they are kept: *prācīnapatrāgāram.

     1 caturam;
     2 vidagdham.

     1 cāturyam;
     2 cāturī;
     3 vaidagdham.

ARCTIC: *uttarakendrīyaḥ (yā yaṃ): the a. pole uttarakendram.

ARDENCY: v. Ardour.

     I Fiery, hot: q. v.: pracaṇḍaḥ (ṇḍā ṇḍaṃ).
     II Eager: Ph. a. eyes (of a lover) satṛṣṇanayane.
     III Warm, affectionate: atyantaḥ (ntā ntaṃ) or niratiśayaḥ (yā yaṃ) (=excessive), a. love niratiśayānurāgaḥ: Ph. a. vows (of a lover) śapathāḥ (m. pl.).

ARDENTLY: satṛṣṇaṃ (as in gazing);
     2 atyantaṃ (=excessively).

     I Heat: q. v. uttāpaḥ.
     II Warmth, eagerness: utsāhaḥ; with a. sotsāhaṃ. Ph. the a. of his love tasya niratiśayānurāgaḥ.

     I Lofty: q. v.
     II Difficult: q. v. duṣkaraḥ (rā raṃ).

ARDUOUSNESS: v. Difficulty.

     I Outer a.: aṅganam: v. Yard.
     II Inner a. prakoṣṭhaḥ.
     III In geo. phalam, a. of a circle vṛttakṣetraphalam; a. of a triangle tribhujaphalam, Li.

     1 raṅgaḥ;
     2 raṅgabhūmiḥ;
     3 akṣavāṭaḥ (rare).


ARGONAUTIC: Ph. a. expedition *kanakorṇānveṣaṇāya jesanasya kalvisaṃ prati yātrā.

ARGOSY: bṛhannauviśeṣaḥ: v. Merchantman.

ARGUE (v. i.):
     I To reason: tarkayati vi-, (tark, c. 10) or tarkaṃ karoti
     II To infer: q. v.:
     1 tarkayati; ūhate (ūh, c. 1).

ARGUE (v. t.):
     I To discuss: Ph. he a. d the cause very ably *sa yuktiṃ pradaśrya sunipuṇaṃ tarkayāmāsa.
     II To prove or evince: q. v.

     I A process of reasoning:
     1 tarkaḥ;
     2 vitarkaḥ.
     II Any reason alleged:
     1 yuktiḥ, when all a. s fail yuktiṣvapyavasannāsu;
     2 uppattiḥ Ki. ii. 23.
     III A debate, discussion: q. v.: vādānuvādaḥ.
     IV The subject of a discourse, etc.: Ph. I will give the a. (of the play) saṃkṣepata itivṛttamabhidhīyate, Tārānāth: v. Subect. v. An abstract summary: q. v.

ARGUMENTATION: tarkaḥ: v. Reasoning.

ARGUMENTATIVE: tārkikaḥ (kī kaṃ): Ph. it is a. of almighty power in the creator etadīśvarasya sarvaśaktitvaṃ pradarśayati.

     1 śuṣkaḥ (ṣkā ṣkaṃ);
     2 pariśuṣkaḥ (ṣkā ṣkaṃ): v. Dry, parched.

ARIDITY: śuṣkatā.: v. Dryness.

ARIES: a constellation: meṣaḥ; meṣarāśiḥ.

     1 yuktam,
     2 yathocitam;
     3 samyak.

     1 udeti (i, c. 2);
     2 udgacchati (gam, c. 1): v. To rise, produce (iv). N. B. These two verbs are used in all the senses the English verb: a. ing from the seat āsanādudvan, Ki. ii. 57.; the moon arose udagāt sudhāsūtiḥ, K.; does (not) your fear a., maiden udeti te bhīrapi kinnu bāle, N. iii. 13.

ARISING FROM (as adj.):
     1 jaḥ (jā jaṃ) or janitaḥ (tā taṃ) (in comp.), the infamy a. from the assassination of Parvateśvara parvateśvaravināśajanitasyāyaśasaḥ, Mu. iii.;
     2 bhavaḥ udbhavaḥ prabhavaḥ (vā vaṃ) (in comp.), the darkness a. from youth is very impervious atigahanaṃ tamo yauvanaprabhavabha, K.;
     3 utthaḥ samutthaḥ (tthā tthaṃ), bodily pains are those a. from diseases etc. tatra śārīraṃ vyādhyādyu ttham, S.p. b.

     I A form of Government: *kulīnaśāsanam or kulīnaprabhutvam.
     II The persons of whom it is composed *kulīnasampradāyaḥ or rājyaśāsakakulīnavargaḥ.

     I A member of an aristocracy: *kulīnaḥ.
     II One who supports aristocracy: *kulīnaśāsanasamarthakaḥ.

ARISTOCRATIC: Ph. a. government *kulīnaśāsanam; a. pride kulābhimānaḥ; of a. family kulīnaḥ (nā naṃ) or abhijātaḥ (tā taṃ).

     1 aṅkavidyā;
     2 pāṭīgaṇitam. The eight rules of a. parikarmāṣṭakam.

     1 aṅkavidyāviṣayakaḥ (kā kaṃ) (relating to a.);
     2 aṅkavidyānusāreṇa (according to the rules of a.).

ARITHMETICIAN: aṅkavidyāviśāradaḥ (dā daṃ) and sim. comp. s.

     I A vessel: q. v.:
     1 nauḥ;
     2 taraṇī. II. A. chest:
     1 peṭikā;
     2 ādhāraḥ.

ARM (subs.):
     I Of the human body:
     1 bhujaḥ;
     2 bāhuḥ;
     3 dos; (m);
     4 praveṣṭaḥ. A. The fore a. prakoṣṭhaḥ. The upper a. pragaṇḍaḥ.
     II any object analogous to an arm: (a) of a tree śākhā. v. Bough. (b) of a chair: *bāhuḥ. (c) of the sea or of a river:
     1 vaṅkaḥ;
     2 vakram. (d) of the polypi: v. Feelers.
     III A weapon: v. Arms.
     IV A branch of the military service: aṅgam. v. Power: q. v.

ARM (v. i.):
     I To take arms:
     1 saṃnahyati (nah, c. 4) (=to accoutre), ordered the generals to a. senāpatīn saṃnahanārthamādiśat, Ku. xv. 5.;
     2 astraṃ gṛhvāti (grah, c. 9);
     3 sāyudhaḥ (dhā dhaṃ) bhavati.
     II To prepare for war yuddhāya sajjībhavati.

ARM (v. t.):
     1 sannāhayati (c. of naha);
     2 sāyudhaḥ (dhā dhaṃ) karoti;
     3 sajjīkaroti (=to equip).

ARMADA: potāvaliḥ. v. Fleet.

ARMADILLO: vileśayaḥ kṣudrajantuviśeṣaḥ; *varmadharaḥ.

     I A body of forces equipped for war: balam: v. Army, fleet.
     II The guns and ammunitions of a man-of-war: yuddhopakaraṇāni (n. pl.) (?).

ARMED (adj.):
     1 sāyudhaḥ (dhā dhaṃ);
     2 saṃnaddhaḥ (ddhā ddhaṃ)
     3 sajjaḥ (jjā jjaṃ) (=equipped).

     1 kakṣaḥ;
     2 bāhumūlam;
     3 bhujakoṭaraḥ;
     4 kakṣālayaḥ, Vi.

     1 ayuddham;
     2 yuddhaviratiḥ; and sim. comp. s. Ph. from filial affection, asked for two day's a. yayāce putravātsalyādayuddhaṃ divasadvayam; Raj. v. Truce.

     I Without an arm:
     1 abhujaḥ (jā jaṃ);
     2 bhujahīnaḥ (nā naṃ); etc.
     II Without weapons:
     1 aśastraḥ (strā straṃ);
     2 anāyudhaḥ (dhā dhaṃ); etc.

ARMLET: valayaḥ v. Bracelet.

     1 varman (n).;
     2 kavaca (mn.);
     3 vārabāṇaḥ;
     4 saṃnāhaḥ;
     5 kañcukaḥ;
     6 tanutram. Chain a. jālikā (rare).

ARMOURER: śastrakāraḥ; Perh. asidhārakaḥ.

     1 āyudhāgāram;
     2 śastragṛham.

ARM-PIT: kakṣaḥ; v. Arm-hole.

     I Weapons:
     1 śastram;
     2 astram;
     3 āyudhaḥ;
     4 hetiḥ;
     5 praharaṇam.
     II War, hostility: q. v.
     III Armorial bearings: *kulacihrāni (n. pl.).

     1 sainyam;
     2 balam;
     3 daṇḍacakram;
     4 patākinī;
     5 camūḥ;
     6 vyūhaḥ (an a. in battle array);
     7 caturaṅgabalam (an a. comprising the four complements, elephants, cars, horse and foot). N. B. sainyam and balam are also used in the plural in the 'singular' sense.

     1 gandhaḥ;
     2 saurabham;
     3 āmodaḥ.

     1 sugandhi (mfn.);
     2 sugandhaḥ (ndhā ndhaṃ);
     3 surabhi (mfn.): v. Fragrant.

AROUND (prep.): paritaḥ (with acc.), a. the altar vedīṃ paritaḥ, B. i. 12.

AROUND (adv.):
     1 paritaḥ;
     2 sarvataḥ, looking a. sarvato vilokya, U.;
     3 samantataḥ samantāt, K.;
     4 viṣvak, with sparks scattered all a. viṣvagvisṛtasphuliṅagaḥ, Ki. xvi. 51.

     I From sleep: prabodhayati: v. To awake.
     II From inaction
     1 uttejayati (tij, c. 10), will go to the island of Mahendra to a. Jāmadagnya jāmadagnyamuttejayituṃ mahendradvīpameva gacchāvaḥ Vi. ii.;
     2 utthāpayati (c. of sthā), and a. ing his natural enemies utthāpya sahajāṃśca dviṣaḥ D. iv.;
     3 prabodhayati (rare).

     1 tālī;
     2 tāḍiḥ or tāḍī.

ARRAIGN: amiyunakti or yojayati (yuj, c. 7 and 10): v. To accuse.

ARRAIGNMENT: abhiyogaḥ: v. Accusation.

     I To put in order:
     1 racayati vi-, (rac, c. 1), a. ing the division of the forest viracayya kānanavibhāgam, Ki. xii. 44.;
     2 vinyasyati (as, c. 4), merely by a. ing sentences padavinyāsamātreṇa;
     3 yathākramaṃ sthāpayati (c. of sthā).
     II To adjust, settle, determine: q. v.

     I Orderly disposition:
     1 racanā;
     2 vinyāsaḥ;
     3 saṃvidhānam.
     II Settlement, adjustment, agreement: q. v.

ARRANT: pāmaraḥ (rī raṃ): v. Infamous, vile.

ARRAS: v. Tapestry.

ARRAY (subs.):
     I Battle-array: q. v.
     II Arrangement, order: q. v.
     III Dress, clothing: q. v.: paricchadaḥ.
     IV Of jurymen *nyāyapratibhūgaṇaḥ.

ARRAY (v. t.):
     I To arrange, draw up: q. v. racayati vi-, (rac, c. 10).
     II To dress, deck: q. v. bhūṣayati.
     III To select jurymen *nyāyapratibhuvo nirūpayati (rūp, c. 10).

ARREAR, ARREARS: *avaśiṣṭadeyam, pay up your a. s *avaśiṣṭadeyaṃ pariśodhaya; I owe large a. s *mayā bahu pariśodhanīyam; a. of rent *karaśeṣaḥ.

ARREST (v. t.):
     I To obstruct, stop: q. v.: rūṇaddhi (rudh, c. 7).
     II To apprehend legally:
     1 āsedhati (sidha, c. 1);
     2 dharati or dhārayati (dhṛ, c. 1 and 10):
     3 gṛhvāti (grah, c. 9).
     III To fix, engage: Ph. (it) a. s my eyes badhnāti me cakṣuḥ; R.; it a. s my attention māmananyamanaskaṃ karoti.

ARREST (subs.):
     1 āsedhaḥ;
     2 dhṛtiḥ (?). Ph. a. of judgment *nirṇayarodhaḥ.

     1 āgamanam;
     2 āgamaḥ;
     3 upayānam (rare), Ku. vii. 22.

ARRIVE (v. i.):
     1 pra-āpnoti ava- sampra- anupra-, (āp, c. 5), a. d at the hermitage af the saint maharṣeḥ prāpadāśramam; R. i. 48.;
     2 ā-sīdati samā-, (sad, c. 1), Kusha a. ing at the banks of the Sarayū kūlaṃ samāsādya kuśaḥ sarayvāḥ, R. xvi. 35.;
     3 pra-padyate (pad, c. 4), a. ed at the hermitage of Atri atrestapovanaṃ prapede, B. iv. 19.; after childhood, she a. ed at youth bālyāt paraṃ sātha vayaḥ prapede, Ku. i. 31. N. B. Observe that all these verbs take an acc. Ph.: a. ed at no conclusion nirṇayaṃ nāsasāda; the news a. ed of the assassination of his father pitṛvadhavārtā samāgatā.

     1 auddhatyam;
     2 prāgalbhyam;
     3 utsekaḥ;
     4 avalepaḥ.

     1 uddhataḥ (tā taṃ);
     2 pragalbhaḥ (lbhā lbhaṃ);
     3 utsiktaḥ (ktā ktaṃ);
     4 avaliptaḥ (ptā ptaṃ).

     1 uddhatam;
     2 pragalbham;
     3 sāvalepam.

ARROGATE: *anyāyataḥ gṛhṇāti (grah, c. 9) or svīkaroti (kṛ, c. 8), anyāyena svasvatvaṃ khyāpayati (c. of khyā) or prakaṭayati (nomi.).

ARROGATION: *nyāyyagrahaṇam; anyāyyasvīkāraḥ; anyāyena svasvatvakhyāpanam.

     1 śaraḥ;
     2 bāṇaḥ;
     3 iṣuḥ;
     4 sāyakaḥ or śāyakaḥ;
     5 mārgaṇaḥ;
     6 śilīmukhaḥ;
     7 āśugaḥ;
     8 patrī;
     9 pṛṣatkaḥ;
     10 viśikhaḥ A shower of a. s śaravarṣaḥ. To discharge, shoot a. s śaraṃ nirasyati (as, c. 4), kṣipati (kṣip, c. 6), Ki.

     1 phalam,
     2 śalyam;
     3 bāṇāgram.

ARROW-HEADED: *phalākāraḥ (rā raṃ), a. characters, *phalākārāvarṇāḥ.

ARROW-ROOT: khādyopayogī dravyaviśeṣaḥ.

     I Of arrows: śara- (in comp.) a. shower śaravarṣaḥ.
     II Crooked like an arrow: kuṭilaḥ (lā laṃ): v. Crooked.

     1 āyudhāgāram;
     2 śastragṛham.

ARSENIC: manaḥśilā (=red a.).

     1 āgāradāhaḥ;
     2 gṛhadāhaḥ.

     I As opposed to nature: śilpam.
     II As opposed to science: kalā, in the a. s of dancing, singing, playing, and acting nṛtyagītavādyanāṭyakalāsu, D. ii. Ph. the industrial a. s śilpavidyā; the fine a. s saṅgītādi-kalā (?) or *śreṣṭhakalāḥ (f. pl.).
     III Skill, dexterity: q. v.: kauśalam.
     IV Cunning, artifice: q. v. chalam.

ARTERIAL; expr. by the gen. of words given under artery.

     1 raktavāhinī nāḍiḥ;
     2 raktavahā śirā.

ARTFUL: caturaḥ (rā raṃ), Ku. iv. 20.: v. Cunning, crafty.

     1 nipuṇam;
     2 kauśalena. v. Cunningly, ingeniously, craftily.

     1 cāturyam;
     2 cāturī: v. Cunning, ingenuity.

ARTICHOKE: śākaviśeṣaḥ.

ARTICLE (subs.):
     I A part of speech: viśeṣyasvabhāvanirūpakāvyayaśabdaḥ.
     II A commodity or substance: q. v. dravyam.
     III A Clause in a contract etc.: prakaraṇam (?). Ph. we enter into this a. to remove this doubt etāmāśaṅkāṃ nivartayitumidamadhikaraṇamārabhyate, S. iii. 34.; the a. about Harisha Chandra was very good, *harīśacandraviṣayakaḥ prabandho'tyuttama āsīt; the a. s of war *sainikaniyamāvaliḥ.
     IV A distinct part:
     1 aṃśaḥ (=part);
     2 viṣayaḥ (= subject). V. Moment:
     1 kṣaṇaḥ;
     2 samayaḥ.

ARTICLE (v. t.): *niyamapatreṇa badhnāti (badhn, c. 9.), an a. d clerk *niyamabaddhaḥ lekhakaḥ.

ARTICULAR: sandhigataḥ (tā taṃ), a. disease sandhigatarogaḥ, Sr.

     1 spaṣṭaḥ (ṣṭā ṣṭaṃ);
     2 sphuṭaḥ (ṭā ṭaṃ): v. Distinct.

     I To utter distinctly: sphuṭaṃ or spaṣṭam uccārayati (c. of car), udīrayati (īr, c. 10.), etc.
     II To joint: saṃdadhāti (dhā, c. 3.).

     I Of words: Ph. distinct a. spaṣṭatā varṇoccāraṇe K. II Of bones: sandhiḥ: v. Joint.

     1 upāyaḥ:
     2 chalaṃ;
     3 upādhiḥ, women are originators of all a. s striyaścopādhīnāmudbhavakṣetram, D. N. B.
     2 and
     3 always in the bad sense: v. Stratagem.

     I An artisan: q. v. śilpī.
     II A maker, contriver: q. v.: kartā.

     I Made by art: kṛtrimaḥ (mā maṃ), herds of a. young elephants kṛtrimakarikalabhayūthāni, K. Ph. sometimes over a. hills kadācit krīḍāparvateṣu, K. a. lake kelipalvalam, N.; a. clouds māyāmeghamālāḥ, K. II. Feigned, fictitious: q. v.: kṛtrimaḥ (mā maṃ).
     III Ingenious. skilul: q. v.

     I Weapons in general: astrāṇi (n. pl.).
     II Cannon with all that appertains to them: *kāmānāni or (when the meaning is not clear) sopakaraṇakāmānāni (n. pl.).
     III The troops who manage cannon etc.: *kāmānabalam.

     1 śilpin (m.);
     2 śilpakāraḥ;
     3 kāruḥ or kārukaḥ;
     4 karmakāraḥ. The workshop of an a. śilpaśālā or śilpiśālā. The business of an a. śilpakarman (n.).

     I An artisan: q. v.
     II A painter: q. v. citrakaraḥ.

ARTISTIC: vicitraḥ (trā traṃ) (?): v. Ingenious.

     I Simple, frank, guileless: q. v.;
     1 amāyaḥ (yā yaṃ);
     2 ṛju (mfn.).
     II Contrived without art:
     1 nīrasaḥ (sā saṃ) (=devoid of taste);
     2 alaṅkārahīnaḥ (nā naṃ) (=unadorned).

ARTLESSLY: i. e. Simply, frankly: q. v.:
     1 māyāṃ vinā;
     2 akapaṭena;
     3 ārjavena.

     1 amāyitā;
     2 saralatā;
     3 ārjavam: v. Simplicity.

     I As a particle of comparison:
     1 vat affixed, (he who looks on) other's wives as mothers, on other's things as clods mātṛvat paradāreṣu paradravyeṣu loṣṭravat, H. i.; as before pūrvavat;
     2 yathā (either in comp. to expr. sim. comparison, or with tathā or evaṃ to expr. also to introduce illustrations): as ordered yathānideśaṃ; as prescribed yathāvidhi; as before yathāpurā, Sa. vi.; as eating is inferred from nourishment or country from its language, so is knowable inferred from knowledge, yathā puṣṭayā bhojanamanumīyate yathā ca bhāṣayā deśaḥ tathā jñānākāreṇa jñeyamanumeyam. D. s. (see also R. iii. 23 and notice the repetition of yathā in such cases); as animals attempt to fly away when they see men with sticks, so.... yathā paśvādayaḥ daṇḍodyatakaraṃ purūṣamabhimukhamupalabhya palāyitumārabhante evaṃ.. S. i. p.; as for instance, fire is inferred from smoke yathā dhūmenāgniriti, N. d. As for instance: sometimes expr. by tathāhiḥ he, as a rule, enjoyed the pleasures of youth as for instance, sometimes roamed over artificial mountains, sometimes walked through summer houses sa prāyaśo yauvanasukhamanubabhūva tathāhi kadācit krīḍāparvateṣu vicacāra kadācillatāgṛheṣu babhrāma, K. II. While: expr. by the pres. part: as he went, he thought vrajaṃśca samarthayāmāsa, K. III. Since, in as much as: q. v.:
     1 by the abl. and when the subs. ends in or ā by the ins.: as the motion of the vessels (at sea) depends on wind vātādhīnapotagamanatvāt, K. b.; as there was much political work rājakāryasya bahulatayā Sa. vi.;
     2 yataḥ...tataḥ.. Miscell: as long as one lives yāvajjīvaṃ; as far as the ocean ā samudrāt; as high as the knee jānudaghnaḥ (ghnā ghnaṃ); as yet adyāpi. N. B. as, when it connects two subs. s in apposition is expr. by bhūtvā or kṛtvā: I will remain as your queen tava mahiṣī bhūtvā tiṣṭhāmi; sent me to you as his agent māṃ pratinidhiṃ kṛtvā tvatsakāśaṃ prerayāmāsa.

AS BEING: Expr. By the ins. of subs. s in or by the abl. in other cases: a. few alpatayā; a. a child bālatayā; a. weak daurbalyāt; a. wonderful adbhutatvāt.

AS IF: iva (always after the word it governs): passed the night as if in a moment kṣaṇādiva kṣaṇadāṃ kṣapitavatī, K.; as if painted, as if engraved, as if paralyzed likhitamivotkīrṇamiva stambhitamiva, K.; as if from hell to heaven narakādiva svargam, D.

AS FOLLOWS: iti (at the end of the quotation, which is placed first in Sanskrit). see R. iii. 47., Ku. iv. 43. Ph.: began to speak as follows vaktumitthamupacakrame vacaḥ, K. xiii. 36.; Bachaspati spoke a. vācaspatiravācedaṃ, Ku. ii. 30.

AS FOR, AS TO: viṣayaḥ (yā yaṃ) or viṣayakaḥ (kā kaṃ) in comp.: as for his valour, I will not say a word tasya śauryaviṣayaṃ na kiñcid vadāmi.

     1 by a comp. adj. with mātraḥ (trā traṃ), he who does not put down an enemy or a disease a. it appears jātamātraṃ na yaḥ śatruṃ rogaṃ ca praśamaṃ nayet, P. i. 8.;
     2 yadā...tadaiva. Ph.: a. I spoke madvacanāntarameva, K.

AS WELL AS: ca......caḥ anointed with nectar a. poison digdho'mṛtena ca viṣeṇa ca, Ma. i.; as a mother a. as a father mātā ca pitā ca bhūtvā D. v.

     1 hiṅgu (n.);
     2 jatukam, A.;
     3 vāhlīkam, A.

ASCARIDES: A disease: kṛmirogaḥ.

ASCEND (v. i.): ārohati (with acc.): v. To mount, rise.

ASCEND (v. t.): ā-rohati adhi-, (ruha, c. 1.): v. To mount.

ASCENDANT: prabhutvam: v. Superiority. To be in the a.: jayati (ji, c. 1.) (=to flourish) (only when it conveys the idea of flourishing).

ASCENDANCY: prabhutvam: v. Authority, influence. Ph: Chandrapālita, by various amusements, gained complete a. over Bihārabhadra candrapālito vivighābhiḥ krīḍābhirvihārabhadramātmasādakarot, D. viii.

ASCENSION: v. Ascent. A. -day: *kṛṣṭasya svargārohaṇaparvan (n.).

     I The act of ascending:
     1 ārohaḥ;
     2 ārohaṇam;
     3 adhirohaṇam.
     II The way of ascending:
     1 ārohamārgaḥ;
     2 ārohaṇapathaḥ.
     III Inclination, slope: the road has an a. of one foot per hundred. *pratiśatapādamekapādonnato mārgaḥ.

     I To find out:
     1 jānāti pari-, (jñā, c. 9), a. what is the time now jñāyatāṃ kā velā vartata iti, Mu. v.;
     2 nirūpayati (rūp, c. 10.), I will follow him and a. what it is tadanu gatvā kimetaditi nirūpayāmi, H. iii.;
     3 niścinoti (ci, c. 5.). a. ing that the remaining one was the king niścitya śeṣaṃ tamasau nareśaṃ, N. xiv. 14.:
     4 nirṇayati (, c. 1.), to a. this, we begin the second and the third part tannirṇayāya dvitīyatṛtīyau pādāvārabhyete, S. ii. p.;
     5 nirdhārayati (c. of dhṛ), when a thing is a. ed by letter nirdhārite'rthe lekhena, Si. ii. 70.
     II To make certain: sthirīkaroti: v. Certain.
     III To assure: q. v.

     1 nirṇeyaḥ (yā yaṃ);
     2 nirūpaṇīyaḥ (yā yaṃ);
     3 nirdhāryaḥ (ryā ryaṃ).

     1 nirūpaṇam;
     2 nirṇayaḥ;
     3 nirdhāraṇam.

     1 yatiḥ;
     2 yogī;
     3 vairāgī;
     4 saṃnyāsī;
     5 tapasvī;
     6 tāpasaḥ.

     1 vairāgyam;
     2 saṃnyāsaḥ.

ASCITES: i. e. Dropsy of the peritoneum: udarī.

     1 āropaṇīyaḥ (yā yaṃ);
     2 adhyāropaṇīyaḥ (yā yaṃ).

     I To refer to as an attribute: ā-ropayati adhyā-, (c. of ruh), to whom divine nature has been falsely a. d adhyāropitavitathadevatānubhāvaḥ, D. i.;
     II To refer to, as an effect: expr. by circumlo.: common people a. every thing to fate daivāyattaṃ sarvamiti prākṛtā vadanti; the citizens a. ed his cure to the power of the charm *mantrabalenāsāvārogyaṃ lebha iti paurairadhigatam. N. B. When the cause is a person, āropayati may be used: they a. ed to me the success of the day taddivasasya jayaṃ mayyāropayāmāsuḥ.

     1 āropaṇam;
     2 adhyāropaṇam;
     3 better by verb: v. To ascribe.

ASH: a tree: vanyavṛkṣaviśeṣaḥ.

     1 bhasmadhavalaḥ (lā laṃ);
     2 bhūtisitaḥ (tā taṃ).

     1 lajjitaḥ (tā taṃ);
     2 hvītaḥ (tā taṃ);
     3 vrīḍitaḥ (tā taṃ);
     4 trapāyuktaḥ (ktā ktaṃ);
     5 hrīṇaḥ (ṇā ṇaṃ). To make a. hrepayati (c. of hrī), v. To shame.

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     1 lajjate (lajj, c. 6.);
     2 jihreti (hrī, c. 3.);
     3 vrīḍām eti (i, c. 2.). Si. xiv. 2.;
     4 trapate (trap, c. 1.) (rare);
     5 hriṇīyate (rare) B. iii. 38.

     1 bhasman (n.), reduced Madana to a. bhasmāvaśeṣaṃ madanaṃ cakāra, Ku. iii. 72. To reduce to a. bhasmīkaroti bhasmasāt karoti. To be reduced to a. bhasmībhavati;
     2 bhūtiḥ vi-, A.

     I On to the shore: tīraṃ; taṭam.
     II On the shore: tīre; taṭe; uttīras.

ASH-WEDNESDAY: kṛṣṭīyaparvabhedaḥ.

ASHY: bhāsmanaḥ (nī naṃ).

ASIDE: v. Apart. (to speak), a. (to any one):
     1 apavārya;
     2 janāntikam;
     3 vijane.

     1 by comp.;
     2 gardamīyaḥ (yā yaṃ): v. Also stupid.

     I To interrogate, enquire:
     1 pṛcchati pari- saṃ-, (pracch, c. 6.) (with double acc.), a. ed her attendants why she was weeping bāṣpahetumasyāḥ parijanamapṛcchat, K.;
     2 anu-yunakti (yuj, c. 7.), the king a. ed the priest anvayuṃkta gurumīśvaraḥ kṣiteḥ, R. xi. 62.;
     3 jijñāsate. v. To enquire. N. B. The sense of this verb is often expr. by vadati abhidadhāti, etc. (=to speak): the king a. ed her why she was weeping and why she was not bedecked bhūmipālastāmavādīt devi kimartha rudyate kimarthaṃ ca nālaṅkṛ tāsi, K. Ph. may I a. who you are kāṃ punaratrabhavatīmavagacchāmi, U. ii.
     II To request, beg:
     1 yācati -te (yāc, c. 1), a. ed her for drink (tām) ayācata ca pānīyam, D. vi.;
     2 arthayate pra- abhi-, (arth, c. 10), let me a. this stag for news about my darling imaṃ tāvat priyāpravṛttaye sāraṅgamāsīnamamyarthaye, V. iv.;
     3 vṛṇoti (vṛ, c. 5.), a. ed for Rāma's banishment vavāra rāmasya vanaprayāṇam, B. iii. 6.;
     4 nāthati -te (nāth c. 1.) (rare), why don't you a. the mountain king nāthase kimu patiṃ na bhūbhṛtaḥ, Ki. xiii. 59. N. B. All these take two acc. s, one of person and one of object a. ed.

     1 sāci;
     2 tiryak;
     3 tiraścīnam.

     I An en quirer: praṣṭā.
     II A petitioner;
     1 yācakaḥ;
     2 prārthakaḥ.

     1 tiryak;
     2 tiraścīnam: v. Obliquely.

     1 suptaḥ (ptā ptaṃ): fast a. prasuptaḥ (ptā ptaṃ) whether apparently or really a. kiṃ lakṣyasuptamuta paramārthasuptam, Mr. iii.;
     2 nidritaḥ (tā taṃ);
     3 śayitaḥ (tā taṃ).

ASLEEP, TO FALL: nidrāṃ yāti (, c. 2.), K.: v. Sleep, go to.

ASP: ativiṣāluḥ kṣudrasarpabhedaḥ.

ASPARAGUS: śatamūlī (a. racemosus).

     I Vision, glance: q. v. dṛṣṭiḥ.
     II Countenance, mien: q. v. ākāraḥ.
     III Position: Ph. the house has a southern a. *dakṣiṇamukhaṃ gṛhaṃ.
     IV State of affairs:
     1 avasthā;
     2 daśā. V. Of planets at birth: daśā.

ASPEN: *paplārajātīyavṛkṣaviśeṣaḥ.

ASPERITY: raukṣyam: v. Roughness, severity, moroseness.

ASPERSE: ā-kṣipati adhi-, (kṣip, c. 6.): v. Slander.

     1 ākṣepaḥ;
     2 athikṣepaḥ: v. Slander.

ASPHALT: śilājatu (=bitumen); *tāraḥ.

     1 ākāṅkṣin (f. ṇī);
     2 prārthin (f. );
     3 abhilāṣukaḥ (f. ).

ASPIRATE (subs.):
     I An aspirated sound: mahāprāṇaḥ (ṇā ṇaṃ) or mahāprāṇavarṇaḥ.
     II The mark, mahāprāṇasūcakaṃ cihram.

ASPIRATE (v. i.): mahāprāṇaṃ dattā uccārayati (c. of car (?).

     1 ākāṅkṣā;
     2 spṛhā;
     3 lālasā.

     1 ā-āṅkṣati abhi-, (kāṅkṣ, c. 1.);
     2 īpsati (desi. of āpa);
     3 spṛhayati (spṛh, c. 10);
     4 prārthayate (arth, c. 10). R. i. 3.

ASPIRING AFTER (as adj.); v. Aspirant.

     1 sāci;
     2 tiryak;
     3 vakram.

     1 gardabhaḥ;
     2 rāsabhaḥ;
     3 kharaḥ;
     4 cakrīvān. Fig.: a stupid person: gardabhaḥ.

ASSAIL: abhi-krābhati ā-, (kram, c. 1.): v. To attack.

ASSAILABLE: ākramaṇīyaḥ (yā yaṃ). Any a. point
     1 randhram;
     2 chidram.

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     1 abhiyoktā;
     2 ākrāmakaḥ;
     3 amikrāmakaḥ.

     1 ghātakaḥ;
     2 caṇḍālaḥ or mātaṅgaḥ (the a. class under the Hindoo Kings.).

     1 ghātayati (c. of han), or mārayati (c. of mṛ), or vadhaṃ or hatyāṃ karoti (with gen.) (=to kill, murder);
     2 upāṃśu or nibhṛtaṃ or gopanena vadhaṃ karoti etc. (=to kill by secret assault);
     3 avaskandya vadhaṃ karoti or ghātayati (=to kill by surprise).

     1 vadhaḥ (=murder, q. v.);
     2 upāṃśu-vadhaḥ (=murder by secret assault), Mu. ii.;
     3 *sāvaskandahatyā (=killing by surprise)

ASSAULT (subs.): ākramaṇam: v. Attack.

ASSAULT (v. t.): ā-krāmati (kram, c. 1.): v. To attack.

ASSAULTER: v. Assailant.

ASSAY (subs.): parīkṣā. A. of coin: nāṇakaparīkṣā, Mr. Stand for Mricchaktikans.

ASSAY (v.):
     I Trans: parīkṣate (īkṣ, c. 1.).
     II Intrans: yatate (yat, c. 1.): v. To endeavour.

     1 dhātuparīkṣakaḥ;
     2 nāṇakaparīkṣakaḥ (of coins).

     1 samūhaḥ;
     2 saṅghātaḥ;
     3 samāhāraḥ;
     4 samuccayaḥ;
     5 sannipātaḥ;
     6 samavāyaḥ;
     7 samudayaḥ;
     8 saṃhatiḥ;
     9 trātaḥ;
     10 nikaraḥ;
     11 by a deriv., an a. of Kshatriyas rājanyakam; an a. of peacocks māyūram; an a. of men janatā; an a. of horses aśvīyam.

ASSEMBLE (v. i.):
     1 saṃ-gacchati samā-, (gam, c. 1.) the towns-people a. d samāgamannāgarajanāḥ, D. ii.;
     2 samā-eti samabhi-, (i, c. 2.);
     3 saṃmilati (mil, c. 6.), M. n.

ASSEMBLE (v. t.):
     1 saṃgamayati (c. of gam);
     2 melayati saṃ-, (c. of mil), M. n.;
     3 samāharati (hṛ, c. 1.), who a. d the kings samāhṛtarājalokam, R. v. 64;
     4 sanni-pātayati (c. of pat), a. ing the citizens sannipātya puraukasaḥ, R. xv. 75.

     1 sabhā;
     2 sadas (n.);
     3 samājaḥ;
     4 samajyā;
     5 saṃsad (f.);
     6 pariṣad (f.);
     7 goṣṭī. A. room
     1 sabhāgāram;
     2 sadogṛham;
     3 indrakam.

ASSENT (subs.):
     1 sammatiḥ; to obtain your a. tava sammatimadhigantuṃ N. ii. 48.;
     2 svīkāraḥ (=acceptance: q. v.);
     3 anumatiḥ (=permission, a. of a superior).

ASSENT (v. i.):
     1 sammataḥ (tā taṃ) bhavati (bhū, c. 1.);
     2 abhyupaiti (i, c. 2.) or abhyupagacchati (gam, c. 1.) (with acc.) he is sure to a. to this also tadapyavaśyamasāvabhyupeṣyati D. ii.;
     4 svīkaroti (=to accept: q. v.);
     4 anu-manyate (man, c. 4.) (rare in this sense), I a. ed to my father's proposal, tātasya matamanvamaṃsi, D. iv.

ASSENTATION: anumodanam: v. Compliance.

ASSENTINGLY: Ph.: raised his hand a. *sammatisūcakaṃ svahastottolanaṃ cakāra.

ASSERT: To affirm positively:
     1 prati-jānīte (jñā, c. 9.), if he were to a. that the duties of castes and religious orders were as unsettled in former times as at present idānīmiva ca kālāntarepyavyavasthitaprāyān varṇāśramadharmān pratijānīta, S. iii. 33.;
     2 bravīti (brū, c. 2.), vadati (vad, c. 1.), or vakti (vac, c. 2.) (=to say, but used in the sense of a. ing), S.;
     3 pratipādayati (c. of pad) (=to establish), which a. that its nature is not earthly and deny that its nature is earthly, asaṃsārisvarūpapratipādanāḥ saṃsārisvarūpapratiṣedhanāśca, S. iii. 43.
     II To maintain, claim, vindicate: q. v.

     I A positive statement:
     1 vacanam;
     2 vādaḥ;
     3 uktiḥ.
     II Maintenance, vindication, claim: q. v.

     I One who asserts: vādin (f. ).
     II A maintainer: q. v.

     I To tax: karaṃ nirūpayati (rūp, c. 10.) or avadhārayati or nirdhārayati (dhṛ, c. 1.).
     II To value: q. v. Ph. to a. damages kṣatiṃ nirūpayati or nirdhārayati.

     I A valuation: *karanirūpaṇam or -nirdhāraṇam.
     II A tax: q. v.: karaḥ.
     III Of damages: *kṣatinirūpaṇam or -nirdhāraṇam.

     I Of tax: *karanirdhārakaḥ.
     II Of a judge: sahāyaḥ (?).

ASSETS: sampattiḥ (property).

ASSEVERATE: prati-jānīte (ñjā, c. 9.): To affirm, assert.

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ASSEVERATION: pratiñjā: v. Affirmation.

     1 adhyavasāyaḥ;
     2 udyogaḥ;
     3 abhiyogaḥ: v. Diligence.

     1 adhyavasāyin (f. );
     2 udyogin (f. );
     3 abhiyogavat (f. ): v. Diligent.

ASSIDUOUSLY: v. Diligently.

     I To appoint, allot:
     1 diśati nirdiśati (diś, c. 6.);
     2 kalpayati upa- pra-, (kḷp, c. 10.) and should a. lands for his maintenance bhūmyantarañca tadvṛttyarthamupakalpayet, K. b.
     II To allege: q. v.: nirdiśati.
     III To transfer property: samarpayati (c. of ): v. To bequeath.

     I Assignment: q. v.
     II An engagement: saṅketaḥ. A lady going to an a. abhisārikā.

ASSIGNEE: yasmai sampattiḥ samarpyate saḥ.

     1 dānam;
     2 samarpaṇam: v. To assign, allotment.

     I To make like: sadṛśīkaroti: v. Like.
     II To convert into blood: v. To digest.

     I A making like: sadṛśīkaraṇam.
     II Of food: pākaḥ: v. Digestion.

     1 sāhāyyaṃ or sāhāyyakaṃ or sāhāyakaṃ karoti (with gen.), Sir, a. me in trouble kliṣṭasya me kriyatāmarthasāhāyyakam, D. viii;
     2 upakaroti. (=do good in general).

     1 sāhāyyam;
     2 sāhāyakam;
     3 sāhāyyakam;
     4 upakāraḥ (=good in general).

     1 sahāyaḥ;
     2 sāhāyyakārī.

     I A court of justice: vicārasabhā (?).
     II Fixing the price of commodities: arthasaṃsthāpanam, the a. rate saṃsthāpitamūlyam.

ASSOCIATE (v. t.):
     1 saṃ-yojayati or yunakti (yuj c. 10 and 7.);
     2 saṅgamayati (c. of gam);
     3 saṃśleṣayati (c. of śliṣ);
     4 sambandhayati (c. of bandh).

ASSOCIATE, WITH: saṃsargaṃ karoti or vrajati or saṃsṛjati (sṛj, c. 8.) (rare) (with ins. or ins. and saha): Ph. leave off a. ing with bad men asatsaṅgaṃ parihara; a. ion with lewd women saṃsargaḥ saha puṃścalīmiḥ; by a. ing with inferior men hīnaiḥ saha samāgamāt; a. ing with the fallen patitena sahācaran.

ASSOCIATE (subs.):
     I A friend, companion : q. v.: vayasyaḥ (syā syaṃ)
     II A partner, confederate: q. v.: saṅgin (f. ).

ASSOCIATE (adj.): Ph. a. judge *vicārapateḥ sahakārī.

     I Between men: saṃsargaḥ.
     II A company, society: q. v.
     1 sabhā;
     2 samājaḥ.
     III Connection: q. v:

ASSONANCE: v. Harmony, rhyme.

ASSORT (v.):
     I Trans.: v. To arrange, classify.
     II Intrans.: v. To suit, fit.

ASSORTMENT: vinyāsaḥ: v. Arrangement, classification.

ASSUAGE: śamayati (c. of śam): v. To alleviate, appease.

ASSUAGEMENT: praśamanam: v. Alleviation, mitigation.

     I To take:
     1 gṛhṇāti, she a. d this red dress kāṣāye gṛhīte, Mal.;
     2 dhārayati or dhriyate (dhṛ, c. 10. and 6.) you who a. d the form of the dwarf dhṛtavāmanarūpa, Gi. i. 9.;
     3 bibhrati (bhṛ, c. 3.), Si. xiv. 86.
     II To arrogate: q. v.
     III To take for granted: pramitaḥ (tā taṃ) or siddhaḥ (ddhā ddhaṃ) manyate (man, c. 4.): v. To suppose.

ASSUMING (adj.):
     1 ahaṅkārin (f. ṇī);
     2 avaliptaḥ (ptā ptaṃ): v. Haughty.

     I The act of taking:
     1 grahaṇam;
     2 dhāraṇam.
     II Arrogation: q. v.
     III A taking for granted: Ph. on the a. that the earth is fixed, you... pṛthivīṃ sthirāmmanyamānastvaṃ: v. Supposition.
     IV The thing supposed: kalpanā.

     I The act of assuring: v. To assure, affirmation.
     II Confidence: q. v.
     III Intrepidity: q. v.
     IV Impudence: q. v. v. Insurance: q. v. prāgalbhyam.

     I To make sure:
     1 pratyāyayati (c. of i) (?);
     2 viśvāsayati (c. of śvas) (?).
     II To confirm: q. v.
     III To insure: q. v. Ph.; I feel a. d that he is alive *sa jīvatītiniścitaṃ me pratibhāti or sim. nūnaṃ sa jīvati.

ASSURED (adj.):
     1 niśicataḥ (tā taṃ);
     2 asandigdhaḥ (gdhā gdhaṃ): v. Certain.

     1 niścitam;
     2 nṛnam;
     3 asaṃśayam: v. Certainly.

ASTERISK: *tārā; tārākṛticihnaviśeṣaḥ.

ASTERN: (nāvaḥ) paścādbhāge or paścādbhāgaṃ prati.

ASTEROID: *upagrahaḥ; bṛhaspatimaṅgalayormadhyavartī kṣudragrahasamūhaḥ.

ASTHMA: śvāsaḥ, Śr.; śvāsarogaḥ; tamakaḥ (?), Śr.

     1 śvāsarogin (f. ṇī);
     2 tamakapīḍitaḥ (tā taṃ) (?), Śr.

     1 vismāyayati R. II. 33.;
     2 vismayaṃ janayati (with gen.);
     3 camatkaroti.

     1 vismitaḥ (tā taṃ);
     2 savismayaḥ (yā yaṃ);
     3 vismayānvitaḥ (tā taṃ);
     4 vismayākulaḥ (lā laṃ);
     5 camatkṛtaḥ (tā taṃ).

     1 vismayate (smi, c. 1.), Ki. xii. 5.;
     2 vismayamāpadyate (pad, c. 4.);
     3 vismayavaśaṃ gacchati (gam, c. 1.).

     1 vismayakaraḥ (rī raṃ);
     2 vismayajananaḥ (nī naṃ);
     3 adbhutaḥ (tā taṃ);
     4 āścaryaḥ (ryā ryaṃ);
     5 vicitraḥ (trā traṃ).

ASTONISHMENT: vismayaḥ, with a. savismayam: v. Wonder.

     1 vi-mohayati saṃ-, (c. of muh);
     2 jaḍīkaroti: v. To astonish.

     1 camatkṛtaḥ (tā taṃ);
     2 vimohitaḥ (tā taṃ).

ASTRAY: Ph. one who goes a.:
     1 unmārgagāmin (f. );
     2 utpathagāmin (f. ).

ASTRAY, LEAD: unmārgam or kupathe nayati (, c. 1).

ASTRIDE: *ubhayato jaṃghe kṣiptvā.

     1 kaṣāyam;
     2 raukṣyam:
     3 tuvaram (very rare).

     1 kaṣāyaḥ (yā yaṃ); rūkṣa (kṣā kṣaṃ);
     3 tuvaraḥ (rī raṃ) (rare).

ASTRINGENT (subs.): kaṣāyaḥ (yā yaṃ);
     2 rūkṣaḥ (kṣā kṣaṃ).

     1 gaṇakaḥ;
     2 daivajñaḥ;
     3 kārtāntikaḥ;
     4 mauhūrtaḥ (rare).

     1 jyotiṣaḥ (ṣī ṣaṃ) (also = astronomical);
     3 daivajñaśāstra in comp. (?) a. erudition daivajñaśāstrapāṇḍityam (?).

     1 jyotiṣam (including astronomy);
     2 daivajñaśāstram (?) (as proposed to astronomy).

     1 jyotirvid (m.);
     2 jyautiṣikaḥ;
     3 jyotiḥśāstrajñaḥ;
     4 grahagaṇitapaṇḍitaḥ;
     5 khagolavidyāvid (m.)

     1 jyotiṣaḥ (ṣī ṣaṃ);
     2 grahagaṇitaviṣayakaḥ (kā kaṃ).

     1 jyotiṣam;
     2 jyotiḥśāstram;
     3 grahagaṇitam, K.;
     4 khagolavidyā.

ASTUTE: vidagdhaḥ (gdhā gdhaṃ): v. Shrewd, penetrating.

ASUNDER: pṛthak: Ph. burst a. vidīrṇaḥ (rṇā rṇaṃ).

ASYLUM: āśramaḥ: a. for travellers pathikāśramaḥ.

ASYMPTOTE: *asparśarekhā.

     I Of place: by loc.: who is at the door ko'yaṃ dvāri tiṣṭhati, Mu. ii.
     II Of time: by loc.: at midnight arddharātre.
     III Of price: by ins.: at what price have you bought this book kiyatā mūlyenaitat pustakaṃ gṛhītam, P. ii. 4.
     IV Denoting reason, occasion etc.: by ins.: at Rāma's command rāmājñayā, R.: v. By, on. Ph.: at all manāgapi; at present adhunā; at first prathamam; at least antatas; they are all at play sarve krīḍanti; while the French and the Germans were at war *yudhyamānayoḥ pharāsijarmānajātyoḥ.

     1 nāstikyam;
     2 nirīśvaravādaḥ (=denial of the existence of God.)

     1 nāstikaḥ;
     2 nirīśvaraḥ.

     1 nāstika- (in comp.);
     2 nirīśvaraḥ (rā raṃ): with a. doctrines nirīśvareṇa vādena. P. p.

     1 tṛṣitaḥ (tā taṃ);
     2 pipāsu (mfn.): v. Thirsty.

     1 mallaḥ;
     2 bhkallaḥ (rare);
     3 vyāyāmakuśalaḥ (?).

ATHLETIC: v. Strong, robust, Ph.: a. exercise: vyāyāmaḥ.

ATHWART: v. Across.

ATLAS: *mānacitrakāvaliḥ; mānacitrakasaṃgrahaḥ.

ATMOSPHERE: vāyuḥ: v. Air (I) and (II).

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     1 vāyavaḥ (vī vaṃ);
     2 vāyavyaḥ (vyā vyaṃ).

     1 paramāṇuḥ;
     2 aṇuḥ.

ATOMIC: Ph.: the a. theory paramāṇuvādaḥ.

     I To expiate: q. v.: prāyaścittaṃ karoti (kṛ, c. 8.) or carati (car, c. 1.).
     II To make amends: pariśodhayati (c. of śudh) (?).

     I Agreement, reconciliation: q. v.
     II Expiation: q. v. prāyaścittaḥ. To make a. for pariśodhayati (?)

     1 nistejatā (?);
     2 nirvīryatā (?).

     1 bībhatsaḥ (tsā tsaṃ), you great sinner, doer of impure, disgustful, a. deeds mahāpātakin aśiṣṭavikṛtaceṣṭa bīmatsakarman. Vi. iii. v. Loathsome;
     2 vikṛtaḥ (tā taṃ) v. Disgustful;
     3 pāpiṣṭhaḥ (ṣṭhā ṣṭhaṃ). v. Sinful;
     4 nṛśaṃsaḥ (sā saṃ). v. Cruel, Ph. a. crime ghorapātakaḥ.

     1 bībhatsatā;
     2 vikṛtatā;
     3 nṛśaṃsatā. Better expr. by atrocious.

     I Atrociousness: q. v.
     II An atrocious deed: bībhatsakarman; vikṛtaceṣṭitam; etc. v. Atrocious.

ATROPHY: śarīraśoṣaṇam (?).

     I To fasten, lit. and fig.:
     1 āsañjayati (c. of sañj);
     2 saṃśleṣayati (c. of śliṣ);
     3 lagayati (c. of lag) ?.
     II To a. one's property *krokaṃ karoti. (with gen.): v. Also to arrest.

ATTACHED: āsaktaḥ (ktā ktaṃ). To be a. āsajyate.

     I Connexion, contact: q. v.
     II Affection, devotion:
     1 āsaktiḥ;
     2 prasaktiḥ;
     3 saṅgaḥ;
     4 āsaṅgaḥ. N. B. All these words cons. with the loc.
     III In law: a. of property *krokaḥ.

ATTACK (subs):
     1 ākramaḥ;
     2 ākramaṇam;
     3 abhikramaḥ;
     4 abhiyogaḥ;
     5 abhigrahaḥ;
     6 avaskandaḥ or avaskandanam (=storming). A. of any disease: ākramaḥ -ṇam.

ATTACK (v. t.);
     I Of physical force:
     1 ā-krāmati or krāmyati abhi-, (kram, c. i. and 4);
     2 abhiyunakti or yojayati (yuj c. 7. and 10.), Anantavarmā raised an army to a. him anantavarmā tamamiyoktuṃ balasamutthānamakarot, D. viii.;
     3 ava-skandati (skand, c. 1.) (=to fall upon), Mādhavasena coming to me was, in the way, a. ed and seized by your Antapāla mādhavaseno mamopāntikamupasarpannantarā tvadīyenāntapālenāvaskandya gṛhītaḥ, Mal. i. To a. in defence:
     1 pratyamiyunakti;
     2 pratigṛhvāti (graha c. 9.), a. ed the opposite army pratibalaṃ pratijagrāha, D. i.;
     3 pratiyudhyate (yudh, c. 4.). v. To fight.
     II To assail with words:
     1 ākrāmati;
     2 avaskandayati (skand c. 10.), Vi. iii.;
     3 ā-hanti abhi- parā-, (han, c. 2.), a. ed by his haughty words vacaubhiruddhataiḥ parāhataḥ, Ki. xiv. 1.
     III To a. an opinion etc.:
     1 parāmarṣati (mṛṣ, c. 1.);
     2 pratyavatiṣṭhate (sthā, c. 1.) (with loc.) (=to stand up against).
     IV Of disease:
     1 ākrāmati, a. ed with fever jvarākrāntaḥ (ntā ntaṃ);
     2 carati (car, c. 1.), O fever, listen to me how you would a. men śṛṇuṣva jvara sandeśaṃ yathā loke cariṣyasi.

ATTAIN (v. t.):
     1 adhi-gacchati (gam, c. 1.), even after a. ing knowledge śrutamapyadhigamya, Ki. ii. 41.;
     2 ā-sīdati (sad, c. 1.), the king will a. divine form by means of charms rājā kila mantrabalena devayogyaṃ vapurāsādayiṣyati, D. iii.;
     3 prāpnoti: v. To obtain;
     4 spṛśati (spṛś, c. 6.) (=to touch), by this time would have a. ed your age iyatā kālena tavemāṃ vayovasthāmasprakṣyetāṃ, D. iii.

ATTAIN (v. i.):
     1 adhigacchati (with acc.);
     2 āsīdati (with acc.).

     1 labhyaḥ (bhyā bhyaṃ);
     2 sulabhaḥ (bhā bhaṃ);
     3 prāpyaḥ (pyā pyaṃ)
     4 adhigamyaḥ (myā myaṃ);
     5 āsādanīyaḥ (yā yaṃ).

ATTAINDER: v. Stain. Ph.: a bill of a. *abhiyogapatram.

     I The act of attaining:
     1 adhigamaḥ;
     2 lābhaḥ;
     3 prāptiḥ;
     4 avāptiḥ. By the a. of: expr. by the part. of the verb 'to attain'. For the a. of: expr. by the inf. of the verb 'to attain'.
     II Of knowledge:
     1 vyutpattiḥ;
     2 pāradarśitā, of great mathematical a. s gaṇitaśāstrasya pāradarśī.

     I To stain: q. v.
     II Leg t. t.: a. ed of high treason rājadrohadūṣitaḥ (tā taṃ) (?).

ATTEMPER: v. To temper, mitigate.

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ATTEMPT (subs.):
     1 udyamaḥ, I have resolved on an a. on his life baddho vadhāyodyamaḥ, Vi. v.;
     2 yatnaḥ prayatnaḥ (=effort), I fancy the a. of Dāruvarmā has been unsuccessful aphalaṃ dāruvarmaṇaḥ prayatnamavagacchāmi, Mu. iii.;
     3 ārambhaḥ (=beginning), with success proportionate to a. s ārambhasadṛśodayaḥ, R. i. 15;
     4 ceṣṭā.

ATTEMPT (v. t.):
     I To endeavour:
     1 yatate pra-, (yat, c. 1.), which princes a. to appropriate even by misdeeds duritairapi kartumātmasāt prayatante nṛpasūnavo hi yat, R. viii. 2.;
     2 yasati or yasyati pra- (yas, c. 1 and 4). repeatedly a. ed to fly up punaḥ punaḥ prāyasadutplavāya saḥ, N. i. 125;
     3 ceṣṭate, (ceṣṭ, c. 1.) Mu. v.;
     4 ā-rabhate pra-, (rabh, c. 1.) (=to begin), low people do not a. at all from fear of obstacles prārabhyate na khalu vighnabhayena nīcaiḥ, Mu. iii.;
     5 ghaṭate (ghaṭ, c. 1.) (rare) B. xii. 26.
     II To attack: q. v.

ATTEND (v. t.)
     I To attend on or upon: q. v.
     II To await, stay for: q. v. pratīkṣate (īkṣ, c. 1.)
     III To be present at:
     1 upa-tiṣṭhati (sthā, c. 1.) (see Ki. vi. 29);
     2 saṃni-dadhāti or dhatte (dhā, c. 3.) I a. ed it with my friend Dhanamitra ahaṃ ca saha sakhyā dhanamitreṇa tatra sannayadhiṣi, D. ii.;
     3 better by gacchati saṅgacchati or āgacchati samāgacchati, according as it means going or coming.
     IV To attend to: q. v.

     1 upa-tiṣṭhate paryupa- (sthā, c. 1.), returning after a. ing on the sun sūryopasthānasannivṛttaṃ, V. i.;
     2 upa-carati pari-, (car, c. 1.), a. on her with care yatnādupacaryaṃtāṃ, Sa. iii.;
     3 upa-āste (ās, c. 2.), N. xxii. 1.

     1 śṛṇoti (śru, c. 5.) (=to listen: q. v.), a. to that (message) śṛṇu...tāṃ, R. viii. 77.; a. to me mama vacanaṃ śṛṇu;
     2 ava-dadhāti or dhatte (dhā, c. 3.), let the superintendents also a. each to his own work sve sve karmaṇyatha samavadhattāpyadhikṛtāḥ, Vi. vii.;
     3 mano yacchati or dadāti (, c. 1. and 3.) or nidadhāti (dhā, c. 3.), or yunakti (yuj, c. 7.) (=to apply the mind; fix one's attention on);
     4 avekṣate (īkṣ, c. 1.) (=to look after: q. v.), I have a. ed to only one civil action ekameva mayā paurakāryamavekṣitam, Sa. vi.

     I The act of waiting on or serving:
     1 upacāraḥ;
     2 upasthānam (rare);
     3 śuśrūṣā (=reception of a guest).
     II Presence: q. v. upasthitiḥ. Ph. there was a good a. in the meeting samāyāṃ bahavaḥ samāgaman.
     III A train, a retinue: q. v.: anuyāyivargaḥ.
     IV Attention: q. v.

ATTENDANT (subs.):
     1 anucaraḥ;
     2 anuyāyin (m.);
     3 paricaraḥ: v. Companion, servant, follower. Ph. a train of a. s:
     1 anuyāyivargaḥ;
     2 paribarhaḥ;
     3 paricchadaḥ: v. Also concomitant.

     1 ānuṣaṅgikaḥ (kī kaṃ);
     2 anugāmin (f. ).

ATTENDED BY: v. Accompanied by.

     I The act or state of attending:
     1 avadhānam, please lend me your a. for a moment māṃ muhūrtamavadhānadānenānugṛhvantu, Ma. ix.;
     2 manoyogaḥ;
     3 apramādaḥ or apramattatā (=carefulness);
     4 abhiniveśaḥ (=application, study);
     5 avekṣā (=looking after). Ph.: his whole a. being devoted to it ananyahṛdayatayā, K.; it engages my a. mano me badhnāti, (after R. xiii. 47.); to draw the a. of the king narapatiprabodhanārtham, K. II. Politeness, courtesy: q. v. ādaraḥ or samādaraḥ.

     1 avadhānaṃ dadāti (, c. 3.), paying a. to the buzzing of bees dattāvadhānaṃ madhulehigītau B. ii. 7.;
     2 ādriyate (dṛ, c. 6.) (=to respect), the king without paying any a. (to what he said) rājā anādṛtya, Sa. vi.:
     3 āsajyate (=to devote to: q. v.): v. Attend to.

     I Heedful, observant:
     1 avahitaḥ (tā taṃ); dattāvadhānaḥ or kṛtāvadhānaḥ (nā naṃ) (=paying attention);
     3 sāvadhānaḥ (nā naṃ)
     4 samāhitaḥ (tā taṃ);
     5 apramattaḥ (ttā ttaṃ).
     II Attentive to a guest etc.:
     1 darśitādaraḥ (rā raṃ), K.;
     1 dakṣiṇaḥ (ṇā ṇaṃ) (as a lover ?) V. iii.

     1 avahitam;
     2 sāvadhānam;
     3 apramattam;
     4 manoyogena.

ATTENUANT (adj. and subs.): vidrāvakaḥ or vilāyakaḥ (kā kaṃ) (?).

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     1 kṛśīkaroti;
     2 tanūkaroti.

     1 kṛśaḥ (śā śaṃ);
     2 kṣīṇaḥ (ṇā ṇaṃ);
     3 apacitaḥ (tā taṃ): v. Thin.

     I To a deed: *patrasya viśuddhipradarśanāya sākṣī bhavati or svanāma patre likhati: Ph. the will is a. ed by three witnesses *asyecchāpatrasya viśuddhipradarśakāstrayaḥ sākṣiṇaḥ santi.
     II To manifest: q. v.:
     1 prakaṭīkaroti;
     2 vyanakti (añj, c. 7.).

     I Verbal: sākṣyam.
     II Written: Ph. the a. s of the will are all forged *icchāpatre yeṣāṃ sākṣiṇāṃ nāmāni likhitāni tat sarvaṃ kṛtrimam.

ATTIC (adj.): *ethinīyaḥ (yā yaṃ); yavanaḥ (nī naṃ) (with less precision).

ATTIC (subs.): Perh. aṭṭaḥ; śirogṛham.

ATTIRE (v. t.):
     1 vaste (vas, c. 2.) (=to put on, dress: q. v.);
     2 bhūṣayati (=to adorn: q. v.).

ATTIRE (subs.):
     1 veśaḥ;
     2 paribarhaḥ, in rich a. sphītaparibarhaḥ (rhā rhaṃ), D. ii.: v. Dress, closses.

ATTITUDE: v. Posture, position. Ph. Russia has assumed a threatening a. towards Persia *pārasyarājyaṃ prati rusiyairviruddhavṛttiḥ kakṣīkṛtā.

ATTORNEY: *vyavahārapratinidhiḥ; moktāraḥ. A power of a. *vyavahārapratinidhipatram. A general *vyavahārasacivaḥ vicārādikāryeṣu rājapakṣasamarthako rājakīyapradhānopadeṣṭā.

ATTRACT: ākarṣati samā-, (kṛṣ, c. 1.) (Lit. and Fig.): v. To draw, allure.

     I The power of a.: ākarṣaṇaśaktiḥ.
     II The act of attracting.:
     1 ākarṣaṇam;
     2 ākṛṣṭiḥ;
     3 samākarṣaṇam.
     III Allurement, enticements: q. v.

     I Lit.: Ph. the a. force (of bodies): ākarṣaṇaśaktiḥ.
     II Fig.; alluring, charming: q. v.: hārin (f. ṇī).

ATTRACTIVENESS: manohāritvam: v. Charm.

     1 āropaṇīyaḥ (yā yaṃ);
     2 adhyāropaṇīyaḥ (yā yaṃ). Ph.: it was a. to you that we did not take the fort *tvannimittaṃ durgaṃ na gṛhītam.

ATTRIBUTE (v. t.): āroṣayati (c. of rūpa): v. To ascribe.

ATTRIBUTE (subs.):
     1 dharmaḥ, and on the contrary, the imputation of the subject and its a. s on the object tadviparyayeṇa viṣayiṇastaddharmāṇāṃ ca viṣaye'dhyāsaḥ, S. i. p.;
     2 guṇaḥ, possessed of the eight a. s, minuteness etc. aṇimādyaṣṭaguṇopetasya.

ATTRIBUTIVE (subs.): viśeṣaṇam.

ATTRITION: gharṣaṇam: v. Friction.

ATTUNE: Ph. a. your voice to the lyre. *vīṇānugataṃ svaraṃ kuru.

     1 piśaṅgaḥ (ṅgā ṅgaṃ): v. Tawny;
     2 śyāvaḥ (vā vaṃ): v. Brown;
     3 gauraḥ (rī raṃ): v. Yellow.

AUCTION: *āhvānavikrayaḥ; sarvoccamūlyadātre prakāśavikrayaḥ, A. room *āhvānavikrayagṛhaṃ; āhvānavikrayaśālā.

AUCTIONEER: *āhvānavikrotṛ (f. trī); yaḥ (f. ) sarvajanasamakṣaṃ sarvoccamūlyadātre vikrīṇīte.

     1 pragalbhaḥ (lbhā lbhaṃ);
     2 dhṛṣṭaḥ (ṣṭā ṣṭaṃ);
     3 pratibhānvitaḥ (tā taṃ);
     4 pratibhānavat (f. ): v. Bold, impudent.

     1 pragalbhatā;
     2 prāgalbhyam;
     3 pratibhā or pratibhānam;
     4 dhāṣṭayam;
     5 sāhasam (=boldness);
     6 nirlajjatā (=impudence).

AUDIBLE: sphuṭaḥ (ṭā ṭaṃ) (=distinct: q. v.). Ph.: he speaks in an a. voice *sa tathā giramudīrayati yathā śrotṛvargāṇāṃ karṇagocarībhavati or yathā śrotāro grahītuṃ śakruvanti.

AUDIBLY: sphuṭam (=distinctly: q. v.): v. Audible.

     I A hearing: Ph. to give a. karṇaṃ dadāti (, c. 3); to gain a. śrotāraṃ labhate (labh, c. 1).
     II Admittance to a hearing: darśanam, to give a. darśanaṃ dadāti, R.; to get an a. to the king rājadarśanārtham.
     III A body of hearers:
     1 śrotāraḥ (m. pl.);
     2 śrotṛvargaḥ;
     3 prekṣakāḥ (m. pl.) (=spectators).

AUDIT (subs.):
     I In gen.: parīkṣā.
     II Of accounts: *gaṇanāparīkṣā gaṇanāśodhanam.

AUDIT (v. t.): pari-īkṣate (īkṣ, c. 1);
     2 śodha- yati (c. of śudh) (?), have you a. ed the account *api gaṇanā pariśodhitā.

     I A hearer: q. v.: śrotā.
     II Of accounts: *gaṇanāśodhakaḥ; parīkṣakaḥ or śodhakaḥ (when the meaning is clear).

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AUDITORY (subs.): an assembly of hearers: v. Audience (III).

AUDITORY (adj.): Ph. a. passages śravaṇamārgāḥ (m. pl.).

     1 āsphoṭanī:
     2 vedhanikā.

AUGMENT (v. i.): vardhate (vṛdh c. 1): v. To increase.

AUGMENT (v. t.): vardhayati (c. of vṛdh): v. To increase.

AUGMENT (subs.): vṛddhiḥ v. Augmentation.

     1 vṛddhiḥ;
     2 vardhanam: v. Increase, enlargement.

     1 vardhiṣṇu (mfn.);
     2 vardhamānaḥ (nā naṃ).

AUGUR (subs.):
     1 śakunajñaḥ or śakunajñānavid (m.) (from birds), I heard from the a. that I would meet you just after 30 days śakunajñāttasmāttriṃśa drivasāvasānantarameva bhavatsaṅgaḥ sambhaviṣyatītyaśṛṇavam, D.;
     2 nimittajñaḥ. (from any omen) K.: v. Soothsayer.

AUGUR (v. t.):
     I To betoken, predict: q. v.: sūcayati (sūc, c. 10).
     II To infer, conjecture: q. v.: śaṅkate. A. ed (by birds): śakunanirdiṣṭaḥ (ṣṭā ṣṭaṃ), D.

     I From birds: śakunajñānam or śakunirūtijñānam, K.
     II From any phenomena: nimittajñānam: Ph. to practise a. *nimittaiḥ śumāśubhaṃ kathayati.
     III An omen: q. v.
     1 śakunam;
     2 nimittam, a bad a. animittam.

AUGUST (adj.):
     1 mahāmahiman (mfn.);
     2 pṛthudhāman (mfn.): v. Majestic, grand.

AUGUST (subs.): uttaraśrāvaṇapūrvabhādrasaṃvādīyurupīyavatsarasyāṣṭamo māsaḥ.

     1 pitṛsvasā (father's sister):
     2 mātṛsvasā (mother's sister);
     3 pitṛvyā (father's brother's wife).;
     4 mātulī mātulānī (mother's brother's wife).

     I The external ear: śaṣkulī or karṇaśaṣkulī.
     II A cavity of the heart: *hṛdayaśaṣkulī hṛdayasya raktāśayasyodhrvasthakoṣaḥ.

AURICULAR: śrautaḥ (tī taṃ) Ph. a. confession nibhṛtasvīkāraḥ (?).

AUROCHS: polaṇḍadeśasya vanyagoviśeṣaḥ.

     1 aruṇaḥ;
     2 uṣas (n.);
     3 dinamukham;
     4 aharmukham.

AURORA BOREALIS: vidyududbhavo rātridṛśyo mahojjvalaḥ prakāśaviśeṣaḥ.

     I An omen: q. v.: śakunam.
     II Protection, patronage: q. v. āśrayaḥ.

     I Lucky, propitious: q. v.:
     1 śubhaḥ (bhā bhaṃ);
     2 kalyāṇaḥ (ṇā ṇaṃ);
     3 maṅgalaḥ (lā laṃ)
     II Fortunate, prosperous: q. v. ṛddhimat (f. ).

AUSPICIOUSLY: śubhalagne (=at an a. moment): v. Propitiously, favourably.

     I Severe, stern, harsh: q. v.; kaṭhoraḥ (rā raṃ).
     II Harsh, rough (to the taste): q. v.: śuktaḥ (ktā ktaṃ) (?).

     1 kaṭhorabh;
     2 ugram;
     3 niṣṭhuram: v. Severely.

     1 kārkaśyam;
     2 kaṭhoratā: v. Severity, sternness.

     I Genuine, true:
     1 tathyaḥ (thyā thyaṃ);
     2 satyaḥ (tyā tyaṃ);
     3 akṛtrimaḥ (mā maṃ) (=not forged, as an a. register).
     II Of approved authority, reliable: q. v. prāmāṇikaḥ (kī kaṃ), an a. writer prāmāṇikalekhakaḥ.

     1 pramāṇataḥ;
     2 tattvataḥ;
     3 sārataḥ.

     I To render authentic: prāmāṇyaṃ karoti (kṛ, c. 8)
     II To prove authentic: pramāṇayati (nomi.).

AUTHENTICATION: Ph. for a. prāmāṇyaṃ kartum: v. Confirmation.

     1 prāmāṇyaṃ;
     2 satyatā;
     3 akṛtrimatā (=the quality of not being forged).

     I The writer of a book:
     1 kāraḥ or kṛt (in comp.), a. of the commentary bhāṣyakāraḥ; the a. of the Mitāksharā mitākṣarākṛt, Da. com.;
     2 granthakāraḥ or -kartā or -kṛt (=a. of a book and hence to be used when a. is used abs.);
     3 lekhakaḥ;
     4 racakaḥ or racayitā;
     5 praṇetā;
     6 nibandhṛ (m.) (rare);
     7 kṛtin (m.) (very rare). N. B. 3, 4, 5, and 6. are gen. used with some defining word.
     II A maker, contriver, originator: q. v.: kartā, a. of great wonders kartā mahāścaryāṇām, K.

     1 kṛt (in comp.);
     2 granthakartrī; praṇetrī;
     4 racayitrī.

     I Determinative:
     1 sapramāṇaḥ (ṇā ṇaṃ) (=with proof).
     2 dṛḍhaḥ (ḍhā ḍhaṃ) (=firm).
     II Dictatorial, overbearing: q. v.

     1 sapramāṇam;
     2 dṛḍham (=firmly).

     I Lawful power:
     1 prabhutvam;
     2 kṣamatā;
     3 śaktiḥ.
     II Influence, might: q. v.: gauravam.
     III Permission, order: q. v.: anujñā.
     IV Testimony: pramāṇaṃ, the Vedas are our a. for this atra vedāḥ pramāṇam (note the sing. numb.). V. Credibility: prāmāṇyaṃ, its a. is disputed asya prāmāṇyaṃ sandigdham.
     VI In pl., government: Perh. pramavaḥ (m. pl.).

     I To empower:
     1 kṣamatāṃ dadāti (, c. 3) (rare);
     2 anumanyate (man, c. 4) (=to allow);
     3 niyojayati (yuj, c. 10) (to appoint).
     II To legalize: q. v.
     III To authenticate: q. v. Ph.: a. ed by usage vyavahārasiddhaḥ (ddhā ddhaṃ) (?).

AUTHORSHIP: granthakartṛtvaṃ or sim. kartṛtvam: Ph. its a. is disputed *na niścīyate ko'sya lekhakaḥ v. Author.

AUTOBIOGRAPHER: *svacaritalekhakaḥ; ātmajīvanacaritapraṇetā.

AUTOBIOGRAPHY: *ātmacaritam svakīyajīvanacaritam; svajīvanavṛttāntaḥ.

AUTOCRAT: īśvaraḥ: v. Despot.

AUTOGRAPH (adj.): svahastalikhitaḥ (tā taṃ): a. letter svahastalekhyam.

AUTOGRAPH (subs.):
     1 svahastalekhaḥ;
     2 svahastākṣaram.

AUTOMATION: *svayañcalayantram.

     1 śarad, (f.);
     2 śaratkālaḥ;
     3 ghanāntaḥ (poetical).

     1 śāradaḥ (dī daṃ);
     2 śāradīyaḥ (yā yaṃ);
     3 śaratkālīnaḥ (nā naṃ).

     1 sahakārin (f. ṇī);
     2 uttarasādhakaḥ (kā kaṃ).

AUXILIARY (subs.): sahāyaḥ. Ph. a. s i. e. a. troops: āsāraḥ (rare), Si. ii. 64.

AVAIL (v.):
     I To make use of: Ph. I will a. myself of your advice *tavopadeśaṃ grahīṣyāmi; he a. ed himself of this opportunity to carry out his design *asminnavasare svārthasampādanaparo babhūva.
     II To serve, be of use: q. v.: all these did not a. (sarvametat) nārthavad babhūva, Ki.: v. Avail (subs.)

AVAIL (subs):
     1 guṇaḥ, of what a. is a loyal, but unwise and timid servant aprājñena ca kātareṇa ca guṇaḥ syāt sānurāgeṇa kaḥ, Mu. i.; the study of religious books has been of no a. nirguṇo dharmaśāstrābhyāsaḥ K.;
     2 arthaḥ.

     I Profitable: q. v.
     II Obtainable: not a.
     1 durlabhaḥ (bhā bhaṃ);
     2 duṣprāpyaḥ (pyā pyaṃ);
     3 duṣprāpaḥ (pā paṃ).

AVALANCHE: himanisyandaḥ (?).

     1 lobhaḥ (covetousness);
     2 arthakāmaḥ;
     3 dhanalobhaḥ;
     4 vittehā.

     I Covetous: q. v.: lobhin (f. ).
     II Desirous of wealth:
     1 arthalubdhaḥ (bdhā bdhaṃ);
     2 artharuci (mfn.);
     3 dhanalubdhaḥ (bdhā bdhaṃ).

     1 arthalomāt;
     2 dhanalobhena: v. Covetously.

AVAUNT: apehi (2nd pers. sin. imper. of i): v. Get away, begone.

AVENGE (v. t.):
     1 prati-karoti (kṛ, c. 8), (I) have a. d it now by taking away their clothes tat sābhprataṃ pratikṛtaṃ haratāṃśukāni, Dh.;
     2 pratikāra or pratīkāraṃ karoti (with gen.);
     3 vairānṛṇyamupaga- cchati (gam, c. 1), (with loc. of the wrong doer), Vi.;
     4 pariśodhaṃ gṛhvāti (grah, c. 9) (with gen.) (?).

AVENGER: pratikartā or pratīkārakartā (rare).

     I Passage, approach: q. v.: dvāra
     II An alley: vīthiḥ: a. of mango trees cūta- vīthiḥ, D. iii.

AVER (v. t.): pratijānīte: v. To affirm, assert.

AVERAGE (adj.): Ph. all her parts are of a. dimensions asyāḥ sarva evāvayavāḥ nātisthūlā nātikṛ D. vi.; there was a. amount of rainfall this year *asmin varṣe nātyadhikā nātyalpā vṛṣṭiḥ papāta; is a man af a. stamp *tasya buddhirnātiprakharā nātisthūlā.

AVERAGE (subs.): no equiv.: madhyama may be used.

     1 pratiñjā;
     2 dṛḍhavākyam.

     I Disliking, unwilling:
     1 viraktaḥ (ktā ktaṃ);
     2 parāṅnu khaḥ (khī khaṃ);
     3 vimataḥ (tā taṃ).
     II Unfavourable: q. v.

     1 virāgaḥ;
     2 viraktiḥ;
     3 vimatiḥ (rare);
     4 dveṣaḥ.

     1 ni-vartayati vini- vyā- apa-, (c. of vṛt);
     2 nivārayati (c. of vṛ) (=to prevent: q. v.).

AVIARY (subs.):
     1 pakṣiśālā;
     2 kulāyikā.

AVIDITY: v. Eagerness, greediness; with a.: v. Eagerly.

     1 kāryam;
     2 karman (n.);
     3 vyāpāraḥ: v. Business, occupation.

     1 pari-harati (hṛ, c. 1), a. ing his sight dṛṣṭiprapātaṃ parihṛtya tasya Ku. iii. 43.;
     2 varjayati (varj, c. 10) v. Shun, abandon.

     1 parihartavyaḥ (vyā vyaṃ);
     2 pariharaṇīyaḥ (yā yaṃ);
     3 varjanīyaḥ (yā yaṃ);
     4 heyaḥ (yā yaṃ);
     5 tyājyaḥ (jyā jyaṃ);
     6 parihāryaḥ (ryā ryaṃ).

     1 varjanam;
     2 pariharaṇam. (rare): v. Abandonment.

AVOUCH: prati-jānīte (ñjā, c. 9): v. To maintain, assert.

AVOW: svīkaroti (kṛ, c. 8): v. To confess, acknowledge, declare.

AVOWAL: svīkāraḥ: v. Confession, acknowledgment.

AVOWED (part. adj.): spaṣṭaḥ (ṣṭā ṣṭaṃ) (open, plain, evident: q. v.).

     1 spaṣṭam; (prakāśam;)
     3 prakaṭam.

AWAIT (v. t.):
     I To wait for: q. v.
     1 pratīkṣate (īkṣ c. 1);
     2 pratipālayati (pāl, c. 10).
     II To be in store for: ā-sīdati pratyā-, (sad, c. 1) (to be nigh), salvation a. s thee pratyāsīdati muktistvāṃ, Ki. xi. 36. Ph. death a. s every one maraṇaṃ prakṛtiḥ śarīriṇām, R.; what a. s me next *kimataḥ paraṃ me sambhaviṣyati.

AWAKE (v. i.):
     1 budhyate vi- pra- prati-, (budh c. 4);
     2 uttiṣṭhati (sthā, c. 1) (=to get up);
     3 nidrāṃ tyajati jahāti etc.; vinidraḥ (drā draṃ) bhavati etc.

AWAKE (v. t.):
     I From sleep:
     1 bodhayati pra- vi- prati- vipra-, (c. of budh);
     2 jāgarayati (c. of jāgṛ);
     3 nidrāṃ bhanakti (bhanj, c. 7) (with gen.).
     II From inattention, or inaction: v. To arouse, rouse.

AWAKE (adj.):
     1 jāgrat (f. );
     2 jāgaraḥ (rā raṃ);
     3 unnidraḥ (drā draṃ) (without sleep);
     4 prabuddhaḥ (ddhā ddhaṃ): v. To be awake.

AWAKE, BE: jāgarti pra-, (jāgṛ, c. 2).

AWAKEN: v. To awake.

     1 prabodhaḥ prabodhanam;
     2 bodhaḥ;
     3 vibodhanam.

AWARD (v. t.):
     1 dadāti (, c. 3);
     2 vitarati (tṝ, c. 1);
     3 dāpayati (c. of ) (in the legal sense, when a judge a. s damages etc.)

AWARD (subs.): nirṇayaḥ: v. Judgment, sentence.

     1 jānāti (ñjā, c. 9);
     2 avagacchati (gam, c. 1): v. To know.

     1 bodhitaḥ (tā taṃ);
     2 vibodhitaḥ (tā taṃ);
     3 avabodhitaḥ (tā taṃ).

AWAY: v. the several verbs with which it is used. Ph.: a. with begging kṛtameva yācñayā, Ki. xiv. 20; a. with shame alaṃ hriyā, R. v. 58; a. (=begone; q. v.) antaramantaram, Mr. ii.; she is a. (=absent, q. v.).

AWE (subs.):
     1 bhayam;
     2 trāsaḥ;
     3 sādhvasam;
     4 ādaraḥ. N. B. There is no exact equiv. of awe: 1, 2 and 3 mean fear, 4 means respect. To stand in a. of: bibheti (bhī, c. 3) (with abl.). Ph.: he is known to me and not disagreeable, still
     I approach him with a na ca na paricito na cāpyaramyaścakitamupaimi tathāpi pārśvamasya, Mal. i.

AWE (v. t.): v. To frighten, terrify.

     1 bhayaviplutaḥ (tā taṃ);
     2 sādhvasaparītaḥ (tā taṃ);
     3 trāsākulaḥ (lā laṃ).

     I Awe-inspiring:
     1 ghoraḥ (rā raṃ) (=terrific: q. v.: not applicable to men);
     2 atitejasvin (f. ) or mahātejas (mfn.) (full of that which inspires awe: applicable to men only and their appearance). Ph.: Oh how a. is royal majesty aho ! durāsado rājamahimā, Mal. i.; wild mountain scenery, grand and a. praśāntagammīranīlavipulaśrīraraṇyagiribhūmiḥ, Vi. v.
     II Awestruck: q. v.

     I Fearfully q. v.
     II Exceedingly: q. v. atyantam.

     1 tejaḥ (of men etc.);
     2 praśāntagambhīratā (=calm solemnity).

AWHILE: kiyatkālam;
     2 kañcitkālam;
     3 muhūrtam (=for a moment).

     I Unskilful: q. v.: adakṣaḥ (kṣā kṣaṃ).
     II Inelegant, clumsy: q. v.:
     1 aparūpaḥ (pā paṃ);
     2 grāmyaḥ (myā myaṃ) (=rustic), (applicable to manners etc.).

AWKWARDLY: v. Clumsily, inelegantly, unskilfully.

     I Unskilfulness: q. v.
     II Inelegance: q. v.: grāmyatā.

     1 ārā;
     2 carmaprabhedikā (shoemaker's a.);
     3 vedhanikā. v. Gimlet.

     1 kiṃśāruḥ;
     2 śasyaśūkam;
     3 śuṅgaḥ;
     4 śūkam.

     1 vitānam;
     2 ullocaḥ: v. Veil.

     1 tiryak;
     2 tiraścīnam;
     9 sāci;
     4 kuṭilam.

     1 kuṭhāraḥ;
     2 paraśuḥ;
     3 paraśvadhaḥ. A small a. kuṭhārikā.

AXIOM: *aprameyatatvam svataḥsiddhavastu, K. d.

AXIS: *akṣarekhā.

     1 cakradaṇḍaḥ (?);
     2 akṣāgram (?);
     3 anukarṣaḥ (?).

     I Yes: q. v.
     II For aye: v. Always.

AZURE: nīlaḥ (lā laṃ).

BABBLE (v. i.):
     1 jalpati (jalp, c. 1.);
     2 pra-lapati (lap, c. 1.);
     3 vāvadye vāvadmi, or vāvadīmi (freq. of vad);
     4 vāvacye vāvacmi (freq. of vac).

     1 jalpaḥ;
     2 jalpanam;
     3 jalpitam;
     4 pralapitam.

     1 (jalpakaḥ (kā kaṃ);
     2 jalpākaḥ (kī kaṃ);
     3 vācāṭaḥ (ṭā ṭaṃ);
     4 vāvadūkaḥ (kā kaṃ);
     5 pralāpin (f. ).

BABBLING (adj.):
     I Lit.: Babbler.
     II Fig.: v. Murmuring.

BABOON: hanumat (m.) (?); vānaraviśeṣaḥ.

BABY, BABE: dārakaḥ, m. (dārikā, f.): v. Infant, suckling, child.

BABYHOOD: śaiśavam (childhood: q. v.).

BABYISH: bāliśaḥ (śā śaṃ): v. Childish.

BACCHANAL, BACCHANALIAN: tāntrikaḥ (kī kaṃ) (?).

     1 akṛtadāraḥ or akṛtodvāhaḥ: v. Unmarried;
     2 vaṇṭaḥ or vaṇṭhaḥ (very rare). Ph.: a b. of arts *'vi e' upādhidhārin (f. ṇī).

BACK (subs.):
     I Of an animal: pṛṣṭham, whose b. s the enemy has seen dṛṣṭapṛṣṭhānarātinā, Ki. xv. 19.: Ph. behind one's b.:
     1 pṛṣṭhataḥ;
     2 parokṣe (in one's absence).
     II As opposed to front:
     1 pṛṣṭham, on the b. of a writing lekhasya pṛṣṭhe, Y.;
     2 pṛṣṭhadeśaḥ.

BACK (adv.): v. Backwards. It is generally expr. by the prefix prati: to come back pratyāgacchati; to give back prati-dadāti etc.

BACK (v. i.): pratyā-vartate (vṛt, c. 1.): v. To go back.

BACK (v. t.):
     I To mount: q. v.
     II To support, second: q. v.
     III To drive backward: pratīpaṃ nudati (nud, c. 6.) or cālayati (c. of cal).

     1 parokṣe pari-vadati (vad, c. 1.), asūyati (nomi.), etc. v. To slander;
     2 pṛṣṭhamāṃsam atti (ad, c. 2.) khādati (khād, c. 1.) (with gen) (not very common).

     1 pṛṣṭhamāṃsādaḥ;
     2 yaḥ parokṣe parivadati etc.;
     3 piśunaḥ (?).

     1 pṛṣṭhamāṃsādanam;
     2 piśunavākyam: v. Slander.

     1 pṛṣṭhavaṃśaḥ;
     2 kaśeruḥ;
     3 kaśerukā;
     4 rīṭakaḥ (rare).

     1 pakṣadvāram;
     2 pakṣakaḥ.

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BACK-GAMMON: krīḍāviśeṣaḥ. b.-board:
     1 aṣṭāpadam (?);
     2 carmapaṭṭikā (?).

BACKGROUND: *paścādbhūmiḥ (in ana. with agrabhūmiḥ) or expr. by circumlo.

     1 pṛṣṭhabhāgaḥ;
     2 pṛṣṭhadeśaḥ v. Also buttocks.

BACK-SLIDE: svadharmād bhraśyati (bhraṃś, c. 4.), cyavate (cyu, c. 1.): v. To go astray.

     1 gharmabhraṣṭaḥ (ṣṭā ṣṭaṃ);
     2 gharmacyutaḥ (tā taṃ): v. Apostate

     1 *pakṣasopānam;
     2 *antaḥsopānam.

     I Towards the back: pṛṣṭhabhāge or pṛṣṭhadeśe.
     II On the back: to fall b. avamūrdhapātaṃ patati.
     III In a reversed direction: pratīpam. Ph. to go b. (fig.) kramaśo'vanatiṃ gacchati.

BACKWARD (adj.):
     I Reluctant, averse: q. v. parāṅmu khaḥ (khī khaṃ).
     II Slow, dull: q. v. kuṇṭhitaḥ (tā taṃ).
     III Late: q. v.
     IV Reversed: q. v.: pratīpaḥ (pā paṃ).

BACKWARDNESS: parāṅmū khatā: v. Reluctance, aversion.

BACON: *lāvaṇaśuṣkaśūkaramāṃsam; Perh. valluram.

BAD: Gen. expr. by the prefixes dur ku apa etc. and sometimes by the affix ka: a b. man durjanaḥ; b. weather durdinam; b. luck durdaivam; not a b. speaker akadvadaḥ; a b. road kadadhvan (m.); b. food kadannam; b. design kumatiḥ; b. policy apanayaḥ; b. reputation apayaśaḥ; a b. horse aśvakaḥ: v. Wicked, injurious, unfavourable.

BADGE (subs.):
     1 cihnam;
     2 lakṣaṇam;
     3 liṅgam.

BADGER (subs.): bhallūkajātīyajantuviśeṣaḥ.

BADINAGE (subs.) narmabhāṣitam: v. Joke, raillery.

BADLY: Ph. I am b. off for servants bhṛtyābhāvāt kliśyāmi; you have behaved b. towards her tasyāṃ tvayānāryamācaritam; he is b. bitten by the dog sa kukku reṇa tīvraṃ or balavat daṣṭaḥ, b. governed kuśāsitaḥ (tā taṃ): b. formed kadākāraḥ (rā raṃ); smelling b. durgandhaḥ (ndhā ndhaṃ): v. Wrongly, wickedly, unfortunately.

     1 by the adj.: b. of character durācāraḥ; the b. of this soil is proverbial *asya pradeśasya kumṛttikā prasiddhā;
     2 duṣṭaṭā (=wickedness);
     3 nirguṇatā (=worthlessness).

BAFFLE (v. t.):
     1 vyarthīkaroti;
     2 moghīkaroti: v. Frustrate, elude.

BAG (subs.):
     1 Perh. puṭam; canvas b. *śāṇapuṭam;
     2 bhastrā; leather b. carmamastrikā D. II.;
     3 goṇī (=sack. q. v.).

     I a trifle: q. v.
     II A game: kandukakrīḍāviśeṣaḥ.

     I Of an army:
     1 sādhanam; the bugle sounding and the b. being ready āhatāyāṃ prayāṇabheryāṃ sajjīkriyamāṇe sādhane, K.;
     2 vīvadhaḥ (provisions), Si. ii. 64.
     II A strumpet: q. v. bandhakī.

     I A bath: q. v. snānāgāram;
     II A brothel: q. v. veśyālayaḥ.

BAG-PIPE: suṣiravādyaviśeṣaḥ.

BAIL (subs.):
     I The person who gives b.:
     1 pratibhūḥ, he who stands a b. to produce a man yo yasya pratibhūstiṣṭheddarśanāyeha mānavaḥ, M. viii. 158;
     2 lagnakaḥ.
     II Security: prātibhāvyam, on b. prātibhāvyana. D. vi.

BAIL (v. t.):
     I As applied to securities: Ph. I will b. you tavāhaṃ pratibhūrmavāmi (bhū, c. 1.) or tiṣṭhāmi (sthā, c. 1.)
     II as applied to magistrates: pratibhāvyena muñcati (muñc, c. 6.) or mocayati (muc c. 10.).

BAILABLE: Ph. this offence is b. *grāhyalagnako'parāghaḥ or asminnaparāghe pratibhūrgṛhyate.

BAIL-BOND: *prātibhāvyapatram.

BAILIFF: *āsedhādikarmaṇi niyuktaḥ śeriphasya pratinidhiḥ; *yaṣṭidharaḥ.

BAIT (subs.): āmiṣam (Lit. and Fig.), Ka. i. 44.

BAIT (v. t.):
     I To apply a bait:
     1 sāmiṣaṃ karoti (?);
     2 āmiṣaṃ vaḍiśe nidadhāti (dhā, c. 3.)
     II To furnish animals with food on a journey: yavasādinā bhojayati (c. of bhuj) (?): Ph. b. ing his horse enaṃ tāvadāgṛhītakatipayadūrvāprabālakavalaṃ kṛtvā, K. III. To attack an animal with dogs: Ph. to b. a bear bhallūkabādhanāya kukku rān praṇudati (nud, c. 6.).

BAKE (v. t.):
     1 pacati (pac, c. 1.) (prop. to cook: q. v.), b. d brick pakveṣṭakā, Mr.;
     2 bhṛjjati te (bhrasj, c. 6.) (=to fry, q. v.), the word lāja (also) means b. d grain lājaṃ bhṛṣṭaghānye Ph. b. d in an iron pan or oven (as bread, cakes etc.) kāndavaḥ (vī vaṃ).

     1 pūpaśālā (?);
     2 pākaśālā (?).

     1 āpūpikaḥ;
     2 kāndavikaḥ;
     3 piṣṭakapācakaḥ.

BALANCE (subs.):
     I A pair of scales:
     1 tulā;
     2 māpanaḥ (?). The beam of a b. tulādaṇḍaḥ; the string by which it is suspended pragrahaḥ or pragrāhaḥ; the cup of a b. ghaṭaḥ; assay b. nārācī.
     II Of an account:
     1 śeṣaḥ (=remainder: q. v.), he asked for the b. of money gṛhītaśeṣaṃ dātuṃ sa dhanaṃ prārthayatātha taṃ, Raj.;
     2 antaram (difference: q. v.), gives the whole b. dīyatāṃ sakalāntaram, Raj.
     III Counterpoise: q. v.
     IV Comparison, estimate: q. v. tulanā.

BALANCE (v. t.):
     I To bring to an equipoise; tulayati (tul, c. 10) (Lit. and Fig.): Ph. their equipment is not b. d na tulādhṛtastāvadanayoḥ parikaraḥ, Vi. vi.
     II To counterpoise: q. v.
     III Of accounts:
     1 samīkaroti (kṛ, c. 8.);
     2 ekīkaroti (?), b. ing the account gaṇanāmekīkṛtya, Raj.

BALANCE (v. i.):
     I To be in equipoise: samībhavati (bhū, c. 1.) (?).
     II To fluctuate, hesitate: q. v.: dolāyate (nomi.).

     1 pragrīvaḥ (?);
     2 vitarddhiḥ (?);
     3 indrakoṣaḥ (?).

BALD (adj.):
     I Hairless: q. v.:
     1 akeśaḥ (śā śaṃ);
     2 khalati (mfn.) (by disease).
     II Without natural covering: anāvṛtaḥ (tā taṃ).
     III Unadorned, inelegant: q. v.: asaṃskṛtaḥ (tā taṃ).

BALDERDASH: v. Jargon, nonsense.

     I Want of hair: akeśatā and sim. comp. morbid b.:
     1 indraluptam;
     2 khālityaṃ Bha.
     II Of style: v. Inelegance.

BALDRIC: prālambam (?): v. Belt, girdle.

BALE (subs.): poṭṭalī: v. Bundle.

BALE (v.): To b. out the bilge-water (nāvaḥ) jalaṃ siñcati (sic, c. 6.).

     I Fatal, destructive: q. v.
     II Woeful, sad: q. v.

BALK (subs.):
     I Of a field:
     1 āliḥ;
     2 ālī (f.).
     II A beam, rafter: q. v.
     III Disappointment: q. v.: āśābhaṅgaḥ.

BALK (v. t.): khaṇḍayati (khaṇḍ, c. 10.): v. To frustrate, disappoint.

BALL (subs.):
     I A playing-ball: alternately striking with her left and right hands, sent (th b.) up vāmadakṣiṇābhyāṃ karāyāṃ paryāyeṇābhighnatyudasthāpayat D. vi.
     II A round mass:
     1 gola (mn.)
     2 vartulaḥ. a small b. gulikā; the eye b. tārā a b. of thread sūtrakoṣam (?)
     III A meeting for dancing:
     1 nṛtyam;
     2 nartanam (=dancing).

BALLAD: gāthā. b. singer;
     1 gāthikaḥ;
     2 gāthākāraḥ.

BALLAST *nilamaḥ; potasthairyārthaṃ tadaghomāganiviṣṭaṃ prastaralohādidravyam.

BALLET: no equiv.: yātrā would do. b. girl: (
     I) nartakī;
     2 naṭī.

     1 vimānam;
     2 vyomayānam.

BALLOT (subs.):
     I A ball or ticket used in voting: *guṭikā.
     II Voting. by b.: *guṭikā; nibhṛtaguṭikāpātena matāmataprakāśanam.

BALLOT (v. i.): guṭikāpātena matāmataṃ prakāśayati (c. of. kāś).

BALL-ROOM (subs.): *nṛtyaśālā; nartanakoṣṭhaḥ.

     I The sap of a shrub: niryāsaviśeṣaḥ.
     II Solace, comfort: q. v. sughālepaḥ (?).

     I Odoriferous, aromatic: q. v. sugandhi (mfn.).
     II Assuaging, soothing
     1 tāpaharaḥ (rī raṃ);
     2 śāntidaḥ (dā daṃ). Ph. the b. tree *vāmavṛkṣaḥ.

BALSAM: v. Balm.

BALSAMIC: v. Balmy, soft, unctuous.

BALUSTRADE: pragrīvaḥ (m. n.) (?); vṛttiviśeṣaḥ.

     1 veṇuḥ;
     2 vaṃśaḥ;
     3 kīcakaḥ (when rattling).

BAMBOOZLE: (v. t.): vañcayate (vañc, c. 10.): v. Fool, to make a; to deceive.

     I A proclamation: q. v.
     II Of marriage: Ph. have you published the b. s of marriage *api vivāhaghoṣaṇā prakāśitā.
     III Interdiction, proscription: q. v.: Ph. under b. to touch niṣiddhasparśaḥ (rśā rśaṃ).
     IV Curse: śāpaḥ.

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BAN (v. t.): v. To curse.

     I The tree:
     1 kadalī;
     2 rambhā.
     II The fruit:
     1 kadalīphalam;
     2 campakam (a species of it).

BAND (subs.):
     I That which binds:
     1 banghaḥ: b. of hope āśābanghaḥ, Me. i. 10;
     2 banghanam;
     3 banghanī.
     II A company of persons:
     1 dalam;
     2 gulmaḥ (b. of troops).
     III Musical instruments:
     1 vādyabhāṇḍam. (?);
     2 tūryaighaḥ (?).

BAND TOGETHER (v.): saṃhataḥ (tā taṃ) (bhavati) (bhū, c. 1.) v. To combine.

BANDAGE (subs.):
     1 bandhaḥ, Śr.;
     2 paṭṭaḥ (cloth) (only when the sense is clear).

BANDAGE (v. t.): badhnāti (bandh, c. 9.), b. with a soft cloth mṛdupaṭṭaṃ niveśya badhnīyāt, Śr. Ph. things used in b. ing sores vraṇabanghanadravyāṇi, Śr.

BAND-BOX: peṭikā.

BANDIT: paripanthin (m); dasyuḥ v. Robber.

BANDY (v. t.):
     I to exchange: q. v.: vinimayate (me, c. 1.).
     II to agitate: q. v.

     1 prañju (mfn.);
     2 pragatajānu (mfn.).

     I Poison: q. v. viṣam.
     II Any fatal cause of mischief: Ph. he became the b. of India *bhāratavarṣasya kālarūpo or kālo babhūva; prostitution is the b. of society *veśyāvṛttiḥ samājasyānarthamūlam.
     III Ruin, destruction: q. v.

BANEFUL (v.): v. Pernicious, injurious, destructive.

BANG (v.): v. To beat, strike. Ph. the door b. s virauti kapāṭaḥ Mr.

BANG (subs.): Ph. opened the door with a b. mahāśabdapūrvakaṃ kapāṭamapāvṛtavān: v. Explosion; v. Also blow, stroke.

     1 vaṭaḥ;
     2 nyagrodhaḥ, its berry: naiyagrodham.

BANISH (v. t.):
     I To condemn to exile:
     1 nir-vāsayati (c. of vas), first of all, Fivasiddhi was b. ed from the city ādāveva jīvasidhirnagarānnirvāsitaḥ Mu. ii.;
     2 vi-vāsayati (c. of vas) M. viii. 123;
     3 nir-asyati (as, c. 4.) b. ed Fānaki from his house, but not from his mind gṛhānnirastā na tena vaidehasutā manastaḥ, R. xiv. 84. v. To drive away.
     4 pra-vrājayati (c. of vraj) (rare) M. II Fig. To drive away, remove: q. v. shame was b. ed (from their minds) trapā nirastā, Ki. x. 58.

     1 nirvāsanam;
     2 vivāsanam;
     3 pravāsanam.

BANISTER: *sopānastambhaḥ.

BANK (subs.):
     I For dealing in money: *dhanāgāram, the affairs of the b. were wound up *dhanāgārakāryāṇi saṃhṛtāni; the b. failed *dhanāgāramavasasāda or kṣayaṃ jagāma.
     II Of a river etc.:
     1 tīram;
     2 taṭam;
     3 kūlam;
     4 pratīram;
     5 roghas (n.);
     6 kacchaḥ (rare). The opposite b. pāram. The near b. apāram. A sand b. saikatam. B. of a hill vapram.
     III A mound: q. v.
     1 cayaḥ;
     2 vapra (mn.).

BANK (v. t.): v. To cmbank.

BANK (v. i.): (ghanāgāreṇa) vyavaharati (hṛ, c. 1.) (?).

     1 śreṣṭhin (m.) (?);
     2 *dhanāgārapatiḥ;
     3 kusīdaḥ; vārddhuṣikaḥ (money-lender).

     1 vyavahāraḥ P. i.;
     2 arthavyavahāraḥ;
     3 arthaprayogaḥ.

BANK-NOTE: *dhanāgārapatram.

BANKRUPT (subs.): parikṣīṇo vaṇik (after M.); ṛṇaśoghanākṣamo vaṇik (?) A fraudulent b. *prakāśaparikṣīṇaḥ; uttamarṇapravañcanāya yo gatavibhavatāṃ prakāśayati.

BANKRUPTCY: parikṣīṇatā (?); ṛṇaśoghanāśaktiḥ (?): gatavibhāvatā (?)

     1 dhvajaḥ;
     2 patākā;
     3 ketuḥ;
     4 vaijayantī;
     5 ketanam.

BANNERET: *iṃlaṇḍīyopāghiviśeṣaḥ.

BANNOCK: piṣṭakaviśeṣaḥ.

BANQUET (subs.): sambhojanam (?); viśiṣṭabhojanam (?).

BANQUET (v. t.):
     1 sam-bhojayati (c. of bhuj);
     2 bhojanaviśeṣaiḥ sam-toṣayati (c. of tuṣ), H.

BANQUET (v. i.):
     1 bhuṃkte (bhuj, c. (?));
     2 abhyava-harati (hṛ, c. 1.).

BANTER (v. t.): pari-hasati (has, c. 1.): v. To joke, mock.

BANTER (subs.): parihāsaḥ; v. Joke, jesting.

     1 parihāsavedin (m.);
     2 parihāsavettṛ (m.); v. Jester.

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     1 ḍimbhaḥ;
     2 arbhakaḥ; v. Infant.

BAPTISM: *abhiṣekaḥ, a certificate of b. *abhiṣekanidarśanam.

BAPTISMAL: expr. by tat. comp, by font *abhiṣekakuṇḍam.

     I In gen.: *abhiṣektṛ (m.).
     II An anabaptist: q. v.

BAPTIZE (v. t.):
     1 *abhiṣiñcati (sic, c. 6.);
     2 *kṛṣṭagharmaṃ grāhayati (c. of. graha).

BAR (subs.):
     I Of a door: argalam.
     II Of a cage etc.: śalākā. v. Pole, beam.
     III A hindrance or obstruction: q. v.: pratyūhaḥ.
     IV A bank at the mouth of a river or harbour: banghaḥ (?). V. For prisoners in a court of justice, or an inn.: *vṛtiḥ.
     VI Any tribunal: q. v.: Ph. at the b. of public opinion *sādhāraṇamatasyāgre.
     VII The entire body of advocates: *abhibhāṣakavargaḥ uttaravādinaḥ (m. pl.).
     VIII In music: lambaḥ (?).
     IX An ingot or wedge of metal: Perh. piṇḍaḥ.

BAR (v. t.):
     I To bolt: q. v.
     II To hinder, prevent: q. v.:
     1 ni-ruṇaddhi (rudh, c. 7.);
     2 prati-ṣedhati (sidh, c. 1.).

BARB (subs.):
     I A. horse: q. v.: vājiḥ.
     II Of an arrow: karṇaḥ (?).

BARBICAN: upadurgam praveśaniroghanārthaṃ nagaropāntanirmito durgaviśeṣaḥ.

BARBARIAN (adj.): v. Barbarous.

BARBARIAN (subs.):
     I An uncivilized person:
     1 asabhyaḥ (bhyā bhyaṃ);
     2 mlecchaḥ (properly one who is not a Hindu, but may be used in the sense of b.).
     II A cruel man: piśācaḥ (?). v. Cruel.

BARBARIC: i. e. foreign: q. v.: videśīyaḥ (yā yaṃ)

     I Incorrect language: mlecchitam (?), gentlemen do not use b. s in their speech nāryāmlecchanti bhāṣāmiḥ, Mah.
     II An uncivilized condition: asabhyatā
     III Barbarity: q. v.

BARBARITY (subs.):
     1 niṣṭhuratā;
     2 krauryam: v. Ferocity, cruelty.

BARBARIZE (v. t.): *mlecchīkaroti (kṛ, c. 8.): v. To brutalize.

     I Uncivilized: q. v.: asabhyaḥ (bhyā bhyaṃ).
     II Cruel, ferocious: q. v.:
     1 niṣṭhuraḥ (rā raṃ);
     2 nṛśaṃsaḥ (sā saṃ).

     I Without refinement:
     1 asabhyam (?);
     2 aślīlam (- coarsely, indecently).
     II Cruelly: q. v.: nirdayam.

BARBAROUSNESS: krauryam: v. Barbarity, barbarism.

BARBED (adj.): karṇin (f. ) (?).

BARBEL: nādeyamatsyaviśeṣaḥ.

     1 nāpitaḥ;
     2 kṣurin (m.);
     3 kṣaurikaḥ;
     4 muṇḍin (m.) A b. 's shop nāpitaśālā; b.'s business nāpityam.

BARBERRY: gulmaviśeṣaḥ.

     1 māgadhaḥ;
     2 vaitālikaḥ;
     3 vandin (m.);
     4 maghukaḥ.
     II A poet: q. v.: kaviḥ.

BARE (adj.):
     I Uncoverd:
     1 anāvṛtaḥ (tā taṃ);
     2 śūnyaḥ (nyā nyaṃ);
     3 kevalaḥ (lā laṃ) (only of places and things), on the b. ground sthaṇḍila eva kevale, Ku. v. 12.
     II Destitute: q. v.: dīnaḥ (nā naṃ).
     III Simple, unadorned: q. v.
     IV Mere, alone: q. v. V. Threadbare: jīrṇaḥ (rṇā rṇaṃ).

BARE (v. t.): vivastrayati: v. To uncover, divest.

BARE-FACED (adj.): nirlajjaḥ (jjā jjaṃ): v. Impudent.

BARE-FACEDLY (adv.): nirlajjam: v. Impudently.

BARE-FACEDNESS: nirlajjatā: v. Impudence, effrontery.

BARE-FOOT, BARE-FOOTED: śūnyapādaḥ (dā daṃ);
     2 anāvṛtapādaḥ (dā daṃ).

     1 anāvṛtaśiras (mfn.);
     2 śūnyamastakaḥ (kā kaṃ).

     I Only: q. v. kevalam.
     II Scarcely: q. v. karthañcit.

     I Nakedness: anāvṛtatvam.
     II Indigence: q. v.: dainyam.

BARGAIN (subs.):
     I An agreement or stipulation: q. v.
     1 samayaḥ;
     2 saṃvid (f.). II. A gainful or satisfactory transaction: Ph. buy the house, it is a good b. *alpamūlyena labhyaṃ gṛhaṃ krīṇīhi.

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BARGAIN (v. i.); paṇate (paṇ, c. 1.) (?): v. To agree, stipulate.

     I A pleasure-boat: kelinaukā (?).
     II A large boat for the conveyance of passengers or goods:
     1 tarāluḥ;
     2 tarāndhuḥ;
     3 vahitram.

     1 nāvikaḥ;
     2 potavāhaḥ.

BARK (subs.):
     I Of trees:
     1 valkala (mn.);
     2 valkam;
     3 tvac (f.);
     4 challiḥ (f.) (rare).
     II Of dogs: bukkanam.
     III A small vessel
     1 nauḥ;
     2 tarī.

BARK (v. t.):
     1 valkalaṃ nirharati (hṛ, c. 10.), apanayati (, c. 1.) etc;
     2 tvacayati (nomi.);
     3 tvakṣati (tvakṣ, c. 1.).

BARK (v. i.):
     1 bukkayati te (bukk, c. 1.), b. ed at by dogs kukkurairbukkyamānaḥ Mr. i:
     2 bhaṣati (bhaṣ, c. 1.), human dogs always b. thus bhaṣanti haivaṃ śvanarāḥ sadaiva, Mah.

BARKING: Of dogs:
     1 bukkanam;
     2 bhaṣitam: v. Noise.

BARLEY: yavaḥ. Fit for producing b. yavakyaḥ (kyā kyaṃ). made of b. yavamayaḥ (yī yaṃ).

BARLEY-CORN: yavaḥ. Fried b. dhānā.

BARLEY-SUGAR: sitākhaṇḍaḥ (?).

     1 udamanthaḥ;
     2 yavodakam.

BARM: maṇḍaḥ or (more fully) surāmaṇḍaḥ: v. Yeast.

BARMAID: *maṇḍaparakṣiṇī.

     1 kuśūlaḥ;
     2 ghānyakoṣṭham,
     3 ghānyāgāram.

     I A mollusc: śambūkaviśeṣaḥ.
     II A kind of goose haṃsaviśeṣaḥ.
     III In farriery: yantraviśeṣaḥ; *nastagrahā.

BAROMETER: *vāyumāpaḥ.

BARON (subs.): *iṃlaṇḍīyakaulīnopādhibhedaḥ.

     I The whole body of barons: *beraṇavargaḥ.
     II The rank of a baron *beraṇapadam.

BARONESS: beraṇavadhūḥ.

BARONET: upāghiviśeṣaḥ: *upaberaṇaḥ.

BARONIAL (adj.): *beraṇīyaḥ (yā yaṃ).

BARONY: *beraṇasyāghipatyam; bairaṇyam (?).

BARQUE: nauviśeṣaḥ.

BARRACK: (nearest word) niveśaḥ; v. Camp.

BARRACK-MASTER: *niveśādhyakṣaḥ niveśāghikārin (m.).

BARREL (subs.):
     I A kind of cask: bhāṇḍam (any vessel).
     II A cylinder or tube, as of a gun or wakS: nālā or nālī (?)

BARREL (v.): bhāṇḍe niveśayati (c. of viś).

     1 bandhyaḥ (ndhyā ndhyaṃ) (Lit. and Fig.), a. b. woman bandhyā K. b. whose anger is not b. abandhyakopaḥ (pā paṃ), Ki. i. 33.;
     2 niṣphalaḥ (lā laṃ) (not applied to females: v. unfruitful). Ph. b. soil anurvarā or aśasyapradā bhūmiḥ.

     1 bandhyatā;
     2 bandhātvam (of females), Śr;
     3 niṣphalatā (fruitlessness).

BARRICADE (subs.): vṛkṣādinirmitaprākāraḥ.

BARRICADE (v. t.): vṛkṣādinā praveśamāgardīn avaruṇaddhi (rudh, c. 7.) v. To obstruct, block up.

     I Fence, enclosure: q. v. vṛtiḥ.
     II An obstacle: q. v.
     1 pratibandhaḥ;
     2 pratyūhaḥ.
     III A boundary: q. v.: sīmā.

BARRISTER: *abhibhāṣakaviśeṣaḥ; vyavahārapaṇḍitaḥ.

     I A vehicle: hastacālitayānaviśeṣaḥ.
     II A castrated hog: utpāṭitavṛṣaṇaḥ śūkaraḥ (?).
     III A mound or hillock: q. v.

BARTER (subs.):
     1 vinimayaḥ;
     2 nimeyaḥ (rare);
     3 naimeyaḥ (rare): v. Exchange.

BARTER: (v. t.):
     1 ni-mayate vini- (me, c. 1.);
     2 pari-vartayati (c. of vṛt) Ph.: he b. ed a book for a cloth *sa pustakaṃ datvā vastraṃ jagrāha.

BARTER (v. i.): dravyāṇi vinimayate na vikriṇīte.

BASALT: prastaraviśeṣaḥ.

BASE (adj.):
     I Of mean parentage:
     1 anabhijātaḥ (tā taṃ);
     2 akulīnaḥ (nā naṃ);
     3 duṣkulīnaḥ (nā naṃ). A b. man:
     1 prākṛtaḥ;
     2 pṛthagjanaḥ, Ki.
     II A bastard: vijanman (mfn.).
     III Mean, disingenuous:
     1 nikṛṣṭaḥ (ṣṭā ṣṭaṃ);
     2 apakṛṣṭaḥ (ṣṭā ṣṭaṃ);
     3 kadaryaḥ (ryā ryaṃ);
     4 jaghanyaḥ (nyā nyaṃ);
     5 pāmaraḥ (rā raṃ).
     IV Of musical tones: gambhīraḥ (rā raṃ): v. Grave, deep. V. Of metals: nikṛṣṭaḥ or apakṛṣṭaḥ (ṣṭā ṣṭaṃ). Ph. b. metal kupyam.

BASE (subs.):
     I The bottom of any thing: adhobhāgaḥ: v. Foot, foundation.
     II In geo.: bhūḥ or bhūmiḥ, Li.

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BASED ON (as adj.): mūlaḥ (lā laṃ) (in comp.), b. on knowledge jñānamūlaḥ (lā laṃ).

BASELESS: amūlakaḥ (kā kaṃ): v. Groundless, imaginary.

BASELY: expr. by the adj.: v. Meanly, disgracefully.

     1 mittimūlam;
     2 vāstu (n.):
     3 poṭaḥ.

     I Meanness: q. v.:
     1 nikṛṣṭatā;
     2 kadaryatā;
     3 anāryatā.
     II Of birth: duṣkulīnatā.
     III Bastardy: vijanmatā.
     IV Of sounds: gāmmīryam. V. Of metal:
     1 nikṛṣṭatā;
     2 apakṛṣṭatā.

BASHFUL (adj.):
     1 lajjāśīlaḥ (lā laṃ) (applied only to persons);
     2 lajjālu (mfn.);
     3 lajjāvat (f. ): v. Modest, shamefaced.

     1 salajjam;
     2 savrīḍam;
     3 satrapam.

     1 lajjāśīlatā;
     2 śālīnatā: v. Modesty.

BASIL: tulasī (the holy b.).

BASILICA: gharmaśālā (?).

BASILISK: sarpabhedaḥ; *takṣakaḥ.

     I A vessel for washing etc.:
     1 droṇī;
     2 bhāṇḍam (any vessel) in a. b. of indigo nīlībhāṇḍe, H. iii.
     II A reservoir:
     1 jalāśayaḥ;
     2 taḍāgaḥ;
     3 kāsāraḥ.
     III A b. round the root of a tree: ālavālam.
     IV dock: q. v. V. Geog. t. t.: *jalāghāraḥ.

BASIS (subs.): mūlam: v. Base, foundation.

BASK: ātapaṃ sevate ā- ni-, (sev, c. 1.), is b. ing in the morning sun bālātapaṃ sevate, v. t.

     1 peṭakaḥ or mañjūṣā (=a large b. or box for keeping clothes etc.);
     2 karaṇḍaḥ (a small b. for gathering flowers etc.);
     3 ḍallakam (=a moderate sized portable b.);
     4 vidalam or vaidalam (any b. work).

BASKING (subs.):
     1 ātapasevā;
     2 ātapaniṣevanam.


BASS: in music: gambhīraḥ (rā raṃ): v. Base.

BASS, BAST (subs.): kaṭaḥ: v. Mat.

BASSOON: vaṃśīviśeṣaḥ.

     1 jārajaḥ (jā jaṃ) (=child of a woman by her gallant);
     2 kānīnaḥ (, naṃ) (child of an unmarried woman);
     3 kaulaṭeyaḥ (yī yaṃ) or kaulaṭeraḥ (rī raṃ) = (child of a lewd woman);
     4 kuṇḍaḥ (a b. son born when the husband is alive);
     5 golakaḥ (a b. son born after the death of the husband);
     6 vijanman (mfn.) (not born in lawful wedlock).

     1 jārajatvam: v. Bastard;
     2 vijanmatā.

BASTE (v. t.):
     I To beat with a stick:
     1 yaṣṭyāghātaṃ karoti;
     2 laguḍena tāḍayati (c. of taḍ) : v. To beat.
     II To pour butter etc. over : siñcati ni-, (sic c. 6.).

BASTINADE (v. t.): *pādatale laguḍena tāḍayati (c. of taḍ): v. To beat.

BASTINADO (subs.): *laguḍena or yaṣṭinā pādatalatāḍanam.

BASTION: no equiv.: use vapra (mn.).

     I An animal:
     1 bhaṅgārī,
     2 carmacaṭī;
     3 jatukā.
     II A club for playing: yaṣṭiḥ (?)

     I Of things:
     1 gaṇaḥ;
     2 saṃghaḥ :-
     II Of bread: *ekakālapakvaḥ sandhitāpūpasaṃghaḥ.

BATE: v. To abate.

     I A receptacle for bathing: *snāna- pātram, is the b. ready *api prastutaṃ snānapātram.
     II Public b. s: snānaśālā. Ph.: to take a cold shower b. *śītalāsārodakaiḥ snāti (snā, c. 2).

BATHE (v. i.):
     1 snāti (snā, c. 2.);
     2 abhiṣekaṃ karoti (by pouring water);
     3 majjati ni-, (majj, c. 6.) (by plunging);
     4 avagāha (gāh, c. 1.) (by immersing, diving) (with acc.), to b. in the waters payovagāḍhum, Ki. viii. 27.;
     5 ā-plavate (pla, c. 1.) (Perh. by swimming).

BATHE (v. t.):
     1 snapayati (c. of snā);
     2 abhi - ṣiñcati (sic, c. 6.) (by pouring water)
     3 nimajjayati (c. of masj) (by plunging).

     1 snātṛ (m.);
     2 snāyin (m.).

BATHING (subs.):
     1 snānam;
     2 abhiṣekaḥ ;
     3 majjanam nimajjanam;
     4 avagāhanam;
     4 āplāvaḥ v. To bathe. Relating to b.: snānīya (yā yaṃ).

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BATHOS: *avatāraḥ.

BATON, BATOON (subs.): daṇḍaḥ.

BATTALION: *dalam. Five b. s of infantry pattīnāṃ pañca dalāni.

BATTEN (v. t.): āpyāyayati (c. of pyai): v. To fatten.

BATTER (v. t.):
     1 mṛdrāti (mṛd, c. 9);
     2 mathnāti (manth, c. 9);
     3 bhanakti (bhañj, c. 7)

BATTER, BATSTER: in cricket: *yaṣṭidharaḥ.

BATTERING-RAM: meṣaḥ; meṣākāralauhamukhaḥ prācīrabhañjakaḥ prākkālīnayuddhayantraviśeṣaḥ

     I Assault:
     1 tāḍanam;
     2 prahāraḥ.
     II The act of battering
     1 mardanam;
     2 vimardanam;
     3 manthanam;
     4 bhañjanam.
     III A line of cannon: *kāmānacakram.
     IV Galvanic b.: *pracalavidujjananī ghaṭaśreṇī.

     1 yuddham;
     2 raṇaḥ;
     3 samaraḥ;
     4 saṃgrāmaḥ;
     5 āhavaḥ;
     6 āyodhanam;
     7 ājiḥ;
     8 pradhanam;
     9 saṃyat (f.);
     10 saṃyugaḥ.

     1 vyūhaḥ;
     2 balavinyāsaḥ;
     3 yuddhārthaṃ sainyasanniveśanam; To draw up in b.;
     1 vyūhate (ūh, c. 1):
     2 yuddhārthaṃ vinyasyati or viracayati.

     1 paraśuḥ;
     2 paraśvadhaḥ. Armed with b.
     1 paraśudharaḥ;
     2 pāraścadhika.

     1 siṃhanādaḥ;
     2 kṣveḍitam;
     3 kṣveḍā.

BATTLE-DOOR: *kandukatāḍanī.

     1 raṇabhūmiḥ;
     2 raṇāṅganam;
     3 yuddhabhūmiḥ;
     4 pradhanakṣitiḥ.

BATTLEMENT: vapraviśeṣaḥ; danturavṛtiḥ.

BAUBLE: *sudṛśyamakiñcitkaradravyam.

     1 kuṭṭinī;
     2 śambhalī: v. Procuress.

BAWDRY: kuṭṭinīvyavasāyaḥ and sim. comp. s.

BAWDY: v. Obscene, filthy, unchaste.

BAWL (v. i.):
     1 ut-krośati (kruś, c. 1);
     2 uccaiḥ śabdāyate (nomi.);
     3 rasati (ras, c. 1).

BAWLING (subs.):
     1 utkrośaḥ;
     2 vikrośaḥ;
     3 citkāraḥ.

BAY (adj.): piṅgaḥ (ṅgā ṅgaṃ) (?). A b. horse: ukānahaḥ (very rare).

BAY (subs.):
     I An arm of the sea: *khātam.
     II A Tree: vṛkṣaviśeṣaḥ.
     III In. pl., garlands made of its branches: *jayamālā.

BAY, AT: mukhāmukhi.

BAY (v. i.):
     1 bukkayati (bukk, c. 10);
     2 bhaṣati (bhaṣ, c. 1).

BAYONET (subs.): nistriṃśaḥ may be used: Scimitar.

BAYONET (v. t.): nistriṃśena vidhyati (vyadha, c. 4).

BAY-WINDOW: *pralambavātāyanam.

BAZAR (subs.):
     1 paṇyavīthikā;
     2 āpaṇaḥ.

     1 guggulaḥ;
     2 ulūkhalam.

     I As a logical copula:
     1 bhavati (bhū, c. 1), it is long-necked dīrdhagrīvaḥ sa bhavati, U. iv.; the hearts of good men are always compassionate karuṇārdrāṇi satāṃ khalu bhavanti sadā cetāṃsi, K. N. B. It is often understood: the end of aims is beyond comprehension duraghigamā hi gatiḥ prayojanānām, Ki. x. 40.
     II Denoting existence, presence: asti, there was formerly a king named Śudraka āsīdrājā śūdrako nāma, K.; and there are heaps of gems santi ratnanicayāśca bhūriśaḥ, Ki. xiii. 55. N. B. Note (a) that this verb is exclusively used for there is-, there was-, etc.; (b) that in this sense, it is gen. placed at the beginning of the sentence; and (c) that this verb is defective and its non-conjugational tenses are supplied by those of bhū and hence we meet with phrases like abhūnnṛpaḥ (-there was a king), B. i. 1.;
     2 vartate saṃ-, (vṛt, c. 1), in a moment you will be in your realm kṣaṇāt svāghikārabhūmau vartiṣyate, Sa. vii.: v. To be present. Ph.: here are we ime smaḥ, Sa. iv.; be it so evamastu mavatu.
     III To become: q. v.: bhavati.

BE OVER: Ph. let the rain be over bhavatu vṛṣṭherupaśamaḥ, H. iii.: v. To cease.

     1 roghas (n.);
     2 kūlam: v. Shore.

BEACON: *ākāśadīpaḥ śatrorāgamanasūcanāya samudrayāyināṃ ca pathadarśanāyonnatabhūbhāgasthāpitā maholkā.

BEAD (subs.):
     1 gulī;
     2 gulikā;
     3 guṭī;
     4 guṭikā. A string of b. s mālā; a rosary of b. s:
     1 akṣamālā;
     2 japamālā.

BEADLE: Perh. śodhanakaḥ, Mr. ix.

BEAGLE: ākheṭikaḥ kukkuraprabhedaḥ.

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     I Of birds:
     1 cañcuḥ;
     2 cañcūḥ;
     3 troṭiḥ;
     4 mukham;
     5 tuṇḍaḥ.
     II Of ships: *cañcavākāraṃ potamukham.

BEAKED (adj.):
     1 cañcumat (f. );
     2 cañcuviśiṣṭaḥ (ṣṭā ṣṭaṃ).

BEAKER (subs.): caṣakaḥ: v. Cup.

BEAM (subs.): Of a house: tulā, Si. iii. 50.
     II Of a balance:
     1 tulādaṇḍaḥ;
     2 tulādhāraḥ.
     III Of a loom:
     1 veman (n.);
     2 vāpadaṇḍaḥ;
     3 vāyadaṇḍaḥ.
     IV Of a carriage: dhur (f.): v. Pole.
     V A ray of light: (aṃśuḥ;
     2 kiraṇaḥ: v. Ray.

BEAM (v. i.):
     I Lit.: bhāsate (bhās, c. 1): To gleam, glitter.
     II Fig.:
     1 lasati ut- prot-, (las, c. 1);
     2 sphurati (sphur, c. 6).

     1 śimbā;
     2 śimbiḥ.

BEAR (v. t.):
     I To carry: q. v.: vahati (vah, c. 1)
     II To sustain, support:
     1 vahati, bore the bent down head with difficulty uvāha duḥkhena bhṛśānataṃ śiraḥ, Si. i. 57.
     2 bibharti (bhṛ, c. 3), easily bore the great burden of state mahāntaṃ taṃ rājyabhāramanāyāsenaiva babhāra, K. III. To suffer, endure: q. v.:
     1 vahati ut- (rare in this sense), surely very difficult to be borne duḥkhāni nūnamatimātradurudvahāṃni, Sa. iv.;
     2 sahate pra- vi-, (sah, c. 1), could not b. the respect (paid to Krishna) mānamasahata na, Si. xv. 1.; the faculty of b. ing cold, heat and wind śītoṣṇavātaprasahiṣṇutā, Ka. xv. 37.
     IV To bring forth, produce: q. v.:
     1 vahati (very rare);
     2 sūte (, c. 2), immediatly the Aśoka tree bore flowers asūta sadyaḥ kusumānyaśokaḥ, Ku. iii. 26.;
     3 bibharti (rare), Ki. viii. 4. V. To cherish, q. v. Ph.; I. b. no hatred towards you tvayi mama dveṣo nāsti or na vidyate etc.
     VI To behave: q. v.
     VII To admit: q. v. Ph.: to be. witness sākṣyaṃ dadāti (, c. 3); to b company sahacaraḥ (rī raṃ) bhavati (bhū, c. 1) (with gen.); to b. a hand hastaṃ dadāti (?); to b. a name nāma bibharti M. ii. 157.; your good policy has borne fruit phalitā tava sunītiḥ. D. ii.

BEAR AGAINST: abhi-vartate (vṛt, c. 1), Ki. xii. 3.

BEAR BACK: parā-vartate (vṛt, c. 1): v. To retreat.

BEAR DOWN (v. i.): sannipatati (pat, c. 1): v. To hasten, approach.

     V To carry away.

BEAR ON, or UPON: I To press, affect: q. v.:
     1 pīḍayati (pīḍ, c. 10);
     2 bādhate (bādh, c. 1)
     II To have reference to: q. v.: lagati (lag, c. 1).

     I To carry out: q. v.
     II Fig. to support: q. v.: draḍhayati (nomi).

     I Trans: v. To support.
     II Intrans.:
     1 udvahati, (with acc.); could not b. under the weight dhuramudvoḍhuṃ na śaśāka;
     2 sahate (with acc.): v. To resist.

BEAR WITH: sahate (sah, c. 1): v. To endure.

BEAR (subs.):
     I An animal:
     1 bhallaḥ;
     2 bhallu (llū) kaḥ;
     3 ṛkṣaḥ;
     4 acchabhallaḥ;
     5 bhāllūkaḥ.
     II A constellation: Ph.: the little b. śiśumāraḥ (?) V. p. The seven stars of the Great Bear:
     1 saptarṣimaṇḍalam; citraśikhaṇḍinaḥ.

BEARD (subs.):
     I Of men etc.:
     1 śmaśru (n.);
     2 kūrcam;
     3 mukharoman (n.)
     II Of corn:
     1 śūkam;
     2 śuṅgaḥ;
     3 kiṃśāruḥ.

BEARD (v. t.)
     I To seize by the beard: śmaśruṇā or śmaśruṇi gṛhṇāti (graha c. 9).
     II To defy openly; nyakkaroti (?): v. To insult.

BEARDED (adj.)
     I Lit.:
     1 śmaśrulaḥ (lā laṃ);
     2 kūrcagharaḥ (rā raṃ), even by long-b. goats pralambakūrcadharaiśchāgairapi, K. Ph. a b. woman poṭā (rare)
     II As corn:
     1 by comp. b. corn śukaghānyam;
     2 śuṅgin (f. );
     3 śukavat (f. ).
     III Bearded: q. v.

     1 śmaśruhīnaḥ (nā naṃ);
     2 anudbhinnaśmaśru (mfn.);
     3 ajātaśmaśru (mfn.). N. B.
     2 and
     3 mean one whose beard has not come out.

BEARER: i. e. porter, carrier: q. v.:
     1 vāhakaḥ;
     2 vāhaḥ; (at the end of a comp.). Letter b. patravāhaḥ; corpse b.;
     1 śavavāhaḥ;
     2 pretaniharikaḥ.

BEARING (subs.):
     I Gesture, mien: q. v.: ceṣṭā; his b. is not as before asya ceṣṭā nāmāyathāpūrvam D. viii.
     II Relation, reference: q. v. Ph. what b. has your argument on this subject *asyaviṣayasya tavopapatteśca kaḥ sambanghaḥ.
     III Relative situation: Ph. the b. of the cape is n. w. *asmāt paścimottarasthamantarīpam; ascertain the b. s of the lighthouse katamasmindigbhāge dīpagṛhamiti jñāyatām.

BEARISH: v. Rude, surly.

     I An irrational animal:
     1 paśuḥ;
     2 tiryac (n.) (rare), a b. of prey: śvāpadaḥ; a b. burden dhuryaḥ: v. Animal.
     II A brutal man: paśuḥ, Ve.: v. Brute.

BEASTLINESS: jaghanyatā: v. Filthiness.

BEASTLY: jaghanyaḥ (nyā nyaṃ): V. Filthy.

BEAT (v. t.):
     I To strike: q. v.:
     1 tāḍayati (taḍ, c. 10), b. ing her breast sorastāḍam, Vi. vi.; to b. in return pratīpaṃ tāḍayati, Mr. xi.;
     2 hanti ā- abhi- ni-, (han, c. 2), of un-b. en drums anāhatasya dundubheḥ, Ki. xviii. 17.
     II To defeat: q. v.:
     1 bhanakti (mañj, c. 7), b. the king's troops in the battle rājānīkaṃ babhañjājau, Raj.;
     2 khaṇḍayati pari, (khaṇḍ, c. 10), B. xii. 17.; being b. en by the enemy khaṇḍanāṃ prāpya parāt, Ki. xvii. 60.

BEAT (v. i.):
     I To strike, knock; q. v.; tāḍayati (taḍ, c. 10) (with acc.)
     II To palpitate: q. v.:
     1 kampate (kamp, c. l); vepate (vep, c. 1).

BEAT BACK or OFF: vi-drāvayati (c. of dru): v. To drive back.

     I To break, crush, or press down: q. v.
     II Of price: laghayati (nomi.): v. To lessen.

BEAT-OUT: Of metals: Perh. āhanti (han, c. 2): v. To forge.

     I To attack suddenly: alakṣitam ākrāmati: v. To attack.
     II As eggs: Perh mṛdnāti (mṛd, c. 9) or gharṣati (dhṛṣ, c. 1).

BEAT UPON: Ph. the foam of big waves b. ing upon the rocks upalāhatoddhatataraṅgadhṛtaṃ phenamapām, Ki. vi. 10.

BEATEN (adj.):
     1 kṣuṇṇaḥ (ṇṇā ṇṇaṃ) from the b. track kṣuṇṇādvartmanaḥ, R. i. 17.;
     2 prahataḥ (tā taṃ) M. n.

BEATIFIC: niḥśreyasakaraḥ (rī raṃ), Ki. xi. 19: Blessed, blissful.

BEATIFICATION: *divyajanatvāropaṇam; siddhilābhaprakhyāpanam: v. Next art.

     I To bless, make happy: q. v.: sukhayati.
     II t. t. in the Romish church *divaṃgataḥ (tā taṃ) iti prakhyāpayati; divyajanatvam āropayati.

BEATING (subs.):
     I The act of striking:
     1 tāḍanā;
     2 tāḍanabh.
     II Of the heart: kampaḥ. Ph. b. time (in music): tālaḥ.

     1 mokṣaḥ;
     2 muktiḥ;
     3 apavargaḥ;
     4 niḥśreyasam;
     5 siddhiḥ;
     6 nirvāṇam.

     1 suveśin (m.);
     2 subhagammanyaḥ;
     3 subhagamānin (m.): v. Fop.

     1 sundaraḥ (rī raṃ);
     2 rabhyaḥ (myā myaṃ); v. Beautiful.

BEAUTIFIER: i. e. a lady's maid:
     1 prasādhikā;
     2 ñlaṅkartrī.

     1 sundaraḥ (rī raṃ);
     2 ramaṇīyaḥ (yā yaṃ);
     3 kamanīyaḥ (yā yaṃ);
     4 śobhanaḥ (nā naṃ);
     5 cāru (f. rvī);
     6 kāntaḥ (ntā ntaṃ);
     7 peśalaḥ (lā laṃ);
     8 mañjulaḥ (lā laṃ);
     9 abhirāmaḥ (mā maṃ);
     10 manojñaḥ (jñā jñaṃ);
     11 by su in comp.; a girl with a b. face sumukhī; Ph.: oh, what a b. morning aho ramaṇīyatā prabhātasya, Dh.; oh, what a b. place aho rāmaṇīyakamasya, Na. I.

     1 sundaram;
     2 cāru;
     3 śobhanam;
     4 by the adj.

     1 bhūṣayati (bhūṣ, c. 10);
     2 prasādhayati (c. of sāgh): v. To adorn.

     1 saundaryam;
     2 cārutā (=loveliness);
     3 ramaṇīyatā (=pleasantness);
     4 śobhā (splendour);
     5 rūpam (=b. of person);
     6 lāvaṇyam (=prettiness);
     7 abhikhyā (rare). Ph.: a. b. (=beautiful girl) sundarī; the b. s of poem. kāvyasya madhūni (?); enchanted with the b. s of nature prākṛtikaśobhayāhṛtacittaḥ (ttā ttaṃ); attained the b. of a bed śayanīyalakṣmīṃ babhāra, Ki. viii. 57.; vying with the b. of the ocean payodhilakṣmīmuṣi, N. i. 117.: N. B. In the same sense śrī, which is more common in comps.

     I An animal: *vivaraḥ vivareśayaścatuṣpādajantubhedaḥ.
     II A b. hat: *vivaralomanirmitamiyurūpīyajanabhṛtaśiraskam.
     III Of a helmet: *śiraskasyapa civukapracchādakabhāgaḥ.

BECAFICO: drākṣādiphalabhakṣako kṣudrapakṣimedaḥ.

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BECALM (v. t.): śamayati pra- upa-, (c. of śam): v. To appease.

BECAUSE (conj.):
     1 iti; poems are not good b. old, nor faultly b. new purāṇamityeva na sādhu sarvaṃ na cāpi kāvyaṃ navamityavadyam, Mal. I. N. B. Note the position of iti;
     2 hi (never at the beginning of a sentence), b. you see that a rich man feels pain at the loss of his wealth (you cannot conclude that) he will have the same pain when he assumes mendicancy na hi dhanino dhanāpahāranimittaṃ duḥkhaṃ dṛṣṭamiti tasyaiva pravrajitasya tadeva duḥkhaṃ bhavati, S. i. 4.: v. For. N. B. Observe that na hi is the best way of expressing because...not.
     3 kutaḥ or kasmāt (=why) with abl.: here the word āyatana means something else, b. we hear that it is the bridge of ambrosia tatrārthāntaraṃ kimapyāyatanaṃ syāditi prāptam kasmāt? amṛtasyaiṣa seturiti śravaṇāt, S. iii. 1.

BECAUSE OF (prep.): By ins. or abl. etc.: v. Account of, on.

BECK (subs.):
     1 saṅketaḥ;
     2 saṃjñā;
     3 iṅgitam.

BECKON (v. i.): saṃjñāṃ saṅketaṃ or iṅgitaṃ dadāti (, c. 3).

BECKON (v. t.): iṅgitena or saṃjñayā āhvayati samā-, (hve, c. 1).

BECOME (v. i.): bhavati (bhū, c. 1), what in the forest became of the deer-eyed (damsel) kimamavat vipine hariṇīdṛśaḥ, U. iii.
     2 sampadyate (pad, c. 4). (rare) Me. i. 16. N.B. This verb in connexion with adj. s, is (a) often expr. by verbs of motion with corres. sub. s.: became very sorry paraṃ viṣādamagamat. P. i. 2.; b. s an object of hatred to the people dveṣyatāṃ yāti loke, P. i. 3.; b. s of no use vrajati vyarthakatām, Si. xvi. 43. (b) and by verbs meaning to produce: b. ing very sorry samupajātaśokā, K. (his) face became terrible ānanaṃ krūramajani, Si. xv. 8. (c) and sometimes by verbs meaning to obtain: became surprised vismayamāpede, K. (d) by inceptive verbs: to b. congealed ghanībhavati.

BECOME (v. t.):
     1 yujyate (pass. of yuj) (with) gen.);
     2 upa-padyate (pad, c. 4) (with gen.). Better by the adj. s anurūpaḥ (pā paṃ), sadṛśaḥ (śī śaṃ); upapannaḥ (nnā nnaṃ); yuktaḥ (ktā ktaṃ), etc. (with gen. or in comp.): we are going to act in a way, b. ing our prowess gacchāmo vayaṃ vikramānurūpamācaritum, Ve. I.; and what b. s such love īdṛśasya cānurāgasya sadṛśam, R.; this does not b. men like you anupapannamidaṃ bhavadvidhānāṃ, Ve. iii.

BECOMING (adj.):
     1 ucitaḥ samucitaḥ (tā taṃ);
     2 upayuktaḥ yuktaḥ (ktā ktaṃ): v. Suitable.

BECOMING, IT IS: sāmprataṃ, is not b. (for me) to speak now sampratyasāmprataṃ vaktum, Si. ii. 70.

     1 aucityam;
     2 yogyatā;
     3 sāmañjasyam.

BED (subs.):
     I For sleeping:
     1 śayyā, (best equiv.) a soft feather b. haṃsatūlagarbhakomalaśayyā, D. ii.; making his bed uparacayya śayyām, D. v.; leave your b. muñca śayyām, R. v. 66.; confined to b. śayyāgataḥ (tā taṃ) or śayyāgrastaḥ (stā staṃ);
     2 śayanīyam;
     3 talpam;
     4 saṃstaraḥ;
     5 śayanam, got out of b. śayanāntādutthitaḥ (tā taṃ) Si. xi. 7. (more commonly) suptotthitaḥ (tā taṃ) Sa.;
     6 auśīram (rare). Ph. defiler of a preceptor's b. gurutalpagaḥ; defiler of other's beds pāratalpikaḥ, D.; to go to b. śete (śī, c. 2): v. To sleep.
     II Marriage: q. v.: vivāhaḥ.
     III Stratum, layer: q. v.: bhittiḥ (?), in gold b. ed summits kāñcanabhittiṣu sānuṣu, Ki. v. 8.
     IV Bottom of a stream:
     1 talam;
     2 adhobhāgaḥ V. Garden-bed: prastaraḥ or saṃstaraḥ.

BEDABLE (v. t.):
     1 siñcati (sic, c. 6);
     2 ukṣati (ukṣ, c. 1) v. To sprinkle.

BEDAUB (v. t.): limpati vi-, (limp, c. 6): v. To besmear.

     1 śayanāgāram;
     2 śayanagṛham;
     3 vāsagṛhama. (properly speaking, these words mean houses, as the Hindus had and even still gen. have separate houses for sleeping: śayanakoṣṭhaḥ would be exact equiv.).

     1 śayyopaskarāḥ (m. pl.);
     2 śayyopakaraṇāni (n. pl.).

BEDECK (v. t.):
     1 vibhūṣayati (bhūṣ, c. 10);
     2 maṇḍayati (maṇḍ, c. 10) v. To adorn.

BEDEW (v. t.) v. To moisten. Ph. her breast b. ed with drops of tear aśrubindutārakitapayogharā, D. ii.

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BED-HANGINGS: vitānam: v. Curtains.

BEDIM (v. t.): To dim, obscure.

BEDIZEN (v. t.): no exact equiv.: maṇḍayati (maṇḍ, c. 10): v. To adorn.

BEDLAM (subs.): *vātulāśramaḥ: v. Madhouse.

     1 vātulaḥ (lā laṃ);
     2 unmattaḥ (ttā ttaṃ): v. mad man.

BEDRENCH: v. To drench.

     1 śayyāgataḥ (tā taṃ);
     2 śayyāgrastaḥ (stā staṃ).

BED-ROOM: śayanāgāram: v. Bed-chamber.

     1 śayyottaracchadaḥ;
     2 āstaraṇam.

     1 paryaṅkaḥ;
     2 khaṭvā, a small b. khaṭvikā.

     1 śayanakālaḥ;
     2 śayyāgamanasamayaḥ (?)

     1 kṣudrā;
     2 saraghā;
     2 madhumakṣikā; as b. s follow their queen yathā madhukararājaṃ maghumakṣikā anuvartante, D. s.

BEE-EATER: *saraghābhuj (m.); madhumakṣikāśin (m.); pakṣiviśeṣaḥ.

     1 chattrakaḥ;
     2 karaṇḍaḥ;
     3 madhukoṣaḥ.

BEECH: vṛkṣaviśeṣaḥ; B. -nut *bīcphalam.

BEEF. gomāṃsam. Roast b. *śūlyagomāṃsam, Salt b. *lāvaṇagomāṃsam. A b. -steak bhṛṣṭagomāṃsakhaṇḍam.

BEER: yavasuram; madirāviśeṣaḥ.

BEET: pālaṅkaḥ (a species of the b.).

     I An insect: gomayotthā.
     II A rammer: mudgaraḥ.

BEETLE (v.) pralambate (lamb, c. 1): v. To project, overhang.

BEETLE-BROWED (adj.): unnatabhrū (n. bhru) (?).

     1 gāvaḥ (m. pl.);
     2 gavāṃ kadambakam and sim. expressions.

BEFALL (v.): ni-patati sam- ā-, (pat, c. l) v. To happen.

BEFIT (v. t.):
     1 yujyate;
     2 upapadyate: v. To become, suit.

     1 yathocitaḥ (tā taṃ);
     2 yathāyogyaḥ (gyā gyaṃ): v. Fitting.

BEFOOL (v.): mohayati vi-, (c. of muh): v. To delude, deceive.

BEFORE (prep.):
     I In front of:
     1 puras, b. him puro'sya, Si. i. 12.;
     2 purataḥ, b. the army sainyasya purataḥ, Vi. vii.;
     3 agre, I will quit my life b. you tavāgre prāṇamokṣaṇaṃ karomi, P. ii. p.;
     4 agrataḥ, Ku. iv. 26.;
     5 abhitaḥ, Ki. ii. 59.; N.B. Note that the first four are const. with gen., but
     5 with the acc. Ph.: b. the wind anuvātam.
     II Before the eyes of: samakṣam (with gen., or in comp. or absol). b. Umā umāsamakṣam; b. her two friends sakhyoḥ samakṣam, b. her own eyes samakṣam, Ku. iii. 64., 75.; v. I.
     III Of time, succession, etc.:
     1 prāka (with abl.), b. Chandragupta's entry prāk candraguptapraveśāt, Mu. ii.;
     2 pūrvam (with abl.), after daughter's son, but b. the mother dauhitrātparato mātṛtaśca pūrvam, Da.

BEFORE (adv.):
     I Of space:
     1 puras, from b. purastāt, K.:
     2 purataḥ;
     3 agrataḥ;
     4 agre.
     II Of time:
     1 purā (=formerly: q. v.):
     2 pūrvam not seen or known or felt b. apūrvaḥ (rvā rvaṃ); not heard b. aśrutapūrvaḥ (rvā rvaṃ). N.B. Observe the cons. of yāvat na...tāvat.. b. the Demons laughed in this way, his (step) found measure in the sky yāvaditthamahasanna dānavāstāvadasya na mamau nabhastale, Si. xiv. 75.; see also B. xii. 4., Si. i. 12.

     1 prāgeva;
     2 pūrvameva;
     3 prathamameva;
     4 ādāveva.

BEFORE-MENTIONED: pūrvoktaḥ (ktā ktaṃ);
     2 prāguktaḥ (ktā ktaṃ);
     3 pūrvoditaḥ (tā taṃ).

     1 malinayati;
     2 kalūṣayati;
     3 dūṣayati: v. To soil.

BEFRIEND (v. t.): anukūlayati (nomi.): v. To aid, favour.

BEG (v. i.):
     1 bhikṣate (bhikṣ, c. 1);
     2 bhikṣāṃ yācate (yāc, c. 1) etc.

BEG (v. t.):
     1 añjaliṃ baddhvā (=joining the palms) or jānubhyāṃ sthitvā (=kneeling) or pādayoḥ patitvā (=falling on one's feet) nivedayati vijñāpayati etc. (to inform, q. v.);
     2 yācate: v. To ask. Ph. to b. the question prameyaṃ pramitaṃ parigṛhvāti (grah, c. 9) etc. (?)

BEGET (v. t.):
     1 janayati upa- pra- vi-, (c. of jan) (Lit. and Fig.) b. ting. a child by her janayitvā sutaṃ tasyām, M. iii. 17.;
     2 utpādayati samut-, (c. of pad), the child that a Brahmin lustfully b. s by a Śudra woman yaṃ brāhmaṇastu śūdrāyāṃ kāmādutpādayet sutam, M.: v. To bring forth, produce, cause.

     1 janayitṛ (m.);
     2 janakaḥ;
     3 utpādakaḥ: v. Father.

BEGETTING (subs.):
     1 jananam;
     2 prajananam;
     3 utpādanam.

BEGGAR (subs.):
     I A mendicant:
     1 bhikṣuḥ;
     2 bhikṣukaḥ (, f.).
     II A very poor person:
     1 daridraḥ (drā draṃ);
     2 akiñcanaḥ (nā naṃ): v. Indigent.
     III One who begs:
     1 yācakaḥ;
     2 vanīyakaḥ: v. Solicitor.

BEGGAR (v. t.): daridraḥ (drā draṃ) or niḥsvaḥ (svā svaṃ) karoti (kṛ, c. 8)

BEGGARLY (adj.) kṛpaṇaḥ (ṇā ṇaṃ) (?): v. Mean, contemptible.

BEGGARY: dāridryam: v. Poverty, indigence.

BEGGING (subs.):
     1 bhikṣā;
     2 bhikṣaṇam;
     3 bhikṣāṭanam (going about b.)

BEGIN (v.):
     1 ārabhate prā- samā-, (rama, c. l) the low people do not b. from fear of obstacles prārabhyate na khalu vidhnabhayena nīcaiḥ, Mu. ii.;
     2 pravartate (vṛt, c. l) (with. inf. or loc.), began to weep rodituṃ pravṛttā, Sa. v.; the singing is begun pravṛttaṃ saṅgītakam, Mal. i.
     3 upa- kramate pra-, (kram, c. l) (gen. with inf.), began thus to speak vaktumitthamupacakrame vacaḥ, Ki. xiii. 36;
     4 pra-stauti (stu, c. 2) (rare), b. the holy ceremony prastutaṃ karma dharmyam, B. ii. 28;
     5 pra-kurute (kṛ, c. 8) (rare), began to speak udīrayituṃ pracakre, N. xiii. 15.

     I One who begins:
     1 ārabdhṛ (f. bghrī);
     2 upakrantṛ (f. ntrī).
     II A novice: q. v.: navacchātraḥ (f. trī).

BEGINNING (subs.):
     I Commencement:
     1 ārambhaḥ;
     2 prārambhaḥ;
     3 samārammaḥ.
     II The first cause: ādiḥ, you are the b. of the world but you yourself have no b., you are the end of the world, but you yourself have no end jagadādiranādistvaṃ jagadanto nirantakaḥ, Ku. ii. 9.: v. Cause, origin.
     III The first state: ādiḥ, in the b. (God) created water apa eva sasarjādau, M. i. 8.; I want to hear from the b. āditaḥ śrotumicchāmi, Mu. ii.; from the b. to the end ādyantaḥ (ntā ntaṃ).
     IV Rudiments: q. v.

BEGIRD (v. t.):
     I To gird: q. v,
     II To encompass: q. v.: pariveṣṭate.

BEGONE (interj.): apehi apasara, etc. (imper. dual sing.).

BEGRIMED (adj.): kaluṣitaḥ (tā taṃ);
     2 dūṣitaḥ (tā taṃ). B. with dust dhūlidhūsaritaḥ (tā taṃ).

BEGRUDE: v. To grudge.

BEGUILE (v. t.):
     I To cheat, deceive: q. v. vi-pralabhate (labh, c. l).
     II Of time: Ph. b. d the day with various anecdotes kathābhirvinodyamānastaṃ divasamavāhayat, K.

BEGUILER: vañcakaḥ: v. Deceiver.

     1 artham, on my b. madartham;
     2 kṛte (with gen.) on b. of the Śudra vṛṣalasya kṛte: v. For, on account of.

BEHAVE (v. t.):
     1 ācarati (car, c. l), the king b. d very ungentlemanly towards Śakuntalā tena rājñā śakuntalāyāmanāryamācaritam, Sa. iv.;
     2 vartate (vṛt, c. l) (with loc.) b. politely towards him asmin vinayena vartatām, U. vi.; b. towards the other wives as dear friends kuru priyasakhīvṛttiṃ sapatnījane Sa. iv.;
     3 vyavaharati (hṛ, c. l), what (he) b. s towards me by (asking for) an interchange of acts kathaṃ kāryavinimayena mayi vyavaharati, Mal. i.;
     4 yatate pra-, (yat, c. l) (to b. persistently), you should b. in such a way that she will be soon your worthy attendant tathā prayatitavyaṃ yatheyamaticiramucitā paricārikā te bhavatīti, K.

     1 vṛttiḥ;
     2 ācāraḥ;
     3 vyavahāraḥ.

BEHEAD (v. t.): śiraḥ or mūrdhānaṃ or śīrṣaṃ chinatti (chid, c. 7) or kṛntati (kṛt, or c. 7) or lunāti (lu, c. 5) (with gen.).

BEHEADING (subs.):
     1 śiraśchedaḥ;
     2 śīrṣaśchedaḥ;
     3 bhūrdhacchedaḥ.

BEHEST (subs.):
     1 ājñā;
     2 nideśaḥ: v. Command.

BEHIND (prep.):
     I At the back of:
     1 pṛṣṭhataḥ (with gen.);
     2 anu (with acc.);
     3 paścāt (with gen.), b. them tāsāṃ paścāt, Ku. Ph. from b. the bushes latāvyavahitaḥ (tā taṃ), Sa. iii.
     II In a state of inferiority to:
     1 nīcaḥ (cā caṃ):
     2 adhaḥsthaḥ (sthā sthaṃ): v. Inferior.

BEHIND (adv.):
     1 pṛṣṭhataḥ (=on or from the back), shuts the king's eyes from b. pṛṣṭhenāgatya rājño locane saṃvṛṇoti, V. iii.;
     2 paścāt, from b. paścādetya. V. iii.; putting b. paścātkriyā, Ki. xviii. 42.

BEHOLD (v. t.):
     1 paśyati (dṛś, c. l);
     2 ava-lokayati vi-, (lok, c. 10); v. To see, look at.

BEHOLD (interj.) paśya or paśya paśya (imper. dual sing).

BEHOLDEN (part. adj.): v. Obliged, indebted.

     1 prekṣakaḥ;
     2 darśakaḥ;
     3 draṣṭṭa (m.)

BEHOOF (subs.) lābhaḥ: v. Advantage, benefit.

BEHOVE (v. impers.): Expr. by the future pass. part: it b. s you to forgive this fault ayamaparādho bhavatā marṣayitavyaḥ, Sa. iv.: v. Ought.

BEING (subs.):
     I Existence:
     1 astitvam;
     2 sadbhāvaḥ;
     3 satvam,
     4 sattā, endowed with b. by birth janmanā labdhasattākasya, S. i. 2.
     II That with exists:
     1 bhūtam, of mortal and immortal b. s martyāmartyasya bhūtagrāmasya, U. vii.;
     2 satvaḥ;
     3 vivekin (m.) (=rational b.);
     4 cetanaḥ (=sentient b.); (prāṇin prāṇabhṛt (m.) (=one endowed with life);
     6 śarīrin dehin (m.) (=corporeal b.) Ph. the Supreme B. parameśvaraḥ.

BEING (part.): When=from the fact of being ., expr. by the abl.: v. From, since, in as much as.

BELABOUR: tāḍayati (taḍ, c. 10): V. To beat, cudgel.

     I To block up: q. v.
     II To fasten: q. v.

BELCH (v.):
     1 ut-vamati (vam, c. l); ut-girati (gṝ, c. 6).

     1 (udvamaḥ;
     2 udvamanam;
     3 udgāraḥ;
     4 udgiraṇam.

BELDAM: vṛddhā: v. Old woman, hag.

BELEAGUER (v. t.): ruṇaddhi ava- upa, (rudh, c. 7): v. To besiege, blockade.

BELFRY: *ghaṇṭāśṛṅgam; yasmin prāsādaśṛṅge vādanāya ghaṇṭā sthāpyate.

BELIE (v. t.):
     I To show to be false: expr. by
     1 vyanakti (vyañj, c. 7);
     2 vi-vṛṇoti (vṛ, c. 5);
     3 prakāśayati (nomi.) etc. (=to show: q. v.) the (wanton sword of) language of bad men b. s their heart hṛdayaṃ nigūhataḥ sphurannasādhorvivṛṇoti vāgasiḥ, Ki. xiv. 12.
     II To calumniate, misrepresent: q. v.: apa-vadati (vad, c. l).

BELIEF (subs.):
     I Credence:
     1 viśvāsaḥ, worthy of b. viśvāsayogyaḥ (gyā gyaṃ): v. Credible;
     2 pratyayaḥ.
     II Religious faith:
     1 śraddhā;
     2 viśvāsaḥ;
     3 āstikyam;
     4 āstikyabuddhiḥ
     III Doctrine, opinion: q. v. matam.
     IV The object of belief: expr. by the verb: ghosts are the belief of fools *mūrkhā bhūteṣu viśvasanti.

BELIEVE (v. i.):
     I To have faith in:
     1 viśvasiti (śvas, c. 2.) (with loc.) when does a virgin b. in man puṃsi viśvasiti kutra kumārī, N. v. 100.
     2 pratyeti (i, c. 2.) (with acc.) every body b. s in the existence of his self sarvo hyātmāstitvaṃ pratyeti, S.
     II To think, suppose: q. v.:
     1 sambhāvayati;
     2 manyate (man, c. 4.).

BELIEVE (v. t.):
     1 pratyeti, if you don't b. me yadi mama vacane na pratyeṣi, Ra.;
     2 viśvasiti, so that his Highness would b. me yathā māṃ viśvased vibhuḥ, A. r.;
     3 śraddadhāti or śraddhatte (dhā, c. 3) who will b. the real fact kaḥ śraddhāsyati bhūtārtham, Mr. iii.;
     4 sambhāvayati (c. of bhūḥ =to think possible), who will b. that the Maurya king sold the ornament maurye bhūṣaṇavikrayaṃ narapatau ko nāma sambhāvayet, Mr. v. Ph. I dont b. this atra me'pratyayaḥ.

BELIEVER (subs.):
     1 śraddhāluḥ;
     2 viśvāsin (m.);
     3 āstikaḥ (a religious b.).

BELL: ghaṇṭā, to ring a b. ghaṇṭāṃ vādayati (c. of vad); small tinkling b. s kiṅkiṇī, B. man: v. Bellringer.

BELL-FOUNDER: *ghaṇṭākāraḥ.

BELL-FOUNDRY: *ghaṇṭāsandhānaśālā.

BELL-METAL: *ghoṣaḥ; tāmratrapumiśritopadhātubhedaḥ kāṃsyam (properly an alloy of copper and zinc).

     1 ghaṇṭāvādakaḥ;
     2 ghaṇṭātāḍaḥ;
     3 ghāṇṭikaḥ.

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     1 sundarī;
     2 mattakāśinī;
     3 varavarṇinī.

BELLES-LETTERS: alaṅkārādiśāstram: v. Literature.

     1 yudhyamānaḥ (nā naṃ);
     2 raṇābhiyuktaḥ (ktā ktaṃ).

BELLOW (v. i.); nardati (nard, c. l.): v. To roar, sound.

BELLOWING (subs.):
     1 narditam;
     2 nardanam;
     3 garjanam: v. Roaring.

     1 bhastrā, a black-smith's b. karmakārabhastrā, H.;
     2 dṛtiḥ;
     3 carmaprasevikā. one who has a big b. tuṇḍilaḥ or piciṇḍilaḥ (lā laṃ).
     II The womb: q. v.: kukṣiḥ.
     III The stomach: q. v.

BELLY, BELLY OUT (v. i.): v. Swell out, project.

BELLY-ACHE: udaraśūlam, Śr.; udaravedanā.

BELLY-BAND: udaratrāṇam: v. Girth.

BELLY-FUL (adv.): ākaṇṭham (=up to the neck), they ate b. amībhirākaṇṭhamabhoji, N. xvi. 92.

BELONG (v. i.):
     I To be the property of: expr. by the gen. with bhū gen. understood: it is said that a field b. s to him who clears the jungle sthānucchedakasya kedāramāhuḥ, M. ix. 44: v. Belonging to, have.
     II To relate to, concern: q. v.

BELONGING TO (as adj.):
     1 by- īya deriv. b. to another anyadīyaḥ (yā yaṃ): b. to a king rājakīyaḥ;
     2 by- a der.: b. to the season ārtavaḥ (vī vaṃ); b. the next world pāralaukikaḥ (kī kaṃ);
     3 by- ya der.: b. to one's father pitryaḥ (tryā tryaṃ); b. to a cow gavyaḥ (vyā vyaṃ).

BELOVED (adj.):
     1 priyaḥ (yā yaṃ), o, my b. ayi priye, N.;
     2 iṣṭaḥ (ṣṭā ṣṭaṃ);
     3 vallabhaḥ (bhā bhaṃ);
     4 dayitaḥ (tā taṃ); v. Dear (II)

BELOW (prep.):
     I Of place:
     1 adhaḥ or adhastāt (with gen.);
     2 tale (with gen.), b. the bed paryaṅkatale, H.: v. Beneath, under.
     II Less than: Ph.: b. two years ūnadvivārṣikaḥ, M. v. 68.; v. Under.
     III Of rank or dignity: anu (with acc.): v. Beneath.

BELOW (adv.):
     I Of place:
     1 adhas;
     2 adhastāt (from b.)
     3 aghobhāge (not of motion);
     4 nīcaiḥ: v. Down.
     II In the regions of the dead:
     1 adholoke;
     2 adhobhuvane.
     III To those regions: adholokam etc.

BELT (subs.): mekhalā (also=sword-belt): v. Girdle.

BELT (v. t.): v. To encompass.

BEMOAN (v. t.):
     1 vi- lapati (lap, c. l.), b. s. the loss of his son putraśokena vilapati; b. s. the death of his brother bhrātṛmaraṇāt vilapati or bhātṛmaraṇaśokena vilapati;
     2 anuśocati (śuc, c. l.) (rare) I b. my fate bhāgyamanuśocāmi;
     3 paridevayati (dev, c. 10.) (rare) v. To lament, bewail. N.B. Observe that only
     2 takes a direct object.

     I A seat: no equiv.: pīṭhaḥ; paṭṭaḥ; phalakaḥ, etc. may be used.
     II The seat of justice:
     1 dharmāsanam (the personal seat);
     2 adhikaraṇamaṇḍapaḥ, Mr. ix.;
     3 vyavahāramaṇḍapaḥ, Mr. ix.

BENCHER (of an inn of law): *sabhāsad.

BEND (v. t.);
     I To inflect:
     1 namayati ā- -ava-, (c. of nam), a bow not bent before dhanuranamitapūrvam, R. xi. 72.;
     2 āvarjayati (vṛja, c. 10), b. ing the boughs āvarjya śākhāḥ, R. xvi. 19.;
     3 vakrīkaroti (kṛ, c. 8) (=to curve);
     4 bhujati ā- vi-, (bhuj, c. 6.), b. ing his neck vibhujya kaṇṭhaṃ, N. xi. 12.;
     5 jihmayati (nomi.) (rare), Ph. (a bow that has been) bent: cakrīkṛtam, Ku.; maṇḍalīkṛtam or āvirmaṇḍalam, Ki. (dhanuḥ).
     II Fig.: To subdue: q. v.:
     1 namayati, R.;
     2 āvarjayati, D.
     III To apply or exert: q. v. Ph. to b. one's mind mano dadāti (, c. 3.); to b. the brow bhrūbhaṅgaṃ karoti.

BEND (v. i.)
     I To crook or be curving:
     1 namati ava- ā-, (nam, c. l.)(2) by bhavati and any one of the adj.s given under crooked, curved.
     II To bow: q. v.: namati.
     III To be closely directed. Ph. bent on revenge praticikīrṣu (mfn); bent on mischief jighāṃsu (mfn.) or hiṃsāparāyaṇaḥ (ṇā ṇaṃ); bent on religion dharmaparāyaṇaḥ (ṇā ṇaṃ).

     I Trans.: ava-namayati ā-, (c. l. of nam).
     II Intrans.: ava-namati ā-, (nam, c. 1.); head much bent down with sorrow duḥkhena bhṛśānataṃ śiraḥ, Si.

BEND (subs): of a river:
     1 vakram;
     2 vaṅkaḥ;
     3 puṭabhedaḥ (vakrīkaraṇam).

BENDING (subs):
     1 natiḥ;
     2 namanam; ava- ā-;
     3 āvarjanam.

BENDING (adj.): i. e. overhanging: pralambaḥ (mbā mbaṃ).

BENEATH (prep):
     I Under:
     1 adhaḥ or adhastāt (with gen.) or by the adj. adhasthaḥ (sthā sthaṃ), b. the banyan tree nyagrodhasyādhastāt, P. iii. 4.;
     2 tale in comp., b. the bed paryaṅkatale, H. Ph. b. a. tree vṛkṣamūle, V. s.
     II Fig.: Ph, our country sinks b. his yoke *tasya pīḍanenādhogacchatyasmaddeśaḥ.
     III Lower in rank etc.: anu (with acc.) the gods are b. Vishnu anuhariṃ surāḥ, S. k.: v. Low, inferior.
     IV Unbecoming, unworthy of: expr. circum.: he thinks it b. his dignity to converse with me *sa māṃ sambhāṣaṇasyāyogyaṃ manyate.

BENEATH (adv.):
     1 adhaḥ;
     2 adhastāt: v. Below.

     1 āśis (f.);
     2 āśīrvādaḥ: v. Blessing.

BENEFACTION: v. Benefit, donation.

     1 upakartṛ (m.);
     2 upakārakaḥ;
     3 upakārin (m.);
     4 hitakārin (m.);
     5 priyakṛt.

     1 upakartrī;
     2 upakāriṇī;
     3 hitakāriṇī.

BENEFICE: vṛttiḥ. A b. d. clergy man: vṛttibhuk purohitaḥ (?).

     1 paropakāritā;
     2 dānaśolatā (=magnificence: q. v.).

     I As applied to men:
     1 paropakārin (f. ṇī);
     2 paropakārakaḥ (kā kaṃ);
     3 dānaśīlaḥ (lā laṃ) (munificent: q. v.).
     II As applied to acts etc.:
     1 hitakaraḥ (rī raṃ);
     2 hitakārin (f. ṇī).

BENEFICENTLY: v. Benevolently, kindly, liberally.

BENEFICIAL: Ph. b. results śubhaphalāni; b. exertions hitaceṣṭitāni: v. Profitable, useful. To be b. to or for: hitāya (with gen.): agriculture is b. for the whole human race kṛṣiḥ sarvalokahitāya: v. Good (subs.)

BENEFICIALLY: v. Profitably, usefully.

     1 vṛttibhuj (mfn.) (?);
     2 vṛttibhogin (f. ) (?).

BENEFIT (subs.)
     I An act of kindness, a favour conferred: upakāraḥ, like b. s. conferred on bad men upakāra ivāsati prayuktaḥ, Ki. xiii. 33.
     II Advantage, profit: q. v.:
     1 upakāraḥ;
     2 hitam, for public b. prakṛtihitāya, Sa. vii.

BENEFIT (v. t.): upakaroti (kṛ, c. 8.): v. To profit.

BENEFIT (v. i.): v. To profit.

     1 hitaiṣitā;
     2 paropakāritā: v. Generosity.

     I As applied to persons:
     1 hitaiṣin (f. ṇī); paropakārin (f. ṇī): v. Generous.
     II As applied to acts, institutions, etc.
     1 hitakaraḥ (rī raṃ);
     2 hitakārin (f. ṇī.)

     1 hitecchayā;
     2 kṛpayā (= kindly: q. v.).

     I Lit: Ph. we were b. in the wood vana evāsmākaṃ niśā jagāma.
     II Fig., of mind etc.
     1 timirāvṛtaḥ (tā taṃ);
     2 tamovṛtaḥ (tā taṃ).

BENIGN, BENIGNANT: dayālu (mfn.): v. Kind, generous.

     I Kindness: q. v. dayālutā.
     II Salubrity: q. v.

     1 sadayam (=kindly: q. v.);
     2 saujanyena (=graciously).

BENISON: āśis (f.): v. Blessing.

BENT (subs.):
     I Flexure, curvity:
     1 natiḥ;
     2 jihmatā;
     3 vakratā.
     II Slope, declivity: q. v.
     III Inclination, disposition: q. v.: bhāvaḥ.
     IV Particular direction or tendency q. v. v. Bent grass: dūrvā.

     1 jaḍīkaroti or jaḍayati (nomi.);
     2 stabhnāti (stambh, c. 9.).

     1 kapitailam;
     2 aśmapuṣpam;
     3 śaileyam.

     1 dadāti or yacchati pra- (, c. 3 or 1.);
     2 pratipādayati (c. of pad);
     3 samarpayati (c. of kṛ). N. B. These words simply mean to give: when precision is wanted, some qualifying words must be added: b. ed all his personal property to me *sarvā asthāvarasampattīrmāmicchāpatreṇa pradattavān.

BEQUEST: dānam (gift: q. v.); (or precisely) *icchāpatreṇa dānam.

BEREAVE (v. t.):
     1 (viyojayati (yuj, c. 10.), you will be bereft of your dear wife viyokṣyase vallabhayā, N. i. 138.;
     2 viśleṣayati (c. of śilaṣ). v. To deprive.

     1 viyogaḥ;
     2 viprayogaḥ: v. Deprivation, separation.

     1 viyojakaḥ;
     2 viprayojakaḥ;
     3 viyoktā;
     4 viśleṣakaḥ.

BERGAMOT: jambīrajātīyavṛkṣaviśeṣaḥ.

BERRY: no equiv.: *sāraphalam.

     I Anchorage: q. v.
     II Cabin: q. v.: koṣṭhaḥ (?).
     III A place, situation: q. v.: padam.

BERYL: maṇiviśeṣaḥ; gomedaḥ (?).

BESEECH: prārthayate (artha, c. 10.): v. To beg, entreat, implore.

BESEEM: yujyate: v. To become (v. t.).

     I To besiege, block up: q. v.: ruṇaddhi (rudh, c. 7.).
     II To harass, perplex: q. v.: bādhate (bādh, c. l.).
     III To encompass: q. v. veṣṭate pari-, (veṣṭ, c. l.).
     VI To set on or in: q. v.: churati, (chur, c. 6.).

BESHREW: v. To curse.

BESIDE (prep.):
     I Near, by the side of: q. v.: pārśve (with gen.) b. her father pituḥ pārśve, Ku. vi. 84.
     II Over and above: v. Besides.
     III Not belonging to: bahiḥ (with abl.), b. my tieme prabandhādvahiḥ or prabandhasya bahirbhūtaḥ (tā taṃ).

     1 hatajñānaḥ (nā naṃ);
     2 vigatacetanaḥ (nā naṃ).

BESIDES (prep.):
     1 by a comp. with bhinnaḥ (nnā nnaṃ) or vyatiriktaḥ (ktā ktaṃ) b. this, another misfortune has befallen us etadbhinnaṃ or etadvyatiriktaṃ vyasanamaparamasmākamāpatitam;
     2 vihāya apahāya, etc. (with acc.), I have no other friend b. you tvāmapahāya mamāparo bandhurnāsti.

BESIDES (adv.): expr. by anyaḥ (nyā nyat) or aparaḥ (rā raṃ) or by the prep.: are there any here b. kimatrāpare santi,
     I give you a horse b. etadvyatiriktaṃ ghoṭakaṃ tubhyaṃ dadāmi v. Also, moreover.

BESIEGE (v. t.): ruṇaddhi upa- ava-, (rudh, c. 7.), b. d Champā rurodha campām, D. ii.; let (the Yadavas) b. Māhishmati māhiṣmantīmuparundhantu, Si. ii. 64.

     1 avarodhakaḥ;
     2 avaroddhṛ (m.) (?);
     3 rodhin (m.) (?).

BESIEGING (subs.):
     1 rodhaḥ;
     2 avarodhaḥ;
     3 uparodhaḥ;
     4 rodhanam.

BESMEAR (v. t.): limpati vi- ā- samā- upa- anu-, (lip, c. 6.): v. To anoint.

BESOM (subs.): sammārjanī: v. Broom.

BESOT (v. t.): mohayati (c. of muh): v. To stupefy, infatuate.

BESPATTER (v. t.):
     1 abhyukṣati (ukṣ, c. l.);
     2 abhiṣiñcati (sic, c. 6.).

BESPEAK (v. t.):
     I To order before hand: Ph. I bespoke a vessel to carry me to London *pūrvameva mayādeśi yānaṃ yānāya laṇḍane: v. To encage, hire.
     II To be taken: q. v.:
     1 kathayati Śr.;
     2 vadati (vad c. 1.), (these signs) b. this death taṃ vadanti gatāyuṣam, Śr.;
     3 āvedayati (c. of vid), K. III. To address: q. v. bhāṣate (māṣ., c. l.)

BESPREAD: v. To spread.

     1 abhiṣiñcati;
     2 abhyukṣati: v. To sprinkle.

BEST (adj.): Super. of good: q. v. Ph.: to the b. of one's ability yāvacchaktitaḥ.

BEST (adv.): v. Well.

BESTIAL (adj.): v. Beastly.

BESTIALITY: i. e. unnatural connection with a beast:
     1 paśugamanam;
     2 paśuṣu maithunācaraṇam, V. s.

     1 yatate pra-, (yat, c. l.);
     2 ghaṭate (ghaṭ, c. l.): v. To exert.

BESTOW (v. t.):
     I To give, grant: q. v.: dadāti (, c. 3.).
     II To give in marriage: dadāti pra-: she should be. b. ed on him whom she fancies yaṃ cābhilaṣet sāmuṣmai deyā, D. vi.
     III To apply, use: q. v.: pra-yunakti (yuj, c. 7.).
     IV To deposit, store: q. v.: ni-dadhāti (dhā, c. 3.).

     1 dānam;
     2 pradānam;
     3 pratipādanam.

     1 dātṛ or pradātṛ (f. trī);
     2 da or prada (f. ), in comp.; b. of money dhanadaḥ (dā daṃ).

BESTREW (v. t.): stṛṇoti (stṛ, c. 5.): v. To strew.

BESTRIDE (v. t.): Ph. to b. a horse aśvamārohati (ruh, c. l.): v. To stride.

BET (sub.):
     1 paṇaḥ;
     2 glahaḥ (rare).

BET (v. t.) paṇaṃ karoti (kṛ, c. 8.);
     2 paṇatāṃ nayati (, c. l.), Ki. xi. 47.

BETAKE (v. i.):
     1 ā-śrayati sabhā- upā-, (śri, c. l.), b. n to Malayaketu malayaketumāśritaḥ (tā taṃ), Mu. iii.
     2 majati -te, (bhaj, c. l.), shall I b. to quiet śāntiṃ bhajāmi, Ma. n.
     IV 50.: v. Recourse to, have.

BETEL (subs.):
     1 tāmbūlī;
     2 nāgavallī;
     3 nāgalatā;
     4 kuhalī. The prepared b. tāmbūlam. B. -seller tāmbūlikaḥ. B. -box = -bearer tāmbūlakaraṅkavāhinī, K.

     1 pūgam;
     2 guvākam;
     3 tāmbūlam. B. tree:
     1 pūgaḥ;
     2 kramuḥ;
     3 guvākaḥ.

BETHINK ONESELF: saṃcintayati (cint, c. 10): v. To remember, reflect.

BETIDE (v. t.): v, To happen, befall.

BETIMES (adv.):
     I Seasonably: q. v.: samaye.
     II Soon: q. v.: śīghram.

BETAKEN (v. t.): sūcayati ā-vi-, (sūc, c. 10.): v. To forebode.

BETRAY (v. t.):
     I To give up treacherously: Ph. b. ed the fleet to the pirates *saviśrammbhaghātaṃ potāvalīṃ dasyuhaste samarpayāmāsa (c. of ); do not b. your trust mā viśvāsaṃ vadhīḥ (han, c. 2.) or bhāṃkṣīḥ (bhañj, c. 7.).
     II To disclose: q. v.: bhinatti (bhid, c. 7.), b. ed the secret rahasyaṃ bibheda.
     III To mislead, expose, or indicate: q. v.
     IV To deceive: q. v.

BETRAYAL: Ph. the b. of a city śatruhaste nagarasamarpaṇam: v. To betray.

     1 viśvāsaghātakaḥ (=traitor);
     2 vañcakaḥ (=deceiver). Ph. where is the b. of the city kva sa viśvāsadhātakaḥ yo nagaraṃ śatruhaste samarpayāmāsa. N.B. Note that in such cases
     1 or
     2 simply will not do.

BETROTH (v. t.):
     1 dadāti (, c. 3.) (only of b. al by the father or guardian of the girl), I apprehend she is already b. ed dattapūrvetyāśaṃkyate, Ma.;
     2 pratipādayati (c. of pad), Si.

     1 vāgadānam (=verbal b. of a girl by her father or guardian);
     2 vivāhasambandhaḥ.

     1 dattā or vāgdattā (a girl b. by her father or guardian) Da. com.;
     2 pratipāditā, b. ed wife pratipāditā vadhūḥ, Si. xvi. 49.
     3 pratiśrutaḥ (tā taṃ) (=engaged, promised). N.B. The person to whom one is b. is put in the dat.

BETTER (adj.):
     I Comparative of good: q. v.
     II Preferable; Ph. b. (to have) a learned enemy than a stupid freind paṇḍito'pi varaṃ śatrurna mūrkho hitakārakaḥ, P. i. 21.; b. to die than to mix with low people varaṃ prāṇatyāgo na punaradhamānāmupagamaḥ, H. i.; b. to keep silence than to utter a lie varaṃ maunaṃ kāryaṃ na ca vacanamuktaṃ yadanṛnam; H. III. In improved health: Ph.: are you b.? Oh, yes, a little b. api te laghusantāpānyaṅgāni? aho asti viśeṣaḥ, Sa. iii.

BETTER OFF, BE: v. Well off, be.

BETTER (subs.):
     I Advantage or victory: q. v.: Ph. to get the b. of an enemy śatrūmabhibhavati (bhū, c. l.).
     II Improvement: q. v.
     III In pl. superiors guravaḥ (m. pl.): Ph. your b. s in knowledge tvadadhikajñānasampannāḥ.

BETTER (v.): To mend, improve.

BETTER (adv.): v. Well. Ph.: I love you b. than self *tvayyahaṃ prāṇemyo'dhikamanuraktaḥ.

     1 by the gen. (not of time), the distance b. the Hemakūta and the Vindhyas is very great viprakṛṣṭamantaraṃ hemakūṭavindhyācalayoḥ, K.; the space b. the divine rivers Sarasvati and Drishadvati sarasvatīdṛṣadvatyordevanadyoryadantaram, M. ii. 17.; enmity b. us tasya ca mama ca vairam, D. ii.; the conflict b. the two important duties vipratiṣedhaṃ taṃ guruṇoratha kāryayoḥ, Si. ii. 6.;
     2 madhye or antare (with gen.) (of time and occasionally of other relations): middle age is b. sixteen and seventy years ṣoḍaśasaptatyorantare madhyaṃ vayaḥ. Śr.

BEVERAGE: pānīyam: v. Drink.

     I Of ladies etc.: gaṇaḥ.
     II Of birds: kulam: v. Flock.

BEWAIL (v.): vi-lapati (lap, c. l.), what are you b. ing for kimarthaṃ vilapasi: v. To lament, weep, grieve.

BEWAILING (subs).:
     1 vilāpaḥ;
     2 paridevanam;
     3 krandanam: v. Lamentation.

BEWARE: no exact equiv.: b. of him tasmin baddhaviśvāso mā bhava; b. of your servants that they may not deceive you tathā prayatethāḥ yathā na vañcyase sevakaiḥ; b. of your steps sāvadhānaṃ parikrāma: v. Care.

     1 saṃ-mohayati (c. of muh);
     2 jaḍīkaroti (kṛ, c. 8.) or jaḍayati (nomi.);
     3 saṃbhramayati (c. of. bhram);
     4 viklavīkaroti (kṛ, c. 8.).

     1 sambhrāntaḥ (ntā ntaṃ);
     2 viklavaḥ (vā vaṃ);
     3 kiṃkartavyatāmūḍhaḥ (ḍhā ḍhaṃ) (=not to know what to do);
     4 saṃmugdhaḥ (gdhā gdhaṃ).

     1 sambhramaḥ;
     2 vaiklavyam;
     3 sammohaḥ: v. Perplexity.

     I To charm or fascinate:
     1 mohayati pari- vi- saṃ-, (c. of muh,), let not Cupid b. you mā mūmuhat khalu bhavantamananyajanmā, Ma. i.;
     2 madayati (c. 10. mad), which b. the heart mano madayanti ye, Ma. i.
     II To fascinate by magic:
     1 mohayati;
     2 mantreṇa vaśīkaroti (kṛ, c. 8.).

BEWITCHER: v. Enchanter.

BEWITCHING (adj.): mohanaḥ ( or nā naṃ): v. Charming.

BEYOND (prep.):
     I On the further side of: Ph: b. it a desolate forest and b. that the mount Kailāsa tataḥ parato nirmānuṣamaraṇyaṃ taccātikramya kailāsagiriḥ, K.; b. the range of speech and mind atītya vācāṃ manasāṃ ca gocaram, Ki. xviii. 41.
     II Further than, past: Ph. this is b. us idamasmākamasādhyam; it was even b. my expectations manorathānāmapyabhūmiḥ, Sa. vii.; b. measure atīva; who is b. our senses atīndriyāya, M. n.; naturally b. any one's comprehension nisargadurbodhaḥ (dhā dhaṃ) Ki. Ph.: b. the seas: i. e. out of the country: dvīpāntare (not samudrapāre, which = on the coast of the sea).

BEYOND (adv.): i. e. yonder: q. v.: dūre, from b. dūrāt.

     1 atikrāmati (kram, c. l.) (with acc.);
     2 atyeti (i, c. 2.) (with acc.).

BEZEL: *ratnādhāraḥ; aṅgurīyakasya ratnapraṇidhānabhāgaḥ.

BIAS (subs.):
     I Inclination: q. v. pravaṇatā. Partiality: q. v.: pakṣapātaḥ.

BIAS (v. t.):
     1 āvarjayati (c. of vṛj), M. n.;
     2 prahvīkaroti (kṛ, c. 8.), my heart is b. ed by (your) good qualities prahvīkṛtaṃ me hṛdayaṃ guṇaudhaiḥ, Ki. iii. 12.

BIB: (*bālakasya) uraśchadaḥ.

BIBBER (subs.):
     1 surāpaḥ (pā paṃ);
     2 madyapaḥ (pā paṃ): v. Drunkard.

BIBLE: *kṛṣṭīyadharmapustakam.

BIBLICAL (adj.): expr. by comp., b. erudition *bāibalapāṇḍityam.

BIBLIOGRAPHER: pustakavidyāviśāradaḥ and sim. comp. s.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: pustakavidyā; pustakānāṃ mudrāṅkanādinirṇāyakaśāstram.

BIBLIOMANIA: *durlabhapustakasaṃgrahaṇonmādaḥ and sim. comp. s.

BIBLIOMANIAC: *durlabhapustakasaṃgrahaṇonmādin (f. ) and sim. comp. s.

BIBLIOPOLIST: *pustakavikretṛ (f. trī): v. Bookseller.

     1 jalaśoṣakaḥ (kā kaṃ);
     2 jalacoṣakaḥ (kā kaṃ) (?).

BICKER (v. i.): vi-nvadate (vad, c. l.): v. To wrangle.

BICKERING (subs.):
     1 kalahaḥ;
     2 vivādaḥ;
     3 dvandvam.

BID (v. t.):
     I In auction: *vadati (vad, c. l.): I. will b. even hundred rupees for the horse *śatarūpyamudrayāpyaśvaṃ krīṇāmiti vadāmi.
     II To request, tell: q. v.: Ph. to b. defiance: v. To defy; to b. welcome svāgatamiti vadati; to b. adieu: v. Adieu.

BIDDER (subs.):
     1 *vādin (f. );
     2 cikrīrṣu (mfn.).

BIDDING (subs.): *vādaḥ; cikrīṣāvādaḥ.

BIENNIAL (adj.):
     1 dvivarṣīṇaḥ (ṇā ṇaṃ);
     2 dvivārṣikaḥ (kī kaṃ).

BIER (subs.):
     1 śavayānam;
     2 śavavāhanam;
     3 kaṭaḥ

BIESTINGS (subs.):
     1 pīyūṣa (mn.);
     2 peyūṣa (mn.).

BIFURCATION: Ph. near the b. of the river yatra nadī dūyoḥ pravāhayoḥ pravibhaktā tasya samīpe.

BIG (adj.):
     I Large, huge: q. v.:
     1 bṛhat (f. ) (not applicable to men);
     2 bṛhatkāyaḥ or mahākāyaḥ (yā yaṃ) (=large-bodied);
     3 mahāpramāṇaḥ or atipramāṇaḥ (ṇā ṇaṃ) (=of large height), a b. man mahāpramāṇaḥ puruṣaḥ K., saw the b. (horse) Indrāyudha atipramāṇamindrāyudhamadrākṣīt, K. II. Pregnant (Lit. and Fig.): q. v.:
     III Boastful: q. v.

     I The man:
     1 dvibhāryaḥ;
     2 dvipatnīkaḥ.
     II The woman *dvibhartṛkā; vartamāne patyau yā strī punarvivāhaṃ karoti.

     1 *dvistrīkaraṇam (of men;
     2 *dvipatīkaraṇam (of women).

BIGHT: v. Bay.

BIGNESS: v. Bulk, size.

BIGOT: *dharmanirbaddhaḥ (ddhā ddhaṃ); yaḥ (yā yaṃ) avicāreṇānyamatāni pratyākhyāya svamatamanuvartate.

BIGOTED (adj.): v. Bigot. Ph. this is a b. country *atra puruṣāḥ avicāreṇa svamatāsaktāḥ or paradharmavidveṣiṇaḥ.

BIGOTRY: *dharmanirbandhaḥ; svamatāgrahaḥ; avicāreṇa svamatāsaktiḥ.

BILE: pittam. To stir one's b. (Fig.) vāyuṃ prakopayati (c. of kup).

BILGE-WATER: naukātalajalam (?).

BILIARY (adj.): the b. duct pittavāhinī (?).

BILIOUS (adj.): paittikaḥ (kī kaṃ): b. fever pittajvaraḥ.

BILK (v. t.): vañcayate (vañca, c. 10.): v. To cheat.

BILL (sub.):
     I A declaration in writing lekhaḥ, a b. of indictment abhiyogalekhaḥ.
     II A bill of exchange: *huṇḍiḥ, a b. payable at sight *darśanadeyo huṇḍiḥ.
     III Proposed law: *pāṇḍulipiḥ, the House of Commons rejected the b. by a great majority *bahusabhyānāmaikamatyena sādhāraṇasabhā pāṇḍulipiṃ pratyādideśa.
     IV A written or printed notice: ghoṣaṇāpatram: v. Advertisement, placard. V. An account (rendered) of money due: *deyapatram, make out a b. for me. mayā yattubhyaṃ deyaṃ tasya gaṇanāṃ kuru. Miscell.: a. b. of sale vikrayapatram; a b. of lading *preraṇapatram.
     VI The beak of a bird:
     1 cañcuḥ;
     2 cañcupuṭaḥ.
     VII A mattock, a hakSet: q. v.: dātram.

BILL (v. i.): Ph. the pigeons are b. ing and cooing anyonyasya cañcuṃ saṃghaṭya kapotāḥ kujanti.

BILLET (subs.):
     I A note: q. v.: patram.
     II A ticket: q. v. nidarśanapatram.
     III A log of wood: kāṣṭham: v. Log, stick.

BILLET (v. t.); i. e. to quarter as soldiers: niveśayati (c. of viśa).

BILL-HOOK: phaṇimukhaḥ; D.: v. Hatchet.

BILLIARD (adj.): Ph. a b. ball *aṇḍam; b. room *aṇḍāgāram.

BILLIARDS: *aṇḍakrīḍā. To play at b. *aṇḍaiḥ krīḍati.

BILLION: kharvam.

     1 mahormiḥ;
     2 kallolaḥ;
     3 ullolaḥ;
     4 lahariḥ: v. Wave.

     1 taraṅgitaḥ (tā taṃ);
     2 ūrmimālin (f. );
     3 kallolamālākulaḥ (lā laṃ);
     4 udvelaḥ (lā laṃ).

BIN (subs.): Ph. corn-b. dhānyakoṣṭhaḥ; wine-b. madirākoṣṭhaḥ.

BINARY (adj.): Ph. a b. compound *dvibhūtajaṃ dravyam; b. scale *dvikamūlā gaṇanāpaddhatiḥ.

BIND (v. t):
     I Lit., to tie: q. v.:
     1 badhnāti ni-, (bandh, c. 9.) b. ing firmly to a post sthūṇayā saha dṛḍhabandhanena baddhvā, P. i. 4.;
     2 saṃ-yacchati (yam, c. l.) (=to restrain: q. v.), as if bound by chains nigaḍairiva saṃ-yatām, K. II. Fig., to restrain, hold in check: badhnāti ni-, (bandha, c. 9.), bound by affection snehanibaddhaḥ (ddhā ddhaṃ), Ki. ii. 44., b. s my sight badhnāti me cakṣuḥ, R. xiii. 47.;
     2 niyantrayati (yantr, c. 10), laws do not b. him *vidhayastaṃ na niyantrayanti. Ph. b. him by an oath śapathena tamābaddhaṃ kuru
     III To render costive:
     1 badhnāti ni-, b. ing of the bowels baddhaviṭkatā, Śr.;
     2 ānahyati (nah, c. 4.)
     IV To bind books: (carmādinā) badhnāti (?). V. To protect with a border: badhnāti (?): V. To border, fringe.

BIND OVER: ābadhnāti or ābaddhaḥ (ddhā ddhaṃ) karoti (?). Ph. b. him over in 100 Rs. recognizance to keep the peace *śāntirakṣārthaṃ śatarūpyamudrādānapratijñayā tamābaddhaṃ kuru.

BIND UP: badhnāti ni-, (bandh, c. 9.): the snakes as if b. ing up the wounds of the branches śākhānāṃ vraṇamiva nibadhnanti phaṇinaḥ, Mu. vi. 13.

BIND UP IN or WITH: only in pass.: Ph. my love for you is bound up with my nature tvayi me bhāvanibandhanā ratiḥ, R. viii. 52.

BINDER: i. e. book- b.:
     1 *pustakabandhanakārī;
     2 *pustakapidhātā.

BINDING (subs.):
     I In gen.:
     1 bandhaḥ;
     2 bandhanam.
     II Of a book: Perh pidhānam: v. Covering.
     III Of a dress: v. Border, fringe.

BINDING (adj.): Of medicines: grāhin or saṃgrāhin (f. ṇī), Śr.

BIND-WEED: kṣīravidārī (a species of convolvulus).

     1 dvinayanaḥ (nā naṃ);
     2 dvinetraḥ (trā traṃ).

BINOMIAL: *dvipadaḥ (dā daṃ). B. theorem *dvipadavṛddhitattvam.

     1 *caritalekhakaḥ;
     2 jīvanacaritaracakaḥ;
     3 *jīvanacaritakṛt (m.).

BIOGRAPHICAL: Ph. b. writer: v. Biographer; b. work: v. Biography.

     1 caritam, b. of Śriharsha śrīharṣacaritam, C.;
     2 jīvanacaritam;
     3 jīvanavṛttāntaḥ.

BIPARTITE (adj.): Perh. dvaidhaḥ (dhī dhaṃ).

BIPED (adj.):
     1 dvipadaḥ or dvipādaḥ (dā daṃ);
     2 dvipād (m.), patī (f.) pat, (n.) (?).

BIRCH or BIRCH-TREE: bhūrjaḥ bhūrjapatraḥ or (a species of b.)

BIRCHEN (adj.):
     1 by tat. comp.;
     2 bhūrjamayaḥ (yī yaṃ).

     1 vihagaḥ;
     2 vihaṅgaḥ;
     3 vihaṅgamaḥ;
     4 pakṣin (m.);
     5 patatrin (m.);
     6 patagaḥ;
     7 khagaḥ;
     8 śakuntaḥ;
     9 śakunaḥ;
     10 viṣkiraḥ;
     11 garutmat (m.);
     12 dvijaḥ.

BIRD-CAGE: piñjaram or pañjaram.

BIRD-CALL: pakṣirutānukāriṇī vaṃśī yayā pralobhya pakṣiṇo badhyante.

     1 śākunikaḥ;
     2 pākṣikaḥ.

     1 vihagapālaḥ;
     2 pakṣipālaḥ (?).

BIRD-LIME: pakṣibandhanārthaṃ śyānodapeṣam.

BIRTH (subs):
     I Coming into life:
     1 janman (n.) (the best equiv.), blind from b. janmāndhaḥ (ndhā ndhaṃ);
     2 janyam;
     3 jananam;
     4 janiḥ;
     5 udbhavaḥ;
     6 utpattiḥ;
     7 bhavaḥ;
     8 sambhavaḥ;
     9 sūtiḥ; Ph. lordship from b. garbheśvaratvam, K.
     II Lineage, discent: q. v.:
     1 kulam,
     2 anvayaḥ; Ph. proud of one's b. kulābhimānin (f. ), Ki.; of high b. abhijanavat (f. ), Sa iii. The act of giving birth:
     1 prasavaḥ;
     2 prajananam.
     IV That which is born: v. Creature.

     1 sūte (, c. 2.);
     2 janayati (c. of jan): v. To bring forth.

     1 janmadinam;
     2 janidivasam, Vi. vi.; and sim. comp.s.

     1 janmabhūmiḥ;
     2 janmasthānam; and sim. comp. s.

     1 janmanaḥ svatvam or adhikāraḥ;
     2 by circumlo., sold his b. for a morsel of bread *apūpakhaṇḍārthaṃ pitṛsampattyādau sarvaṃ svatvaṃ vyakrīṇīta.

BISCUIT: iyurupīyapiṣṭakaviśeṣaḥ.

     1 dvaidhīkaroti or dvidhākaroti (kṛ, c. 8.);
     2 samāṃśadvayena vibhajati (bhaj, c. l.).

     1 dvidhākaraṇam;
     2 dvaidhīkaraṇam;
     3 samāṃśadvayena vibhāgaḥ.

BISHOP: *kṛṣṭīyasampradāyeṣu pradhānācāryaḥ.

     I A bishop's office: pradhānācāryapadam.
     II Bishop's district *pradhānācāryasyādhikāraḥ; b. of London *laṇḍanasya pradhānācāryasyādhikāraḥ.

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BISMUTH: ālohitaśukladhātuprabhedaḥ.

BISON: emerīkādeśīyo mahiṣākāro'raṇyajantuviśeṣaḥ.

BISSEXTILE: vaiṣuvavatsareṇaikyārthaṃ pāścātyapāṇḍitāścaturthe caturthe varṣe phevruvārīmāsamekādhikadivasamūnatriṃśaddivasātmakamiti parigaṇayanti | sa ca ekādhikadivaso varṣastaira "visekaṣṭāil", "lipa iyāra" cābhidhīyate.

BIT (subs.):
     I Of the bridle:
     1 khalīna (mn.);
     2 kavikaḥ or kavikā;
     3 valgā.
     II A small piece:
     1 khaṇḍaḥ;
     2 grāsaḥ (=a mouthful). Not a b. na manāgapi.

BIT (v. t.); To b. a horse aśvasya mukhe khalīnaṃ dadāti, Mu. or khalīmaṃ prakṣipati (kṣip, c. 6.), P. iv. 7.

     I Lit.:
     1 kukkurī;
     2 śunī;
     3 saramā.
     II As a term of reproach: bandhakī.

BITE (v. t.):
     I With teeth etc.: daśati vi- saṃ-, (danś, c. l.): Ph. one should not b. off one's nails dantairnotpāṭayen (c. of paṭ) nakhān, M. iv. 69.; one who b. s his nails nakhakhādī, M.; to b. the lips oṣṭhau daśati or khaṇḍati vi-, (khaṇḍ c. l.), Si. xvii. 2., or nirvibhunakti (bhuj, c. 7.) (poet)
     II To produce a keen, pungent sensation: jvalayati (c. of jval,)
     III To adhere to: q. v.

BITE (subs.):
     I The act of biting: daṃśaḥ; poisonous b. saviṣo daṃśaḥ, U. II. The wound made by biting: daṃśaḥ.
     III A cheat or one who cheats q. v.

BITING (adj.): i. e. sharp, severe, sarcastic: q. v.

BITTER (adj.):
     I Of the taste: tiktaḥ (ktā ktaṃ).
     II Harsh, stern:
     1 kaṭu. (mfn.) even by the b. words of Śishupāla kaṭunāpi caidyavacanena. Si. xv. 40.;
     2 marmāvidh (mfn.) (Lit. piercing the vital parts);
     3 niṣṭhuraḥ (rā raṃ) (prop= cruel.), we are very b. ly reviled ati niṣṭhuramupālabdhāḥ smaḥ, U. iv.
     III Painful, severe: q. v.: udvejanakaraḥ (rī raṃ): Ph. b. cold atyantaśītam.
     IV Mournful, distressing, pitiable: q. v.

     I Severly, cruelly: q. v.: niṣṭhuram.
     II Sorrowfully, piteously: q. v.: Ph. wept b. bhṛśaṃ or atyantaṃ ruroda.

BITTERN: krauñcajātīyapakṣibhedaḥ.

     I Of taste:
     1 tiktatā;
     2 tiktatvam.
     II Keenness of reproach, sarcasm:
     1 kaṭutā;
     2 niṣṭhuratā.
     III Deep distress of mind: duḥkham.
     IV Impious feeling: pāṣaṇḍabuddhiḥ. v. Malice, hatred: q. v.: vidveṣaḥ.

     1 śilājatu (n.);
     2 giripuṣpakam;
     3 śilādadruḥ.

BITUMINOUS: śilājatuśālin (f. ) (?) (=containing bitumen).

BIVOUAC (sub.); v. WakS, guard.

BIVOUAC (v.): Ph. "determined to b. there for the night" apramattāstatraiva yāminīṃ yāpayituṃ kṛtasaṃkalpāḥ.

BLAB, BLABBER: vāvadūkaḥ: v. Babbler, tell-tale.

BLAB (v. t.): bhinatti (bhid, c. 7.): v. To divulge: v. Also, to babble.

BLACK (adj.):
     I Of colour:
     1 kṛṣṇaḥ (ṣṇā ṣṇaṃ);
     2 kṛṣṇavarṇaḥ (rṇā rṇaṃ);
     3 śyāmaḥ (mā maṃ) or śyāmalaḥ (lā laṃ) (=dark blue);
     4 nīlaḥ (lā laṃ) (prop. = blue);
     5 kālaḥ (lā laṃ);
     6 mecakaḥ (kā kaṃ);
     7 malinaḥ (nā naṃ); your heart must be very b. like your exterior bahiriva malinataraṃ tava mano'pi bhaviṣyati nūnam, Gi. viii. 7.
     II Fig., dismal, gloomy, calamitious, horrible, wicked: q. v. B. and blue: v. Livid.

BLACK (subs.):
     I The colour:
     1 kṛṣṇaḥ;
     2 kṛṣṇavarṇaḥ.
     III Black dress:
     1 kṛṣṇavastram,
     2 kṛṣṇavasanam.
     III A black man:
     1 kṛṣṇakāyaḥ (yā yaṃ);
     2 śyāmāṅgaḥ (ṅgī ṅgaṃ).

     1 indrajālam;
     2 kārmaṇam: v. Magic.

BLACK-BALL (subs.): (pratyākhyānapradarśanī) kṛṣṇaguṭikā.

BLACK-BALL (v. t.): pratyākhyāti (khyā, c. 2.): v. To reject.

BLACK-BERRY: phalaviśeṣaḥ. In India, sometimes applied to jambu (n.)

BLACK-BIRD: pakṣibhedaḥ. In India, the term is applied to kokilaḥ. (=Cuckoo).

BLACK-CATTLE: māṃsārthaṃ pālitā gāvaḥ.

     I To make black:
     1 kālīkaroti, b. s his face mukhaṃ kālīkaroti, Na. iii.;
     2 kṛṣṇīkaroti (rare);
     3 śyāmīkaroti (=to make dark blue).
     II To darken: q. v.
     III To sully: q. v.

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     1 durvṛttaḥ (ttā ttaṃ);
     2 durācāraḥ (rā raṃ): v. Rake.

BLACKING (subs.): kālī (?).

     1 īṣatkṛṣṇaḥ (ṣṇā ṣṇaṃ). īṣatkālaḥ (lā laṃ).

BLACK-LEAD: lohabhedaḥ; *aṅgāralohaḥ.

     1 kāliman (m.);
     2 kṛṣṇatvam;
     3 kṛṣṇiman (m.): v. Also, darkness.

     1 karmakāraḥ;
     2 karmāraḥ;
     3 lohakāraḥ.

     1 kloman (m.);
     2 mūtrāśayaḥ;
     3 tilakam (rare).

     I The cutting part of a knife etc.; dhārā.
     II Of grass:
     1 dala (mn.);
     2 kāṇḍam (?).
     III A rake: q. v.

BLADE-BONE: v. Shoulder-bone.

     1 nindanīyaḥ (yā yaṃ);
     2 nindyaḥ (ndyā ndyaṃ);
     3 nindārhaḥ (rhā rhaṃ): v. Faulty, culpable.

BLAMABLENESS or BLAMEABLENESS: nindyatāḥ v. Culpability.

BLAME (subs.):
     I Censure, reprehension: q. v.: nindā.
     II Fault, crime doṣaḥ, he lays the b. on another's shoulders anyasmin or anyasya skandhe sa doṣaṃ nyasyati (as, c. 4.). Without b. = blameless: q. v.

BLAME (v. t.): nindati vi-, (nind, c. l.): v. To censure.

     1 anindyaḥ (ndyā ndyaṃ);
     2 anindanīyaḥ (yā yaṃ);
     3 nirdoṣaḥ (ṣā ṣaṃ) (=faultless: q. v.);
     4 niṣkalaṅkaḥ (ṅkā ṅkaṃ) (=spotless: q. v.);
     5 viśuddhaḥ (ddhā ddhaṃ) (pure: q. v.).

BLAMELESSLY: v. Innocently, faultlessly.

     1 anindyatā;
     2 nirdoṣatā (=faultlessness);
     3 viśuddhatā (= purity).

     1 nindārhaḥ (rhā rhaṃ);
     2 nindanīyaḥ (yā yaṃ): v. Censurable.

BLAMER: nindakaḥ: v. Censurer.

BLANCH (v.);
     I To whiten: q. v.: dhavalayati (nomi.).
     II To peel: q. v. tvacayati (nomi.).

BLAND: mṛdu (dvī du): Mild, gentle.

     I Of love:
     1 hāvaḥ;
     2 vilāsaḥ;
     3 vibhramaḥ. N. B. Applied only to women.
     II Sweet words:
     1 priyavākyam;
     2 madhurabhāṣitam.

BLANK (adj.):
     I Not filled or written on: śuddhaḥ (ddhā ddhaṃ) (?).
     II White pale or dismayed: q. v.: Ph. b. verse: amitrākṣarachandaḥ; b. cartridge *kevalacūrṇakoṣaḥ; b. endorsement lekhaka. -nāmavirahitaṃ huṇḍyādau pṛṣṭhalikhanam.

BLANK (subs.):
     I A void space: Ph. don't leave so much b. etāvadalikhitaṃ or śuddhaṃ (?) mā rakṣīḥ:
     II A b. ticket *śuddhanidarśanī.
     III A b. ballot *śuddhaguṭikā.

     1 kambalaḥ;
     2 rallakaḥ;
     3 ūrṇāyuḥ.

BLASPHEME: nindati (nind, c. l.): v. To revile.

     1 īśvaranindakaḥ;
     2 pāṣaṇḍaḥ (=heretic).

     1 īśvaranindakaḥ (kā kaṃ);
     2 comp. with pāṣaṇḍa-.

     1 abhavatyā (=irreligiously);
     2 avajñayā (=contemptuously).

     1 īśvaranindā;
     2 pāṣaṇḍatā (=heresy).

BLAST (subs.):
     I A gust of wind:
     1 vātyā;
     2 javānilaḥ: v. Gale.
     II The blowing of a wind instrument: v. Blowing.
     III A blight: q. v.

BLAST (v. t.):
     I To blight: q. v.
     II To destroy, frustrate: q. v. unmūlayati (mūl, c. 10.).
     III To rend open by explosion; vidārayati (c. of da) (?).

BLAZE (subs.):
     I Lit.:
     1 prabhā;
     2 arcisa (m.): v. Flame, light.
     II Fig.: Ph.: "b. of fame" yaśaḥprabhā.

BLAZE (v. i.):
     1 (jvalati pra- sampra-, (jval, c. l.), b. ing powers jvalatpratāpāvaliḥ; N. i. 2.;
     2 dīpyate pra- saṃ-, (dīp, c. 4.) the Raghu-chief b. ed with rage kuddho'dīpi raghuvyāghraḥ, B. vi. 32.: v. To kindle.

BLAZON (v. t.):
     I To display: q. v.: prathayati (c. of prath).
     III To deck, embellish: q. v.: maṇḍayati
     III To explain coat of arms vyākhyāti (khyā, c. 2.).

     I A coat of arms: q. v.
     II Publication, display: q. v.: āḍambharaḥ (?).

     I To whiten: q. v.: dhavalayati (nomi.)
     II To make pale: vivarṇayati (nomi.).

BLEACHING-POWDER: *virañjakacūrṇam.

BLEAK (adj.):
     I Bold, frigid: q. v.: atiśītaḥ (tā taṃ).
     II Exposed to cold: expr. by circum.: these wastes are so b. *eṣu khilapradeśeṣu himasyedṛk prādurbhāvaḥ.

BLEAK (subs.): nādeyaḥ śuklavarṇaḥ kṣudramatsyabhedaḥ.

     I Exposure to the wind: by circum.: v. Bleak (II).
     II Coldness: q. v.: śītatā.

     1 klinnākṣatā;
     2 cullatā.

     1 klinnākṣaḥ (kṣī kṣaṃ);
     2 cullaḥ or cillaḥ (llā llaṃ);
     3 pillaḥ, (llā llaṃ).

BLEAT (v. i.): rebhate (rebh, c. l): v. To make noise.

     1 rāvaḥ or remaṇam: v. Noise.
     2 meṣarutam (the cry of a sheep).

BLEED (v. t.): raktaṃ or rudhiraṃ or śauṇitaṃ srāvayati vi- ā- pari-, (c. of stra); or mokṣayati (mukṣ, c. 10); or mocayati (c. of muc) or avasecayati (c. of sic). N. B. These verbs are cons. with gen. of the person who is bled.

BLEED (v. i.): raktaṃ or rudhiraṃ or śoṇitaṃ sravati (sru, c. l); or cyavate (cyu, c. l), Ki.; or kṣarati (kṣar, c. l). M. n.; or gacchati (gam, c. l) (rare), when it stops itself after sufficient b. ing samyag gatvā yadā raktaṃ svayamevāvatiṣṭhate, Śr.; or pravartate (vṛt, c. l) (rare), if it does not b. apravartamāne rakte. N. B. These verbs are cons. with gen. of the person and abl. of the part which b. s: his hand b. s tasya hastāt śoṇitaṃ sravati.

BLEEDING (subs.):
     I Letting of blood;
     1 raktasrāvaḥ -ṇaṃ;
     2 raktamokṣaṇam;
     3 raktāvasecanam, etc.
     II Flowing of blood:
     1 raktasru tiḥ;
     2 raktacyutiḥ;
     3 raktakṣaraṇam etc.

BLEMISH (v. t.):
     1 malinayati (nomi.);
     2 dūṣayati (c. of duṣ): v. To stain.

BLEMISH (subs.): doṣaḥ: v. Stain, defect, fault.

BLEND, BLENDING: v. To mingle, mingling.

BLESS (v. t.):
     I To pronounce a blessing on:
     1 often by sim. āśīrliṅ or loṭ when any particular blessing is specified, I b. you that you may have a son like yourself, putraṃ labhasvātmaguṇānurūpam, R. v. 34.;
     2 āṣiśaṃ dadāti (, c. 3) or prayunakti (yuj, c. 7) (with dat.), R. v. 35.
     3 āśāste (śās, c. 2), I b. you by the Rig Veda ṛkchandasāśāse, Sa. iv.;
     4 āśaṃsate (śaṃs, c. l) (rare), M. n.: Ph. God b. you īśaste kalyāṇaṃ or śubhaṃ vitaratu.
     II To glorify or praise: q. v.: Ph. b. the Lord, b. his holy name *īśo gīyatāṃ tasya pavitraṃ nāma gīyatām.
     III To consecrate: q. v.
     IV To favour, endow liberally: q. v.

     I Happy, highly favoured:
     1 dhanyaḥ (nyā nyaṃ), Si. xiv. 87.;
     2 mahābhāgyavat (f. ), Vi.
     II Enjoying heavenly felicity: labdhamokṣaḥ (kṣā kṣaṃ);
     3 siddhaḥ (ddhā ddhaṃ). Ph. b. foot śrīcaraṇakamalam; b. shore śrīmatkūlam.

BLESSEDNESS: v. Happiness, felicity. "In single b." anudvāhasukhena (?)

     I A benediction:
     1 āśis (f.);
     2 āśīrvādaḥ;
     3 āśīrvacanam.
     II A gift, benefit, or advantage: q. v.

BLIGHT (v. t.):
     1 utsādayati (c. of sad) (=to destroy);
     2 vṛddhiṃ stabhnāti (stambh. c. 9) (=stop the growth) (with gen.).

BLIGHT (subs.):
     1 upadravaḥ (?);
     2 vyāghātaḥ (?);
     3 kṣayaḥ (=decay).

BLIND (adj.): andhaḥ, (ndhā ndhaṃ), born b. janmāndhaḥ (ndhā ndhaṃ) or jātyandhaḥ (ndhā ndhaṃ) (rare) M.;
     2 andhadṛś (mfn.) and sim. comp. s., naturally b. to their own improprieties sahajāndhadṛśaḥ svadurnaye, Si. xvi. 29. Ph b. of one eye kāṇaḥ (ṇā ṇaṃ); b. at night rātryandhaḥ (ndhā ndhaṃ); a b. well andhakūpaḥ, Va.; love is b. *prema bhadraṃ na paśyati or gaṇayati.

BLIND (v.): andhayati (nomi.) or andhīkaroti (kṛ c. 8), b. ed by sensual pleasures viṣayāndhīkṛtekṣaṇaḥ, Ka. Ph. b. ed by passion kāmāndhaḥ (ndhā ndhaṃ) b. ed by rage krondhāndhaḥ (ndhā ndhaṃ).

BLIND (subs.): tiraskariṇīḥ v. Screen.

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BLINDFOLD (v. t.): netre or locane or dṛśau badhnāti (bandh, c. 9) or abhinahyati (nah, c. 4).

     1 baddhacakṣus (mfn.), S. c.;
     2 abhinaddhākṣaḥ (f. kṣī). Up. Fig. "fate's b. reign" *devasya timirāvṛtamādhipatyam: v. Also blindly.

     1 andhavat;
     2 asamīkṣya (=inconsiderately);
     3 sahasā (=suddenly).

BLINDMAN'S BUFF: netrabandhaḥ -krīḍā, B. p.

     I Lit.
     1 andhatā;
     2 andhatbam
     II Fig.: mohaḥ.

BILNK: v. To wink, twinkle.

BLISS: paramasukham v. Happiness, felicity, beatitude.

BLISSFUL: ānandamayaḥ (yī yaṃ): v. Happy, blessed.

BLISTER (subs.):
     I A watery tumour: jalapūrṇaṃ vraṇam (?). A b. on the foot: vipādikā.
     II A plaster for raising b. s: *dāhālepaḥ jalapūrṇavraṇotpādakālepaḥ.

BLISTER (v. t.):
     I To apply a blister: *dāhālepaṃ prayunakti (yuj, c. 7.).
     II To raise blisters: jalapūrṇāni vraṇāni utthāpayati (c. of sthā) (?).
     III Fig. v. To burn.

BLISTER (v. i.): Ph, "let my tongue b." *mama jihvāyāṃ jalapūrṇani vraṇāni bhavantu.

BLITHE, BLITHESOME: v. Cheerful, gay, merry.

     1 saharṣam;
     2 sollāsam: v. Cheerfully, merrily.

     1 sphūrtiḥ;
     2 ullāsaḥ: v. Cheerfulness, sprightliness.

BLOAT: v. To swell.

BLOATED (adj.):
     1 sphītaḥ (tā taṃ);
     2 śūnaḥ (nā naṃ);
     3 sphātaḥ (tā taṃ).

BLOCK (subs.):
     I Of wood: kāṣṭham.
     II Of stone: śilā.
     III For beheading criminals: vadhyakāṣṭham (after vadhyaśilā, of Na.). Ph. whose heads were brought to the b. yeṣāṃ śirāṃsi vadhyakāṣṭhaṃ sparśitāni or sim. chinnāni.
     IV Any mass: piṇḍa (mn.). V. A row: q. v.: śreṇī.
     VI Any obstruction or hindrance: q. v.
     VII A blockhead: q. v.

     1 ruṇaddhi ava- ni- saṃ- upa- prati-, (rudh, c. 7.) b. ing up the path mārgamavarudhya Mah.;
     2 āvṛṇoti (vṛ, c. 5.), b. ing up the road āvṛtya panthānam, R. vii. 31.
     3 ācchādayati (c. of chad) (rare), b. ing up the way of the chariot ācchādya rathapanthānam, Mah.

BLOCKADE (subs.):
     1 rodhaḥ;
     2 avarodhaḥ;
     3 uparodhaḥ;
     4 saṃrodhaḥ.

BLOCKADE (v. t.):
     1 ruṇaddhi ava- upa-, (rudh, c. 7.);
     2 pariveṣṭate (beṣṭ, c. l.) (=to surround: q. v.) (to be used only when the context determines the meaning).

BLOCKADER: avaroddhā: v. Besieger.

     1 sthūlabuddhiḥ;
     2 varvaraḥ: v. Fool.

     I Lit.:
     1 raktam;
     2 rudhiram;
     3 śoṇitam;
     4 asṛj (n.);
     5 asram;
     6 kṣatajam (rare), the cascade of fresh b; pratyagrakṣatajabharī, Vi. vii.
     7 kīlālam (rare), quenched by b. flowing saratkīlālanirvāpita, Vi. iii. Ph.: to lose b. raktaṃ muñcati (bhuc, c. 6.); to take one's b. hanti (han, c. 2.) v. To murder.
     II Kindred, lineage: q. v.: Ph. related by b. sanābhi (mfn.); of whole b. sodaraḥ (rā raṃ); half-b. q. v.
     III Bloodshed: q. v.
     IV Temper of mind, passion: Ph. their b. was up for revenge *pratīkārārthaṃ teṣāṃ krodhāgniruddidīpe; do not rouse my b. mā māṃ prakopaya; murdered the child in cold b. *śānto bālaṃ jaghāna.

BLOOD (v. t.):
     I To bleed: q. v.
     II To stain with blood: rudhireṇa limpati (v. To. annoint) or kaluṣayati (v. To stain): Ph. b. ed scimitars khaṅgāḥ śoṇitasandigdhāḥ, Ku.

BLOOD-HOUND: kukkurabhedaḥ: v. Hound.

BLOODINESS: jighāṃsā: v. Cruelty.

     I Without blood:
     1 raktahīnaḥ (nā naṃ) (?);
     2 gatāsu (mfn.) (=dead).
     II Without shedding of blood: raktapātaṃ vinā Ph. by which the discharger obtains a b. victory yataḥ prayokturna cārihiṃsā vijayaśca haste, R. v. 53.

BLOOD-LET: (v.): v. To bleed.

BLOOD-RED: raktaḥ (ktā ktaṃ): v. Red.

BLOOD-SHED: raktapātaḥ: v. Slaughter.

     1 atiraktaḥ (ktā ktaṃ) (=very red);
     2 raktābhiṣyandin (f. ) (?).

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     1 raktāktaḥ (ktā ktaṃ);
     2 rudhirasaṃliptaḥ (ptā ptaṃ);
     3 śoṇitasandigdhaḥ (gdhā gdhaṃ);
     4 asradigdhaḥ (gdhā gdhaṃ), R.; and sim. comp.

     1 raktapāyin (f. );
     2 asrapaḥ (pā paṃ).

     1 rudhirapriyaḥ (yā yaṃ);
     2 jighāṃsu (mfn.): v. Sanguinary, murderous.

BLOOD-VESSEL raktavāhinī or asṛgvahā nāḍī.

     I Blood-stained: q. v.
     II Sanguinary, murderous: q. v.
     III Attended with blood-shed: Ph. it was a b. battle asmin yuddhe bahu raktaṃ papāta (?); that day was most b. for the Romans *tasmin divase rumīyāṇāṃ baṃhiṣṭhaṃ raktaṃ papāta.

BLOOM (subs.):
     I Blossom: q. v.
     II Fig., the b. of youth navayauvanam; the b. (of a maiden's) cheek kapolarāgaḥ.

BLOOM (v. i.): v. To blossom.

     1 praphullaḥ (llā llaṃ), b. face praphullavadanam;
     2 vikasat (f. ntī);
     3 sphuṭat (f. ntī);
     4 kusumitaḥ (tā taṃ);
     5 puṣpitaḥ (tā taṃ).

BLOSSOM (v. i.):
     1 sphuṭati (sphuṭ, c. 6);
     2 phullati (phull, c. l);
     3 vikasati (kas, c. l);
     4 puṣpati (puṣp, c. 4) (rare): v. To flower.

BLOSSOM (subs.):
     1 puṣpam (=flower: q. v.);
     2 mukula (mn.) (=an opening bud.);
     3 prasavaḥ (rare), mango b. s cūtaprasavaḥ, Ku.;
     4 pravālaḥ (?).

BLOT (subs.): kalaṅkaḥ: v. Spot. stain, tarnish.

BLOT OUT: v. To erase, efface, obliterate.

     1 kilāsam (?);
     2 kacchapikā (?).

BLOTTING-PAPER: *masīśoṣakaṃ kāgajam.

BLOW (subs.):
     I With the fist:
     1 muṣṭiprahāraḥ, gives a b. on the nose dhoṇāyāṃ muṣṭiprahāraṃ dadāti, Mr. ii.
     2 muṣṭighātaḥ;
     3 bhujāhatiḥ, Ki. To strike a b.: muṣṭinā hanti (han, c. 2.) or tāḍayati (taḍ, c. 10.). II. B. in general: prahāraḥ: v. Stroke.
     III Fig. Infliction of evil: Ph. "gave a death-b. to the constitution" *śāsanapraṇālyā vināśaṃ kalpayāmāsa; "fortune's b. s" daivanirdhātaḥ, U.

BLOW (v. i.):
     I To blossom: q. v.: sphuṭati pra-, (sphuṭ, c. 6.).
     II As air:
     1 vāti pra- (, c. 2.);
     2 vahati pra-, (vah, c. l.), Ku. xvii. 26.
     III To breathe hard or quick.: v. To breathe, to part.
     IV To sound as a wind instrument: Ph. horns blew pūrṇāḥ perāśca sasvanuḥ: B.: v. To sound.

BLOW (v. t.):
     I To b. the fire: dhamati sabhā- pra- upa-, (dhmā, c. l.) M. iv. 53.
     II To drive, to impel: q. v.: Ph. the tempest blew the ship ashore *vātyā potaṃ vicikṣepa (kṣip, c. 6.) taṭe; dust b. n by the wind aniloddhataṃ (dhū, c. 9.) or anilotthāpitaṃ (c. of sthā) rajaḥ.
     III To sound a wind instrument:
     1 dhamati sabhā-, blew the shell jalajaṃ dadhmau R.;
     2 pūrayati or mukhamārutena pūrayati (pūr, c. 10.), blew horns kāhalāḥ pūrayāñcakruḥ, B. xiv. 3.
     IV To spread, publish: q. v.: Ph.: to b. the nose nāsikāṃ dhamati; one who does so nāsikandhamaḥ. To b. hot and cold: anugrahanigrahau prakaṭayati (nomi.).

BLOW AWAY: vi-dhūnoti or dhūnayati or dhūnāti (dhū, c. 5., 10. &. 9.): v. To drive away.

BLOW INTO: phūtkaroti.

BLOW OUT: nirvāpayati (c. of ): Ph. if you allow me, I will b. the dust from your eye yadyanumanyase tadahamenāṃ vadanamārutena viśadāṃ karavāṇi, Sa. iii.

BLOW OVER: śāmyati pra- upa-, (śam, c. 4): v. To cease, pass away.

     I To swell, inflate: q. v.
     II By explosion: no equiv.: uddhūnayati (dhū, c. 10) may be used.
     III To destroy: unmūlayati (mūl, c. 10).

BLOW UPON: v. To destroy, to taint.

     1 dhamakaḥ;
     2 dhmātā.

BLOWING (subs.):
     I Of a wind instrument:
     1 dhmātam (rare):
     2 nādaḥ: v. sound:
     II Of a flower, etc.:
     1 vikāśaḥ;
     2 phulliḥ. In other senses, v. To blow.

BLOW-PIPE: dhamanī.

BLUBBER (subs.): timyādiyādasāṃ medas (n.): v. Fat.

BLUBBER (v. i.): v. To weep.

BLUDGEON: laguḍaḥ: v. Club.

BLUE (adj.):
     1 nīlaḥ (lā laṃ);
     2 śyāmaḥ (mā maṃ) (=dark b.); asitaḥ (tā taṃ) (poet).

BLUE (subs.):
     1 nīlaḥ;
     2 nīlavarṇaḥ. B. s.; i. e. low spirits: v. Melancholy.

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BLUE-BIRD: *nīlapakṣī.

BLUE-BOTTLE: latābhedaḥ; makṣikābhedaśca.

BLUE-EYED: nīlākṣaḥ (kṣī kṣaṃ).

BLUFF (adj.): v. Uncouth, steep.

     1 ānīlaḥ (lā laṃ);
     2 īṣannīlaḥ (lā laṃ).

BLUNDER (v. i.): pramādyati (mad, c. 4): v. To err, mistake.

BLUNDER (subs.):
     1 pramādaḥ;
     2 skhalitam;
     3 bhramaḥ: v. Mistake.

BLUNDERBUSS: *āyatacchidraviśiṣṭaḥ kṣudrabandukaviśeṣaḥ.

     1 pramādin (f. );
     2 pramattaḥ (ttā ttaṃ);
     3 bhrāntacittaḥ (ttā ttaṃ).

     1 pramattaḥ (ttā ttaṃ);
     2 bhrāntaḥ (ntā ntaṃ).

     1 pramādena
     2 by the adj. he talks b. pramattaḥ pralapati.

BLUNT (adj.):
     I Not sharp:
     1 nistejas (mfn.);
     2 kuṇṭhaḥ (ṣṭhā ṇṭhaṃ);
     3 kuṇṭhitaḥ (tā taṃ);
     4 prakharaḥ (rā raṃ). To become b.: kuṇṭhībhavati.
     II Fig. Of understanding, etc.:
     1 sthūlaḥ (lā laṃ)
     2 nistejas (mfn.).
     III Plain but unceremonious: saralaḥ (lā laṃ) or ajihmaḥ (hmā hmaṃ), (kintu) avinītaḥ (tā taṃ) or aśiṣṭaḥ (ṣṭā ṣṭaṃ): by his b. remarks *tasya saralābhiravinīnābhiruktimiḥ; be frank not b. saralo bhava nāvinītaḥ.

BLUNT (v. t.):
     1 kuṇṭhīkaroti (kṛ, c. 8);
     2 nistejayati (tij, c. 10);
     3 taikṣṇyaṃ or prākharyaṃ nāśayati (c. of naś) or lumpati (lup, c. 6) (with gen.).

BLUNTLY: Frankly, rudely, plainly.

BLUNTNESS: Of manners: sahajāvinītatā (?); grāmyatā (?).

BLUR (subs.): v. Smear, blot.

BLUR (v.): v. To smear, stain.

BLUSH (v. i.):
     1 lajjāṃ nāṭayati (naṭ, c. 10), Mālavikā b. s mālavikā lajjāṃ nāṭayati, Mal. iii.
     2 jihre ti (hrī, c. 3) putting the sun to b. in splendour hrepayannahimatejasaṃ tviṣā, Ki xiii. 41. N. B. Redness of the face is not used to indicate b. ing.

BLUSH (subs.):
     I A rosy tint: raktiman (m.)
     II A red colour suffusing the cheeks or face: expr. by
     1 lajjā,
     2 vrīḍā or
     3 hrīḥ (=shame): a b. came upon her face tasyānanamālohitaṃ babhūva or, as gen. represented in Sanskrit vrīḍayādhomukhī babhūva.
     III Glance, view: q. v. Ph. at the first b. prathamadarśane.

BLUSHING (adj.): praphullaḥ (llā llaṃ): v. Ruddy, also blushful.

     1 lajjāvanamraḥ (mrā mraṃ);
     2 hrīparigataḥ (tā taṃ);
     3 vrīḍāvanataḥ (tā taṃ).

BLUSTER (v. i.): To be boisterous: vthākrośati (kruś, c. l.).
     II To brag: q. v.
     III To bully: q. v.

BLUSTER (subs.): v. Noise, tumult, boasting.

BLUSTERER: v. Boaster, swaggerer.

BOA-CONSTRICTOR (a serpent):
     1 ajagaraḥ;
     2 vāhasaḥ;
     3 śayuḥ (rare).

     1 varāhaḥ;
     2 śūkaraḥ;
     3 kolaḥ;
     4 potrī, A.;
     5 dhṛṣṭiḥ, A.

BOARD (subs.):
     I A plank: phalaka (mn.).
     II A table for food: bhojanaphalakaḥ.
     III Food, diet: q. v.: āhāraḥ: Ph. but b. and clothing should be given grāsācchādanantu deyameva, K. b.
     IV For playing games:
     1 aṣṭāpadam,
     2 śāriphalam. V. A council: sabhā. A member of it: sabhyaḥ or sabhāsad (m.) Ph. to get on b. a vessel nāvamārohati (ruh, c. l.), Raj.; to leap over b. v. Overboard.

BOARD (v. t.):
     I To cover with b. s: phalakaiḥ ācchādayati (c. of chad,) or āvṛṇoti (vṛ, c. 5.).
     II To enter a ship by force: balāt (nāvaṃ) ārohati (ruh, c. l).
     III To furnish with food: arthaṃ gṛhītvā) bhojayati (c. of bhuj).

BOARD (v. i.): (arthaṃ datvā) (paragṛhe) atti (ad, c. 2.) or abhyavaharati (hṛ, c. l.):
     I b. here with my master *atropādhyāyena saha bhojanaṃ karomi.

BOARDER: expr. by the verb: v. Board (v. i.) and (v. t.) (III).

BOARDING-SCHOOL: yasmin vidyālaye chātrā vāsaṃ bhojanañcādhigacchanti.

BOAST (v. i.):
     1 katyate vi-, (katth, c. l.), you b. for nothing tvaṃ katthase mūdhā, A. r.:
     2 dṛpyati (dṛp, c. 4.), he does not b. himself sa nātmanā dṛpyati, U. vi.:
     3 ātmānaṃ (one's self) or ātmacaritaṃ or ātmakarma (one's acts) ślāghate (ślāgh, c. l), why are you so b. ing of your acts kimevamātmakarma ślāghase, Ve. v.

BOAST (subs.): v. Boasting.

     1 ātmaślāghin (m.);
     2 vikatthin (m.): v. Proud.

     1 vikatthanaḥ (nā naṃ) or vikatthin (f. );
     2 ātmaślāghin (f. );
     3 dṛptaḥ (ptā ptaṃ);
     4 garvitaḥ (tā taṃ);
     5 by comp. with ahaṅkāra.

BOASTING (subs.):
     1 ātmaślāghā;
     2 vikatthanam -nā, what b. about it kā tatra vikatthanā, Vi.;
     3 garvaḥ: v. Pride.

     1 sagarvam;
     2 sadarpam;
     3 sābhimānam;
     4 vikatthanayā.

     1 nauḥ;
     2 naukā;
     3 tarī;
     4 taraṇiḥ -ṇī;
     5 potaḥ (=a big boat, a ship).

BOATABLE (adj.): nautāryaḥ (ryā ryaṃ).

     1 nāvikaḥ;
     2 potavāhaḥ;
     3 dāśaḥ (a class of boat-men). M. viii. 408.

BOAT-SWAIN: *naupālaḥ.

BOBBIN: v. Reel.

BODE: v. To forbode, portend. presage.

     1 kūrpāsaka.;
     2 colaḥ;
     3 kañcu likā.

     1 aśarīraḥ (rā raṃ);
     2 avigrahaḥ (hā haṃ);
     3 anaṅgaḥ (ṅgā ṅgaṃ).

BODILY (adj.):
     1 śārīrikaḥ (kī kaṃ);
     2 kāyikaḥ (kī kaṃ);
     3 daihikaḥ (kī kaṃ).

BODILY (adv.):
     I Corporeally: saśarīram.
     II Entirely: q. v. sākalyena.

     I For piercing: āvidhaḥ.
     II For the hair: keśakīlaḥ.

     I The frame of an animal:
     1 śarīram;
     2 gātram;
     3 kāyaḥ;
     4 dehaḥ (mn.);
     5 vapuḥ;
     6 tanuḥ (f.);
     7 kalevaram;
     8 mūrtiḥ;
     9 vigrahaḥ (rare);
     10 varṣman (n.) (rare).
     II A person: v. No body, some body, etc.
     III Any substance: padārthaḥ, by collision of two b. s padārthadvayasya saṃghaṭṭāt.
     IV An assembly: q. v. sabhā. V. A collection: q. v. samavāyaḥ, a b. of men janasamavāyaḥ.
     VI The main or central part: Ph. the b. of a carriage yānamadhyam (?); the b. of a tree prakāṇḍaḥ; the b. of an army balasamudāyaḥ (?).

BODY-GUARD: śarīrarakṣādhikāraniyuktaḥ puruṣaḥ, K.: v. Guard.

BOG: anūpaḥ: v. Fen, marsh.

BOGGLE: v. To hesitate, shuffle.

BOGGY: anūpaḥ (pā paṃ): v. Fenny, marshy.

BOIL (subs.):
     1 sphoṭaḥ;
     2 visphoṭaḥ;
     3 gaṇḍaḥ.

BOIL (v. t.):
     1 kvāthayati (c. of kvath), to b. in oil tailamadhye kvāthayati, V. p.
     2 pacati (pac, c. 1) (=to cook), much b. ed milk atipakvaṃ dugdham, Bha.

BOIL (v. i.):
     I Of liquids:
     1 kvathyate (pass. of kvath), b. ing water āpaḥ kvathyamānāḥ; V. d.
     II Fig., kvathyate: v. To burn.
     III To be cooked in liquid: siddha; (ddhā ddhaṃ) mavati (bhū, c. l).

BOILED (in a boiler):
     1 ukhyaḥ (khyā khyaṃ,);
     2 sthālīpakva; (kvā kvaṃ);
     3 paiṭhara; (rī raṃ).

     1 sthālī;
     2 kaṭāhaḥ;
     3 piṭharaḥ;
     4 ukhā.

     I Violent, rough:
     1 uccai rasitṛ (f. trī), the b. ocean uccairasitāpagānāṃ patiḥ Si. iii. 72: v. Noisy;
     2 utkaṭaḥ (ṭā ṭaṃ) (=furious: q. v.);
     3 pracaṇḍaḥ (ṇḍā ṇḍaṃ) (=violent, strong),
     II Turbulent, tumultous: q. v.

BOISTEROUSLY: v. Violently, furiously, tumultously;

     I Daring, intrepid;
     1 sāhasikaḥ (kī kaṃ);
     2 sāhasin (f. )
     II Impudent, rude: q. v.:
     III Of expression etc. pragalbhaḥ (lbhā lbhaṃ), a b. speaker pragalbhavāc (mfn.), D. Ph. it is a mere b. assertion that there is no part of the Vedas treating of existing things. bhūtavastuparo vedabhāgo nāstīti vacanaṃ sāhasamātram, S. i. 4.
     IV Conspicuous, prominent: q. v. V. Steep: q. v. To make b. (to say): nirbhayaṃ or pragalbhaṃ or sāhasena (vadati).

BOLD-FACED: v. Impudent.

     I Courageously:
     1 sāhasena;
     2 nirbhayam
     II Impudently: q. v.

     I Courage:
     1 sāhasaṃ, pleased with the b. of the weaver kaulikasāhasānurañjitamanasā, P. i. 5;
     2 nirbhīkatā (=intrepidity);
     3 śauryam (= valour).
     II Of language: sāhasam.
     III Impudence: q. v. sāhasaṃ, it is b. to be in front of a master patyuḥ puraḥ sāhasamāsitavyam, Ki.

BOLE: v. Trunk, stem.

BOLL: v. Pod, follicle.

BOLSTER (subs.): upadhānam (=pillow: q. v.)

BOLSTER UP (v.): v. To support, prop up.

BOLT (subs.):
     I A missile, a dart: q. v.
     II For securing doors:
     1 argalam;
     2 viṣkambhaḥ (rare).
     III Thunder-bolt: q. v.

BOLT (v. t.):
     I To secure with a bolt:
     1 argalena pidadhāti (dhā, c. 3.) or ruṇaddhi (rudh, c. 7.) or badhnāti (bandh, c. 9);
     2 argalaṃ dadāti ( c. 3.) (with gen.).
     II To fasten, restrain: q. v.
     III To sift: q. v.
     IV To examine: q. v. V. To exhibit: q. v.

BOLT (v. i.): niṣpatati (pat c. l.), M. viii. 55.: v. To depart. Also=to start abruptly: q. v.

     1 cālanī;
     2 titauḥ.

BOLUS: *gulīḥ v. Pill.

BOMB: āgneyagulī prajvalitaprakṣiptaḥ khaṇḍaśaḥ patitvā śatruvimardanakārī svayaṃvidīryamānapadārthaparipūrṇāyogulīviśeṣaḥ.

BOMBARD: *āgneyagulībhirmṛdrāti (mṛd, c. 9.): v. To batter.

BOMBARDMENT: *āgneyagulībhirmardanaṃ or vimardanaṃ or manthanam.

     1 apratītaśabdaprayogaḥ;
     2 uccaśabdaprayogaḥ;
     3 uccaśabdāḥ (=big words)

     1 apratītaḥ (tā taṃ), Kav.;
     2 uccaḥ (ccā ccaṃ);
     3 dhvanisāraḥ (rā raṃ) (?).

BOND (subs.):
     I A band, a ligament: q. v.: bandhaḥ.
     II Fig.:
     1 pāśaḥ, b. of affection praṇayapāśaḥ;
     2 bandhaḥ (rare), b. of hope āśābandhaḥ. Me. iii. In. pl., imprisonment, captivity: q. v.: bandhanam.
     IV A legal document: pratijñāpatram: Ph. bail b. prātibhāvyapatram (?).

BOND (adj.): v. Captive.

     1 dāsatvam (=slavery: q. v.);
     2 vanditvam (=captivity; q. v.)

BONDED (adj.): Ph. b. goods *pratijñātaśulkadānāni dravyāṇi (n. pl.): b. warehouse *pratijñātaśulkadānadravyaśālā.

     1 dāsī;
     2 ceṭī;
     3 kiṅkarī.

     1 dāsaḥ;
     2 kiṅkaraḥ;
     3 ceṭaḥ.

BONE (subs.):
     1 asthi (n.);
     2 kīkasam (rare);
     3 kulyam (rare).

BONE, OF BONE (adj.): asthi (in comp.), bache asthitodaḥ; b. necklace asthimālā.

BONE (v. t.):
     1 nirasthīkaroti (kṛ, c. 8.);
     2 asthīni nirharati (hṛ, c. l.). or niṣkarṣati (kṛṣ, c. 1) (with gen.).

     1 asthihīnaḥ (nā naṃ);
     2 asthirahitaḥ (tā taṃ).

BONESET: sandhimuktaṃ kāṇḍabhagnaṃ vāsthi samādadhāti (dhā, c. 3.) or sthāpayati (c. of sthā).

BONE-SETTER: yaḥ sandhimuktaṃ bhagnaṃ cāsthi samādadhāti; bhagnāsthicikitsakaḥ.

BONFIRE: utsavāgniḥ (?) utsavadhūpaḥ (?) (see B. iii. 5).

BONMOT: narmabhāṣitam: v. Witticism, jest.

BONNET: (strīlokabhṛtaṃ) śirastram.

BONNY (adj.): sundaraḥ (rī raṃ): v. Handsome, pretty.

     1 asthimat or asthivat (f. ) (=having bones);
     2 asthimayaḥ (yī yaṃ) (=made of or full of bones): v. Also robust, strong.

BOOBY: sthūlabuddhiḥ: v. Blockhead, fool.

BOOK (subs.):
     I Any literary work:
     1 pustakam, a printed b. *mudritapustakam;
     2 granthaḥ (= work: q. v.)
     II A division of a literary work:
     1 adhyāyaḥ, S.:
     2 parvan, (n.) (sp. of the b. s of the Mahābhārata):
     3 kāṇḍaḥ (sp. of the b. s of the Rāmāyaṇa;
     4 sargaḥ (=canto), N. Ph.: account-b. gaṇanāpatrikā, Raj.; "I was so much in his b. s" tasyāhametādṛśamanugrahabhājanamāsam; without b. (=without authority) pramāṇaṃ vinā; without b. (=by memory q. v.): pustakavyatirekeṇa (?).

BOOK (v. t.): patrikāyāṃ sanniveśayati (c. of viś) or āropayati (c. of ruh).

BOOKBINDER: *pustakabandhanakārīḥ v. Binder.

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BOOKBINDING: pustakabandhanaśilpam; or sim. pustakabandhanam.

BOOK-CASE: *pustakarakṣiṇī; pustakādhāraḥ.

     1 granthapriyaḥ (yā yaṃ) (?);
     2 pustakāsaktaḥ (ktā ktaṃ) (?).

BOOK-KEEPER: gaṇanāpatrikāpālaḥ (?): v. Accountant.

BOOK-KEEPING: gaṇanāpatrikāvidyā.

     1 pustakavikretṛ (f. trī);
     2 pustaka vikrayin (f. ṇī).

     I A person extremely fond of books: pustakacuñcuḥ
     II A worm that eats b. s: dhuṇaḥ; pustakakhādakakīṭaḥ.

BOOM (v. i.): pradhvanati (dhvan, c. l): v. To echo.

BOOM (subs.):
     I For extending the bottom of sails: *vātavasanaprasāraṇadaṇḍaḥ
     II A chain or line of spars to obstruct navigation etc.: bandhaḥ.

BOON (adj.):
     I Gay, merry: q. v.
     II Kind, bountiful: q. v.

BOON (subs.):
     I Favour, gift: q. v. anugrahaḥ.
     II A prayer, petition: q. v.: prārthanā.

     I A peasant, a rustic: q. v.
     II A rude man: avinītaḥ or nirmaryādaḥ.

     1 grāmyaḥ (myā myaṃ);
     2 aśiṣṭa; (ṣṭā ṣṭaṃ).

BOORISHLY: grāmyajanavat: v. Also coarsely.

     1 grāmyatā (=rusticity);
     2 aśiṣṭatā (=coarseness: q. v.).

BOOT (v. t.): v. To benefit, profit.

BOOT, TO: i. e. in addition: exp by the adj. atiriktaḥ (ktā ktaṃ).

BOOT (subs.):
     1 pādukā (=shoe: q. v.);
     2 unnatapādukā (?).

     1 parṇaśālā (=hut);
     2 dūṣyam (=tent):
     3 upakāryā (rare).

BOOTJACK: *unnatapādukāniḥsāriṇī.

BOOTLESS: niṣphalaḥ (lā laṃ): v. Fruitless, unavailing.

BOOTLESSLY: nirarthakam: v. In vain.

BOOT-TREE: pādukānāṃ carmaśithilīkaraṇāya jaṃghākṛtikāṣṭhayantram; kāṣṭhapādukā.

BOOTY: luṇṭhitam or luṇṭhitāni (n. pl.): v. Plunder.

     1 ṭaṅkanam;
     2 dhātudrāvakam.

BORDER (subs.):
     1 paryantaḥ, whose b. s were carved with flowers kusumalavacchuritaparyantaḥ (ntā ntaṃ) D. ii.; from the b. of the disk of the sun paryantādahimamayūkhamaṇḍalasya; Ki. vii. 9.;
     2 prāntaḥ, Ku. iii. 43.;
     3 upāntaḥ, on whose b. yasyopānte, Me. ii. 14.;
     4 antaḥ, on the b. of a forest vanānte. B. of a garment:
     1 añcalaḥ;
     2 daśā.

BORDER (v. t.): paryantaṃ or prāntaṃ vidadhāti (dhā, c. 2) or nirmāti (, c. 2) (with gen.) (?).

     I Lit., expr. by the subs.: lands b. ing on the Kailāsa kailāsaparyantabhūmayaḥ or kailāsaparisarāḥ; Bengal, on the south b. s on the sea vaṅgānāṃ dakṣiṇasīmā sāgaraḥ: v. To adjoin.
     II Fig.: To resemble closely: vanity b. s on insolence garvo dhāṣṭharyānnātidūraḥ.

BORE (subs.):
     I That which bores:
     1 vedhanī;
     2 vedhanikā;
     3 āvidhaḥ.
     II A hole made by boring:
     1 chidram;
     2 randhram.
     III Calibre: q. v.
     IV A high tide: vānam. v. A troublesome fellow: udvejakaḥ (?).

BORE (v. t.):
     I To perforate:
     1 vidhyati ā-, (vyadh, c. 4);
     2 sphoṭayati (sphuṭa, c. 10);
     3 chidrayati (chidr, c. 10).
     II To vex, worry, harass: q. v.

     I One who bores:
     II That which bores: v. Bore (I).

     1 vedhaḥ, b. of the ears (a religious ceremony), karṇavedhaḥ;
     2 sphoṭanam.

     1 jātaḥ (tā taṃ);
     2 prasūtaḥ (tā taṃ);
     3 udbhūtaḥ (tā taṃ);
     4 jaḥ (jā jaṃ), in. comp., b. of a different father anyapitṛjaḥ (jā jaṃ), K. b.

     1 jāyate (jan, c. 4), b. of the race of Manu manoḥ kule jātam, Si. i. 67;
     2 udbhavati (bhū, c. l) the child was b. of me bālo mayyudabhūt, D. iv.;
     3 sūyate pra, (pass. of );
     1 utpadyate (pad, c. 4) (with loc.). Ph. the son b. of a Śudra by a slave girl yaḥ śūdrasya suto dāsyāṃ bhavet, M. ix. 179.

BORON: *voraṇaḥ; dhātuviśeṣaḥ.

BOROUGH: nagaram (=town); *briṭanīyamahāsabhāyāṃ pratinidhipreraṇādhikāri nagaram.

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     I To b. money, etc.:
     1 ṛṇaṃ karoti (kṛ, c. 8), should eat ghee (even) by b. ing ṛṇaṃ kṛtvā ghṛtaṃ pibet, D. s.;
     2 ṛṇaṃ gṛhvāti (grah, c. 9) or ādatte (, c. 3);
     3 dhāraṃ karoti (?).
     II To take from another: Ph. this sentence is b. ed from Kālidāsa *vacanamidaṃ kālidāsād gṛhītam.
     III Assume, imitate: q. v.

     1 ṛṇakartā;
     2 ṛṇagrahītā;
     3 ṛṇagrāhī;
     4 khādakaḥ.

BORROWING (subs.):
     1 ṛṇagrahaḥ -ṇam;
     2 ṛṇakaraṇam.

BOSKY: v. Woody, bushy.

BOSOM (subs.):
     I The breast:
     1 vakṣas (n.), pressed (him) to his bosom niṣpipeṣa parirabhya vakṣasā. Ki. xviii. 13;
     2 uram (n.), and beat her b. uro jaghāna ca, Ku. iv. 26;
     3 vakṣaḥsthalam;
     4 bhujāntaram (poet).
     II Fig.: The heart: q. v. hṛdayam, b. friend hṛdayaṅgamaḥ sakhā Ku. iv. 24.
     III The interior: garbhaḥ, the b. of the earth bhūgarbhaḥ.

BOSOM (v. t.):
     I To take to heart: hṛdi dhārayati (dhṛ, c. l) or nidadhāti (dhā, c. 3).
     II To conceal: q. v.

BOSS: gaṇḍaḥ (?): v. Stud, knob.

BOTANIC, -AL: udbhidvidyāviṣayakaḥ (kā kaṃ); B. garden *udbhidudyānam.

BOTANIST: *udbhidvid (mfn.); udbhidvidyāviśāradaḥ (dā daṃ).

BOTANIZE: *parīkṣāyai tarulatādīn gaveṣayati (gaveṣ, c. 10).

BOTANY: udbhidvidyā; tarulatādiviṣayā vidyā.

BOTCH (subs.):
     I A blocth: q. v.
     II A pokS q. v.: kanthā.
     III A clumsy performance: v. Clumsy and performance.

BOTCH (v. t.):
     I To pokS: q. v.
     II To do any thing clumsily: kauśalaṃ vinā or apaṭu kāryaṃ karoti (?): you have b. ed this tvayedaṃ naṣṭam (?).

BOTCHER: adakṣasūcikaḥ (?).

BOTH (adj.):
     1 ubhau (m. du.), ubhe (f. n. du.), b. of them bowing were not (distinctly) seen by b. (the mothers) ubhāvubhābhyāṃ praṇatau na dṛṣṭau, R. xiv. 2.;
     2 ubhayaḥ (yā yaṃ) (gen. in comp.) on b. sides ubhayataḥ; in b. ways ubhayathā; in b. places ubhayatra; b. days ubhayedyuḥ;
     3 Often sim. by the dual: b. the parents pitarau, R. i. 1.; with b. the hands dorbhyām, Ku. iii. 76.;
     4 dvayam affixed, to b. the seniors gurudvayāya, Si. ii. 6.

BOTH (conj.):, where b. fate and cupid are assailants yasmin vidhiśca madanaśca kṛtābhiyogaḥ, Ma. i.; does b. good and bad śubhañcāśubhañca vidadhāti, Ma. i.; b. to see the country and to learn its customs *deśadarśanāyācāravyavahāraparijñānāya ca.

BOTHER (v.): v. To tease, annoy.

BOTS: kṛmiḥ.

BOTTLE (v. t.): Ph.: to b. wine from a cask bhāṇḍānmadyaṃ gṛhītvā botaleṣu niveśayati (c. of viś) or botalān pūrayati (pūr, c. 10).

BOTTLE (subs.): *botalaḥ; kācādinirmitapātraviśeṣaḥ.

BOTTOM (subs.):
     I The lowest part:
     1 tallam, whose b. cannot be touched atalasparśaḥ (rśā rśaṃ); who were sitting at the b. of the tree tarutale'vasthitān, H. ii.;
     2 adhobhāgaḥ;
     3 pādaḥ (of a hill: v. Foot).
     II Fig.: Ph. one who has dived to the b. of Philosophy darśanapāradarśī; one who has gone to the b. of all shāstras sakalaśāstrapāraṅgamaḥ, P. i. 10; you should examine it to the b. tvayedamāmūlaṃ parīkṣitavyam; you are at the b. of this mischief tvamasyānarthasya bhūlaṃ or nidānam.
     III A valley: q. v.; nimnabhūmiḥ.
     IV A ship: q. v.: potaḥ. V. Stamina: q. v.
     VI Dregs: q. v.: malam.

BOTTOM (v. t.):
     I To found or build upon q. v. B. ed: v. Based.
     II To furnish with a bottom: talaṃ vidadhāti (dhā, c. 3) (with gen.) (?).

     1 agādhaḥ (dhā dhaṃ);
     2 atalasparśa (rśā rśaṃ).

BOTTOMRY: potabandhakaḥ: v. Hypothecation.

     1 śākhā;
     2 viṭapaḥ (rare).

BOUGIE: mūtramārgādermalaśodhanāya yantraviśeṣaḥ; *praveśikā

BOULDER: gaṇḍaśailaḥ (?), Ki. vii. 37.

BOULEVARD: rājapathaḥ: v. Street.

     I To spring: q. v.: āskandī (skand, c. 1).
     II To boast: q. v.

BOUNCING: v. Stout, strong.

BOUND (subs.):
     I A leap, spring: q. v. lamphaḥ.
     II Limit, confine, boundary: q. v.: Ph. without b. v. Boundless; to keep within b. s sīmāṃ na vyatyeti (i, c. 2); to transgress the b. s of decorum maryādāṃ bhinatti (bhid, c. 7).

BOUND (v. t.): Ph.: b. ed on the north by the Himālayas yasyottarasīmā himālayaḥ; b. ed on the all sides (i. e. encircled) by the river Vetravatī vetravatyā parigataḥ (tā taṃ); b. this field asya kṣetrasya sīmāṃ nirdhāraya (dhṛ, c. 10).

BOUND (v. i.): v. To leap, spring.

BOUND (adj.)
     I Confine: baddhaḥ (ddhā ddhaṃ): v. To bind.
     II Destined: Ph. b. for Puri purīyātrin (f. ṇī); where are you b. to kva gacchasi.
     III Equiv. to must: q. v.: you are b. to do this tvayedamavaśyaṃ kartavyam.

BOUNDARY: sīmā (f.) or sīman (m.): a dispute about b. s sīmāvivādaḥ; on the b. lines sīmāsandhiṣu; b. marks sīmāliṅgāni, M. viii. 6. 248. 249.

BOUNDEN (adj.):
     1 avaśyakartavyaḥ (vyā vyaṃ);
     2 avaśyakaraṇīyaḥ (yā yaṃ).

     1 asīmaḥ (mā maṃ);
     2 niravadhi (mfn.) (rare), b. dikS niravadhiparikhā, Vi. vi.

     1 asīmatā;
     2 anantatā;
     3 ameyatā.

BOUNTEOUS BOUNTEOUSLY: v. Bountiful, bountifully.

     1 vadānyaḥ (nyā nyaṃ): v. Munificent;
     2 udāraḥ (rā raṃ): v. Liberal.

BOUNTIFULLY: to give b. muktahastaṃ dadāti: v. Liberally, largely.

     1 vadānyatā;
     2 audāryam: v. Liberality, generosity.

     I Munificence: q. v.: vadānyatā.
     II Gift: q. v. dānam.
     III A premium or reward: q. v.: pāritoṣikam.

     I Of flowers: v. Nosegay.
     II Of wine: āmodaḥ.

BOURGEON: sphuṭati (sphuṭ, c. 6): v. To bud, sprout.

BOURN: v. Bound, limit.

     I A conflict, contest: q. v.
     II A turn: q. v. vāraḥ.

     1 comp. with go-, b. genus gojātiḥ;
     2 gavyaḥ (vyā vyaṃ).

BOW (v. i.): namati pra-, (nam, c. l), b. s to you all namati vaḥ sarvān, Ku. vi. 89.

BOW (v. t.): namayati ava- ā- vi- pra- abhi-, (c. of nam): b. ing the head śiro namayitvā (not śirasā praṇamya which means a dif. kind of salutation): v. To bend, incline, subdue.

BOW (subs.):
     I Salutation: q. v.:
     1 praṇāmaḥ (the most common word, though the form of salutation dif. from a b.);
     2 mūrghnaḥ kampaḥ, Ku. vii. 43.
     II The stem or prow of a ship: q. v.: potāgram.
     III A knot: q. v.: pāśaḥ.

BOW (subs.):
     I For discharging arrows:
     1 dhanuḥ;
     2 cāpa (mn.);
     3 kārmukam;
     4 śarāsanam. B. of Arjuna gāṇḍīvaḥ; b. of Śiva pinākaḥ; the nokSed extremity of a b. aṭanī; to bend the b. against deer dhanuridaṃ mṛgeṣu namayitum, Sa. ii.
     II A musician's b.
     1 koṇaḥ;
     2 parivādaḥ;
     3 śārikā (rare).

     1 vakraḥ (krā kraṃ);
     2 kuṭilaḥ (lā laṃ): v. Crooked.

     1 prajñu (mfn.);
     2 pragatajānu (mfn.).

     1 dhanvī;
     2 dhānuṣkaḥ;
     3 dhanurdharaḥ;
     4 dhanurbhṛt;
     5 niṣaṅgī.

     1 jyā;
     2 dhanurguṇaḥ;
     3 maurvī;
     4 jīvā (rare).

     I The intestines: antrāṇi (n. pl.).
     II The interior of any thing, garbhaḥ.
     III Fig., compassion, pity: q. v.

     1 kuñjaḥ;
     2 nikuñjaḥ;
     3 latāmaṇḍapaḥ.

BOWL (subs.):
     I A vessel: puṭaḥ (?): v. Cup.
     II The hollow of a vessel
     1 puṭaḥ;
     2 garbhaḥ
     III A ball: q. v. gulikā.

BOWL (v. t.):
     I To roll: q. v.
     II To pelt: q. v. B. out: v. Knock down.

BOWL (v. i.): gulikābhiḥ krīḍati (krīḍ, c. l).

BOWLER: expr. by verb: v. To bowl.

BOWLING-GREEN: gulikākrīḍārthaṃ samīkṛto bhūbhāgaḥ.

BOWSPRIT: potāgrapralambī vātavasanaprasāraṇadaṇḍaḥ.

BOX (subs.):
     I A chest, etc.:
     1 peṭikā;
     2 samudgaḥ -kaḥ;
     3 sampuṭaḥ -kaḥ.
     II An enclosed space with seats in a theatre: *koṣṭhaḥ or nibhṛtakoṣṭhaḥ.
     III The driver's seat on a carriage; sūtāsanam (?).
     IV A tree; vṛkṣaviśeṣaḥ. v. A blow: q. v.: muṣṭiprahāraḥ.
     VI A present: q. v.

BOX (v. i.):
     1 mallayuddhaṃ karoti;
     2 muṣṭīmuṣṭi praharati (hṛ, c. l) or yuvyate (yudh, c. 4).

BOX (v. t.): muṣṭinā praharati (hṛ, c. l) or hanti (han, c. 2).

     1 mallayoddhā;
     2 mallaḥ;
     3 bhallaḥ (rare).

BOXING (subs.): mallayuddham (also = b. makS.).

BOXING-DAY; *kṛṣṭasya janmottaradinaṃ yadā pāritoṣikāṇīṃlaṇḍanadeśe pradīyante.

     1 bālaḥ;
     2 bālakaḥ;
     3 śiśuḥ;
     4 kumāraḥ;
     5 dārakaḥ (=an infant);
     6 māṇavakaḥ (spe. in contempt.). From a boy bālyāt prabhṛti.

     1 bālyam;
     2 śaiśavam;
     3 kaumāram;
     4 śiśutvam (rare).

BOYISH: bāliśaḥ (śā śaṃ): v. Childish. b. nature: bālabhāvaḥ.

BRACE (subs.):
     I A support: *ālamba.
     II A cincture or bandage: q. v.
     III In printing: "}" 'ityākāraḥ saṃyogacihnaviśeṣa:
     IV A pair, a couple; q. v. V. A strap, girth; q. v.: carmabandhaḥ (?). VI. A rope: vāyuvasanadaṇḍacālanarajjuḥ.

BRACE (v. t.):
     I To prop, support: q. v.
     II To tighten, strengthen: q. v.
     III To turn the yards of a ship:
     1 sañcālayati (c. of cal);
     2 parāvartayati (c. of vṛt).

     1 aṅgadam;
     2 kaṅkaṇam;
     3 keyūram;
     4 valaya (mn.).

BRACKET (subs.):
     I A support:
     1 niryūhaḥ;
     2 nāgadantaḥ.
     II A mark in printing: *ardhacandradvayam cihnaviśeṣaḥ.

BRACKET (v. t.): *ardhacandradvayena cihrayati (cihn, c. 10).

     1 īṣallavaṇaḥ (ṇā ṇaṃ);
     2 comp. with kṣāra-, b. water kṣārajalam (?).

BRAD: kīlaviśeṣaḥ. B. -awl vedhanikāḥ v. Gimlet.

BRAG; vikatthate (katy, c. l): To boast.

BRAGGART, BRAGGADOCIO: vikatthīḥ v. Boaster.

BRAGGING (adj.): vikatthin (f. ): v. Boasting.

BRAGGING (subs.): vikatthanam: v. Boasting.

     1 sāhaṅkāram;
     2 savikattham: v. Boastingly.

     1 bāhmaṇaḥ;
     2 vipraḥ;
     3 dvijaḥ. a false B.:
     1 brāhmaṇabruvaḥ;
     2 brahmabandhuḥ. The B. s add śarman (m.) after their names.

BRAID (v. t.).
     I Of hair:
     1 kavarīṃ or keśapāśaṃ bavnāti (bandh, c. 9);
     2 keśān saṃgrathanāti (grantha, c. 9).
     II To weave, entwine: q. v.

BRAID (subs.):
     I Of hair:
     1 kavarī;
     2 dhammillaḥ (b. ed and ornamented hair;
     3 veṇī (unornamented b. ed hair, as worn by widows, etc.)
     II A knot: q. v.

     I Lit.:
     1 mastiṣkam;
     2 mastuluṅgam;
     3 gordam (rare).
     II Intellect, sense: q. v.: buddhiḥ.

BRAIN (v. t.):
     I mastakaṃ cūrṇayati, etc.
     II Fig.: To ruin, destroy.

BRAINLESS: nirbuddhi (mfn.): Senseless, stupid.

     I For railway cars.: *gatistambhayantram.
     II A cart for breaking in horses: *aśvadamanayānam.
     III A snaffle: q. v.
     IV A thicket: q. v.

BRAMBLE: kaṇṭakigulmaḥ, K. b.

     1 kaṇṭakigulmāvṛtaḥ (tā taṃ);
     2 kaṇṭakin (f. ) (=thorn).

     1 tuṣaḥ;
     2 buṣam.

BRANCH (subs.): śākhā (in all the senses of the English word). B. of a b.
     1 praśākhā;
     2 pratiśākhā, V. p.;
     3 avāntaraśākhā,
     V p. com.

BRANCH (v. i.):
     I Lit.: śākhāṃ nirmuñcati (muc, c. 6.).
     II To divide into parts: q. v.: the race b. ed into eight parts bhinno'ṣṭadhā vaṃśaḥ. R. xvi. 3.

BRANCH OFF: Ph. there again b. es off *tatrāsyāparā śākhā nirgatā.

BRANCH OUT: Ph. b. ed out into a long discourse savistaraṃ vaktumārebhe.

     1 śākhin (f.) ) (=having branches);
     2 śākhāmayaḥ (yī yaṃ) (=full of b. es.);
     3 śākhyaḥ (khyā khyaṃ) (rare).

BRAND (subj.):
     I Fire-brand: q. v.: alātam.
     II A mark of infamy:
     1 aṅkaḥ;
     2 cihnam.
     III A sword: q. v.
     IV Kind, quality: q. v.: Ph. ale of so and so b. *amukacihraviśiṣṭaṃ yavasurama.

BRAND (v. t.):
     I With a hot iron: (taptalohena) cihnayati (cihra, c. 10.) or aṅkayati (aṅk, c. 10.).
     II To stigmatize: q. v.: Ph. b. ed with infamy, ayaśasāṅkitaḥ (tā taṃ).

     1 lāsayati (c. of lasa);
     2 bhramayati (c. of bhram), b. ed the pikes śūlāni bhramayāṃcakruḥ. B. xiv. 9. Ph. b. ed their bows dhanūṃṣyāsphālitāni (after Śi.).

BRANDY: madirāviśeṣaḥ; vāruṇī.

BRANGLE: v. Wrangle, squabble.

BRASH (adj.): adhīraḥ (rā raṃ): v. Impetuous.

BRASIER: A pan for coals:
     1 aṅgāraśakaṭī;
     2 aṅgāradhānikā.

     1 pittalam;
     2 ārakūṭam (rare). Oxide of b. rītipuṣpam. A.

BRASSY: comp. with pittala-.: v. Brazen.

BRAT: armakaḥ: v. Child.

BRAVADO: v. Boast, defiance.

BRAVE (v. t.): v. To face, disregard, defy.

BRAVE (adj.):
     I Courageous:
     1 sāhasikaḥ (kī kaṃ) (=bold, daring);
     2 vikrāntaḥ (ntā ntaṃ) (=valorous);
     3 nirbhayaḥ (yā yaṃ) (=fearless);
     4 tejasvin (f. ) (=spirited). Ab. man: i. e. a hero:
     1 vīraḥ;
     2 śūraḥ Ph.: fortune favours the b. sāhase śrīḥ prativasati. Mr. iv.
     II Excellent, noble, grand: q. v.

     1 nirbhayam v. Fearlessly;
     2 kṛtasattvavegaḥ (gā gaṃ), Ki. xvii. 15.;
     3 sadhairyam (=with fortitude).

     I Courage:
     1 śauryam;
     2 sāhasam (=boldness);
     3 vikramaḥ (=valour)
     4 nirbhīkatā (fearlessnes).
     II Splendour, magnificence: q. v.

     I Interjec.: sādhu. or sādhu sādhu.
     II Subs.: v. Assassin.

BRAWL (v. i.): vyākrośati (kruś, c. l.): v. To wrangle, quarrel.

BRAWL, BRAWLING (subs.): vyākrośaḥ. v. Wrangling, quarrel.

BRAWLING (adj.): kalahapriyaḥ (yā yaṃ): Quarrelsome, noisy.

     I The flesh of a boar:
     1 śūkaramāṃsam;
     2 vallūram.
     II Muscle, strength: q. v.

BRAWNY: māṃsalaḥ (lā laṃ): v. Muscular, strong.

BRAY (v.):
     I To pound: q. v.: pinaṣṭi (piṣ, c. 7.).
     II To utter a harsh cry:
     1 citkāraṃ karoti (kṛ, c. 8.);
     2 virauti (ru, c. 2.).

BRAY, BRAYING (subs.):
     1 citkāraḥ;
     2 kharanādaḥ (=b. of an ass): v. Noise.

BRAYING (subs.): i. e. pounding; q. v.: peṣaṇam.

     I Made of brass:
     1 pittalamayaḥ (yī yaṃ);
     2 by comp., b. vessel pittalapātram.
     II Shameless, impudent; q. v. nirlajjaḥ (jjā jjaṃ).

BRAZEN-BROWED, BRAZEN-FACED: v. Shameless, impudent.

BRAZIER: kāṃsyakāraḥ.

BRAZIL-NUT: phalaviśeṣaḥ:

BRAZIL-WOOD: raṅgado raktavarṇakāṣṭhaviśeṣaḥ.

     I Fracture: q. v.
     II A gap made by breaking:
     1 chidram;
     2 randhram
     III Violation: q. v.: Ph. b. of peace śāntibhaṅgaḥ (?); b. of promise pratijñābhaṅgaḥ; b. of agreement samayabhedaḥ; b. of faith viśvāsaghātaḥ. IV. B. of union: bhedaḥ; a b. between friends suhṛdbhedaḥ.

BREACH (v. t.): i. e. to make a breach: v. Breach (subs.) (II).

     I Lit.: roṭī, Bha. Unleavened b. apūpaḥ.
     II Sustenance, living: q. v.: annaṃ or annajalam (=b. and water).

BREAD-CORN: roṭīkaraṇopayogigodhūmādiśasyam.

     1 kaṇṭa- or kaṇṭaka- or kaṇṭakiphalam;
     2 panasaṃ or panasaphalam.

     1 panasaḥ;
     2 kaṇṭaki ()phalaḥ;
     3 kaṇṭakaphalaḥ.

BREAD-ROOT: pālaṅgākāraḥ śākabhedaḥ.

     I Width:
     1 vistāraḥ;
     2 parisaraḥ;
     3 prasthaḥ;
     4 āyāmaḥ (rare);
     5 pariṇāhaḥ;
     6 viṣkambhaḥ (rare). Ph.: two fingers in b. dvyaṅgulaḥ (lā laṃ); (the doors) should be made two cubits in b. tāni dvihastavistṛtāni kāryāṇi.
     II In painting: b. of effect: vistāraḥ (?).

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BREAK (v. t.):
     I Lit.:
     1 bhanakti (bhañj, c. 7.), the flag-staff is broken bhagnaḥ syandanaketuḥ, Ve. ii.;
     2 cūrṇayati saṃ-, (cūrṇ, c. 10.) (=reduce to powder), shall I not b. Suyodhana's thighs with my mace saṃcūrṇayāmi gadayā na suyodhanorū, Ve. ii. To weaken or subdue: q. v.: bhanakti.
     III To make bankrupt: avasādayati (c. of sad) (?). Miscell.: but do not b. my meditation mā punaḥ samādhiṃ bhaṃkṣyasi, V. ii.; b. ing his silence maunabhaṅgaṃ vidhāyāsya, Vet.; to b. one's sleep nidrābhaṅga karoti, Si.; to b. an agreement samayaṃ bhinatti (bhid, c. 7.), M. v. To violate; I will b. all order bhanajmi sarvamaryādāḥ, B. vi. 38.; to "b. one's mind" hṛdayaṃ vivṛṇoti (vṛ, c. 5.), Ki. v. To open; to b. horse etc.: v. To break in; to b. wind pardate (pard, c. l.); I will b. their union tān vighaṭayāmi (ghaṭ, c. 10.) (the time) has come (for) b. ing my fast by (sucking) blood upasthitā śoṇitapāraṇā me, R. ii. 39.; to b. ground mṛttikām uttolayati (tul, c. 10.) (?); to b. one's heart hṛdayaṃ vidārayati (c. of dṛ), U.

BREAK (v. i.):
     I Lit.:
     1 bhajyate (pass. of bhañj) or more commonly bhagnaḥ (gnā gnaṃ) bhavati (bhū, c. l.);
     2 truṭyati (truṭ, c. 4.). Fig. my heart is b. ing sphuṭati hṛdayam, U.; v. To rend.
     II To become bankrupt: avasīdati (sad, c. l.) (?).
     III To dawn: Ph. the day has nearly broken prabhātaprāyā rajanī, Sa. iv.
     IV To decline in health; Ph. you are b. ing every day anudivasaṃ parihīyase'ṅgeṣu, Sa. iii. V. To burst: q. v.
     VI To fall out: Ph. their union broke bhedasteṣāmajani.

BREAK AWAY: i. e. to become dispersed, as clouds: viprakīrṇaḥ (rṇā rṇaṃ) bhavati.

BREAK DOWN (v. t.): cūrṇayati (cūrṇ, c. 10.): v. To crush, demolish.

BREAK DOWN (v. i.):
     I Lit.: bhagnaḥ (gnā gnaṃ) bhavati.
     II Fig. To fail: avasīdati (sad, c. l.).

BREAK FORTH: v. To break out.

     I Lit.: prasahya praviśati (viś, c. 6.).
     II To train horses, etc.
     1 damayati (c. of dam);
     2 vinayati (, c. l.).

     1 apajihīrṣayā praviśati (viś, c. 6.) (?);
     2 sandhiṃ kṛtvā praviśati (=by making a hole under the walls of a house;
     3 kuḍya kṛtvā praviśati (by making a passage in a wall).

     I Trans: khaṇḍaṃ khaṇḍaṃ karoti (kṛ, c. 8.);
     2 cūrṇayati;
     II Intrans:
     1 khaṇḍaṃ khaṇḍaṃ bhavati (bhū, c. l.), the fruit fell from the king's hand and broke in p. phalaṃ rājñaḥ karakamalānnipatya bhagnaṃ khaṇḍaṃ babhūva, Vet.;
     2 cūrṇitaḥ (tā taṃ) (bhavati), H. iv.

     I Lit.: expr. by circumlo: it broke loose and got into the high street sa ālānastambhaṃ bhaṃktvārājamārgamavatīrṇaḥ Mr. ii.
     II Fig.: of anger, etc.:
     1 uddīṣyate (dīp, c. 4.);
     2 sphūrjati (sphurj, c. l.).

BREAK OFF (v. t.):
     I Lit.: bhanakti.
     II To put and end to: Ph. b. his journey for three nights trirātraṃ prayānabhaṅgamakarot, P. i. p.; to b. a marriage vivāhabhaṅgaṃ karoti (?) (comp. the Bengali idiom).

BREAK OFF (v. i.): viramati (ram, c. l.) (=to cease: q. v.).

     1 bhanakti;
     2 troṭayati (c. of truṭ).

     I To escape from restraint: v. To escape.
     II To arise suddenly:
     1 āvirbhavati or prādurbhavati (bhū, c. l.);
     2 udeti (i, c. 2.):
     3 udgacchati (gam, c. l.).

BREAK UP (v. t.): To break into pieces: q. v.
     II To abolish: q. v. to b. an assembly sabhābhaṅgaṃ karoti or sabhāṃ bhanakti, C.

BREAK UP (v. i.):
     I To break into pieces: q. v.
     II To be dissolved: Ph. let us b. now svaṃ svaṃ sthānamidānīṃ gacchāmaḥ.

BREAK UPON: Ph. the waves b. the rocks upalāhatāstaraṅgā vibhedaṃ or vilayaṃ gacchanti (after Ki. and Si.).

BREAK WITH: vivadate (vad, c. l.): v. To quarrel.

BREAK (subs.):
     I An interruption:
     1 vicchedaḥ;
     2 chedaḥ.
     II An opening made by fracture: bhaṅgaḥ. III. B. of day: v. Dawn.

BREAKAGE: i. e. an allowance for breaking: Perh. simp. bhaṅgaḥ.

     I One who breaks: bhañjakaḥ: v. To break for the different senses.
     II A wave breaking upon a sand-bank, etc.: bhaṅgaḥ or bhaṅgiḥ.

BREAKFAST (subs.):
     1 prātarāśaḥ;
     2 prātarbhojanam;
     3 kalyavartaḥ, Mr.

BREAKFAST (v. i.): prātarāśaṃ or prātarbhojanaṃ karoti (kṛ, c. 8.).

BREAKING (subs.): bhaṅgaḥ (in almost all the English senses). B. in (of horses etc.) damanam. B. out (of disease, etc.):
     1 udbhavaḥ;
     2 āvirbhāvaḥ.

BREAK-WATER: *jalavegarodhakaḥ.

BREAM: matsyaviśeṣaḥ.

BREAST (subs.):
     I The bosom: q. v.
     1 vakṣas;
     2 uras (n.)
     II The organ that secretes milk:
     1 stanaḥ;
     2 kucaḥ (of human b. only);
     3 payodharaḥ.
     III The heart: q. v. hṛdayam. B. -bone vakṣo'sthi (n.)

BREAST (v. t.): sammukhayati (nomi.): v. To face.

BREAST-PLATE: urastrāṇam: v. Corslet, cuirass.

BREAST-WORK: pragaṇḍī, Mah.: v. Rampart.

     I Lit.:
     1 śvāsaḥ, to take b. śvasiti;
     2 niḥśvāsaḥ (=air exhaled), to hold b. niḥśvāsaṃ ruṇaddhi;
     3 prāṇaḥ (=air inhaled), restraint of b. (a religious exercise) prāṇāyāmaḥ; or prāṇasaṃyamaḥ
     4 śvasitam, out of b. muhurmuhuratyulvaṇaṃ niḥśvasiti, K. II. Life: prāṇāḥ (m. pl.).
     III Respite, pause: q. v. virāmaḥ.
     IV An instant: nimeṣaḥ, in a b. nimeṣeṇa. V. Breeze: q. v.

BREATHE (v. i.):
     I To respire: śvasiti (śvas, c. l.). to b. the last prāṇān jahāti (, c. 3.): v. To die.
     II To live: q. v.: śvasiti (I) who b. yaḥ śvasimi N. v. 109.
     III Pause, rest: q. v. to b. hard viniḥśvasiti N. xii. 2.; to b. freely ucchvasiti, Ki. ix. 21.

BREATHE (v. t.):
     I Lit.: we b. the air *vāyuṃ gṛhṇīmaḥ (grah, c. 9.): n. b. pibati (, c. l.) is used, but not in the exact sense.
     II To exhale: udgirati (ga, c. 6.). b. ing the smell of parimalodgāribhiḥ, Me. i. 26.
     III To express, manifest: q. v.
     IV To whisper.

BREATHE IN or INTO: v. To infuse. B. life into: jīvaṃ saṃcārayati (c. of car) P.

     1 udgirati (gṝ, c. 6.);
     2 udvamati (vam, c. l.).

BREATHING (subs.):
     I Lit.:
     1 śvāsaḥ;
     2 śvāsanam.
     II Inspiration: q. v.
     III Aspiration: q. v.
     IV In gram.: Ph. rough b. mahāprāṇacihnam; soft b. abhiniṣṭānacihnam.

BREATHING HOLE: gavākṣam: v. Vent.

BAEATHING-TIME: Ph. give me b. śvasitumavakāśa dehi: v. Pause, respite.

     I Out of breath: v. Breath.
     II Lifeless: q. v.: nirucchvāsaḥ (sā saṃ).

BRED: v. To breed, well-b.: vinītaḥ (tā taṃ). Ill-b.: durvinītaḥ (tā taṃ).

     1 kaṭideśaḥ
     2 nitambaḥ. B. of a gun: *paścādbhāgaḥ.

BREECHES: jaṅghāvāraḥ. Sometimes = Trousers: q. v.

BREED (v. t.):
     I To beget (Lit and Fig): q. v.: janayati (c. of jan).
     II To bring up:
     1 puṣṇāti or puṣyati (puṣ, c. 9. and 4.):
     2 vardhayati (c. of vṛdh).
     III To educate, instruct: q. v.

BREED (v. i.):
     I To conceive:
     1 garmaṃ dhārayati or dharati (dhṛ, c. 10. and 1.),
     2 garbhavatī or garbhiṇī bhavati (bhū, c. l.).
     II To be produced: jāyate (jan, c. 4.): v. To produce.

BREED (subs.):
     I Race, kind: jātiḥ, a cock of the Balākā b. balākājātistāmracūḍaḥ, D. v. Of a good b.: uttamajātīyaḥ (yā yaṃ).
     II Progeny, offspring: q. v.

     I The female that produces:
     1 janayitrī;
     2 jananī;
     3 prasūtiḥ;
     4 utpādikā.
     II A b. of animals:
     1 poṣakaḥ;
     2 poṣṭṭa (m.).

BREEDING (subs.):
     I Nurture, education, instruction: q. v.
     II Manners, deportment: q. v.: Ph. good b. vinayaḥ of good b. vinītaḥ (tā taṃ): v. Politeness.

     1 mandānilaḥ;
     2 mṛdupavanaḥ;
     3 samīraṇaḥ v. Wind, Ph.: the b. is blowing mandaṃ mandaṃ vahati pavanaḥ morning b. vibhātavāyuḥ R.

BREEZY: supravātaḥ (tā taṃ): v. Windy.

     I An epitome: q. v.
     II of prayers: *stotrasaṃgrahaḥ.

BREVITY: saṃkṣepaḥ: v. Conciseness, shortness.

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BREW (v. t.):
     I To make beer: pacati (pac, c. l.) (?).
     II To mix: q. v.
     III To. contrive, plot, hakS: q. v.

BREW (v. i.): yavasuraṃ pacati (pac, c. l.) (?).

BREWER: *yavasurapācakaḥ.

BREWHOUSE or BREWERY: *yavasurapācakasthalī; yavasurapākaśālā.

BREWING (subs.): *yavasurapākaḥ.

BRIAR: v. Brier.

BRIBE (subs.): utkocaḥ, taking b. s even from the ministers sacivamaṇḍalādapyutkocagrāhī, D.; not corruptible by b. etc. dhanadānādinābhedyaḥ, K. b. one who receives b.
     1 utkocakaḥ (rare);
     2 utkocagrāhakaḥ.

BRIBE (v. t.): utkocaṃ dadāti (, c. 3.) Ph. the judge has been b. d utkocadānena vaśīkṛto vicārakaḥ.

BRIBER: utkocadātā (=one who gives bribe).

     1 utkocadānam (giving bribe):
     2 utkocagrahaṇam (taking b.).

BRICK (subs.): iṣṭakā, baked b. pakveṣṭakā; unbaked b. ābheṣṭakā, Mr. A b. house iṣṭakāgṛham; a pile of b. s iṣṭakārāśiḥ.

     1 iṣṭakākhaṇḍam (?);
     2 iṣṭakāśakalam (?).

BRICK-KILN: iṣṭakāpākaḥ (?): v. Kiln.

     1 lepakaḥ;
     2 palagaṇḍaḥ: v. Mason.

     1 iṣṭakāpācakaḥ (?);
     2 iṣṭakākāraḥ (?).

BRICK-WORK: iṣṭakābhirnirmitaḥ (tā taṃ); these are b. s etānīṣṭakābhirnirmitāni.

BRIDAL (subs.): vivāhotsavaḥ: v. Marriage.

BRIDAL (adj.): vaivāhikaḥ (kī kaṃ). B. procession (of the bridegroom) varayātrā N. xvi. 4.; b. string kautukam; b. chamber kautukāgāram. Ku.

     1 vadhūḥ; the b. and the bridegroom vadhūvaram, Ku. vii. 78.;
     2 navavadhaḥ;
     3 navoḍhā (=just married);
     4 āsannapāṇigrahaṇā (=about to marry). A young b.:
     1 kanyā;
     2 kumārī, R. vii. 22. A b. who chooses her own husband: svayaṃvarā.


BRIDE-MAID: janyā.

BRIDESMAN: janyaḥ; varasya vadhvāśca sahacaraḥ.

BRIDEWELL: kārāgāram: v. Prison.

BRIDGE (subs.):
     1 setuḥ, stone b. pāpāṇasetuḥ, Raj.; to make a b. setuṃ badhnāti R. or karoti, Mah. or nirmāti, Vi, or vidadhāti, Ma. n. (with loc. or gen. and upari);
     2 saṅkramaḥ (=foot -b.);
     3 saṃvaraḥ (rare). B. of the nose nāsāvaṃśaḥ.

BRIDGE (v. t.): setunā badhnāti ni-, (bandh, c. 9.), Mah.; b. d the Padmā, with boats: naubhiḥ padmāṃ babandha.

BRIDLE (subs.):
     I Lit.: valgā: v. Bit, reins.
     II Fig.: v. Restraint, check.

BRIDLE (v. t.):
     I Lit.: Perh. valgitaḥ (tā taṃ) karoti v. To bit, rein.
     II Fig.: To restrain, check: q. v.: niyantrayati (yantr, c. 10.).

BRIEF (adj.):
     I Compressed, terse: v.: saṃkṣiptaḥ (ptā ptaṃ). To be b. (when=b. ly): kiṃ bahunā.
     II Lasting but little time: kṣaṇikaḥ (kā kaṃ), b. enjoyment kṣaṇikā prītiḥ H.;
     2 acirasthāyin (f. ): v. Temporary.
     III Short: q. v.

BRIEF (subs.):
     I An epitome: q. v.
     II A dispakS: q. v.
     III An abridgment of a client's case: *vivādatattvam.

BRIEFLESS: Ph. he is a b. barrister *taṃ vyavahārapaṇḍitaṃ kāryopadeśārthamarthipratyarthino nāśrayante; vivādatatrvahīno vyavahārapaṇḍitaḥ.

     1 saṃkṣepeṇa;
     2 saṃkṣepataḥ;
     3 samāsataḥ.

BRIEFNESS: v. Brevity.

BRIER or BRIAR: kaṇṭakigulmaviśeṣaḥ; also = kaṇṭakigulmaḥ.

BRIG: sāmudrapotabhedaḥ.

BRIGADE: *pṛtanā.


     1 paripanthī;
     2 dasyuḥ: v. Robber.

BRIGANDAGE: dasyutā: v. Robbery, plunder.

BRIGANTINE: Perh. vahitram, D. vi.

     I Shining, lustrous:
     1 ujjvalaḥ (lā laṃ);
     2 bhāsuraḥ (rā raṃ);
     3 dīpraḥ (prā praṃ);
     4 dyotanaḥ (nā naṃ);
     5 rociṣṇu (mfn.).
     II Clear, transparent: q. v.: ujjvalaḥ (lā laṃ).
     III Sparkling with wit, clever: Perh. ujjvala (lā laṃ).

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BRIGHTEN (v. t.):
     I Lit.: To make bright:
     1 dyotayati ut- pra-, (c. of dyut);
     2 ujjvalayati (c. of jval);
     3 udbhāsayati (c. of bhās);
     4 dīpayati (c. of dīp), b. ing the skies with its rays dīpayannatha nabhaḥ kiraṇaughaiḥ, Ki., ix. 23.
     II Fig.:
     1 ujjvalayati;
     2 udbhāsayati.
     III To improve: q. v.

BRIGHTEN (v. i.): i. e. to be or become bright: expr. by the adj. s under bright. Ph. the sky did not quite b. na prasādamucitaṃ gamitā dyauḥ, Ki. ix. 25.

     1 ujjvalam;
     2 vimalam (=clearly).

     I Splendour, brilliancy:
     1 prabhā;
     2 tejas;
     3 dyutiḥ;
     4 aujjvalyam.
     II Acuteness, sharpness: q. v.: Perh. aujjvalyam.

BRILL: sukhādyamatsyaviśeṣaḥ

     1 prabhā;
     2 ujjvalatā;
     3 dīptiḥ;
     4 rociṣṇutā;
     5 bhrājathuḥ.

     1 mahojjvalaḥ (lā laṃ);
     2 pradyotanaḥ (nā naṃ);
     3 bhāsuraḥ (rā raṃ); rociṣṇu (mfn.);
     5 bhrājiṣṇu (mfn.);
     6 pradīptaḥ (ptā ptaṃ).

BRILLIANTLY: expr. by circumlo: v. Brilliant.

     I Rim, border: q. v.: prāntaḥ.
     II Of any vessel: mukham, to the b. āmukham.

BRIMFUL: paripūrṇaḥ (rṇā rṇaṃ) or ekāntaṃ pūrṇaṃ (rṇā rṇaṃ), "B. of glory" tejomayaḥ (yī yaṃ).

BRIMSTONE: gandhakaḥ: v. Sulphur.

     1 śavalaḥ (lā laṃ);
     2 karbū (rbu) raḥ (rā raṃ);
     3 kirmīraḥ (rā raṃ);
     4 citraḥ (trā traṃ).

     I Water saturated with salt:
     1 lavaṇodam;
     2 lavaṇajalam.
     II The ocean:
     1 lavaṇodaḥ;
     2 lavaṇodadhiḥ;
     3 lavaṇāmburāśiḥ;
     4 lavaṇābdhiḥ.
     III Tears: q. v.

     I To fekS or cause to come:
     1 ānayati (, c. l.), b. my darling here dayitamihānaya, Ki. x. 47.;
     2 āharati upa-, (hṛ, c. 1.), b. two dishes ubhe śarāve cāhara, D. vi. Ph. winter b. s cold hemantena saha śītamāgacchati.
     II To cause the obtaining of:
     1 by verbs of motion or verbs signifying to obtain and the ins. or abl. of the cause: poverty b. s shame dāridryāddhriyameti, Mr. i.; disgrace b. s despondency paribhavānnirvedamāpadyate, Mr. i.;
     2 dadāti (=to give: q. v.);
     3 vikarṣati (kṛṣ, c. l.), b. s fortune śriyaṃ vikarṣati, Ki. iii. 7.
     III To induce, prevail on: q. v. Ph.: to b. an action abhiyogaṃ karoti (?): b. to an end samāpayati (c. of āp); b. to pass: v. Bring about.

BRING ABOUT: ghaṭayati (c. of ghaṭ): v. To effect, accomplish.

     1 pratyānayati (, c. l.), will b. the fortune of victory jayaśriyaṃ pratyāneṣyati, Ku. ii. 52.;
     2 pratyāharati (hṛ, c. l.), M. n.

     I Lit.:
     1 ānayati, brought them down to the earth kṣitimāninyuḥ, Ki. vii. 19.;
     2 avatārayati (c. of tṝ) (=cause to descend) V. i.
     II To humble, abuse: q. v.

     I To beget: q. v.: sūte pra-, (, c. l.), Sumitrā brought f. twins sumitrā suṣuve yamau, R. x. 71.
     II To yield: q. v.: sūte, the aśoka tree at once brought f. flowers asūta sadyaḥ kusumānyaśokaḥ, Ku. iii. 26.
     III To b. forward: q. v.

     1 ānayati;
     2 upanyasyati (as, c. 4.);
     3 udāharati (hṛ, c. l.), arguments have been forcibly brought f. upapattirudāhṛtā balāt, Ki. ii. 28.

     I To admit: q. v.
     II To yield, produce: q. v.
     III To collect: q. v.

     1 apanayati (, c. l.);
     2 apaharati (hṛ, c. l.), Ve. iv.

BRING ON: āvahati (vah, c. l.): v. To produce.

BRING OUT: bahiṣkaroti, b. ing his son out tatputraṃ bahiṣkṛtya, H. ii.: v. To publish, expose, or detect.

     I To bear across: ānayati (with double acc.), I brought him over to London *tamahaṃ laṇḍanamānītavān.
     II To draw to a new party or opinion: Ph. b. ing the Brahmins over by gold dvijān svīkṛtya svarṇena, Raj.

BRING TO: v. To resuscitate. Ph. I have brought troubles to my husband kleśāvahā bhartuḥ, R. xiv. 5.

     1 samānayati (, c. l.);
     2 samāharati (hṛ, c. l.): v. To collect, assemble.

     1 namayati (c. of nam), R. xiii. 9.;
     2 āvarjayati (vṛj, c. 10.), D. ii. To b. one's power vaśaṃ nayati or ānayatiḥ v. To subdue.

     I Lit.:
     1 ānayati;
     2 upānayati;
     3 āharati.
     II To train up, rear: q. v.: vardhayati (c. of vṛdh), (the child) was brought up by Vinayavati avardhata vinayavatyā, D. iv.

BRINK: v. Edge, margin.

BRINY: lāvaṇaḥ (ṇī ṇaṃ): v. Salty.

BRISK: capalaḥ (lā laṃ) (of movements, etc.);
     2 caturaḥ (rā raṃ) (=clever, sharp): v. Lively.

BRISKET: Ph. b. of beef *govakṣomāṃsam; b. of mutton meṣavakṣomāṃsam.

BRISKLY: tvaritam (=quickly): v. Vigorously.

BRISKNESS: v. Vivacity, quickness.

BRISTLE (subs.): saṭā, Ki. viii. 2.

BRISTLE (v. t.): Ph. b. ing of the hairs baddhasaṭonnatiḥ, Ki. xiii. 2. or udbhṛ tasaṭāḥ (m. pl.), R. ix. 60.

BRISTLE (v. i.):
     1 stabdhaḥ (bdhā bdhaṃ) or unnataḥ (tā taṃ) bhavati;
     2 hṛṣyati (hṛṣ, c. 4.) or pulakitaḥ (tā taṃ) bhavati (only of man in joy).

BRISTLY: kaṇṭakitaḥ (tā taṃ), their skins b. with joy prītikaṇṭakitatvacaḥ, Ku. vi. 15.

     1 bhaṅguraḥ (rā raṃ);
     2 subhaṅgaḥ (ṅgā ṅgaṃ);
     3 bhaṅgabhāj (mfn.) (rare).

     1 bhaṅguratā;
     2 subhaṅgatā.

BROACH (subs.): v. Spit; v. Also, brooch.

BROACH (v. t.):
     I To spit: q. v.: śūlākaroti.
     II To tap, pierce: q. v.
     III To put forth, publish first: q. v.: pracārayati (c. of car).

     I Wide (in measurement): q. v.:
     1 vistṛtaḥ (tā taṃ);
     2 expr. by a comp. with the words given under breadth (I) or by adj. formed with any of those words and the affix vat: seven cubits long and one cubit b. saptahastadīrghā ekahastavistārāḥ: Ph.: a b. road suvistāravānmārgaḥ (?) (not viśālamārgaḥ): one who has a b. chest viśālavakṣas (mfn.), R.; a breast beautiful and b. as the leaf of a door kapāṭavistīrṇamanoramoraḥ, Si. iii. 13.
     II Extensive, vast: q. v.: vistīrṇaḥ (rṇā rṇaṃ). Ph.: b. jokes grāmyaparihāsāḥ (m. pl.); b. nonsense *spaṣṭanirarthakabhāṣitam; thefts are not rare here even in b. daylight *dedīpyamāne sūryo'pyatra cauryāṇi na viralāni; it is as b. as long, i. e. (it makes no difference) atra ko viśeṣaḥ.

BROAD CLOTH: *banātaḥ.

BROADLY: v. Widely. Ph. b. these are the species ityetā jātayaḥ sthaulyāt, Śr.

BROADSIDE: to fire a b. raṇapotasyaikapārśvasthāṃ bandukaśreṇiṃ samaṃ visarjayati.

BROADSWORD: khaṅgaviśeṣaḥ.

BROCADE: kārmikavastram (?).

BROCKET: dvivarṣīṇo hariṇaḥ.

BROCOLI: śākabhedaḥ; phullakabisadṛśaḥ kabibhedaḥ.

BROGUE: pādukāviśeṣaḥ.

BROIL (subs.): kalahaḥ: v. Quarrel.

BROIL (v. t.):
     1 aṅgāre pacati, Bha.;
     2 bharjayati (c. of bhṛj) (upon a gridiron): v. To fry.

BROIL (v. i.): bhṛjjati -te (bhrajj, c. 6.).

BROKEN: v. Break. Ph. b. number bhagnāṃśaḥ; b. - winded alpaśvāsaḥ (sā saṃ); b.-hearted bhagnāśaḥ (śā śaṃ) or bhagnamānasaḥ (sā saṃ), Mah.

BROKER: *dallālaḥ.

BROKERAGE: *dallāliḥ.

BROMINE: *pūyam; bromiṇam.

BRONZE: Perh. āram (comp. Lat. aes, aeris.) or ārakūṭam: v. Brass.

BROOCH: *vakṣobhūṣaṇam.

BROOD (v. i.): sevate (sev, c. l.) (?) (used in this sense in Hindi), b. ing on eggs aṇḍāni sevamānaḥ (nā naṃ) (?)

BROOD OVER or ON: dhyāyati (dhyai, c. l.) (with acc.): v. Contemplate.

BROOD (subs.):
     I Offspring, progeny: q. v.
     II A hakS: q. v.

BROOD (adj.): Ph. b. mare bālaprasavārthaṃ rakṣitā ghoṭakī.

BROODING (subs.): Ph. b. on eggs aṇḍasevā (?).

BROOK (subs.):
     1 sarit or kusarit;
     2 kṣudranadī.

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BROOK (v. t.): marṣayati (mṛṣ, c. 10.): v. To endure.

     I A brush:
     1 sammārjanī;
     2 śodhanī.
     II A shrub: latāviśeṣaḥ.

BROOMSTICK: sammārjanīdaṇḍaḥ (?).

     1 māṃsarasaḥ (of meat), Śr.;
     2 yūṣaḥ (of dal).

     1 veśyālayaḥ;
     2 veśyāgṛham;
     3 veśaḥ;
     4 veśyājanasamāśrayaḥ.

     1 bhrātā (a full or a step-b. and also used fig. like the English word);
     2 sahodaraḥ or sodaraḥ or sodaryaḥ or sagarbhaḥ (=a full b.); elder b.: agrajaḥ; younger b. anujaḥ.

     I The state of being a brother: bhrātṛtvam. Proper b. saubhrātram R. xvi. I. II. An association of men: v. Fraternity, society.

BROTHER-IN-LAW: () śyālaḥ (=wife's brother);
     2 devaraḥ (=husband's younger brother);
     3 bhrātṛśvaśuraḥ (=husband's elder brother);
     4 bhaginīpatiḥ (sister's husband).

     I Pertaining to brothers:
     1 bhrātrīyaḥ (yā yaṃ),
     2 comp. with bhrātṛ, etc.
     II Becoming brothers:
     1 bhrātṛsannibhaḥ (bhā bhaṃ);
     2 bhrātṛrūpaḥ (pā paṃ).

     1 bhrātṛvat;
     2 bhrātṛsannibham.

BROW (subs.):
     I The eye b.:
     1 bhrūḥ, to knit the b. s bhrūkuṭiṃ badhnāti (bandh, c. 9.) or bhrūbhaṅgaṃ karoti;
     2 bhrūlatā.
     II The forehead: q. v.: lalāṭam.
     III Edge of a steep place: v. Edge, precipice.

BROWBEAT: bhrūkuṭiṃ badhvā or bhrūbhaṅgaṃ kṛtvā bhīṣayate (c. of bhī): Ph. b. ing me mayyeva bhrūkuṭīdharaḥ saṃvṛttaḥ Vi.: v. To terrify.

BROWN (adj.):
     1 kapiśaḥ (śā śaṃ);
     2 śyāvaḥ (vā vaṃ);
     3 piśaṅgaḥ (ṅgī ṅgaṃ);
     4 piṅgalaḥ (lā laṃ): v. Tawny, dark.

BROWN (v. t.)
     I To make brown: kapiśayati (nomi.).
     II To brown (meat) in cooking: āraktaḥ (ktā ktaṃ) karoti (?).

BROWSE (v. t.):
     1 atti (ad, c. 2.):
     2 bhakṣati (bhakṣa, c. l.): v. To eat.

BROWSE (v. i.): carati (car, c. l.). B. on= browse (v. t.): q. v.

BROWSE (subs.):
     1 kisalayam;
     2 pallavam;
     3 navapallavam.

BRUISE (subs.): ghṛṣṭam, Ni.; kṣatam (=hurt).

BRUISE (v. i.):
     I To injure: q. v.
     II To crush: q. v.
     III To box: q. v.

     I Subs.: v. Report, rumour.
     II Verb: v. To report, rumour.

     1 śyāmā;
     2 śyāmāṅgī.

BRUSH (subs.):
     I Clothes -b.: *vastraśodhanī.
     II Shoe -b. *pādukāsammārjanī.
     III Painter's b.:
     1 tūlī -likā;
     2 īṣikā;
     3 śalākā;
     4 kūrccaḥ;
     5 vartikā.
     IV The brushy tail of a fox: bāladhiḥ.

BRUSH (vt.):
     I To take the dirt of:
     1 mārṣṭi (mṛj, c. 2.);
     2 śodhayati (c. of śudh)
     II To touch gently: gharṣati (ghṛṣ, c. l.).
     III To b. off or away: niṣkāsayati (c. of kas): v. To remove.
     IV To b. up: v. To furnish.

     1 śākhāgrāṇi (n. pl.) (?);
     2 indhanam (=fuel).

BRUSHY: v. Bushy, shaggy.

     1 nṛśaṃsaḥ (sā saṃ);
     2 krūraḥ (rā raṃ): v. Cruel, savage.

     1 nṛśaṃsatā
     2 krauryam: v. Cruelty, inhumanity.

     1 nṛśaṃsīkaroti;
     2 krūrīkaroti.

     1 nṛśaṃsam;
     2 krūram;
     3 paśuvat.

BRUTE (subs.):
     I A beast: q. v.: paśuḥ
     II A brutal man:
     1 paśuḥ;
     2 piśācaḥ (=fiend). Ph. human b. nṛpaśuḥ; puruṣapaśuḥ, etc.

BRUTE (adj.):
     I Irrational: q. v.
     II Uncivilised: q. v. Ph. by mere b. force *kevalaṃ paśusādhāraṇena balena.

BRUTISH, BRUTISHLY: v. Brutal, brutally.

BRYONY: A plant: piluparṇī.

BUBBLE (subs.):
     I Of water:
     1 buddhu daḥ;
     2 ḍimbikā Wilson.
     II Fig.: Ph. man is a b. budvudanibho manuṣya:
     III A delusive scheme: budvudaḥ (?).

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BUBBLE (v. i.): budvudāyate (nomi.). B. ing: udvudvudaḥ (dā daṃ).

BUBBLE (v. t.): v. To deceive. B. r.: v. Deceiver.

BUCCANEER: v. Pirate.

     1 mṛgaḥ (of deer);
     2 ajaḥ (of goats);
     3 śaśakaḥ (of hare).

     I For drawing up water:
     1 araghaṭṭaḥ;
     2 udghāṭanam;
     3 udañcanam, D. vi.;
     4 ghaṭīyantram.
     II For carrying water:
     1 droṇī;
     2 secanī.

BUCKLE (subs.): bandhaviśeṣaḥ; *gaṇḍakaḥ.

BUCKLE (v.): *gaṇḍakitaḥ; (tā taṃ) karoti. B. to: v. To apply.

BUCKLER: phalakaḥ: v. Shield.

BUCKRAM: sthūlapaṭṭaviśeṣaḥ.

     1 mṛgacarman (n.);
     2 hariṇājinam.

BUCKTHORN: raṅgapradāyī vṛkṣajātibhedaḥ.

BUCKWHEAT: śasyabhedaḥ.

BUCOLICS: gopādiviṣayakaṃ kāvyam.

BUD (subs.)
     I An undeveloped flower:
     1 koraka (mn.);
     2 kaliḥ -kā;
     3 mukula (mn.) (=half-open b.);
     4 kuḍma (dma) laḥ;
     5 jālam -kam;
     6 koṣaḥ or kośaḥ.
     II An undeveloped branch, etc.:
     1 aṅkuraḥ;
     2 prarohaḥ.

BUD (v. i): Ph. although the mangoes have b. ded late. cūtānāṃ ciranirgatāpi kalikā, Sa. vi. Expr. similarly by the verbs: udgacchati (gam, c. l.), udbhinatti (bhid, c. 7.), udeti (i, c. 2.), etc.

BUD (v. t.): *aṅkuraṃ niveśayati (c. of viś) (with loc.).

BUDGE: v. To move, stir.

     I A bag, stock, store: q. v.
     II Of revenuc: *āgābhivarṣasya rājasvasya vibhāvitāyavyayagaṇanā.

BUFF (subs.): mahiṣādeḥ pariṣkṛtacarmaḥ: v. Leather.

BUFF (adj.):
     I Made of b.: *pariṣkṛtacarmamayaḥ (yī yaṃ).
     II Light yellow: āpītaḥ (tā taṃ).

     1 mahiṣaḥ;
     2 sairibhaḥ (rare). A sheb.: mahiṣī. B. -horn: gavalam. B. -milk: māhiṣaṃ dugdham, Bha.

BUFFET (subs.):
     I A side-board: q. v.
     II A blow: q. v. muṣṭyāghātaḥ.

BUFFET (v. t.):
     I Lit.: muṣṭinā or capeṭena hanti (han, c. 2.) or praharati (hṛ, c. l.).
     II To contend with: q. v.

     1 bhaṇḍaḥ;
     2 vaihāsikaḥ;
     3 vidūṣakaḥ

BUFFOONERY: bhāṇḍam.

     1 matkuṇaḥ;
     2 yūkaḥ (f. ), P. i. 9.;
     3 kiṭibhaḥ.

     1 bhūtaḥ (ghost);
     2 trāsajananaḥ (nī naṃ) (=terrific), he was a b. to the station sa purasya trāsajanana āsīt.

     1 kāhalaḥ -lā (a kind of horn);
     2 peraḥ (another kind), B.

     1 nir-mimīte (, c. 3.), built the city of Mathurā on the banks of the Yamunā upakūlaṃ sa kālindyā nirmame mathurāṃ purīm, R. xv. 28.;
     2 vidadhāti or dhatte (dhā, c. 3.), where (Kuvera) built the city... vyadhatta yasmin puram, Ki. v. 35.: v. To make.

BUILD UPON: avalambya or āśritya sṛjati (sṛj, c. 6.) or nirmimīte (?).

     1 nirmātā;
     2 vidhātā (rare);
     3 kartā (maker: q. v.).

BUILDING (subs.):
     I The act of b.:
     1 nirmāṇam;
     2 nirmitiḥ (rare);
     3 vidhānam (rare).
     II A structure:
     1 bhavanam;
     2 gṛham: v. Edifice, house.

BULB: No exact equiv.: kanda (mn.) may be used.

BULBOUS: Ph. b. root kanda (mn.) (?).

BULGE (subs.): v. Protuberance.

BULGE OUT: pralambate (labhm, c. l.): v. To swell out.

     I Dimension: q. v. Ph.: Of great b. sthūlakāyaḥ (yā yaṃ) (of animals) or mahā or bṛhatpramāṇaḥ (ṇā ṇaṃ), Ku.
     II The majority, the principal portion. Ph.: the b. of the people bahutaralokāḥ.
     III A projecting part of a building: alindaḥ (?).

BULK-HEAD: A partition in a ship: v. t. Partition.

     1 bṛhat (f. );
     2 sthūlaḥ (lā laṃ); v. Big, large.

     I The animal:
     1 vṛṣaḥ;
     2 vṛṣabhaḥ
     3 ṛṣabhaḥ;
     4 balīvardaḥ,
     5 ukṣan (m.);
     6 kakudmat (m.) (=the humped b.);
     7 puṅgavaḥ;
     8 anaḍuh (m.).
     II The constellation:
     1 vṛṣaḥ;
     2 vṛṣarāśiḥ.
     III An edict of the Pope: (*popasya) ādeśaḥ.
     IV An absurd blunder:
     1 pramādaḥ;
     2 skhalitam.

BULL-BAITING: kukkurairvṛṣabhātrāsanam.

BULL-DOG: bṛhanmukhaḥ kukkurabhedaḥ; *vṛṣakukkuraḥ.

     I A window: gavākṣaḥ.
     II A centre of a target: lakṣyam.
     III A police man's lantern: pradīpabhedaḥ.

BULLET: gulikā.

     1 ghoṣaṇā;
     2 rājājñayā pracārito rājasvāsthyādiviṣayakaḥ samācāraḥ.

BULL-FINCH: pakṣiprabhedaḥ.

     1 kośaḥ;
     2 hiraṇyam (gen. = gold);
     3 rajatam (gen. = silver).

     1 balīvardaḥ;
     2 vṛṣaḥ: v. Bull.

BULLY (subs.):
     1 piṇḍīśūraḥ (?);
     2 tarjanapaṭuḥ (?).

BULLY (v. t.):
     1 tarjayati (tarj, c. 10.) (=threaten);
     2 udvejayati (c. of vij) (=to frighten).

BULRUSH: jalajatṛṇaprabhedaḥ; nalabhedaḥ (?).

     I A rampart:
     1 vapraḥ;
     2 prākāraḥ.
     II Fig.: Any means of defence;
     1 saṃśrayaḥ;
     2 āśrayaḥ;
     3 śaraṇam;
     4 ālambaḥ.

BUMP (v. t.): v. To knock, thump.

BUMP (subs.):
     I A swelling: q. v. gaṇḍaḥ (?).
     II A thump: q. v.

BUMPER: caṣakam, "fill the b. s to the brim" *āmukhaṃ caṣakāṇi pūryata.

BUMPKIN: grāmikaḥ: v. Rustic.

BUN: piṣṭakaḥ: v. Cake.

BUNCH: A protuberance, hunch: q. v.
     II Of fruit: gucchaḥ.
     III A bundle: q. v.: a b. of keys: *tālīgucchaḥ.

BUNDLE (subs.):
     1 kūrcaḥ (as of grass);
     2 gucchaḥ (?);
     3 poṭṭalī (of clothes).

     I Trans: prasthāpayati (c. of sthā).
     II Intrans.: pratiṣṭhate (sthā, c. l.).

BUNG (subs.): no equiv.: *mukhapidhānam.

BUNG (v.): v. To stop, close.

BUNG-HOLE: *mukham; madyabhāṇḍamukham: v. Hole.

BUNGLE (subs.):
     1 pramādaḥ;
     2 skhalitam: v. Blunder.

BUNGLE (v.):
     I Intrans: v. To blunder.
     II Trans: v. To spoil, mar.

BUNGLING (adj.): v. Unskilful, awkward, clumsy.

BUNGLINGLY: v. Unskilfully, clumsily.

     I A bird: pakṣiviśeṣaḥ.
     II Stuff for flags: dhvajanirmāṇopayogī paṭaviśepaḥ.

BUOY (subs.): nāvikebhyaḥ saṅkaṭasthalapradarśakaṃ jalopari plavamānaṃ cihram; *plavaḥ.

BUOY UP (v. t.):
     I To keep afloat:
     1 plāvayati (c. of plu) (?);
     2 unmajjayati (c. of. masj) (?).
     II To support or sustain: q. v.

BUOY UP (v. i.): Ph. merit will b. at last *na khalu guṇāḥ pracchannāstiṣṭhanti.

     I Lit.:
     1 plavanaśīlatā (?);
     2 laghutā (=lightness).
     II Fig.: Cheerfulness, vivacity: q. v.: ullāsaḥ.

     I Lit.:
     1 plavanaśīlaḥ (lā laṃ) (?);
     2 laghu (mfn.) (=light).
     II Fig.: Cheerful vivacious: q. v.

BURBOT: matsyaviśeṣaḥ.

BURDEN (v. t.):
     I Lit.: v. To load:
     II Fig.: To oppress: q. v.: pīḍayati (pīḍ, c. 10.).

BURDEN (subs.):
     I Load:
     1 bhāraḥ, b. of state rājyabhāraḥ, K.; what b. is great to the able ko'tibhāraḥ samarthānām, H. iii.;
     2 dhur (f.), a beast of b. dhuryaḥ or dhuroṇaḥ;
     3 bharaḥ, all b. placed on a worthy minister yogyasacive nyastaḥ samasto bhāraḥ. Ra. i. Ph. the b. of proof: pramāṇabhāraḥ.
     II Taxes, pecuniary imposts: q. v.: unable to bear the b. s karabhārāsahāḥ, V. p.
     III The capacity of a ship: Ph. a boat of 100 maunds b. *śatamaṇavāhinī nauḥ. IV. B. of a song:
     1 dhruvakam;
     2 anupadam.

     1 durvahaḥ or durudvahaḥ (hā haṃ);
     2 durbharaḥ (rā raṃ);
     3 atibhārikaḥ (kā. kaṃ) (Lit. and Fig.) Mu. vi.;
     4 duḥsahaḥ (hā haṃ) (Fig.).

BURDOCK: gulmabhedaḥ.

     I A desk: q. v.
     II A department: vibhāgaḥ (?).

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     I A burgher: q. v.
     II A representative of a borough in Parliament: *nagarapratinidhiḥ or simp. pratinidhiḥ (when the sense is clear).

     1 *nāgaraḥ;
     2 pauraḥ (=citizen).

     1 sandhicauraḥ or sandhihārakaḥ (a b. who enters by making a hole under the walls of a house);
     2 kuḍyacchedin (m.) (by making a passage through a wall);
     3 kapāṭaghnaḥ (by breaking or opening a door):
     4 khanikaḥ or khānilaḥ (rare) (=sandhicauraḥ);
     5 kujambha (mbhi) laḥ (rare).

BURGLARIOUS: Ph. b. entry *jihīrṣayā or cucorayiṣayā paragṛhapraveśaḥ.

BURGLARY: rātrau cauryādyanyāyyakarmacikīrṣayā sandhiṃ kṛtvā kuḍyaṃ vā chitvānyena vā prakāreṇa paragṛhapraveśaḥ.

BURIAL: nidhānam. B. ground: *nidhānasthalī.

BURIN: An engraver's tool: takṣaṇī (?).

BURLESQUE (adj.): hāsyakaraḥ (rī raṃ) or hāsyajanakaḥ (kā kaṃ).

BURLESQUE (subs.): hāsyakaraprabandhaḥ.

BURLESQUE (v. t.): Ph. to b. my gait *upahāsārthaṃ mama gatim anukaroti (kṛ, c. 8.): v. To imitate.

BURLY: sthūlaḥ (lā laṃ): v. Stout.

BURN (v. t.):
     1 dahati (dah, c. l.), I am b. ing Lankā in your presence tava pratyakṣaṃ laṅkā mayā dahyate, Ma. n. v.; but (it) is b. ing me māṃ punardahatyeva, Sa. iii.; b. t rice dagdhānnam, b. t wood dagdhakāṣṭham; half b. t dagdhādagdhaḥ (gdhā gdhaṃ), D.;
     2 ploṣati (pluṣ, c. l.) (rare), half b. t ardhapluṣṭaḥ (ṣṭā ṣṭaṃ), Vi. vi. 4;
     3 jvalayati (c. of jval) (to inflame), internal heat is b. ing my body jvalayati tanūmantardāhaḥ, U. iii.

BURN (v. i.):
     I To be on fire, to blaze: q. v. jvalati (jval, c. l.), the light is b. ing jvalati pradīpaḥ Mr. ii. To be inflamed with passion:
     1 dahyate (pass of dah), my heart b. ing from contumely mama parimavānaladahyamānaṃ cetaḥ, Ve. iii.;
     2 tapyate (pass. of tap), who is b. ing with grief yaḥ śokena tapyate, U. iv.;
     3 dīpyate (dīp, c. 4.) (of rage only), b. t with rage kruddho'dīpi, B. Ph. my limbs are b. ing jvalanti me'ṅgāni.

BURN DOWN, BURN OUT (v. t.): daiti: v. To burn up.

BURN OUT (v. i.): śāmyati (śam, c. 4.): v. To go out, to be extinguished.

     1 nir-dahati (dah, c. l.), as if b. ing up with his fiery look nirdahanniva dahanagarbhayā dṛśā, D.;
     2 bhasmīkaroti (=reduce to ashes).

BURN (subs.): dāhajaṃ or dāhena janitaṃ kṣatam (hurt) or vraṇam (wound).

     1 dagdhā;
     2 dāhakaḥ B. (of a lamp): *dāhavardhanī.

BURNING (subs.):
     I Active: consuming with fire:
     1 dāhaḥ;
     2 dahanam;
     3 ploṣaḥ (rare).
     II Passive: being on fire: jvalanam (also of the b. of the face, etc.)

BURNING (adj.):
     I Active: expr. by a comp. with dāhaḥ b. power dāhataktiḥ; b. fever, dāhajvaraḥ.
     II Passive: jvalat (f. ntī): v. Burn (v. i.)
     III Scorching, hot: q. v. Ph. b. scent: ugragandhaḥ.

     1 śmaśānam;
     2 śavasānam (rare).

BURNING GLASS: *dāhakakācaḥ.

BURNISH (v. t.):
     1 pramārjayati (mṛj, c. 10.);
     2 dhāvati (dhāv, c. l): v. To polish.

BURNISH (subs.): v. Glass, lustre.

     1 homaḥ (?);
     2 vaṣaṭkāraḥ (?);
     3 yāgaḥ (?): v. Sacrifice.

BURROW (subs.):
     1 vivaram;
     2 bilam;
     3 gartaḥ: v. Hole.

BURROW (v. i):
     I Excavate a hole: vivaraṃ or bilaṃ karoti (kṛ, c. 8.).
     II To live in it: vivara or bilaṃ kṛtvā nivasati (vas, c. l.). Any b. ing animal: bileśayaḥ.

     I A treasurer: q. v.
     II The holden of a bursary: *vṛttibhuj (mfn.)

     I A treasury: q. v.
     II A charitable foundation: *vṛttiḥ.

BURST (v. i.): sphuṭati (sphuṭ, c. 6.), my heart i b. ing sphuṭati hṛdayam, U. iii.;
     2 vidalati (dal c. l.) (=split), M. n.;
     3 viśīryate (pass of śṝ) (=to split), a b. ing rock viśīryabhānāśma. Ki. xvi. 51.;
     4 dīryate vi-, (pass. of dṝ (to rend), my heart b. mamādīryata hṛdayam, to b. into tears roditumārabhate (rabh, c. l.), K.; to b. with laughter or b. out laughing prahasitum ārabhate; to b. forth (Lit.): niṣkrāmati (kram, c. l.) or nirgacchati (gam, c. l.); to b. forth (=to break out): udbhinatti (bhid c. l.); tears b. forth aśrudhārā prāvartata (vṛt c. l.) or aśrūṇi niragacchan; to b. open: v. To break open. To b. upon: ākrāmati (=to attack).

BURST (v. t.):
     1 sphoṭayati (c. of sphuṭ);
     2 troṭayati (c. of truṭ).

BURST (subs.):
     I Lit.: sphoṭanam or sphuṭanam.
     II Fig.: expr. by verb.: there was a b. of applause udatiṣṭhan praśaṃsāvācaḥ; b. of thunder sphūrjathusphūrjitam, Vi.

     I To inter a corpse:
     1 ni-khanati (khan, c. l.), b. d (him) in the ground vasudhāyāṃ nicachanatuḥ, R. xii. 30.;
     3 ni-dadhāti or dhatte (dhā, c. 3.) (=to place), bodies of mendicants should be b. d in holes bhikṣoḥ kalevaraṃ bile nidadhyāt, M. n.
     II To conceal: q. v.

     1 gulmaḥ;
     2 kṣupaḥ;
     3 chupaḥ;
     4 bhuṇṭaḥ;
     5 gahanam (=thicket). Ph. a bird in the hand is worth two in the b.: adhruvād dhruvaṃ varam (?) (see H. i.); you are beating the b. for nothing: nirarthakamidamāloḍayasi (?); hide yourself in the b. viṭapāntarito bhava, Sa. iii.

BUSHEL: mānaviśeṣaḥ.

     I Full of bushes: gulmāvṛtaḥ (tā taṃ): Thick like a bush:
     1 niviḍaḥ (ḍā ḍaṃ);
     2 aviralaḥ (lā laṃ). Ph. b. tail: dīrdhabālabāladhiḥ.

BUSILY gāḍham (=deeply), engaged gāḍhaṃ vyāpṛtaḥ (tā taṃ): Industriously.

     I Occupation, profession: q. v.:
     1 vyavasāyaḥ;
     2 karman (n.), Sa. v. Ph.: b. of a messenger dūtyam; b. of a barber nāpityam:
     II Mercantile transactions: vyavahāraḥ, P. III. Any affair, transaction:
     1 karman (n.), a man of b. karmaṭhaḥ;
     2 kāryam, a man of b. kāryajñaḥ: b. time kāryakālaḥ;
     3 vyāpāraḥ, this is your b. bhavatastāvadayaṃ vyāpāraḥ, H. iii.;
     4 niyogaḥ: v. Employment.
     III Right of acting: Ph. what b. has he to send for you *tvāmākārayituṃ tasya ko'dhikāraḥ.
     IV Concern: q. v.: Ph. what b. is it of yours, kinte prayojanamanena.

BUSKIN: pādukāviśeṣaḥ.

BUSS: cumbanam: v. Kiss.

     I The trunk of body:
     1 śarīrapūrvabhāgaḥ;
     2 pūrvārdham. R. II. A statue representing the b.: pūrvārdhapratimā.

BUSTARD: bṛhatpakṣiviśeṣaḥ.

BUSTLE (subs.):
     1 sambhramaḥ;
     2 kṣobhaḥ (=agitation: q. v.).

BUSTLE (v. i): pradhāvati (dhāv, c. l.)(=to run): v. To be agitated.

BUSY (adj.): vyāpṛtaḥ (tā taṃ) (=employed: only of persons): v. Active, industrious. Ph. to-day is a b. day adya bahūni kāryāṇi kartavyāni or draṣṭavyāni.

BUSY: (v.): v. To occupy, attend to, employ.

BUSYBODY: yaḥ parādhikāracarcāṃ karoti.

BUT (subs. and v.): v. Butt.

     I Except: anyaḥ (nyā nyaṃ) (with abl.), this is the doing of none b. Aghoraghanta nādhoradhaṇṭādanyasya karmaitat..., Ma. v. Ph. his life was nothing else b. a tissue of atrocious deeds *bībhatsakarmasantatireva tasya jīvitamāsīt; b. for the king, which of your younger brothers would forgive rājā nacenniṣeddhā syāt kaḥ kṣameta tavānujaḥ, Ve. i.; all b. finished sampūrṇaprāyaḥ (yā yaṃ), in the last page b. one, *upāntyapṛṣṭhāyām; b. by going to London, *laṇḍanamagatvā.
     II Only: q. v.: Ph. b. for a moment kṣaṇamātram. R. III. Denoting contrast or opposition:
     1 tu (never at the beginning of a clause), deep anxiety grinds my heart, b. it does not burst into two parts dalati hṛdayaṃ gāḍhodvego dvidhā na tu bhidyate, U. iii.;
     2 tu is often ommitted, by sweet, b. false words madhurābhiranṛtavāgbhiḥ, Sa. v.; of what avail is (a servant) loyal, b. unwise and timid aprājñena ca kātareṇa ca guṇaḥ syāt sānurāgeṇa kaḥ, Mu. i.; internal heat is burning my body, b. does not reduce it to ashes jvalayati tanumantardāhaḥ karoti na bhasmasāt, U. iii.;
     3 kintu or parantu (at the beginning) your union is easy. B. the report is, she said... samāgamo vāmayatnasādhyaḥ kintu sā kila samagirat... D. ii.;
     4 punaḥ, it is like it, b. not the same sadṛśa eṣaḥ | na punaḥ saḥ, Mr. Ph. (a) b. also:
     1 api (indecl.): not only he who speaks ill of the great, b. also he who hears is a participator of the sin na kevalaṃ yo mahato'pabhāṣate śṛṇoti tasmādapiyaḥ sapāpabhāk, Ku. v. 83.;
     2 apitu (rare), U. ii.;
     3 kintu (rare), not only to bring, b. also to bend (the bow) na kevalamānayanāya kintvānamanāya, Pr.;
     4 b. yet tathāpi, surely this is so, b. yet seeing the action of some foolish men vāḍhamevaṃ tathāpi pravṛttānyupalabhya keṣāñcinmandamatīnām, S. IV. Equiv. to that... not: Ph. there is none b. fears him na ko'pi yastasmānna bibheti: there is not a day b. he comes to my house *naiko'pi divaso gacchati yadā sa mama gṛhaṃ nāgacchati.

BUTCHER (subs.):
     1 saunikaḥ or śaunikaḥ;
     2 māṃsikaḥ;
     3 māṃsavikrayī.

BUTCHER (v. t.):
     1 hanti (han, c. 2.): v. To slay, kill;
     2 viśasati (śas, c. l.);
     3 saṃjñapayati (c. of jñā):
     4 nirvapati (vap c. l.);
     5 nisūdayati (sūd, c. 10.).

BUTCHER'S BROOM: saunikamārjanī.

     1 vadhaḥ;
     2 viśasanam: v. Slaughter, massacre.

BUTLER: bhojanapātramadyādirakṣakaḥ sevakaḥ; *āsavapālaḥ.

BUTT (subs.):
     I An end, a limit: q. v.
     II Mark, target: q. v. lakṣyam.
     III An object of ridicule:
     1 upahāsāspadam;
     2 hāsyabhūmiḥ.
     IV A push or thrust with the head of an animal: śirasā tāḍanam. V. A cask or vessel:
     1 pātram;
     2 bhāṇḍam.
     VI A short piece of land at the end of a field: āliḥ.

BUTT (v.):
     I To adjoin, bound: q. v.
     II To strike with the head: śirasā tāḍayati or āhanti (han, c. 2.): Ph. two rams are b. ing meṣau yudhyāte (yudh, c. 4. = to fight).

BUTTER (subs.): navanītam, fresh b. sadyaskaṃ navanītam, Bha. clarified b.:
     1 ghṛtam,
     2 havisa (n.);
     3 sarpis (n.);
     4 ājyam;
     5 puroḍāśam.

BUTTER (v.) navanītena limpati: v. To besmear.

BUTTERCUP: pītapuṣpaprabhedaḥ.

     1 tintiliḥ (?);
     2 pippiliḥ (?).

     1 takram;
     2 kālaśeyam;
     3 ariṣṭam
     4 daṇḍāhatam, A.

BUTTERY: v. Larder.

     1 nitambaḥ
     2 kaṭiprothaḥ (rare);
     3 sphic (f.) (rare).

BUTTON (subs.) *butāmaḥ. B. hole *butāmacchidram.

BUTTON (v. t.) *butāmaṃ dadāti (, c. 3.) or lagayati (c. of lag).

BUTTRESS: *ālambaḥ.

BUXOM: praphullavadanaḥ (nā naṃ): v. Comely, gay.

BUY (v. t.):
     1 krīṇāti or krīṇīte (krī, c. 9.);
     2 avakrīṇīte (rare);
     3 gṛhṇāti (grah, c. 9.) (=to receive) (to be used only when the sense is clear): at what price have you bought this book kiyatā mūlyenaiṣa pustako gṛhītaḥ, P. ii. 4.

BUY BACK or OFF: parikrīṇīte (krī, c. 9.).

     1 kretṛ (f. trī);
     2 krayin (f. ṇī);
     3 krayikaḥ (kā kaṃ).

BUYING: krayaḥ. B. and selling krayavikrayaḥ.

BUZZ (v. i.):
     1 guñjati (guñj, c. l.), not a single bee that did nat b. in a sweet low tone na ṣaṭpado'sau na juguñja yaḥ kalam, B. ii. 19.;
     2 siḍkte (siñj, c. 2.), B. xxii. 27.;
     3 ghuṇaghuṇāyate (nomi.), Kar. v. To sound.

BUZZ, BUZZING (subs.):
     1 guñjitam;
     2 guñjanam;
     3 huṅkṭatam, K.

     I A bird: śyenabhedaḥ.
     II A blockhead: q. v.

BY (prep.):
     I Of place: (a) = near: q. v.: esp. by comp. with upa, b. the Ganges upagaṅgam: Ph. b. the side of (her) father pituḥ pārśve Ku.; (b)=past:
     1 atītya;
     2 atikramyaḥ Ph. flows b. the city of Oude vahatyayodhyāmanu rājadhānīm, R.; b. this road anena mārgeṇa; (c) =on: by the ins.: b. land and water sthalena jalena ca.
     II Of time: (a) not later than: Ph.: b. this time, the day was complete anena samayena pariṃṇato divasaḥ, K.; by the 1st of Vaisākha vaiśākhasya prathamadivasāt pūrvam (?); (b) of succession: Ph. day b. day anudinam; month b. month māse māse.
     III Of other relations: (a) of an agent after pass. verb: by the ins.: should be forgiven b. you bhavatā marṣa yitavyaḥ, Sa. iv.; Bali was asked land by Vamana vāmanena valiryayāce vasudhām, S. k.; (b) Of the instrument: by the ins.: b. fans made of lotus-leaves nalinīdalatālavṛntaiḥ, Sa. iii.; b. king's command rājājñayā; b. force prasahya; (c) Of the cause, means, made, etc.: gen. by the ins., sometimes by part. s: b. reading Shāstras śāstrāṇyadhītya; b. hook or b. crook yena kena prakāreṇa; b. name Sutikshna, of peaceful character nāmnā sutīkṣṇaścaritena dāntaḥ, R. xiii. 41.; b. heart kaṇṭhasthaḥ (sthā sthaṃ), Bo.; b. nature prakṛtyā or svabhāvataḥ; b. stealth caurikayā; to sell b. weight tolayitvā vikrīṇīte (?); to sell b. the yard gajasaṃkhyayā vikrīṇīte (?); b. one's self ekakaḥ (kā kaṃ): v. Solitary; b. degrees kramaśaḥ; b. thousands sahasraśaḥ; b. crowds saṅghaśaḥ; one b. one ekaikaśaḥ; man b. man pratipuruṣam: v. Each; he is taller than I b. half a foot *sa matto'rdhapādoccaḥ; a poem by Kālidāsa kālidāsakṛtaṃ kāvyam; (d) In adjurations: Ph. b. God īśvaraṃ sākṣīkṛtya; I swear b. my sacerdotal thread śapāmi brahmasūtreṇa, Ra. ii.

BY (adv.):
     I Near: q. v.: nikaṭe.
     II Aside: v. Lay by, put by.

     1 acireṇa;
     2 kiñcit paścāt (=little after).

BY THE BY: prasaṅgena or prasaṅgāt (?).

     1 atītaḥ (tā taṃ);
     2 atikrāntaḥ (ntā ntaṃ);
     3 gataḥ (tā taṃ).

BY-LAW: *upavidhiḥ: v. Rule, ordinance.

     1 vimārgaḥ;
     2 vipathaḥ.

     1 vijanapradeśaḥ;
     2 viviktasthalam;
     3 vijanabhūmiḥ.

     1 prekṣakaḥ (=a spectator);
     2 pārśvasthaḥ (=one who is near).

BYWORD: v. Proverb. To become a b. upahāsāspadaṃ bhavati (bhū, c. l.).

CAB: aśvavāhyayānabhedaḥ.

CABAL (subs.):
     I A body of intriguers: *svakāryasādhanāya gūḍhamantrakāriṇaḥ (m. pl.).
     II Intrigue: q. v.: gūḍhamantraṇā.

CABAL (v. i.): *svakāryasādhanāya gūḍhaṃ mantrayati (mantr, c. 10.) or sim. mantrayati (when the sense is clear). v. To intrigue.

CABALA: *kābalam; ihudīnāṃ nigūḍhaśāstram.

CABALIST: *kābalavid (mfn.); kābalajñaḥ (f. jñā).

CABALISTIC: kābalaviṣayakaḥ (kā kaṃ). In gen. sense: v. Mystical.

CABALLER: v. Intriguer.

CABBAGE: śākaprabhedaḥ; *kabiḥ.

     I A cottage: q. v.
     II Of a ship: koṣṭhaḥ (?).

     I A closet: q. v.
     II A piece of furniture: *darājaḥ: v. Chest.
     III The select council of a ruler: pradhānamantriṇāṃ sabhā. Ph. c. minister: mukhyamantrin (m.).
     IV A room for c. council: indrakam (?).

CABLE: potabandhanāya sthūlaḥ śāṇarajjuḥ lauhaśṛṅhnalo vā; potabandhanī (?).

     1 pravahaṇavāhakaḥ;
     2 yānavāhī: v. Charioteer.

CABRIOLET: catuścakraviśiṣṭaḥ sapidhāno laghurathaviśeṣaḥ.

     1 aṭṭahāsaḥ;
     2 prahasanam;
     3 ācchuritam.

CACKLE (v.):
     1 nadati (nad, c. l.);
     2 rauti (ru, c. 2).

CAKLE, CACKLING (subs.): nādaḥ, c. of the geese haṃsanādaḥ: v. Noise.

CACOPHONOUS: śrutikaṭu (mfn.), Kav. vii. 2.: v. Harsh, discordant.

CACOPHONY: śrutikaṭutā.

CADAVEROUS: v. Ghastly, pale.

     I Lit.: v. Fall.
     II Musical:
     1 svarasaṃkramaḥ (=modulation of voice), Mr. iii. 5.;
     2 svarāvarohaḥ (=fall of voice.), M. n.;
     3 virāmaḥ (=pause).

     I A younger brother: anujaḥ.
     II A younger son: kaniṣṭhaputraḥ.
     III In the army: *kāditaḥ.

CAESURA: *vicchedaḥ.

CAGE: (subs.):
     I For animals:
     1 piñjaram;
     2 pañjaram;
     3 vītaṃsaḥ.
     II For men: v. Prison.

CAGE (v. t.): piñjare niruṇaddhi (rudh, c. 7.): v. To confine.

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     1 upalarāśiḥ;
     2 pāṣāṇacitiḥ; and sim. comp. s.

CAITIFF: khalaḥ: v. Knave.

CAJOLE (v. t.): lālayati (lala, c. 10.): v. To deceive.

CAJOLER: lālin (f. ) (?): v. Deceiver, flatterer.

CAJOLERY: lālanam: v. Flattery, deception.

CAKE (subs.):
     I An article of food:
     1 ṣiṣṭakaḥ;
     2 pūpaḥ.
     II A cake-like mass: piṇḍaḥ.

CAKE (v. i.): piṇḍībhavati (bhū, c. l.).

CALAMINE: dhātuviśeṣaḥ; *kalaminam.

     1 vipannaḥ (nnā nnaṃ);
     2 vipadgrastaḥ (stā staṃ);
     3 āpadupetaḥ (tā taṃ);
     4 vyasanopetaḥ (tā taṃ): v. Unfortunate. Ph. 'c. condition' vipaddaśā.

     1 vipad;
     2 āpad (f.);
     3 vipatti;
     4 vyasanam (rare);
     5 upadravaḥ (=public c.): v. Misfortune.

     1 gāraṇam;
     2 ātañcanam;
     3 pratīvāpaḥ.

     1 gārayati (c. of gṝ);
     2 ātañcayati (c. of tañc).

CALCIUM: *cūrṇasāraḥ.

     1 gaṇayati (=to count, reckon: q. v.);
     2 nirūpayati (=to ascertain), c. a day suited for our departure nirūpyatāṃ tāvadasmākaṃ prasthānayogyadivasaḥ, Mu. iv. C. d.: i. e. adapted: v. To fit, suit.

     1 gaṇanā;
     2 nirūpaṇam (=ascertainment), c. of time kālanirūpaṇam, Su.

     1 gaṇakaḥ;
     2 nirūpakaḥ (=one who ascertains).

     1 aśmaraḥ (rī raṃ);
     2 śārkaraḥ (rī raṃ).

     1 *sūkṣmamānagaṇitam (=differential c.);
     2 *samāhāragaṇitam (=integral c.).

     1 kaṭāhaḥ;
     2 piṭharaḥ: v. Boiler.

     I An almanac: pañjikā.
     II A list: q. v.

CALENDAR (subs.): *cakrayantram, Williams.

CALENDER (v. t.): *cakrayantreṇa ślakṣṇīkaroti (nomi.).

CALENDS: romakīyamāsasya prathamadivasam.

CALENTURE: vyāmohaḥ (Lit. and Fig.).

     I The young of the cow:
     1 vatsaḥ
     2 govatsaḥ or dhenuvatsaḥ;
     3 taṇikaḥ (=a newly born c.), A. A she-c. two years old dvihāyanī.
     II A dolt, blockhead: q. v.
     III The c. of the leg: jaṅghāyā māṃsalaḥ paścādbhāgaḥ.

CALIBRE: Ph.: the c. (of a tube, etc.) mukhasya or chidrasya parimāṇam; of small c. kṣudramukhaviśi (?); a man of small c. kṣudrabuddhiḥ.

CALICO: kārpāsabhedaḥ.

CALIGRAPHY: v. Penmanship.

CALK (v. t.): jalapraveśanirodhāya naukāyāḥ phalakasani cchidrāṇi jīrṇavastrakhaṇḍaiḥ pūrayati (c. of pṝ).

CALKER: jīrṇavastrakhaṇḍairnaukāyāḥ phalakasa ndhicchidrapūraka.

CALL (v. t.):
     I To summon:
     1 hvayati ā - (hve, c. l.), I will c. and ask my mistra gṛhiṇīmāhūya pṛcchāmi, Mr. i.;
     2 śabdāyate (nom) (=c. aloud), c. Maitreya maitreyaṃ tāvat śabdāya Mr. iv.;
     3 ākārayati (c. of kṛ) (rare)
     4 nimantrayati (mantr, c. 10.) (=invite: q. v.)
     II To address by a particular name
     1 āhvayati, c. ed her by the name Pārvati pārvatīti nāmnā juhāva, Ku. i. 26.;
     2 nāmnā saṃjñayā or ākhyayā abhidadhāti (dhā, c. 3.): "c. a spade a spade" yo yadrūpastaṃ tadrūpamabhidhehi.
     III To name designate:
     1 vakti (vac, c. 2.), bhāṣate (bhāṣ c. l.), etc. (=to speak: q. v.), you are c.ed 'mountainlifter' tulitabhūbhṛducyase Si. xv. 30.; udāharati (hṛ, c. l.), c. ed Dasharatha daśaratha ityudāhṛtaḥ, B. i. 1.;
     3 apa-diśati vyapa-, (diś, c. l.), Si. xv. 28. Ph. c. to mind manasi karoti; c. ed Rik, Yajus and Sāman ṛgyajuḥsāma- saṃjñakāḥ, S. p.; c. ed Tāraka tārakasaṃjñitaḥ, Ku.

CALL BACK: v. To recall, revoke, retract.

CALL FOR: To demand, require.

CALL FORTH: āhvayati (hve, c. l.) (Lit. and fig)

     I To collect, as debts: v. to collect.
     II To invite, as friends āhvayati, sam-.

CALL OFF: i. e. to divert: q. v.

CALL OUT: v. To recite.

     I To implore: q. v. To invoke: q. v.
     III To pay a short c. ed on me māṃ draṣṭumājagāma (after Mu.); c. on him taṃ draṣṭuṃ gaccha.

CALL TO: śabdāyate: v. Call (I).

CALL (subs.):
     I A vocal address: āhvānam. Ph. "c. of the house" *sabhāsadāṃ nāmapāṭhaḥ.
     II Demand, requisition: q. v.
     III A pipe or whistle: q. v. To make or give or pay a c.: v. Call on (III).

     I Lit.: āhvānam.
     II Vocation: q. v.: vṛttiḥ.

     I Lit.:
     1 kiṇaḥ;
     2 kadaraḥ (?).
     II Fig.: hard-heartedness, insensibility:
     1 kāṭhinyam;
     2 kaṭhoratā.

     I Lit.:
     1 mṛtaḥ (tā taṃ) (?);
     2 kaṭhinaḥ (nā naṃ) (=hard: q. v.).
     II Fig.: hardhearted: q. v.: kaṭhinaḥ (nā naṃ).

     1 kāṭhinyam;
     2 kaṭhoratā: v. Insensibility.

     1 pakṣahīnaḥ (nā naṃ);
     2 vītapakṣaḥ (kṣā kṣaṃ); and sim. comp. s.

CALM (adj.):
     1 śāntaḥ pra-, (ntā ntaṃ), O, what a c. and beautiful morning aho praśāntaramaṇīyatā prabhātasya; c. and solemn place praśāntagambhīrabhūmiḥ, Vi.; c. countenance śāntākāraḥ, Ma.;
     2 niṣkampaḥ (mpā mpaṃ), niścalaḥ (lā laṃ) etc. (without motion: as a sea), like the c. ocean on a c. day nivātaniṣkampamivāpagāpatim, Ki.; the sea became very c. with unruffled water nibhṛto'bhavadatyarthaṃ samudraḥ stimitodakaḥ. V. p.;
     3 nirvātaḥ (tā taṃ), etc. (=without wind: as a c. place), V.;
     4 anuttaraṅgaḥ (f. ṅgā) etc. (=not wavy: as a river);
     5 akṣubdhaḥ (f. bdhā), etc. (=not agitated), To be c.: śāmyati pra-, (śam, c. 4.), Ku.

CALM (subs.):
     I As opposed to storm: nivātaḥ or nirvātaḥ.
     II Calmness, tranquillity: q. v.

CALM (v. t.):
     1 śamayati pra-, (c. of śam), to c. a tempest caṇḍavātaṃ śamayati;
     2 śāntvayati or sāntvayati abhi- upa- pari-, (śāntv or sāntv c. 10.), to c. the son of wind (Bhima) marutaḥ sutamupasāntvayitum, Ki. ii. 25: v. To quiet.

     I Gently: q. v.
     II Quietly, patiently: q. v.

     1 śāntiḥ or śamaḥ;
     2 praśāntiḥ or praśamaḥ;
     3 akṣobhaḥ and sim. comp. s (=absence of agitation);
     4 better by adj. c. of mind:
     1 dhairyam, Ki. xiv. 1
     2 nirvikāracittatvam, M. n.

CALOMEL: *pītaharitapāradaḥ; śuddhapāradaḥ.

CALORIC: tāpaḥ.

CALORIFIC: tāpanaḥ (nī naṃ) or tāpakaḥ (kā kaṃ).

     I A thistle: gokṣuraḥ.
     II A military instrument: *catuḥśūlam; aśvārohāṇāṃ gatinirodhāya yuddhayantraviśeṣaḥ.

CALUMNIATE: parivadati (vad, c. l.), c. s in my presence (my) friend the king of Anga parivadati samakṣaṃ mitramaṅgādhirājam, Ve. v.: v. To slander, detract, revile.

CALUMNIATION: parivādaḥ: v. Calumny.

CALUMNIATOR: parivādakaḥ or parivādīḥ v. Slanderer, reviler.

CALUMNIOUS: parivādin (f. ): v. Slanderous.

     1 guṇāpavādena;
     2 abhūtamāsajya (=falsely);
     3 asūyayā (=detractingly).

     1 parivādaḥ, not before acquainted with c. s parivādagocaramayātapūrvaḥ (rvā vaṃ), Ki.;
     2 paribhāṣaṇam (rare);
     3 piśunavākyam (=evil speech): v. Slander, detraction.

CALVE: vatsaṃ sūte pra-, (, c. 2.): v. To beget.

CALVINISM: *kelvinamataṃ or kelvinasya matam.

CALVINIST: *kelvinamatāvalambin (f. ).

CALYX: *dalakoṣaḥ; puṣpadalāvaraṇam.

CAMBRIC: *kimbṛkam; sūkṣmapaṭaviśeṣaḥ.

     1 uṣṭraḥ;
     2 kramelakaḥ;
     3 dvikakud (m.) (rare). A young c.: karabhaḥ, A she-c.: uṣṭrī.

CAMELOPARD: dīrghagrīvaḥ (?); uṣṭrajātīyaścitrito jantuviśeṣaḥ.

CAMEO: *kāmopalaḥ.

CAMERA OBSCURA: *prativimbagrāhako yantraviśeṣaḥ prativimbagrāhiṇī.

CAMP (subs.):
     1 śiviram;
     2 kaṭakaḥ, To pikS a c.: skandhāvāraṃ niveśayati (c. of viś), Ka.

CAMP (v.): v. To encamp.

     I An open tract:
     1 samabhūmiḥ;
     2 kedāravratatiśvatravṛkṣagulmādivarjitā bhūmiḥ, Ka.
     II The time that an army keeps the field: vigrahakālaḥ (?) and sim. comp. s.

     1 karpara (mn.);
     2 sitābhraḥ, A.;
     3 himavālukā, A.
     4 dhanasāraḥ, A.

CAMPHORATED: karpūravāsitaḥ (tā taṃ).

CAN (subs.):
     1 caṣaka (mn.);
     2 kaṃsa (mn.).

CAN (v.);
     1 śaknoti (śak, c. 5.), Menā could not restrain (her) from the undertaking śaśāka menā na niyantumudyamāt, Ku. v. 5.; c. not be made to accept the ministry of Chandragupta vṛṣalasya sācivyaṃ grāhayituṃ na śakyate, Mu.;
     2 prabhavati (bhū, c. l.), an enemy c. not conquer then prabhavati na tadā paro vijetum, Ki. x. 35.;
     3 īṣṭe (īś, c. 2.), who c. move a good man sujanaṃ janāścalayituṃ ka īśate, Si. xv. 40.;
     4 pārayati (pṛ, c. 10.), nor c. we say that it is our friend's fault sakhigāmī doṣa iti vyavasāyayitumapi na pārayāmaḥ, Sa. iv.;
     5 kṣamate (kṣam, c. l.), N. xiv. 16.;
     6 samarthaḥ (rthā rthaṃ) or śaktaḥ (ktā ktaṃ) or kṣamaḥ (mā maṃ) bhavati (often understood). N. B. (a) Do not use 2 and 3 in the pass.; (b) could can also be idiomatically expressed by vidhiliṅ: I. c. deprive even Śiva of his fortitude kuryāṃ harasyāpi pinākapāṇerdhairyacyutim, Ku. iii. 10.; (c) cannot be --is best expressed by part. adj. s- tavya anīya and ya; what cannot be accomplished or cured asādhyaḥ (dhyā dhyaṃ); what cannot be measured aparimeyaḥ (yā yaṃ); (d) cannot but- is expressed by avaśyaṃ or circumlo.: I cannot but remark mayāvaśyaṃ vaktavyam; I cannot but weep rodanaṃ nivārayituṃ na śaknomi.

     1 kulyā;
     2 praṇālī;
     3 upakulyā.

CANARY BIRD: pītavarṇaḥ pakṣiviśeṣaḥ.

     I To erase, obliterate: kuṇḍalanāṃ tanoti (tan, c. 8.) (with gen.) (properly by the circular mark prevalent among Hindus), N. II. To annul=destroy; lumpati ava- vi-, (lup, c. 6.) (?).
     III To strike out common factors: apavartayati (c. of vṛt), Li.
     IV To enclose: q. v.

     I Erasing: kuṇḍalanākriyā.
     II Annulment: avalopaḥ (?).
     III Striking out common factors: apavartanam.

     I One of the signs of the zodiac:
     1 karkaṭaḥ;
     2 kakaḥ (rare).
     II A disease: karkaṭarogaḥ.

CANCEROUS: i. e. affected with cancer *karkaṭarogākrāntaḥ (ntā ntaṃ) and sim. comp. s

CANDELABRUM: *pradīpapādapaḥ; kaumudīvṛkṣaḥ.

     I White: viśadaḥ (dā daṃ).
     II Fair frank, sincere: q. v.:
     1 nyāyyaḥ (yyā yyaṃ (=fair);
     2 sphuṭabhāṣin (f. ṇī) (=frank)
     3 niṣkapaṭaḥ (ṭā ṭaṃ) (sincere).

     1 ākāṅkṣin (f. ṇī);
     2 arthin pra-, (f. ), c. for poetic fame kaviyaśaḥprārthī, R.

     1 sphuṭam (=frankly);
     2 niṣkapaṭa or nirvyājam (without any trick).

CANDIED: *śarkaritaḥ (tā taṃ), c. sugar: v. Candy.

CANDLE: *vartiḥ, wax c. *sikthavartiḥ.

CANDLEMAS: *dīpānvitā (properly a Hind festival).

CANDLESTICK: dīpādhāraḥ.

CANDOUR: niṣkāpaṭyam: v. Frankness, ingenu- ousness.

     1 mākṣikaśarkarā;
     2 khaṇḍaḥ;
     3 khaṇḍa- modakaḥ.

CANE (subs.):
     I The rattan: q. v.: vetasaḥ
     II A stick: vetraṃ or vetrayaṣṭiḥ, A seat made of c. vetrāsanam: v. Also Sugar-cane, bamboo, reed.

CANE (v. t.):
     1 vetrāghātaṃ karoti;
     2 vetreṇa hanti ā-, (han, c. 2.)

CANINE: expressed by comp. of words under Dog: c. tail śvapuccham. Ph. c. teeth agradantāḥ (?).

     1 peṭakaḥ (?);
     2 pātram (=a vessel).

CANKER (subs.):
     I Cancer: *karkaṭarogaḥ. A disease of plants: kīṭāḥ (m. pl.)
     I Fig.: kālaḥ.
     IV Caterpillar: q. v. V. The dog-rose: q. v.

CANKER (v.): v. To corrode, corrupt.

CANKERWORM: śūkakīṭaḥ: v. Caterpillar.

CANNIBAL: nṛbhuj (m. f. n.), B. xii. 17., and sim. comp. s.

     I Lit: nṛbhojanam: to practise manuṣyamāṃsaṃ khādati (khād, c. l.), atti (ad, c. 2.), etc.
     II Fig.:
     1 nṛśaṃsatā;
     2 jighāṃsutā.

CANNON: *kāmānaḥ. To load a c. *gulibhiḥ kāmānaṃ pūrayati (pūr, c. 10.).

CANNONADE (subs.): *kāmānagolaprakṣepaṇam.

CANNONADE (v. t.): *kāmānagolaiḥ mṛdrāti (mṛd, c. 9.) or mathnāti (manth, c. 9.).

CANNON-BALL: *kāmānagolaḥ; kāmānaguliḥ; ayogolaḥ.

     I Cannon-ball: q. v.
     II Its range: Ph. the fleet got out of c. *raṇapotāvaliḥ kāmānagolaviṣayamaticakrāma.

CANOE: nauḥ or naukāḥ v. Boat.

     I A rule:
     1 vidhiḥ;
     2 vyavasthā. C. -law: *popa-pracāritadharmasaṃhitā.
     II An ecclesiastical dignitary: dharmopāsakaviśeṣaḥ.

CANONESS: dharmopāsikā (?).

     1 vaidhaḥ (dhī dhaṃ);
     2 vaidhikaḥ (ko kaṃ), c. s.: yājakaveśaḥ.

     1 vitānam;
     2 candrātapaḥ;
     3 ullocaḥ.

     1 madhuraḥ (rā raṃ) (of songs, etc.);
     2 madhurabhāṣin (f. ṇī). (of men, etc.): v. Melodious.

CANT (subs.): *apabhāṣā, "c. word": *apaśabdaḥ. q. v. Canting (adj.): dāmbhikaḥ (kī kaṃ).

CAN'T =cannot:

CANTEEN, CANTINE: madyabhāṇḍam.

CANTER (v. i.): ardhaṃpulāyitena gacchati (gam, c. l.) or calati (cal, c. l.).

CANTER (subs.): ardhapulāyitam, Si. v. 10.

CANTHARIDES: gomayotthājātīyakīṭabhedaḥ.

     I Of the Bible: *gītakāṇḍaḥ.
     II A canto: q. v.

CANTLE, CANTLET: khaṇḍam: v. Piece.

CANTO: Of a poem: sargaḥ: v. Book.

CANTON (subs.): pradeśaḥ: v. Province.

CANTONMENT: niveśaḥ, military c. senāniveśaḥ: v. Quarters.

     I A coarse cloth: śāṇam, c. bag śāṇapuṭam.
     II Sails: q. v.: vātavasanāni (n. pl.) (?).
     III Cloth for painting: paṭam, D.

     I To solicit for votes: prārthayate (artha, c. 10.) or yācate (yāc, c. l)
     II To sift, examine: q. v. parīkṣate (īkṣ c. l.)
     III To discuss: q. v.: vicārayati (c. of car).

     I Inspection: q. v.: parīkṣā.
     II Discussion: q. v.: vicāraḥ.
     III Solicitation for votes: *mataprārthanā or simply prārthanā (when the context determines the meaning).

     I One who solicits votes: *mataprārthakaḥ.
     II Examiner: q. v.: parīkṣakaḥ.

CAP: śiraskam (gen. term). "C. of fools" mūrkhacūḍāmaṇiḥ.

     1 śaktiḥ;
     2 kṣamatā;
     3 sāmarthyam.

     1 śaktaḥ (ktā ktaṃ), with c. friends śaktaiḥ suhṛdbhiḥ, B.; c. of this work asya karmaṇaḥ śaktaḥ Ve. iii.;
     2 samarthaḥ (rthā rthaṃ), c. of meeting parisaraṇasamarthaḥ, Vi.;
     3 kṣamaḥ (mā maṃ), c. of disordering viprakartuṃ kṣamaḥ, Vi. N. B. Note the construction of these words;
     4 śakyaḥ (kyā kyaṃ) (in the passive sense): c. of being counteracted samādhātuṃ śakyaḥ, Vi. Be c.: v. Able, be-.

CAPACIOUS: i. e. spacious, large: q. v.
     1 viśālaḥ (lā laṃ) (in breadth);
     2 vipulaḥ (lā laṃ) (in depth);
     3 bahugrahaḥ (hā haṃ) (rare).

     1 viśālatā;
     2 vipulatā: v. Largeness.

CAPACITATE: v. To enable.

     I Lit.:
     1 dhāraṇaśaktiḥ;
     2 grahaṇasāmarthyam;
     3 better by circumlo.: v. Extent. Ph. a measure of c. pratīmānam, M. II. Mental c.: grahaṇasāmarthyam, c. for all knowledge aśeṣavidyāgrahaṇasāmarthyam, K. III. Ability: q. v.: śaktiḥ, to the extent of one's c. yathāśakti.
     IV Outward condition: rūpam, in the c. of a cook sūdarūpeṇa or sūdo bhūtvā. V. Legal c.: kṣamatā (?).
     VI In geo.: garbhaphalam, Li.

CAP-A-PIE: āpādamastakam sarvāṅga- in comp.

     I (subs.): kuthaḥ: v. Trappings.
     II Verb: kuthena maṇḍayati, etc.; saw Indrāyudha c. ed with red cloth aruṇenāśvalaṅkāreṇālaṅkṛtamindrāyudhamadrākṣīt, K. C. ed: vibhūṣitaḥ (tā taṃ). N. i. 57.

     I A promontory: *pralambaḥ.
     II For the shoulders: *skandhacchadaḥ.

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CAPER (v.): kūrdati -te (kūrd, c. l.), Ha.: v. To frisk.

CAPER (subs.):
     I For pickling: mukulaviśeṣaḥ: *kapharī.
     II A skip, jump: q. v. To cut c. s: (ku) rdati -te (kūrda or kurd, c. l.).

     I (subs.); sūkṣmanāḍīviśeṣaḥ; saṃyoginī.
     II Adj.: expr. by tat. comp.

CAPITAL (adj.):
     I Chief, principal: q. v.
     II Excellent: q. v. Ph. c. letter *bṛhadakṣaram; c. punishment prāṇadaṇḍaḥ; c. offence *prāṇadaṇḍārho'parādhaḥ.

CAPITAL (subs.):
     I Of a column: cūḍā (?).
     II Of a country: rājadhānī, c. of the king Bhima mīmabhūmipatirājadhānī, N. vi. l. Ph.: the city named Puspapura (Patna) the c. of Magadha (Behar) *magadhadeśaśekharībhūtā puṣpapurī nāma nagarī, D. III. A c. letter; *bṛhadakṣaram.
     IV Stock, principal q. v.:
     1 mūlam;
     2 mūladhanam.

CAPITALIST: Perh. mūlavat (f. ). Great c. sphītasāradhanaḥ (nā naṃ) D.

CAPITALLY: v. Chiefly. Ph.: to punish c. prāṇān daṇḍayati.

CAPITATION: Ph. c. tax: v. Poll-tax.

CAPITOL: *romanagarasthayupitāradevālayaḥ.

CAPITULATE: śatruvaśaṃ svīkaroti śatruhaste puraṃ or durgam arpayati (c. of ).

CAPITULATION: Ph. they agreed to a c. on these conditions etairniyamaiḥ puraṃ or durgamarpayitumabhyupajagmuḥ: v. To capitulate.

CAPON: i. e. castrated cock: hṛtamuṣkakukkuṭaḥ and sim. comp. s.

     1 kāmacāraḥ (anything done according to one's fancy), this is c. of fortune daivasyātra kāmacāraḥ, Mu. ii.;
     2 cāñcalyam (=fickleness: q. v.).

     1 kāmacārin (f. ṇī) (doing according to one's fancy):
     2 cañcalaḥ (lā laṃ) (=fickle, unsteady: q. v.).

CAPRICIOUSLY: v. Whimsically.

     1 kāmacāritā;
     2 cāñcalyam (=fickleness: q. v.).

CAPRICORN: makaraḥ or makararāśiḥ.

CAPRICUM: raktamarīcaḥ; raktamarīcalatā.

CAPSTAN: bhārottolanayatram.

CAPSULAR: kośākāraḥ (rā raṃ) (?).

     1 vījakośaḥ (ṣaḥ), Bha;
     2 karṇikā, Bha.

     I A chief: q. v.: adhyakṣaḥ.
     II A military officer: *gulmapatiḥ or (in gen. sense) sainyādhyakṣaḥ or senānīḥ.
     III A naval officer potādhyakṣaḥ or potanāyakaḥ.
     IV A master of the military art: v. General.

     1 gulmapatipada (military);
     2 potādhyakṣapadam (naval).

CAPTION: v. Apprehension.

     I Disposed to find fault: (1 doṣaikadṛś (mfn.);
     2 purobhāgin (f. );
     3 doṣa- grāhin (f. ṇī).
     II Peevish, perverse: q. v.
     III Insidious, troublesome: q. v.

CAPTIOUSLY: v. Peevishly, insidiously.

CAPTIOUSNESS: v. Censoriousness, peevish ness.

CAPTIVATE (v. t.):
     I To enslave: vaśīkaroti c.d by her good qualities tadguṇaiḥ vaśīkṛtaḥ, D. I. To charm: q. v.: harati (hṛ, c. l.), c. d to eyes, as well as the minds, of all creatures jaha sarvabhūtānāṃ cakṣūṃṣi ca manāṃsi ca, Mah. C. ing: manoha (rā raṃ): v. Charming, fascinating.

CAPTIVE (subs.): vandī or vandi (f.), will brin back fortune as a c. śriyaṃ vandīmiva pratyāneṣyati, M. ii. 52.: v. Prisoner.

CAPTIVE (adj.):
     1 vandīkṛtaḥ (tā taṃ). ma c. by the enemies of gods vandīkṛtā vibudhaśatrumi V.;
     2 vandiḥ, c. women vandistriyaḥ, Vi. vii.

CAPTIVITY: vanditvam: v. Slavery, subjectio

     1 grāhakaḥ;
     2 jetā (=victor, con queror: q. v.).

CAPTURE (v.) gṛhṇāti (grah, c. 9.), and was c. d Chandavarman jagṛhe ca caṇḍavarmaṇā, D. i.; new c. d navagrahaḥ (hā haṃ), K.: v. To take.

CAPTURE (subs.):
     I Seizure: q. v.: grahaṇam, c. of cattle gograhaḥ, Mah.
     II Booty, priz q. v.

     I A monk; yativiśeṣaḥ.
     II monkey: vānaraviśeṣaḥ.

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CAR: rathaḥ, procession of the c. of Jagannātha rathayātrāḥ v. Chariot.

     I A weight rattikā (properly about half a c.), K. b.
     II A 24th part, in measuring the fineness of gold: expr. by circumlo.: this is 18 c. gold *asya pādatrayaṃ svarṇam.

CARAVAN: saṅghaḥ, c. of pilgrims yātrikasaṅghaḥ; c. of merchants vaṇiggaṇaḥ, Mal.


     1 ajamohā;
     2 ugragandhā.

CARBINE or CARABINE: *laghubandukaḥ.

CARBINER or CARABINEER: *laghubandukabhṛdaśvavāraḥ.

CARBON: *aṅgārasāraḥ.

CARBONIC: *aṅgārasārajaḥ (jā jaṃ).

     I A tumour: visphoṭaḥ.
     II A gem: padmarāgaḥ.

     1 śava (mn.);
     2 mṛtaśarīram;
     3 kuṇapa (mn.) (rare).

CARD (subs.):
     I A playing c.: *tāsam, to play with c. s *tāsaiḥ krīḍati; knave of c. s: *dāsaḥ, Diamond, heart, club and spade (of cards) *raktaṃ pītaṃ śyāmaṃ kṛṣṇam.
     II A visiting c. *nāmapatram.
     III A paper on which the points of a compass are marked: *digbhāgapatram.
     IV An instrument for combing wool: urṇāmārjanī.

CARD (v. t.): v. To comb, cleanse.

     1 elā,
     2 koraṅgī (small c.);
     3 candrabālā (large c.);
     4 niṣkuṭiḥ (large c.) (rare). C. -plant: elālatā, R.

CARDER: Of wool: urṇāmārjakaḥ.

     I (adj.): dīpanaḥ (nā naṃ), Śr.
     II (subs.): dīpanam.

CARDINAL (subs.): *romakadharmaniyantā. C. ship, c. ate: *romakadharmaniyantṛpadam: kārḍinālapadavī.

CARDINAL (adj.): i. e. chief, principal: c. virtue paramadharmaḥ. Ph. c. number ekādisaṃkhyā; c. points *pradhānabindavaḥ (m. pl.).

CARE (subs.):
     I Anxiety: q. v.: cintā, free from c. about you tvayi vītacintaḥ, Sa. iv. Ph.: I am now free from c. labdhamidānīṃ svāsthyam, Sa. iv.
     II The object of care: cintā, a daughter born in this world is a great c. putrīti jātā mahatīha cintā, P. i. 5.
     III Caution, attention
     1 yatnaḥ pra-, (=diligence), although (I) was brought up with c. prayatnasaṃvardhito'pi, D. iv.;
     2 apramādaḥ (carefulness);
     3 ādaraḥ (of treatment), display c. in the service of Rishis ṛṣijanaparicaryāsu darśitādarā bhava, K. IV. Charge, oversight:
     1 rakṣā (=wakSing over), (but its) c. is with you rakṣā yuṣmāsvavasthitā, Ku. ii. 26.;
     2 avekṣā (=looking after).

     1 rakṣati (rakṣ, c. l.), (=wakS over), you should t. c. of it at night and Vardhamānaka in the day idaṃ rakṣitavyaṃ tvayā rātrau vardhamānakenāpi divā, Mr. i.; I t. c. of the house gṛharakṣāṃ karomi, H. iii.;
     1 lālayati -te, (lal, c. 10.) (of children), you should t. c. of her as a child bāleva lālanīyā, K. Take care =b ware: q. v.: apramattaḥ (ttā ttaṃ) or sāvadhānaḥ (nā naṃ) bhava.

CARE (v.):
     1 gaṇayati (gaṇ, c. 10.) (=to reckon), did not c. what Rāma said ajīgaṇaddāśarathaṃ na vākyam, B. ii. 53.: he did not c. all these sa tānnājīgaṇatsarvān, B. xv. 5.; not c. ing even a straw for their husbands tṛṇāyāpi na gaṇayitvā bhartṝn, D.;
     2 īkṣate, etc. (=to look: q. v.) does not c. for birth or beauty nābhijanamīkṣate na rūpamālokayate, K.;
     3 ādriyate (dṛ, c. 6.) (=to regard), Ki, xvi. 10.

CAREEN (v. t.): pārśvena sthāpayati (c. of sthā).

     I A race or race-course: q. v.
     II General course of conduct: caritam.

     I Attentive: q. v.
     1 apramattaḥ (ttā ttaṃ);
     2 vītapramādaḥ (dā daṃ);
     3 sāvadhānaḥ (nā naṃ).
     II Anxious: q. v.:
     1 sacintaḥ (ntā ntaṃ);
     2 cintāvat (f. );
     3 cintāśatākulaḥ (lā laṃ). C. of or for:
     1 cintayati (cint, c. 10.);
     2 ādriyate, K.

     I With c.:
     1 yatnena;
     2 prayatnataḥ;
     3 nipuṇam, searching c. nipuṇamanviṣya D. ii; to consider c. nipuṇaṃ vicārayati, Mr.
     II Attentively:
     1 apramattam;
     2 apramādena;
     3 sāvadhānena.
     III Anxiously: q. v.: expr. by adj.

     1 apramādaḥ;
     2 sāvadhānatā;
     3 cintākulatā (=anxiety).

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     I Inattentive, neglectful: q. v.: pramattaḥ (ttā ttaṃ). To be c. of: na cintayati (cint, c. 10) or vimāvayati (c. of bhū) (with acc.), is c. even of herself ātmānamapi na vibhāvayati.
     II Said or done without care: pramatta- in comp.
     III Free from care: niścintaḥ (ntā ntaṃ).

     1 pramādena;
     2 sapramādam:
     3 pramattaḥ (ttā ttaṃ);
     4 anavadhānena.

     1 pramādaḥ;
     2 anavadhānam;
     3 asāvadhānatā;
     4 pramattatā.

CARESS (v.): parirabhate (rabh, c. l.)(=to embrace: q. v.);
     2 kroḍe karoti (to put in the lap): v. Also to fondle.

CARESS (subs.): parirambhaḥ (=embrace: q. v.).

CARESSINGLY: vakṣasā parirabhya (=embracing), Ku. v. 3.

CARET: *pūrakaḥ; asampūrṇalikhitavijñāpanāya 'A' ityākāracihram.

CARGO: expr. by dravyaṃ or bhāṇḍam, what is the c. of the boat kiṃbhāṇḍapūrṇā nauḥ.

CARICATURE (subs.): upahāsyacitram (?).

CARICATURE (v. t.) upahāsyacitraṃ likhati (likh, c. 6.) (?).

CARICATURIST: upahāsyacitrakaraḥ (?); upahāsyacitralekhakaḥ (?).

CARIES, CARIOSITY: asthivraṇam (?).

CARIOUS: vraṇitaḥ (tā taṃ) (?).

     1 sārathiḥ;
     2 rathavāhakaḥ;
     3 śakaṭavāhakaḥ (of a cart).

CARMELITE: *karmalīyayatiḥ.

CARMINATIVE (adj. or subs.): vātaghnaḥ or vāyughnaḥ (ghnī ghnaṃ).

CARMINE (subs.): A red dye: lākṣā (?). Dyed with c. lākṣikaḥ (kī kaṃ), S. k.

CARNAGE: kadanam: v. Slaughter, massacre.

     I Bodily, sensual: q. v. Ph. c. pleasure viṣayasukham.
     II Lustful: q. v. Ph. c. desire kāmaḥ; c. knowledge: saṃsargaḥ.

     1 viṣayāsaktiḥ (the state);
     2 viṣayopabhogaḥ (its indulgence): v. Sensuality.

CARNALLY: Ph. to know c. saṃsṛjati (sṛj, c. 6.); or better by saṃsargaḥ.

     I Flesh colour: māṃsavarṇaḥ.
     II. A flower: raktavarṇapuṣpaprabhedaḥ.

CARNIVAL: *romakadharmiṇāṃ māṃsotsavaḥ.

     1 māṃsabhuj (mfn.);
     2 āmi- ṣāśin or piśitāśin (f. );
     3 kravyādaḥ.

CAROB: śimbibhedaḥ.

CAROL (subs.): saṅgītam: v. Song.

CAROL (v.): gāyati (gai, c. l.): v. To sing.

CAROTID ARTERIES: Prob. manye (f. dual), B.

CAROUSAL, CAROUSE (subs.): pānagoṣṭhīmahotsava or sim. pānagoṣṭhī, D.

     1 atiśayaṃ pibati (, c. 2.)
     2 prabhūtamadyapānaṃ karoti.

CAROUSER: āpānapaḥ, Ha.: v. Drinker, revellen.

CARP (subs.): rohitajātīyamatsyabhedaḥ.

CARP AT (v.): avakṣipati (kṣip, c. 6.): v. To censure, to cavil.

     1 takṣakaḥ;
     2 tvaṣṭṭa (m.);
     3 vardhakiḥ;
     4 sūtradhāraḥ;
     5 takṣan (m.)

     1 dārukarman (n.) K.;
     2 takṣaṇama tools of c. takṣaṇasādhanāni (n. pl.)

CARPER: v. Caviller, censurer.

CARPET (subs.): citrāstaraṇam (?). Ph. 'on the c.' ālocyamānaḥ (nā naṃ).

CARPET (v.): citrāstaraṇairācchādayati (chad, c. 10.) (=to cover: q. v.).

CARPING (adj.):
     1 mithyādoṣadarśin (f. ) (?)
     2 avakṣepin (f. ṇī) (?).

CARPING (subs.): avakṣepaḥ: v. Cavil, censure.

     1 guṇāpavādena;
     2 asūyayā.

     I Conveyance: vāhanam.
     II A vehicle:
     1 yānam (most gen. term), drive. in a c. and four caturaśvavāhyena yānena calati;
     2 rathaḥ (spec. a war-chariot), a c. road rathyā
     3 syandanaḥ (=a chariot);
     4 puṣparathaḥ (= a pleasure-car);
     5 karṇīrathaḥ;
     6 pravahaṇam (=a light covered car for ladies).
     III Gesture conduct, deportment: q. v. vyavahāraḥ.
     IV Management: q. v.: nirvāhaḥ.

CARRIAGE-MAKER: rathakāraḥ.

     1 vāhakaḥ;
     2 vāhin (m.):
     3 boḍhā. Message c.: sandeśaharaḥ. Common c.: sādhāraṇa dravyavāhakaḥ (?).

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CARRION: kuṇapaḥ, c. eater: kauṇapaḥ.

     1 garjaram;
     2 pītakandam;
     3 piṇḍamūlakam.

     I To convey: q. v. vahati ut-, (vah, c. l.), c. ing him also on his shoulders tamapi skandhenoduhya, D. vi.; c. ing these two (i. e. the name Kshatriya and his bow) vahan dvayīm, Ki. iii. 48.
     II To urge, impel: q. v.
     III To transfer: nayati (, c. l.)
     IV To accomplish: q. v. V. To carry one's self: v. To behave.
     VI To exhibit:
     1 vahati;
     2 expr. by gen. with asti, it c. s no weight asya gauravaṃ nāsti (?).
     VII To c. town or fort: hastagataḥ (tā taṃ) karoti. Ph.: to c. coals to Newcastle kuverāya dhanaṃ dadāti (?).

     1 apavahati;
     2 nayati (, c. 1.) (=to take). Ph.: (your) heart about to be c ed away apahniyamānaṃ hṛdayam, K.

CARRY BACK: v. To take back.

     I Lit.: apavahati.
     II Fig.: harati (hṛ, c. l.), let him c. the ensign of triumph *sa haratu subhagapatākām, D. ii.

     I To manage: q. v.: karoti (=to do, to perform: q. v.).
     II To promote: q. v.: unnayati (, c. l.).

CARRY OUT: i. e. to accomplish, effect: q. v.: nirvāhayati (c. of vah).

CARRY OVER: v. To carry.

CARRY ROUND: parivahati (?) gṛhādgṛhaṃ (house to house) or hastāddhastāntaraṃ (from hand to hand) nayati (, c. l.).

     1 laṅghayati (laṅgh, c. 10.) (with abl. or ins. of the cause);
     2 pāraṃ nayati (, c. l.), may God c. you through all difficulties: *īśvaraprasādātsarvakṛcchrāṇi laṅghaya or tvāmiśvaraḥ sarvakṛcchrāṇāṃ pāraṃ nayatu.

CART (subs.):
     1 śakaṭaḥ, a. toy c. śakaṭikā;
     2 anas (n.) (rare).

CART (v. t.): śakaṭena vahati (vah, c. l.): v. To carry.

CARTAGE: śakaṭaśulkam.

CART-HORSE: śākaṭī or śākaṭīno'śvaḥ, etc.: v. Horse.

     1 śākaṭīnaḥ;
     2 better by circum. five c. s of things pañjaśakaṭapūrṇāni dravyāṇi.

CARTE-BLANCHE: Ph. I have c. to go there svecchayā gantumanumato'smi.

     I An agreement for the exchange of prisoners: niyamaḥ.
     II A challenge to single combat: dvandvayuddhāya samāhvānam.

     1 śakaṭavāhakaḥ:
     2 śakaṭavāhin (m.).

CARTILAGE: taruṇāsthi (n.), Śr.

CARTILAGINOUS: taruṇāsthimayaḥ (yī yaṃ) (?), Williams.

CARTOON: v. SkekS.

     I A cartridge-box: q. v.
     II An architectural ornament: *puṭaḥ.

CARTRIDGE: *cūrṇakoṣaḥ; truṭiḥ, C. -box: *cūrṇakoṣapeṭikā. c. -paper: śaktakāgajaviśeṣaḥ.

     I To cut artistically: expr. by utkīrṇaḥ (rṇā rṇaṃ) (kṛ, c. 6.), churitaḥ (tā taṃ) (chur, c. 6.), or ut-likhitaḥ (tā taṃ) (likh, c. 6.); whose borders are c. d with flowers kusumalavacchuritaparyantaḥ (ntā ntaṃ), D. ii.: whose barders are c.d with plants paryantalikhitalataḥ (tā taṃ), K. Ph. to c. out of kalpayatiḥ v. To make; c. d work kārukarman (n.) (?).
     II To cut (of meat) (phālikābhiḥ) kṛntati (kṛt, c. 6.) (?).

     I A sculptor:
     1 kāruḥ (?);
     2 takṣakaḥ (?).
     II A carving knife: *kṛntanī.

CARVING (subs.): kārukarman (n.) (?);
     2 takṣaṇī (?).

CARVING-KNIFE: *kṛntanī.

CASCADE: prapātaḥ: v. Cataract. (I)

CASE (subs.):
     I A covering or box: q. v.: ādhāraḥ, wakS-c. *kālamāpādhāraḥ; printing c. *mudrācihnādhāraḥ.
     II A box: q. v.
     III State, condition: q. v.
     IV Matter, circumstance: q. v.: arthaḥ, represented the c. to Chaṇḍavarman tamarthaṃ caṇḍavarmaṇe nivedayāṃcakruḥ, D. i. Ph.: in c. yadi (with vidhiliṅ) v. If; this being the c. evaṃ sati; in all c. s sarvatra; in this c. atra; in fever c. s jvarārtānām (Lit., of those suffering from fever).
     V A lawsuit: q. v.: who have got c. s kaḥ kaḥ kāryārthī, Mr.; he loses that c. tasmādarthātsa hīyate, M.; when the c. is gained siddhe'rthe, Vas.
     VI In gram. kārakam (not applied to the gen.), objective c. karmakārakam, c. ending vibhaktiḥ.

CASE (v.): v. To enclose, cover.

CASE-HARDEN (v.): bahiḥ kaṭhinīkarīti: v. To harden.

CASEMATE: *āgne yagulibhirabhedyaprastaranirmito guptiviśeṣaḥ.

     1 gavākṣaḥ:
     2 vātāyanam.

CASH (subs.): ṭaṅkaḥ (?);
     2 dhanam (money).

CASH (v. t.): Ph. c. this bill *huṇḍiṃ dattvā ṭaṅkamānaya or huṇḍiṃ gṛhītvā ṭaṅkaṃ dehi (as the case may be).

CASH-BOOK: *ṭaṅkapustakram; gaṇanāpatrikā (=accountbook), Raj.

CASHIER, CASH-KEEPER (subs.): ṭaṅkarakṣakaḥ (?): v. Treasurer.

     I To dismiss: q. v.
     II To reject: q. v.

CASINO: āmodaśālā (?).

     1 bhāṇḍam (gen. term);
     2 *pipā (f.).

     1 samudgaḥ -kaḥ;
     2 sampuṭaḥ -kaḥ, Ph. gold c. suvarṇabhāṇḍam, Mr.

CASQUE, CASK: śirastram: v. Helmet.

     1 gandhavalkalaḥ -vṛkṣaḥ (=laurus c.);
     2 dadrughnaḥ or cakramardaḥ (c. tora) C. -bark:
     1 gandhavalkalam;
     2 guḍatvac (n.).

CASSOCK: upasaṃkhyānam (?).

CASSOWARY: pakṣiviśeṣaḥ; *kāsoyāriḥ.

CAST (v. t.):
     I To throw: q. v.: kṣipati (kṣip, c. 6), c. this man into the ocean prakṣipainaṃ sāgare, D. vi.; to c. on the ground avanau kṣipati, Ki.; to c. lustre rucaṃ kṣipati, Ki. v. 48; to c. eyes dṛśaṃ kṣipati, D. vii. Ph.: to c. skin kañcukaṃ vi-muñcati (muc, c. 6), M. n.; c. ing vote *sañcitamatam.
     II To condemn: q. v. Ph. c. (in a suit) parājitaḥ (tā taṃ), K. b.; hīnaḥ (nā naṃ), M. viii. 57.
     III To found: saṃ-dadhāti or dhatte (dhā, c. 3) (?), to c. cannon *kāmānaṃ saṃdadhāti.
     IV To distribute: q. v. V. To calculate, contrive: q. v.

CAST (v. i.):
     I To contrive: q. v.
     II To warp: q. v.

CAST ASIDE, CAST AWAY: v. Throw aside, throw away.

     I Lit.,: to throw down: q. v. Ph. with eyes c. adhodṛṣṭi (mfn.) or adhomukhaḥ (f. khī), Ku. vi. 85.
     II Fig.: v. To deject, depress.

CAST FORTH: kṣipati: v. To throw off to emit.

CAST OFF: muñcati vi-, (muc, c. 6), c. hounds vimucyantāṃ śvānaḥ: K.; c. by serpents phaṇibhirvimuktāḥ R. xvi. 17: v. To throw off, lay aside.

CAST OUT: nirasyati (as, c. 4): v. To throw out, expel.

CAST UP: to c. an account gaṇanāmekīkaroti.

CAST ON or UPON: Ph. the infamy was c. on us pātitamasmāsvayaśaḥ, Mu.

CAST (subs.):
     I A throw: q. v.: kṣepaḥ.
     II The distance that a thing is thrown: kṣepaḥ
     III Throw of dice: akṣapātaḥ. IV. A chance or venture: q. v.
     V A tinge: q. v.
     VI Any -thing c. in metal: mūtiḥ.
     VII The assignment of parts in a play: bhūmikāsaṃvibhāgaḥ (?).
     VIII A stroke or trick: q. v.
     IX A tube or funnel: q. v. Ph.: having a c. in the eye kekarākṣaḥ (kṣī kṣaṃ).

CASTANET: karardhiḥ (?).

CASTAWAY: tyaktaḥ pari-, (ktā ktaṃ): v. Aban -doned.

     1 varṇaḥ, of the same c. savarṇaḥ (rṇā rṇaṃ) low c. hīnavarṇaḥ, high c. uttamavarṇaḥ, Da.; mixed c. varṇasaṅkaraḥ (m.):
     2 jātiḥ, of high c. utkṛṣṭajātīyaḥ (yā yaṃ), K. b.; low c. nikṛṣṭajātiḥ, D.; voice of c. jātihīnaḥ (nā naṃ), Ki. Ph. a low c. man antyajaḥ, M.

     1 durgādhikārī;
     2 durgādhyakṣaḥ;
     3 durgapālaḥ.

     1 aṭṭālaṃkṛtaḥ (tā taṃ);
     2 śikharamaṇḍitaḥ (tā taṃ).

     I A thrower: q. v.: kṣepakaḥ.
     II. horoscope: janmapatrikākāraḥ: v. Astrologer
     III A small bottle: kūpī (?).

     I Lit.: kaśāghātaṃ karoti.
     II Fig. nigṛhṇāti (graha, c. 9)

     I Lit.: kaśāghātaḥ
     II Punish -ment: nigrahaḥ.
     III Reproof: q. v. bhartsanā, to administer c. bhartsanāṃ karoti.

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     I Lit.: kaśāghātakārin (f. ṇī).
     II Fig.: nigrahītṛ (f. trī).

     I Lit.: kṣepaḥ: v. Throw.
     II A mould: q. v.

CASTING-NET: kṣepaṇiḥ.

CASTLE: durgam: v. Fort. To build aerial c. s: *ākāśaprāsādān viracayati (rac, c. 10).

CASTOR: v. Beaver.

CASTOR-OIL: eraṇḍatailam, Śr. C. plant: eraṇḍaḥ.

CASTRATE: vṛghaṇau utpāṭayati (c. of paṭ), chinatti (chid, c. 7) Vi. v. utkṛntati (kṛt, c. 6) Vri.; etc.

     1 utpāṭitavṛṣaṇaḥ (ṇā ṇaṃ):
     2 chinnamuṣkaḥ (ṣkā ṣkaṃ); and sim. comp. s.

     1 vṛṣaṇotpāṭanam:
     2 muṣkacchedaḥ; and sim. comp. s.

     I Accidental, fortuitous: q. v.
     II Occasional: q. v.

     I Accidentally: q. v.: daivāt.
     II Occasionally: q. v.

     I Chance, accident: q. v.
     II Death or misfortune: vipattiḥ, R.

CASUIST: *dharmavicārakaḥ.

CASUISTIC, CASUISTICAL: *dharmavicāra -in comp. s.

CASUISTRY: dharmavicāraḥ -ṇā.

     1 mārjāraḥ;
     2 viḍālaḥ.

CAT-O-NINE-TAILS: kaśāviśeṣaḥ; *navabalikā.

CATACHRESIS: anucitārthatā (?), Kav.

CATACLYSM: mahājalaplāvaḥ: v. Deluge, inundation.

CATACOMB: *antarbhaumaśavādhāraḥ.

CATALECTIC: nyūnākṣaraḥ (rā raṃ).

CATALEPSY: mohaḥ (?): v. Epilepsy.

CATALOGUE: *nāmāvaliḥ, c. of books: pustakanāmāvaliḥ.

CATAPLASM: lepaḥ; pralepaḥ: v. Poultice.

CATAPULT: avakṣepiṇī; prastarādyavakṣepaṇāya pūrvakālīnayuddhayantraviśeṣaḥ.

     I Of water:
     1 nirbharaḥ;
     2 prasravaṇam.
     II A disease of the eye: kaphajaṃ timiram (after Śr.).

     1 pratiśyāyaḥ;
     2 pīnasaḥ: v. Cold. (II).

     I Of a drama:
     1 niṣṭhā;
     2 nirvahaṇam.
     II End: q. v.: pariṇāmaḥ.
     III Disaster: q. v: vipattiḥ.

CATCH (v. t.):
     I To seize:
     1 dhārayati or dharati (dhṛ, c. 10. and 1.), for which you were caught dhṛto'si yadartham, N. i. 143; for c. ing fish matsyadhāraṇārtham, Tārānāth;
     2 dadhāti dhatte (dhā, c. 3), the king caught the bird with his hand nṛpaḥ pataṅgaṃ tamadhatta pāṇinā, N. i. 124;
     3 gṛhṇāti (grah, c. 9), caught the descending (ball) in the air avapatantamākāśa evāgrahīt, D. vi.; I was caught stealing corayitvā grāhitaḥ, D. iv.;
     4 badhnāti (bandh, c. 9.) (=c. in a trap, etc.), c. ing of elephants kuñjarabandhanam, Nil.
     II Of fire: upagacchati (gam, c. l.) or upaiti (i, c. 2.), all of them caught fire and died sarva eva jvalanamupagatā uparatāśca, Mu. ii.
     III Of disease: to c. a disease vyādhimadhigacchati (gam, c. l.), avāpnoti (āp, c. 5.), etc., Śr.
     IV To ensnare: Perh. dharati. V. To charm: q. v.
     VI To overtake: q. v.

CATCH (v. i.): lagati (lag, c. l): my garland has caught in the branch viṭape vaijayantikā me lagnā, Vi.

CATCH (subs.):
     I Seizure: q. v. Ph. on c. dhartum.
     II Of a gate or lock: tālakam (?).
     III Profit, gain: q. v.
     IV The whole quantity caught at one time: expr. by circumlo.

     1 gṛhṇāti;
     2 dhārayati or dharati.

     I One who c. s: grahītṛ (m.).
     II That which c. s: bandhanī.

CATCHING (adj.): i. e. contagious: sparśasañcārin (f. ṇī), Raj.

CATCHING (subs.):
     1 dhāraṇam;
     2 grahaḥ -ṇam;
     3 bandhanam (in a trap).

CATCH-LAND: sīmābhūmiḥ

CATCH-PENNY: v. Worthless.

CATECHETICAL: praśnottaramayaḥ (yī yaṃ), Raj.

CATECHETICALLY: praśnottaraiḥ (ins. pl.).

     I To instruct: (praśnottaraiḥ) śikṣayati (c. of śikṣ).
     II To interrogate: q. v.


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CATECHISM: *praśnottaramālā; praśnottaramaya ṛjupāṭhaḥ.

     1 khadiraḥ;
     2 khadirasāraḥ. Acacia c.: the tree: khadiraḥ.

     I Pertaining to a category: expr. by comp. or gen.
     II Positive, express: q. v.

CATEGORICALLY: v. Positively, expressly, directly.

     I Logical: padārthaḥ.
     II State, condition: q. v.

CATER (v.):
     I To provide food: āhāraṃ dadāti, K.
     II To procure provisions: v. To procure and provide.

     I Purveyor: q. v.
     II Feeder: q. v.: bhojayitṛ (m.).

     1 śūkakīṭaḥ (?):
     2 kośakāraḥ (?).

CATERWAULING: memeyitam (?): viḍālarutam.

CATES: v. Dainty.

CATGUT: v. String, rope.

CATHERTIC: v. Purgative.

CATHEDRAL: pradhānadharmamandiram (?): v. Church.

CATHETER: *mūtrākarṣiṇī; mūtraniṣkarṣakayantraviśeṣaḥ

CATHOLIC (adj.):
     I Universal: q. v.
     II Liberal: q. v.
     III Belonging to Roman c. s: expr. by gen. or comp.: c. emancipation *romakadharmiṇāṃ mokṣaḥ.

CATHOLIC (subs.): i. e. Roman-c.: *romakadharmin (f. ṇī) or romakadharmāvalambin (f. ).

     I Liberality: q. v.
     II Roman -c.: *robhakadharmaḥ.

CATKIN: *viḍālapuccham; viḍālapucchākāraṃ prasūnam.

     I Lit.: *kaiṭavaḥ (vī vaṃ).
     II Grave, severe: q. v.

CAT'S-EYE: A stone: vaiduryam, Si. iii. 45.

     I The bovine species: gāvaḥ (m. pl.), c. range gocaraḥ, Ki.; herd af c. gokulam, V. p.; c.- keeper gopaḥ, Ki.; c. -path govāṭaḥ, Ga.
     II In a wider sense, including sheep, etc.:
     1 paśavaḥ (m. pl.), breeding of c. pāśupālyam, M.; to graze c. paśūn cārayati, B. p.;
     2 gomeṣādayaḥ (m. pl.), c. show *gomeṣādimelā.

CAUDLE (subs.): aṇḍādimiśritamadyamayaḥ pānīyabhedaḥ.

     I A veil: q. v.: avaguṇṭhanam.
     II The omentum: q. v. medodharā.

     I The plant: kabipuṣpaḥ; śākabhedaḥ.
     II The flower: *kabipuṣpam.

     1 hetvarthakaḥ (kā kaṃ) (as a c. con- junction);
     2 hetumat (f. ) (of c. verbs), Paṇini;
     3 ṇijantaḥ (nta ntā) (=ending in ṇic: of Sanskrit c. verbs.).

CAUSALITY: (kāraṇasya) kāryotpādikā śaktiḥ.

     I Causality: expr. by kāraṇam
     II The act of causing: V. Cause, pro -duction, creation.

     I Causal: q. v.
     II Causing janayitṛ (f. trī).

CAUSE (subs.):
     I That which produces effect: kāraṇaṃ, you are the c. of all element c. s tvaṃ kāraṇaṃ kāraṇakāraṇānām, Ki. Primary c.: ādikāraṇam;
     2 nidānam, R. iii.
     I Material samavāyikāraṇam, Efficient c. nimittam or nimittakāra
     II That which is the occasion of action: kāraṇam, without any c. akāraṇam: Reason, ground.
     III A lawsuit: q. v.: kāryam, tell (us) that c. tatkāryaṃ kathaya. Mr. ix.
     IV Object, side: q. v. kāryam, our c. is all but undertaken by you kāryaṃ tvayā naḥ pratipannakalpam, Ku. iii. 14; in the Śudra's (Chandragupta's c. vṛṣalasya kṛte, Mu.: v. For the sake of.

CAUSE (v. t.):
     1 Often by a causal verb: to cause pain vyathayati (c. of vyath); to c. ānandayati (c. of nand); to c. to fall pātayati of pat);
     2 janayati (c. of jan) (=produ -create). even an iota of master's favour arrogance among unsteady (people) janayati prabhuprasādalavo'pi prāgalbhyamadhīraprakṛteḥ, K.;
     3 circumlo.: this will c. his death anena tasya bhaviṣyati; ascertaining that the dropping of arched gateway will c. his own destruction to pātamātmavināśaphalamavadhārya, Mu. ii.

     I Uncaused:
     1 expr. circumlo., you are c. na te kiñcit kāraṇama M. n.;
     2 akāraṇaḥ (f. ṇā) (rare), M.
     3 ayoni (mfn.), you are the cause of world, but yourself c. jagadyonirayonistvam,
     I ii. 9.
     II Groundless: q. v.: niṣkāraṇaḥ (ṇā ṇaṃ).

     1 akāraṇam;
     2 niṣkāraṇam;
     3 nirnimittam;
     4 ahetukam;
     5 niṣprayojanam.

     1 kartṛ (f. trī):
     2 vidhātṛ (f. trī);
     3 sampādayitṛ (f. trī).

     1 setuḥ;
     2 āliḥ (f.);
     3 piṇḍilaḥ.

CAUSTIC (subs.):
     I Lunar c.: *apānāmlasaṃśliṣṭarajatam kaṣṭikam.
     II In the wider sense: dāhakapadārdhaḥ (?).

CAUSTIC (adj.):
     I Burning, corrosive: vidāhin (f. ).
     II Severe, sarcastic: q. v.: marmacchid (mfn.), Ki. xi. 49.

     1 dāhaḥ;
     2 dahanam.

CAUTERIZE: (taptalohādinā vyādhitamāṃsādi) dahati (dah, c. l).

CAUTERY: dāhaḥ or dahanam. Actual c. *yathārthadāhaḥ; potential c. *tejodāhaḥ.

CAUTION (subs.):
     I Wariness:
     1 samīkṣā (circumspection), to use c. in any work samīkṣya kāryaṃ karoti;
     2 apramādaḥ (=care);
     3 sāvadhānatā. (=attention).
     II Guarantee, security: q. v.
     III Warning: q. v.

CAUTION (v.) v. To warn.

CAUTIOUS (adj.):
     1 sāvadhānaḥ (nā naṃ);
     2 apramattaḥ (ttā ttaṃ): v. Circumspect.

     1 sāvadhānam;
     2 apramattam;
     3 samīkṣya (=circumspectly).

     1 sāvadhānatā;
     2 apramattatā;
     3 samīkṣyakāritā.

CAVALCADE: aśvārohiṇaḥ (m. pl.) (=horsemen): v. Also procession.

     I A horseman: q. v.: aśvārohin (m.).
     II Of Charles I.: nāgaraḥ (?).

CAVALIERLY: sagarvam: v. Haughtily, disdainfully.

     1 vājisainyam, M. n., turagabalam, K. and sim. comp. s;
     2 aśvārohiṇaḥ (m. pl.) and sim. terms (=horse-soldiers);
     3 aśvārohisainyam and sim. comp. s.

     I Natural:
     1 guhā, entered the great c. praviveśa mahāguhām, V. p.;
     2 gahvaram;
     3 kandaraḥ (rī raṃ);
     4 darī or dariḥ.
     II Den, c a y: q. v.

CAVEAT: A notice: *vijñāpanī.

     I Cavernous: q. v.
     II Living in a cavern: guhāśayaḥ (yā yaṃ).

CAVERNOUS: bahuguhaḥ (hā haṃ) and sim comp. s c: v. Cavern, full of.

CAVIAR, CAVIARE: lāvaṇamatsyāṇḍam (?).

CAVIL (v.):
     1 mithyādoṣamāropayati (c. of ruḍ);
     2 avakṣipati (kṣip, c. 6): v. To censure.

CAVIL (subs.): mithyādoṣāropaṇam: v. Censure.

CAVILLER: mithyādoṣāropakaḥ: v. Censurer, carper.

     1 chidram;
     2 randhram;
     3 gartaḥ (=hole).

CAW (v.):
     1 kākāyate (nomi.), Mr. v.;
     2 kāyati (ke, c. l) (=to make noise: q. v.). C. ing:
     1 kākarutam;
     2 kākāyitam.

CEASE (v. i.):
     1 viramati (ram, c. l) (with abl.), c. ing to weep vilāpād viratā, R. xiv. 71; when the lion c. d virate mṛgendre, R. ii. 57;
     2 śāmyati pra- upa-, (śam, c. 4) (=to be over), when the rain c. d, śānte pānīyavarṣe, H. iii.; saying this, (he) c. d etāvadabhidhāyopaśaśāma, K.;
     3 viśrāmyati (śram, c. 4) (=to c. for a time), whose flowers have c. d to come out viśrāntapuṣpodgamā, V. iv.;
     4 jahāti (, c. 3) (=to leave off, abandon: q. v.), c. to thirst after money jahīhi dhanāgamatṛṣṇām, J.;
     5 by the use of the negative, c. to grieve mā vyathiṣṭhāḥ, R. xiv. 72.

CEASE (v. t.): v. To stop.

CEASELESS: anavarataḥ (tā taṃ): v. Perpetual, constant.

CEASELESSLY: anavaratam: v. Incessantly, perpetually.

CEDAR: vṛkṣaviśeṣaḥ

CEDE: utsṛjati (sṛj, c. 6): v. To give up, yield, surrender.

CEILING: antaḥpaṭalaḥ, Williams.

CELANDINE: arkavṛkṣaḥ: v. Swallow-wort.

CELEBRATE (v. t.):
     I To extol:
     1 kīrtayati, (kīrt, c. 10), to c. one's adventures caritāni kīrta- yati, Ki.;
     2 gāyati upa-, (gai, c. 1) (in verse or song), may your fame be c. d by distinguished men ślokaḥ praśastacaritairupagīyatāṃ te, Vi. vii.;
     3 prathayati: v. Known, to make.
     II To solemnize:
     1 aminandayati (nand, c. l), c d my birth with a festival mahotsavena mama janmābhinanditavān, K.;
     2 anutiṣṭhati (sthā, c. 1) (=to perform: q. v.).

     1 prathitaḥ (tā taṃ);
     2 khyātaḥ vi-, (tā taṃ);
     3 viśrutaḥ (tā taṃ): v. Famous, renowned.

     I A praising: kīrtanam: v. To celebrate, praise.
     II Solemnization
     1 abhinandanam;
     2 anuṣṭhānam (=performance: q. v.).

     I Fame, renown: q. v. Ph.: of c. vikhyātaḥ (tā taṃ).
     II A man of c.: vikhyātalokaḥ.

     1 vegaḥ;
     2 javaḥ: v. Speed, quickness.

CELERY: śākaprabhedaḥ.

CELESTIAL: divyaḥ (vyā vyaṃ): v. Heavenly, divine. Ph.: c. sphere: khagolaḥ.

CELEBACY: anudvāhaḥ; and sim. comp. s: v. Marriage. Living in c. akṛtadāraparigrahaḥ; and sim. comp. s.

     I A small cavity: q. v.: gartaḥ.
     II A small apartment:
     1 kṣudrakakṣaḥ;
     2 guptiḥ (of prisoners), Mr.

     1 guptiḥ;
     2 bhūmigṛham, D.

CELLARER, CELLARIST: guptipālaḥ (?).

CELLULAR: *chidramayaḥ (yī yaṃ).

CEMENT (subs.):
     I Lit.: lepaḥ: v. Mortar, glue.
     II Fig.: bandhanam: v. Bond.

CEMENT (v.): ghaṭayati (ghaṭ. c. 10): v. To glue, to unite.

     1 paretāvāsaḥ;
     2 pretavanam;
     3 pitṛkānanam.

CENOBITE: vihāravāsin (f. ): v. Monk.

CENOTAPH: *smaraṇastambhaḥ; (fully) anihitapretaḥ smaraṇastambhaḥ.

CENSE (v.): vāsayati (c. of vas): v. To perfume.

     I For burning incense: dhūṣādhāraḥ (?).
     II A bottle: q. v.

     I A Roman magistrate: *karanidhātṛ (m.).
     II A captious critic: Perh. parīkṣakaḥ.
     III A public officer to examine manuscripts: *granthaparīkṣakaḥ.

     1 doṣadarśin (f. );
     2 doṣaiva dṛś (mfn.);
     3 purobhāgin (f. );
     4 ninda vratin (f. ).

     1 doṣadarśitā;
     2 purobhāgitā

     I Of the Roman censors : *karanidhātṛpadam.
     II Of the examiners of manuscripts: *granyaparīkṣakapadam.

CENSURABLE: nindyaḥ (f. ndyā), nindanīyaḥ (yā yaṃ) or nindārhaḥ (f. rhā): v. Faulty.

CENSURABLY: expr. by circumlo.

CENSURE (subs.):
     1 nindā (=blame):
     2 upālambhaḥ (=reproach), I have received this c. from Your Highness mayā kumārādayamupālambho'dhigata Mu. v.;
     3 bhartsanā (reproof);
     4 tira skāraḥ (=abuse, rebuke);
     5 garhā (rare in this sense).

CENSURE (v. t.):
     1 nindati vi- pra-, (nind, c. l.) (=to blame), c. d her figure nininda tasyā rūpam Ku. v. 10;
     2 upālabhate (labh, c. l.) (=to re proach), do not c. me for faults already committed mopālabdhāḥ kṛtairdoṣaiḥ, B. xv. 20.;
     3 bhartsa yati -te nir-, (bharts, c. 10) (=to reprove) c. this wicked (cupid) nirbhatsya tāmayaṃ durācāraḥ, Ki.
     4 dhikkaroti (kṛ, c. 8) (=to say "shame") act in a way that you will not be blamed by good men or c. d by your elders tathā prayatethā yathā na nindyase sādhumiḥ na dhikkriyase gurumiḥ, K.;
     5 tiraskaroti (=to abuse); why have I been c. d without any fault kimityadoṣeṇa tiraskṛtā vayam, Ki. xiv 11.;
     6 garhayati (garh, c. 10) (censure mixec with abhorrence), N. i. 131;
     7 jugupsate (from gup) (6), B. xv. 19.

     1 nindakaḥ;
     2 upālabdhṛ (m.);
     3 bhartsanākārin (m.);
     4 better expr. by the verb: q. v.

     1 prajāsaṃkhyānirūpaṇam (?);
     2 lokasaṃkhyānirdhāraṇam (?). To take a c. prajānāṃ saṃkhyāṃ nirūpayati (rūp, c. 10) or nirdhārayati (dhṛ, c. 10) (?).

CENT: Ph. Interest at two, three, four, five per c. per annum dvikaṃ trikaṃ catuṣkaṃ pañcakaṃ śataṃ vārṣikī vṛddhiḥ or vardhe varṣe dvitricatuḥpañcakaṃ śataṃ vṛddhiḥ, M.; our profits are 100 per c. dviguṇā no lābhāḥ, (after M. n.).

CENTAUR: *narāśvaḥ (after narasiṃhaḥ); or *aśvaśarīraḥ (after aśvamukhaḥ)

CENTAURY: oṣadhiviśeṣaḥ.

     1 śatavarṣavayaskaḥ (skā skaṃ);
     2 śatavarṣaḥ (rṣā rṣaṃ).

CENTENARY (subs.): śatam. 'A c. of years:'
     1 varṣaśatam;
     2 śatavarṣam.

CENTENARY, CENTENNIAL (adj.): śātavārṣikaḥ (kī kaṃ) (?).

CENTIPEDE: An insect;
     1 śatapadī or śatapādikā;
     2 karṇajalaukas (f.).

CENTO: nānāgranthasaṃgṛhītaṃ kāvyam.

     1 madhyaḥ (dhyā dhyaṃ) (=middle):
     2 madhyasthaḥ (sthā sthaṃ) (c. ly situated):
     3 madhyagataḥ (tā taṃ) (pertaining to the centre).

CENTRALIZATION: Ph. c. of power ekatra śaktiniveśanam (?).

CENTRALIZE (v.) ekatra niveśayati (c. of viś) (?).

CENTRE (subs.):
     I In geo.:
     1 kendram;
     2 madhyabinduḥ, Su., Ph. c. of gravity *ākarṣaṇakendram; c. of motion *ayanakendram.
     II In gen.: madhyam, a staff passing through its c. tanmadhyago daṇḍaḥ, Su., plunging into the c. vigāhya madhyam, Ki. xvi. 13.

CENTRE (v.): Ph. on whom your sons' hope of victory was c. d jayāśā yatra vaddhā sutaiste, Ve. v.

CENTRIC, CENTRICAL: madhyasthaḥ (sthā sthaṃ): v. Central.

CENTRIFUGAL: Ph. c. force *kendrāpasāriṇī śaktiḥ, and sim. comp. s.

CENTRIPETAL: Ph. c. force *kendrābhisāriṇī śaktiḥ, and sim. comp. s.

CENTURION: śatayodhapatiḥ (?): gulmapatiḥ (?).

     I A hundred; q. v.: śatama.
     II A hundred years:
     1 varṣaśatam and sim. comp. s, ten c. s varṣasahasram;
     2 śatavarṣam, and sim. comp. s.

CERATE: saikthālepaḥ (?).

CEREBELLUM: *avaramastiṣkam.

CEREBRAL: Ph. c. letter mūrdhaṇyavarṇaḥ.

CEREBRUM: agramastiṣkam.

CERE-CLOTH, CEREMENT: saikthavasanam, and sim. comp. s(?).

CEREMONIAL (subs.): ācāraḥ: v. Ceremony.

     I Ritual: q. v.
     II Formal: q. v.

     I Formally: atyādareṇa.
     II With due ceremony: yathāvidhi.

CEREMONIOUSNESS: atyādaraḥ, leave off this c. vimucyatāmayamatyādaraḥ, K.

     I A solemn observance: ācāraḥ, observe c. ācāraṃ samācara, Ki. iii. 28;
     2 upacāraḥ (rare). marriage c. pāṇigrahaṇopacāraḥ, Ku.;
     3 vidhiḥ, with due c. vidhivat, R. Ph. master of c. s adhyakṣaḥ; sūtradhāraḥ (of a dramatic company)
     II Pomp: q. v.: āḍambaraḥ.

     I Sure, undoubted:
     1 niśicataḥ (tā taṃ) (ascertained), knows victory to be c. niśicataṃ jayamavagacchet, K. vi;
     2 dhruvaḥ (dhru vā dhruvam) (unalterable) know this for c. dhruvametadavehi, Ki. ii. 22.:
     3 avaśyaḥ (śyā śyaṃ) (=inevitable), death is c. maraṇamavaśyam, Ve. iii.;
     4 asandigdhaḥ (gdhā gdhaṃ) (=undoubted q. v.);
     5 sthiraḥ (rā raṃ) (=fixed).
     II Convinced: Ph. yet I do not feel c. from terror punastathāpyatibhayenāniścayaḥ, V. ii.; when he was c. that I could not be dissuaded yadā neyaṃ śakyate vyāvartayitumiti niścayamadhigatavān, K. III. Particular, but undefined: kaścit (kācit kiñcit), a c. young woman kācidyuvatiḥ D.; in c. systems kāsucicchākhāsu, S. iv. 1. v. Some.

     I Assuredly:
     1 avaśyam (without failure), what would c. take place avaśyambhāvin (f. ). H;
     2 dhruvam (=unalterably), would c. have victory dhruvaṃ jayāḥ (bhavanti) (with gen.), Ka. xv. 12,
     3 nūnam (=surely), c. he is not as his dress (i. e. as he looks) nūnaṃ tathā naiṣa yathāsya veṣaḥ, Ki.;
     4 asaṃśayam: v. Undoubtedly;
     5 niyatam (fixedly); would c. give permission niyatamanujñāsyati, D.;
     6 niścitam, N. com.
     II In replies, to denote emphatic assent: expr. by repetition: is this your resolution? c. eṣa te niścayaḥ? bāḍham eṣa me sthiro niścayaḥ, Mu. i.


     I Freedom from doubt:
     1 niścayaḥ;
     2 sthiratā (=fixedness);
     3 asandigdhatā (=undoubtedness).
     II Anything certain; expr. by the adj., forsaking c. s dhruvāṇi parityajya, H. i.

CERTIFICATE: *nidarśanam, c. of good behaviour *sadvyavahāranidarśanam.

     I To attest: *nidarśayati (c. of dṛś).
     II To inform; q. v. vijñāpayati.
     III To verify: q. v.

     1 nīlaḥ (lā laṃ):
     2 asitaḥ (tā taṃ) (poet).

     1 karṇamalam;
     2 tokmam;
     3 karṇaguthaḥ.

CERUSE: śvetarañjanam (?); sīsakaviśeṣaḥ.

     1 virāmaḥ;
     2 viratiḥ;
     3 śamaḥ pra- upa-, (=being over);
     4 viśrāmaḥ or viśrāntiḥ (for a time); nivṛttiḥ (=ending). C. of arms. avahāraḥ. Without c.: avirataḥ (, ): v. Incessant, -ly.

     1 utsargaḥ;
     2 dānam;
     3 samarpaṇam.

CESSMENT: v. Assessment, tax.

     I A girdle: mekhalā.
     II For hands: aṅgulitram.

CETACEOUS: timijātīyaḥ (yā yaṃ).

CHAFE (v. i.):
     1 kṣubhyati (kṣubh, c. 4);
     2 kṣobhaṃ gacchati, Si.

CHAFE (v. t.):
     I To rub: kaṇḍūyati -te, c. d the doe mṛgīmakaṇḍūyata, Ku. ii. To irritate: q. v.: kṣobhayati (c. of kṣubh).
     III To fall: q. v.

CHAFE (subs.):
     I Rubbing: kaṇḍūyanam.
     II Irritation: kṣobhaḥ.

CHAFER: kīṭabhedaḥ: v. Beetle.

CHAFF (subs.):
     I Lit:
     1 tuṣaḥ;
     2 buṣam;
     3 tuccham. To remove the c. nirvuṣīkartum, M. n.
     II Fig.: v. Rubbish.

CHAFF (v.): parihasati (has, c. l): v. To joke.

     I Intrans.: v. To bargain; negotiate.
     II Trans: v. To buy.

CHAFFINCH: kṣudrapakṣibhedaḥ.

     1 nistuṣaḥ (ṣā ṣaṃ);
     2 nirbuṣaḥ (ṣā ṣaṃ); and sim. comp. s.

     I Containing chaff:
     1 satuṣaḥ (ṣā ṣaṃ) (=with c.);
     2 tuṣamayaḥ (yī yaṃ) (=consisting of c.).
     II Resembling c.: tuṣopamaḥ (mā maṃ)
     III Light, worthless: q. v.

CHAFING (of the skin): kaṇḍūyanam.

     1 aṅgāradhānikā;
     2 aṅgāraśakaṭī.

CHAGRIN (subs.): manyuḥ: v. Vexation, illhumour.

CHAGRIN (v.): v. To vex, mortify.

CHAIN (subs.):
     I Lit.:
     1 (śṛṅghalaḥ (lā laṃ), silver c. rajataśṛṅghalam, D.;
     2 nigaḍaḥ (=fetter);
     3 bandhanam (=bond).
     II Fig.:
     1 śṛṅgalaḥ (lā laṃ);
     2 nigaḍaḥ;
     3 bandhaḥ.
     III A series: q. v. paramparā. Ph., a c. of mountains: parvataśreṇī.

CHAIN (v. t.): śṛṅgalena or nigaḍena badhnāti (bandh, c. 9).

     1 nigaḍitaḥ (tā taṃ), with c. feet nigaḍitacaraṇaḥ (ṇā ṇaṃ);
     2 śṛṅghalitaḥ (tā taṃ).

CHAIR (subs):
     I Lit.:
     1 *caukiḥ, easy c. *ārāmacaukiḥ; armed c. *bāhuyuktacaukiḥ;
     2 pīṭham (=stool):
     3 āsanam (= any seat).
     II Office: q. v.: pīṭham (?), who fills the c. of chemistry now- *samprati kenādhiṣṭhitaṃ rasāyanapīṭham.

     I President: q. v.: sabhāpatiḥ
     II One who carries a chair: caukivāhaḥ.

CHALCEDONY: gomedaḥ (?).

CHALICE: caṣakaḥ: v. Cup.

CHALK (subs.):
     1 kaṭhinī;
     2 khaṭikā;
     3 dhātūpalaḥ. Red c.: gairikam.

CHALK (v. t.): kaṭhinyā or khaṭikayā cihnayati (cihna, c. 10.) or aṅkayati (aṅk, c. 10.)

CHALK OUT (v. t.): nirdiśati (diś, c. 6.), a c. ed out path nirdiṣṭamārgaḥ.

     I Abounding in c.: kaṭhinīmayaḥ (yī yaṃ) (?).
     II Resembling c.: kaṭhinīsadṛśa (śī śaṃ).

CHALLENGE (v. t.):
     I To call out:
     1 āhva- yate (hve, c. l), Shishupāla fearlessly c. d Krishna gatabhīrāhvayata cedirāṇmurārim, Si. xx. 1.;
     2 ākārayati (c. of kṛ), to c. to war pradhanāyākārayitum, Si. xvi. 52.
     II To defy: q. v.
     III To object to (as jurors) dūṣayati (c. of duṣ) (?).
     IV To claim, demand: q. v.

CHALLENGE (subs.):
     I Calling out to fight: āhvānama.
     II Defiance: q. v.
     III Claim, demand: q. v.
     IV In law: dūṣaṇam (?)

CHALLENGER: āhvānakārin (m.).

CHALYBEATE (adj.): lauhagarbhaḥ (rbhā rbhaṃ) (?), and sim. comp. s.

     I A room: q. v.: koṣṭhaḥ.
     II A bedchamber: q. v.
     III A close space: koṣṭhaḥ (?). Ph. C. of commerce: vaṇiksabhā (?).

CHAMBERLAIN: kañcu kin (m.) (?).

CHAMBER-MAID: *koṣṭhadāsī.

CHAMBER-POT: mūtrādhāraḥ.

     1 kṛkalāsaḥ;
     2 saraṭaḥ;
     3 kulāhakaḥ;
     4 pratisūryaḥ -kaḥ.

     I Verb: v. To groove, channel.
     II Subs.: v. Groove.

CHAMOIS: Perh: ruruḥ; vātamṛgaviśeṣaḥ.

CHAMOMILE: oṣadhiprabhedaḥ.

CHAMP (v.): dantairniṣpīḍayati (pīḍ, c. 10.): v. To bile.

CHAMPAGNE: madyaviśeṣaḥ; *drākṣāsavaḥ.

CHAMPAIGN (subs.): i. e. c. country: samabhūmiḥ: v. Plain.

CHAMPIGNON: A kind of mushroom: v. Mushroom.

     I Lit.:
     1 yodhaḥ:
     2 bhaṭaḥ.
     II Fig.: Defender: q. v.: goptṭa (m.), c. of liberty *goptā svādhīnatāyāḥ.

CHANCE (subs.):
     I An accident: daivam (=fate: q. v.), disregarding c. daivaṃ nihatya, H. Ph.: by c. daivāt. v. Accidentally; game of c. akṣādikrīḍā.
     II Any thing of c.: expr. by daivāyattaḥ (ttā ttaṃ) or daivādhīnaḥ (nā naṃ), hight birth is c. daivāyattaṃ kule janma, Ve.
     III Possibility of an occurrence sambhavaḥ (?), theory of c. s *sambhavavijñānam.

CHANCE (v. i.): expr. by daivāt, etc.; I. c. d to be there daivāttatrāhamabhavam: v. Accidentally.

CHANCEL: vṛtiḥ.

CHANCELLOR: prāḍvivākaḥ (?); mukhyavicārakaḥ (?). C. of the exchequer: koṣādhīśaḥ; C. of a university: *viśvavidyālayādhīśaḥ.

CHANCELLORSHIP: prāḍvivākapadam (?) etc.: v. Office and chancellor.

CHANCERY: *prāḍvivākakulam.

CHANDELIER: dīpapādapaḥ (?); śikhātaruḥ (?).

     I Lit: *vartikāraḥ.
     II Any dealer: q. v.

CHANGE (v. t.):
     I To alter:
     1 parivartayati (c. of vṛt) or parivarttaṃ parivartanaṃ or parivṛttiṃ karoti, should c. the deed karaṇaṃ parivartayet, M.; what, she had c. d her voice kathaṃ svaraparivartaḥ kṛtaḥ, Mr. i.;
     2 by anyaḥ (nyā nyat) or bhinnaḥ (nnā nnaṃ) or antaraaffixed: as if you are c. d in appearance tvamanyamākāramivābhipannaḥ. Ki. iii. 43.
     II To substitute one for another: c. ing our rings aṅgulīyakavinimayaṃ kṛtvā, D. ii.
     III To exchange:
     1 parivartayati (?);
     2 by circulo: go and c. this note *patramidaṃ dattvā ṭaṅkamānaya.

CHANGE (v. i.):
     1 parivartate (vṛt, c. l), my character has c. d with my appearance rūpeṇaiva saha parivṛtto me svamāvaḥ, D. iii.; in a moment, it c. s for me into samething else kṣaṇena tanme parivartate'nyathā, V.;
     2 by anyaḥ (nyā nyat) or bhinnaḥ (nnā nnaṃ) ar antara- affixed and a verb: seeing that its colour c. d in a golden vessel kanakabhājane varṇāntaramupagatamupalabhya, Mu.

CHANGE (subs.):
     I Alteration:
     1 parivṛttiḥ parivartaḥ or parivartanam (best equiv.), c. of dress veṣaparivartanam, Sah.: in this world, full of c. parivartini saṃsāre, P.;
     2 viparyayaḥ (incongruous c.), c. of vehicles pravahāṇāṃ viparyayaḥ, Mr.; c. of dress veṣaviparyayaḥ, P. i. 3.;
     3 vikāraḥ vikṛtiḥ or vikrithā (c. of form or nature: gen. for worse), even at death, there is no c. in the character of the good: prāṇānte'pi prakṛtivikṛtirjāyate nottamānām, Ma. n;
     4 pariṇāmaḥ (c. brought by time), D. s. Ph.: O, what a c. in the sites of these places aho anavasthito bhūmisanniveśaḥ, U. ii.
     II Of Government: parivartaḥ or parivṛttiḥ
     III Exchange: q. v.
     IV Small coins, etc.: kṣudramudrā (?). Ph. give me c. for a 10-rupee note *daśaṭaṅkapatraṃ gṛhītvā ṭaṅkān dehi.

     I Mutable, variable: q. v.
     II Fickle, inconstant: q. v.

CHANGEABLENESS: v. Mutability, fickleness, inconstancy.

     I Immutable: q. v.
     II Constant: q. v.

CHANGELING: parivartitaśiśuḥ (?).

     I Lit.: parivartakārin (f. ṇī).
     II A money-c.: q. v.

CHANNEL (subs.):
     I The bed of a stream: garbhaḥ.
     II Current: q. v.: srotas (n.)
     III A canal: praṇālī.
     IV A strait.: q. v.: *sāgarasandhiḥ.
     V A furrow, as in a column: rekhā.
     VI Means of conveying (as of news): mārgaḥ.

CHANNEL (v. t.):
     I To cut channels in: kulyāḥ khanati (khan, c. 2.), or karoti (with loc.),
     II To groove: q. v.

CHANT (v.): gāyati (gai, c. l.): To sing. C. er gāyakaḥ: v. Singer.

CHANT (subs.): gītam: v. Song.

CHANTRY: *gītamandiram:.

     I Lit.: Ph. it was (all) c. āsīdidantamobhūtam, M. i. 5.
     II Fig.: v. Confusion, disorder.

     I Lit.: Ph. the world was in a c. state: prakṛtau līnaṃ viśvamāsīt, V. p. com.
     II Confused: q. v.

CHAP (subs.):
     I A man or body: q. v.: māṇavakaḥ.
     II A cleft or gap: q. v. Ph.: c. in the feet. pādadārī.

CHAPEL: dharmamandiram: v. Church.

CHAPLAIN: purohitaḥ; ācāryaḥ.

CHAPLAINCY, CHAPLAINSHIP: paurohityam; ācāryatvam.

     1 mālā;
     2 sraj (f.): v. Garland. C. of beads: akṣamālā. C. on a peacock's head: śikhā.

CHAPMAN: āpaṇikaḥ: v. Trader.

     I A division of a book:
     1 adhyāyaḥ;
     2 paricchedaḥ (=section);
     3 ucchvāsaḥ (rare).
     II A body of canons *kenanasampradāyaḥ; dharmopāsakāḥ (m. pl.).
     III Their meeting: kenanasabhā.

CHAPTER-HOUSE: kenanasabhāgāram; dharmaśālā (?).

CHAR (v. t.): aṅgārīkaroti (kṛ, c. 8.).

     I Subs: v. Job.
     II Verb: v. To perform, do.

     I A distinctive mark:
     1 akṣaram, the c. s agree saṃvadantyakṣarāṇi, Mu. v.;
     2 varṇa (mn.).
     II Moral qualities collectively:
     1 śīlam, whose caste and c. is not known: ajñātakulaśīlaḥ (lā laṃ), H.; possessed of c.: śīlasamanvitaḥ (tā taṃ), Mr.;
     2 svabhāvaḥ, of a fallen c.: naṣṭasvabhāvaḥ (vā vaṃ), M. n.;
     3 caritram or cāritram, even (my) c. has been stained: cāritramapi dūṣitam, Mr. iii. Ph.: a bad c.:
     1 duṣṭaḥ (ṣṭā ṣṭaṃ);
     2 asat (f. ), by checking bad c. s: niyamanādasatām, R. ix. 6.
     III Reputation: q. v.
     IV Nature, characteristic: q. v. V. Quality, capacity: rūpam. Ph.: assuming the c. of an astrologer: kārtāntiko nāma bhūtvā, D. VI. A person sp. in a play: aṅgin (m.) (?): v. Part, person. Leading c. nāyakaḥ (the man), nāyikā (the woman).
     VII Account, description: q. v.

     1 svābhāvikaḥ (kī kaṃ): v. Natural;
     2 viśeṣaḥ (ṣā ṣaṃ): v. Peculiar.

CHARACTERISTIC (subs.): svabhāvaḥ (=nature: q. v.), this is the c. of benevolent men svabhāva evaiṣa paropakāriṇām, Sa.;
     2 lakṣaṇam (mark: q. v.), the c.s of a bold woman: pragalbhālakṣaṇam, Sah.

CHARACTERISTICALLY: sahajarītyā (?); svabhāvānuyāyi (?).

     I To be a characteristic of: expr. by subs.: this c. s him: eṣa tasya svabhāvaḥ.
     II To assign a character to:
     1 varṇayati (varṇ, c. 10.): v. To describe.

CHARADE: sarvatobhadraḥ (?)

CHARCOAL: aṅgāra (mn.); alātam (rare).

CHARGE (v.):
     I To attack: q. v.: abhiyunakti (yuj, c. 7.).
     II To accuse: q. v.: abhiyunakti.
     III To load: q. v. Ph.: to c. a gun *vandukaṃ pūrayati.
     IV To command or exhort: q. v.: śāsti (śās, c. 2.). V. To regard as a debt (?): yācate (yāc, c. l.) (=ask), to c. interest: vṛddhiṃ yācate; to c. for delivery: samarpaṇavyayaṃ yācate (?).

CHARGE (subs.):
     I Attack: q. v.: abhiyogaḥ
     II Accusation: q. v.: abhiyogaḥ.
     III Burden, load: q. v.
     IV Injunction: q. v.
     V A trust: q. v.: nikṣepaḥ.
     VI Care, management: q. v.: rakṣā or rakṣaṇaṃ, to give in c.: rakṣaṇārthaṃ dadāti.
     VII Money to be paid:
     1 vyayaḥ (=expense);
     2 arthaḥ (=price);
     3 deyam.

     I Subject to be accused: abhiyojyaḥ (jyā jyaṃ).
     II S. to a claim: c. with taxes: deyaśulkaḥ (lkā lkaṃ) (?).
     III Attributable: q. v.
     IV Burdensome: q. v.

     I A large dish: pātram.
     II A warhorse: vājin (m.): v. Horse.

CHARILY: v. Sparingly.

CHARINESS: v. Parsimony.

     1 rathaḥ, to step a c. rathaṃ sthāpayati, v.;
     2 syandanaḥ, to drive a c. syandanaṃ vāhayati, Ku.: v. Carriage. One who fights from a c. rathin (m.), Mah; c. -race: rathacaryā (?), K.; divine c. vimāna (mn.), Vi.

     1 sārathiḥ;
     2 sūtaḥ;
     3 niyantṛ;
     4 yantṛ (m.);
     5 kṣattṛ (m.);
     6 rathavāhakaḥ.

     I Liberal, bountiful: q. v.: vadānyaḥ (nyā nyaṃ).
     II Benevolent, kind: q. v.: udāraḥ (rā raṃ).
     III Favourable: q. v.: anukūlaḥ (lā laṃ). Ph.: c. dispensary *dānārtham auṣadhālayaḥ; c. institution *dānaprabhavā śālā.

CHARITABLY: sadayam: v. Kindly, favourably.

     I Love: bhūtānukampā, R. II. Liberality: q. v.: vadānyatā. An act of c.:
     1 pūrtam (of public c.);
     2 dattam (of private c.), by acts of c. pūrtadattasāghanaiḥ, S. III. The disposition to form kindly judgment: audāryam.

     1 narendrābhimānin (m.) (=a quack-doctor), D.;
     2 kalābhimānin (m.) (in gen.): v. Quack.

     1 kalābhimānitvam (in gen. sense);
     2 narendrābhimānitvam (medical quackery).

     1 saptarṣayaḥ (m. pl.);
     2 citraśikhaṇḍinaḥ (m. pl.).

CHARLOCK: sarṣapajātīyalatāviśeṣaḥ.

CHARM (subs.):
     I A magic spell: mantraḥ, a snake-cakSer who is not versed in c. s and medicinal plants amantrauṣadhikuśalo vyālagrāhī, Mu.
     II An amulet:
     1 rakṣākaraṇḍaḥ, Sa.;
     2 aparājitā (a plant used as a c.), Sa.;
     III Anything that fascinates:
     1 by the adj.: v.;
     2 manoharatvam etc., collecting the scattered c. s bahudhāgatāṃ kamanīyatāṃ samabhihṛtya, Ki. Ph.: c. of beauty: rūpalāvaṇyam; rūpasampad (f.), K.

CHARM (v. t.):
     I Lit.: mantrairvaśīkaroti.
     II To allay, assuage: q. v.
     III To enchant:
     1 mohayati pari- (c. of muh), let (it) not c. you: bhavantaṃ mā mūmuhat, Ma.;
     2 harati (hṛ, c. l.) (=to allure), c. d the king dharādhipañjahāra, R. ix. 69.;
     3 ramayati (c. of ram) (=to delight: q. v.).

     I Lit.: mantrajñaḥ: v. Magician.
     II An enchanter: q. v.

CHARMING (adj.):
     1 manoharaḥ (rā raṃ), and sim. comp. s, c. lake hṛdayahāri saraḥ, K.;
     2 mohanaḥ (nī naṃ);
     3 kamanīyaḥ (yā yaṃ): v. Beautiful, pleasing.

CHARMINGLY: expr. by adj. or by past indeclinable part.

CHARNEL-HOUSE: mṛtānāmasthisañcayasthānam.

CHART: *sāmudracitram: v. Map.

CHARTER (subs.): śāsanam śāsa or napatram (?).

     I To grant a c. to: śāsanaṃ dadāti (, c. 3.) (?), M. n.
     II To hire or let (a ship): q. v.

CHARTERPARTY: *potabhāṭakasabhayaḥ.

CHARY: v. Sparing, close.

CHASE (v. t.):
     I To hunt, pursue: q. v.: mṛgyati or mṛgayate (mṛg, c. 4 and 10).
     II To chase away or off: i. e. to drive away: q. v.: nirasyati (as, c. 4.).
     III To engrave: q. v.

CHASE (subs.):
     I Hunting: q. v.: mṛgayā.
     II Pursuit: q. v.: vimārgaṇam.
     III An open hunting ground: anāvṛtā mṛgayābhūmiḥ.
     IV That which is chased: mṛgyaḥ (gyā gyaṃ).

     I Engraver: q. v.
     II Hunting: q. v.

     1 randhram;
     2 darī;
     3 vilam.

     I Of morals:
     1 satī (a c. woman);
     2 śuci (mfn.).
     II Pure, correct: q. v.: viśuddhaḥ (ddhā ddhaṃ).

     I Of morals: śuci.
     II Of language: viśuddham.

CHASTEN, CHASTENING: v. Chastise, chastisement.

CHASTENESS: v. Chastity.

CHASTISE (v. t.):
     1 nigṛhṇāti (grah, c. 9.): v. To punish;
     2 upālabhate (labh, c. l) (reprove).

CHASTISEMENT: nigrahaḥ, I will inflict proper c. on you: tava yathocitaṃ nigrahaṃ karomi, P.: v. Punishment.

     1 nigrahītṛ (m.);
     2 nigrahakārin (m.): v. Punisher.

     I Female c.: satītvam.
     II Control of the passions: jitendriyatvam.
     III Purity of style: viśuddhiḥ, Ki. xiv. 5.

CHAT (v. i.): viśrabdham ālapati (lap, c. l.): v. To converse.

CHAT (subs.):
     1 viśrambhālāpaḥ;
     2 saṅkathāḥ v. Conversation.

CHATTELS: asthāvarasampattiḥ (moveable property): v. Goods.

CHATTER (v. i.):
     I To utter inarticulate sounds:
     1 kilakilāyate (nomi.) (of the monkey);
     2 caṭacaṭāyate (nomi.) (as in frying);
     3 kikikaroti (of the jay);
     4 cūṅkaroti (of young birds).
     II To jabber: jalpati (jalp, c. l).
     III Of the teeth: 'with c. ing teeth' dantairdantānniṣpīḍya.

     I An inarticulate sound:
     1 kilakilāravaḥ, D;
     2 caṭacaṭāśabdaḥ, Mah. etc.
     II Idle talk: jalpitam: v. Babble.
     III Of teeth: dantasaṅgharṣaṇam.

     1 vācāṭaḥ;
     2 vācālaḥ: v. Babbler.

CHATTY: saṃlāpin (f. ): v. Talkative.

     I Of small cost:
     1 alpārthaḥ (rthā rthaṃ);
     2 alpabhūlyaḥ (lyā lyaṃ);
     3 alpārhaḥ (rhā rhaṃ).
     II Easily procurable: sulabhaḥ (bhā bhaṃ), and sim. comp. s.

     1 sulabhīkaroti (?);
     2 mūlyaṃ pātayati (c. of pat) (?).

     1 alpamūlyena, very c. alpīyasā mūlyena, D.
     2 alpārgheṇa.

     1 alpamūlyatā;
     2 alpārdhatā;
     3 sulabhatvaṃ tā. For dif.: V. Cheap.

CHEAT (v. t.):
     1 vañcate or vañcayate pra- pari-, (vañc, c. l. and 10.), (that) you will not be c. ed by rogues: na vañcyase dhūrtaiḥ, K.;
     2 pratārayati (c. of tṝ): v. To deceive;
     3 vipralabhate (labh, c. 1.) (rare), I see none, who was not firmly embraced and at the same time c. ed by her (fortune): na hi taṃ paśyāmi yo hyanayā na nirbharamupagūḍho yo vā na vipralabdhaḥ, K.;
     4 chalayati (nomi.), Gi. i. 16.;
     5 abhisandhatte (dhā, c. 3.), by c. ing her imāmabhisandhāya, Sa. N. B. Note how the indirect object is expressed in Sanskrit: you have c. ed me of my property: *vañcayitvā matsampattiṃ hṛto'si.

CHEAT (subs.):
     I Cheating:
     1 vañcanā,
     2 pratāraṇā: v. Deception.
     II A cheater:
     1 vañcakaḥ pra-,
     2 pratārakaḥ: v. Rogue.

CHECK (v. t.)
     I To restrain, curb, stop: q. v.: ni-yacchati saṃ-, (yam, c. l.).
     II To reprove: q. v.
     III Of accounts: Perh: saṃśodhayati (c. of śudh).

CHECK (subs.):
     I Restraint, hindrance: q. v.: pratibandhaḥ. Without c.: nirargalam, N.
     II A cheque: q. v.

CHECKER: v. Chequer.

     1 *mātayati (nomi.), c. d. *mātaḥ (tā taṃ);
     2 niścalaḥ (lā laṃ) karoti (?).
     3 hanti (han, c. 2.), Rādhākānta.

     1 kapolaḥ;
     2 gaṇḍaḥ;
     3 gallaḥ (rare).

CHEEK-BONE: kapolāsthi (n.), and sim. comp. s.

CHEER (subs.):
     I A shout of joy: harṣanisvanaḥ ānandaninādaḥ, and sim. comp. s, with the c. s of the soldiers sainikaharṣanisvanaiḥ, R. iii. 61.
     II A state of the mind: sphūrtiḥ, Ph.: 'be of good c.' samāśvasihi.
     III Entertainment: good c. bhojanaviśeṣāṇi (n. pl.), H. IV. Countenance: q. v.

CHEER (v. t.):
     I To gladden: q. v.: abhinandayati (c. of nand).
     II To comfort: q. v.: samāśvāsayati (c. of śvas).
     III To salute or encourage with c. s harṣanisvanairabhinandayati.
     IV To incite: q. v.

CHEER, CHEER UP (v. i.) sam-āśvasiti (śvasa, c. 2.), K.

CHEERFUL: prasannaḥ (nnā nnaṃ): v. Joyful, lively. "C. shouts" harṣakilakilāravaḥ D. vi.

CHEERFULLY: Ph.: let the accomplished enjoy it c.: ta- tsuprasannamanasaḥ kṛtino bhajantām, Vi. i: v. Gladly, joyfully.

CHEERFULNESS: prasannatā or prasādaḥ: v. Liveliness.

     1 viṣaṇṇaḥ (ṇṇā ṇṇaṃ);
     2 aprasannaḥ (nnā nnaṃ);
     3 nirānandaḥ (ndā ndaṃ).

CHEESE: *paṇiram, c. monger: *paṇiravikretṛ (f. trī).

CHEESF-CAKE: *paṇirapiṣṭakaḥ.

CHEMICAL: rāsāyanaḥ (nī naṃ) (?), c. property: *rāsāyanadharmaḥ; c. combination: *rāsāyanasaṃyogaḥ.

CHEMICALLY: *rāsāyananiyamānusāreṇa, and sim. comp. s.

     1 calanam (?);
     2 yutakam (?).

     I Lit.: rasāyanavidra (mfn.) (?); rasāyanapravīṇaḥ (ṇā ṇaṃ) (?); and sim. comp. s.
     II A druggist: q. v.

CHEMISTRY: rasāyanam (?); padārthānāṃ śleṣaviśleṣapariṇāmavijñānam. Inorganic c. *bhūtarasāyanam; organic c.: *vyūḍharasāyanam; practical c. *prayogarasāyanam.

CHEQUE: *dhanapatram; dhanāgārāddhanadānārthamanujñāpatram.

     I Lit: Ph.: with body c. ed with rainbow like-lines ākhaṇḍalacāpānukāribhirlekhābhiḥ kalmāṣitaśarīraḥ, K.: v. To variegate.
     II To vary: miśrayati (miśr, c. 10.): v. To mix.

     I Lit.:
     1 karburaḥ (rā raṃ) or karburitaḥ (tā taṃ);
     2 śavalaḥ (lā laṃ);
     3 kalmāṣitaḥ (tā taṃ).
     II Fig.: Ph.: whose life is not c.? kasyātyantaṃ sukhamupanataṃ duḥkhamekāntato vā, Me.

CHEQUER-WORK: v. Tessellated, mosaic.

     I To foster, nurture: q. v.:
     1 lālayati (lal, c. 10.) (of childern);
     2 pālayati (pāl, c. 10.) to c. virtue dharmaṃ pālayati, M. n.
     II To entertain, bear: badhnāti anu-, (bandh, c. 9.) (with loc.), c. ed great hatred (towards her) dveṣamalpetaraṃ babandha, D. vi.; who has c. ed enmity from before pūrvānubaddhavairaḥ, Mr.

CHERISHER: pālayitṛ (f. trī): v. Encourager, supporter.

     I A fruit: *ceriphalaṃ.
     II A tree *cerivṛkṣaḥ.

CHERUB: *kiṃrūpaḥ; īśvaradūtaviśeṣaḥ.

CHERVIL: *parṇabhodā; oṣadhiviśeṣaḥ.

CHESS: caturaṅgam. C. -board:
     1 śāriphalam;
     2 aṣṭapādam. King of c.: rājā; queen: rājñī; bishop: gajaḥ; knight: aśvaḥ; castle: nauḥ; pawn: padātiḥ; c. man: śāraḥ.

     I A box: q. v.: peṭikā.
     II The thorax, breast: q. v.: uras (n.), broad-c. ed vyūḍhoraskaḥ (skā skaṃ), R.

CHESTNUT (adj.): v. Red, brown. A c. horse: ukanāhaḥ (rare).

CHESTNUT (subs.): phalaviśeṣaḥ. C.-tree: vṛkṣaviśeṣaḥ.

CHEVAUX-DE-FRISE: v. Turnpike.

CHEVALIER: sādin (m.): v. Knight.

CHEW (v. t.): carvati or carvayati (carv, c. l. and 10.). To c. the cud: romantham abhyasyati (asa, c. 4.), Sa ii. or romanthāyate (nomi.).

CHEWING (subs.): carvaṇam. Food which requires c. carvyam.

CHICANE (subs.):
     1 chalam;
     2 kapaṭaḥ.

CHICANE (v.): chalaṃ prayunakti (yuj, c. 7.): v. To use.

     1 kapaṭaḥ, skilful in following c.: kapaṭānusārakuśalaḥ, Mr.:
     2 chalam, c. is not admitted here: chalamatra na gṛhyate, Mr.: v. Trick, sophistry.

CHICCORY: śākaprabhedaḥ.

CHICK, CHICKEN: kukkuṭaśāvaḥ (of the hen); śāvaḥ (any young).

CHICKEN-HEARTED: i. e. timid, cowardly: q. v.

CHICKEN-POX: sarṣapikā, Bha; bālānāṃ rogabhedaḥ.

CHICK-PEA: caṇakaḥ.

CHICK-WEED: oṣadhiviśeṣaḥ.

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     I To reprove, scold: q. v.: bhartsayati nir-, (bharts, c. 10.), but she chid her and rejected (her proposal): sā caināṃ nirbhartsayantī pratyācacakṣe.
     II To roar: q. v.: rasati (ras, c. l.).

CHIDER: nirbhartsayitṛ (f. trī): v. Reprover.

CHIDING (subs.): bhartsanā: v. Reproof.

CHIEF (adj.):
     1 pradhānaḥ (nā naṃ), c. men (of a state) pradhānapuruṣavargaḥ, Mu. iii.; c. est reason: pradhānatamaṃ kāraṇam, Mu. iv.;
     2 mukhyaḥ (khyā khyaṃ), c. minister: mukhyamantrī, P.;
     3 agraḥ (grā graṃ) or agrimaḥ (mā maṃ) (=front, first), c. seat: agrāsanam, Mu.;
     4 vṛndārakaḥ (kā kaṃ) rare: v. Also, first, great.

CHIEF (subs.):
     1 īśaḥ (=lord: q. v.), the c. of Kamroop: kāmarūpāṇāmīśaḥ, R. iv. 83.;
     2 patiḥ adhi-, (=master: q. v.), c. of a clan: gaṇapatiḥ, Ki.;
     3 nāyakaḥ (=leader), c. of policemen ārakṣakanāyakaḥ, D.;
     4 by the adj. (rare), c. of Rākshashas: nṛbhujāṃ pradhānaḥ, B.;
     5 agraṇī, and sim. comp. s.

     1 pradhānataḥ (=principally);
     2 viśeṣeṇa (=especially);
     3 prāyeṇa (= mostly).

CHIEFTAIN: īśaḥ: v. Chief (subs.).

     1 vipādikā (of the feet);
     2 hastasphoṭaḥ (?) (of the hand).

     I A boy or girl: q. v.:
     1 śiśuḥ;
     2 arbhakaḥ (rare);
     3 pṛthukaḥ (rare);
     4 ḍimbhaḥ (rare).
     II With reference to parents, a son or daughter: q. v.:
     1 apatyam;
     2 sūnuḥ (mf.);
     3 santānaḥ;
     4 tokam (rare). In addressing children vatsa (m.) and vatsā (f.) is generally used. To be with c.: putriṇī, Mah: v. Pregnant.

CHILD-BEARING: v. Child-birth. Past c.: niṣphalā (rare).

CHILD-BED: prasavāvasthā. In c.: jāyamāne santāne, and sim. expr. s.

     1 prasavaḥ; from the pains of c. prasavavedanayā, K.: up to c.: ā prasavāt, Sr.;
     2 prajananam, Sr.;
     3 garbhanirgamaḥ, Sr.

     1 śaiśavam;
     2 bālyam;
     3 kaumāram;
     4 śaiśavāvasthā;
     5 bālyakālaḥ.

     I Pertaining to a child: expressed by gen. or comp.
     II Puerile, silly: q. v.: bāliśaḥ (śā śaṃ), why do you entertain c. sentiments kiṃ bāliśamatimāsthito'si, Mah.

     1 bālavat;
     2 śiśurivaḥ v. Child and like.

     1 śiśutvam (rare), N. iii. 15.;
     2 bāliśyam or bāliśatā.

     1 nirapatyaḥ (tyā tyaṃ);
     2 anapatyaḥ (tyā tyaṃ);
     3 niḥsantānaḥ (nā naṃ);
     4 aputraḥ (trā traṃ).

     1 nirapatyatā or anapatyatā;
     2 niḥsantānatā.

     1 bālarūpaḥ (pā paṃ);
     2 śiśusadṛśaḥ (śā śaṃ); and sim. comp. s.

CHILL (subs.):
     I Lit.: śītam: v. Cold.
     II Fig.: v. Discouragement.

CHILL (adj.):
     I Cold: q. v.: śītaḥ (tā taṃ).
     II Affected with cold: śītārtaḥ (rtā rtaṃ), and sim. comp. s
     III Dejected: q. v.: viṣaṇṇaḥ (f. ṇṇā).

CHILL (v. t.):
     I To cool: q. v.
     II To discourage: q. v.

CHILLI: raktamarīcam; laṅkāmarīcam.

CHILLINESS: śaityam: v. Coldness.

CHILLY: śiśiraḥ (rā raṃ): v. Cold.

CHIME (subs.):
     I Harmony: q. v.
     II Harmonious sound, as of bells: (?). ghaṇṭāravaḥ.

CHIME (v.):
     I To sound: q. v.: vādayati (c. of vad).
     II To harmonise, correspond: q. v.

CHIMERA: kapolakalpitam: v. Fancy, phantom.

CHIMERICAL: v. Imaginary, empty.

     I Hearth: q. v.
     II A passage for the exit of smoke: dhūmanālī.
     III Of a lamp: *cuṅgī.

CHIMNEY-CORNER: cullikoṇaḥ: v. Hearth.

CHIMNEY-PIECE: culliveṣṭanam.

CHIMNEY-SWEEPER: *dhūmanālīmārjakaḥ.

CHIMPANZEE: vanamānuṣaḥ (?); vānaraviśeṣaḥ.

     1 civukam;
     2 civu (n.) (rare).

CHINA (adj.): cīna-, c. clay *cīnamṛttikā; c. orange: nāraṅgam; c. -rose: javā; c. -silk cīnam (?).

[Page 119]

CHINA (subs.): i. e.: c. -ware: *cīnapātram.

     I The back-bone: q. v.
     II A piece of meat: Perh.: pṛṣṭham.

CHINK (subs.):
     I A fissure: chidram.
     II Tinkling: śiñjitam.

CHINK (v.):
     I To crack: q. v.
     II To jingle: q. v.

CHINKY: chidraśatairalaṅkṛ taḥ (tā taṃ): v. Gaping.

CHINTZ: *citrakārpāsam.

CHIP (subs.): khaṇḍaḥ, a c. of wood kāṣṭhakhaṇḍaḥ: v. Piece.

CHIP (v. t.): khaṇḍaśaḥ chinatti (chid, c. 7.) or kṛntati (kṛt, c. 6.).

CHIRP (v.): vi-rauti (ru, c. 2.): v. Noise, to make.

CHIRP, CHIRPING: virāvaḥ: v. Noise.

CHIRETTA: the plant:
     1 bhūnimbaḥ;
     2 kirātatiktaḥ.

CHISEL (subs.):
     1 vṛkṣādanaḥ;
     2 vṛkṣabhedin (m.).

CHISEL (v. t.): takṣati pari-, (takṣ, c. l.), c. ing with hakSets his Kshatriya body: kṣātradehaṃ paritakṣya ṭaṅkaiḥ, Ana.

CHIT-CHAT: viśrambhālāpaḥ: v. Conversation.

CHITTERLINGS: bhṛṣṭaśaukaranāḍya: (f. pl.) (?).

CHIVALROUS: śauryadākṣiṇyādiguṇopetaḥ (tā taṃ) (?): v. Brave, gallant.

CHIVALROUSLY: v. Boldly, gallantly.

     I A body of knights: sādinaḥ (m. pl.): v. Knight.
     II Knighthood: q. v.
     III Valour, etc.: śauryadākṣiṇyādiguṇāḥ (m. pl.) (?): v. Valour, gallantry.

     I A kind of onion: q. v.
     II Stamen: q. v.

CHLORATE: *pītaharitāmlasaṃśliṣṭaḥ (ṣṭā ṣṭaṃ).

CHLORIDE: *pītaharita-, c. of mercury: *pītaharitapāradaḥ.

CHLORINE: *pītaharitam; pītaharidvāyuḥ.

CHOCOLATE: *cakalāṭam.

CHOICE (subs.):
     I The act of choosing:
     1 grahaṇam (=acceptance);
     2 varaṇam (= a. of a husband);
     3 abhilāṣaḥ (=desire). Ph. to make a c. of: v. To choose.
     II The power of c.: v. Option.
     III Discrimination: q. v.
     IV The thing chosen: expr. by adjs: īpsitaḥ (tā taṃ); abhīṣṭaḥ (ṣṭā ṣṭaṃ), etc. Ph.: who is your c.: kasmiṃste hṛdayābhiniveśaḥ; V. iii.
     V The best part of anything: ratnam.

CHOICE (adj.):
     I Superior in quality:
     1 viśiṣṭaḥ (ṣṭā ṣṭaṃ);
     2 sarvottamaḥ (mā maṃ) (=best);
     3 mahārhaḥ (rhā rhaṃ) (=valuable), c. bed: bhahārhaśayyā, Ki. Ph.: with c. food: bhojanaviśeṣaiḥ, A.
     II Select: q. v.
     III Frugal: q. v.

     I With choice:
     1 samīkṣya;
     2 parito vīkṣya.
     II Excellently: q. v.

     1 viśiṣṭatā;
     2 utkarṣaḥ: v. Excellence.

     I A band of singers:
     1 gāyakagaṇaḥ;
     2 *saṅgāyakagaṇaḥ.
     II A part of a church: *saṅgāyakabhūmiḥ.

     I To stifle, suffocate: q. v.
     II To check: q. v.
     III To offend: q. v.

     I The bile: q. v.: pittam.
     II Anger: q. v.: krodhaḥ.

CHOLERA: visūcikā, Sr.

     I Irascible: q. v.: krodhanaḥ (nā naṃ).
     II Angry: q. v.

CHOOSE (v.):
     I To select:
     1 vṛṇīte (vṛ, c. 9.) (=to accept as, husband), whether (she) would c. me: vṛṇīta māṃ neti, R. vi. 68.;
     2 mano badhnāti (bandh c. 9.) (with loc.) (to set one's mind), she chose (it) in preference to others: mano babandhānyarasān vilaṃdhya sā, R. iii. 4.;
     3 abhilaṣati (laṣ, c. l.), and whom (she) may c.: yañcābhilaṣet, D. vi.: v. To desire;
     4 by circum., which of the two you c.: tayorabhibhataṃ vada, Vi. vi.;
     5 gṛhṇāti (grah, c. 9.) (=to take: only when the context fixes the meaning).
     II To elect, appoint: q. v.

CHOP (subs.): māṃsaphālikā, N.: v. Piece.

CHOP (v. t.):
     I To mince: q. v.: viśakalayati (nomi.).
     II To exchange: q. v.
     III To bandy: q. v. Comp. s: c. off: v. To cut off; c. up.: v. To devour.

CHOP-HOUSE: *māsaṃphālikāgṛham.

CHOPPER, CHOPPING-KNIFE: churikāviśeṣaḥ.

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CHORAL: sāṅgītikaḥ (kī kaṃ), Williams: v. CHOIR.

     I A musical string: tantrī.
     II Harmony: q. v.: ekatānaḥ.
     III In geo. jyā or jīvā, Li.

     I A singer: gāyakaḥ, Kuvera's c.: kinnaraḥ. Indra's c. gandharvaḥ.
     II Leader of a chorus: pradhānagāyakaḥ (?).

CHOROGAPHER: pradeśavarṇakaḥ (?)

CHOROGRAPHY: pradeśavarṇanam (?)

     I A band of singers: gāyakagaṇaḥ and sim. comp. s.
     II Of a song: dhruvā or dhravam, Gi.

CHOUGH (subs.): kākajātīyapakṣibhedaḥ.

CHRIST: *kṛṣṭaḥ.

     I To baptise: q. v.
     II To denominate: q. v.

     I The Christian religion: *kṛṣṭadharmaḥ.
     II The c. world: *kṛṣṭadharmānuyāyinaḥ (m. pl.); kṛṣṭarājyam.
     III A name: q. v.

     I As adj.: *kṛṣṭīyaḥ (yā yaṃ).
     II As subs.: *kṛṣṭadharmāvalambin (f. ).

CHRISTIANITY: *kṛṣṭadharmaḥ.

CHRISTIANIZE: *kṛṣṭadharmaṃ grāhayati (c. of grah).

CHRISTIANLY: *kṛṣṭamatānurūpam; kṛṣṭīyavat.

CHRISTMAS: *kṛṣṭajanmotsavaḥ. C. -day: *kṛṣṭasya janmadinam. C. -eve: *kaṣṭasya janmadinasya pūrvapradoṣaḥ.

CHRIST'S-THORN: A plant: kaṇṭakigulmabhedaḥ.

     I Relating to colour: raṅga- or varṇa in comp., the science of c. s. *raṅgavidyā (?).
     II In music: grāmīṇaḥ (ṇā ṇaṃ).

CHROME, CHROMIUM: *citralauham; citrāyas (n.).

     I Lit.:
     1 sāmayikaḥ (kī kaṃ);
     2 kālikaḥ (kī kaṃ).
     II Lingering:
     1 dīrghasthāyin (f. );
     2 avisargin (f. ṇī).

CHRONICLE (subs.):
     I In pl., annals: kālānuyāyīvṛttaprabandhaḥ.
     II History: q. v.

CHRONICLE (v. t.): prabandhe niveśayati (c. of viś) or likhati (likh, c. 6.).

CHRONICLER: *kālānusāreṇa vṛttaprabandhakṛt lekhakaḥ: v. Historian.

CHRONOLOGER, CHRONOLOGIST: *kālagaṇanābhijñaḥ kālagaṇakaḥ.

     1 kālānusārin (f. ṇī);
     2 kālānuyāyin (f. ). In c. order: anupūrvaśaḥ or ānupūrvyāt. Mat.

CHRONOLOGICALLY: kālānusāreṇa.

CHRONOLOGY: kālagaṇanā.

CHRONOMETER: *kālaparimāpaḥ; viśiṣṭhakālamāpaḥ

CHRYSALIS: guṭikā (?).

CHRYSOGRAPHY: kaladhautalipiḥ, and sim. comp. s.

CHRYSOLITE: haritāśman (n.).

CHRYSOLOGY: *arthavijñānam, and sim. comp.

CHUB: rohitajātīyamatsyabhedaḥ.

CHUBBED, CHUBBY: v. Plump, stout.

CHUCK (v.):
     I To check: q. v.
     II To strike gently: q. v.

CHUCK (subs.):
     I v. Cluck.
     II A slight blow: capeṭikā (with the open hand) īṣatpaprahāraḥ.
     III A term of endearment: jātaḥ (tā taṃ).

CHUCKLE (v. i.): i. e. to laugh in a broken manner: v. To laugh.

CHUMP: sthūlakāṣṭham: v. Stump.

CHURCH (subs.):
     I Any temple: q. v.
     II. A Christian temple: *siddhāyatanam or dharmamandiram (when the context determines the meaning); kṛṣṭadharmānuyāyināṃ siddhāyatanam.
     III A body of Christians: dharmaḥ, the c. of Christ : *kṛṣṭadharmaḥ; the c. of England: iṃlaṇḍīyadharmaḥ.

CHURCH (adj.): v. Ecclesiastical. C. -rate : *dharmamandiraśulkaḥ. C. -warden: dharmamandirarakṣakaḥ. C. -yard: *dharmamandirāṅganam: v. Cemetery.

     I A rustic: q. v.
     II A boor : avinītaḥ; nirmaryādaḥ.

     I Boorish, rude: q. v.
     II U manageable: q. v.

CHURLISHLY: aśiṣṭavat: v. Roughly.

     1 aśiṣṭatā;
     2 avinītatā
     3 nirmaryādatā.

CHURN (subs.):
     1 manthanī;
     2 gargarī
     3 manthanapātram.

CHURN (v. t.): mathati or manthati (math, c. l.) c. nectar: mathyatāmamṛtam, V. p.; c. ing of the ocean : samudramanthanam, M. n. C. -staff,; C. -stick:
     1 manthaḥ;
     2 manthanaḥ;
     3 manthānaḥ;
     4 manthadaṇḍa C. ing-rope:
     1 manthanarajjuḥ;
     2 netram, V. p.

     1 annarasaḥ;
     2 dhātupaḥ, Wilson.

CHYMIC, CHYMIST, CHYMISTRY: v. Chemical, chemist, chemistry.

CICATRIX, CICATRICE śuṣkavraṇaḥ: v. Scar.

CICATRIZE (v.): v. To heal. c. d.: śuṣkaḥ (ṣkā ṣkaṃ).

CICERONE: darśakaḥ: v. Guide.

CIDER: *ātāphalanirhṛ to madirāviśeṣaḥ.

     1 candrahāsaḥ;
     2 vakrakhaṅgaḥ;
     3 maṇḍalāgraḥ (rare).

     1 mekhalā;
     2 kāñcī: v. Belt, girdle.

     1 aṅgāra (mn.);
     2 bhasman (n.): v. Ashes, charcoal.

     1 rasasindūram;
     2 raktapāradaḥ;
     3 rasasthānam (rare).

     1 dārusitā;
     2 gandhavalkalam.

     I The arithmetical sign:
     1 binduḥ (Lit. and Fig.);
     2 śūnyam (=zero).
     II A secret manner of writing:
     1 gūḍhākṣaram (?);
     2 cihnam (=sign) (?)

CIRCLE (v. t.): v. To encircle. C.-d.: v. Round.

CIRCLE (subs.):
     I In geo.:
     1 vṛttam, Li.;
     2 maṇḍalam, Su. Ph. Great c.: *mahāvṛttam; small c.: *kṣudravṛttam.
     II A circumference, ring: maṇḍalam, moving in a c. maṇḍalabhramaṇam, D. vi.
     III A sphere: q. v.: "c. of the earth" bhūmaṇḍalam.
     IV Compass, circuit: q. v. V. A. group of persons:
     1 maṇḍalam, dismissing the c. of sages visarjitamunimaṇḍalaḥ, C.;
     2 cakram, c. of archers dhānuṣkacakram, Ve. iv. Ph.: in the family c.: parivāramadhye. VI. A province: maṇḍalam, M. Ph.: to argue in a c.: *maṇḍalena tarkayati; prameyasādhanārthaṃ prameyānyeva vakraṃ prayunakti.

CIRCLET: maṇḍalam: v. Circle.

     I Movement round:
     1 paribhramaṇam;
     2 paryayaṇam. To make a c: paribhramati or paryeti (i, c. 2) (with acc.)
     II Compass:
     1 pariveṣṭanam;
     2 paridhiḥ.
     III Of judges, etc., paribhramaṇam (?). C. -house: *paribhramaṇagṛham.

CIRCUITOUS: vakraḥ (krā kraṃ), although (this) route is c. for you: vakraḥ panthā yadapi bhavataḥ, Me. i. 28.: v. Round about.

CIRCULAR (adj.): maṇḍalākāraḥ (rā raṃ): v. Round. Ph. c. are: vṛttakhaṇḍam.

CIRCULARITY (subs.) lekhaviśeṣaḥ; *cakram, c. file *cakraśreṇī.

CIRCULARITY: maṇḍalatā pari-, Ki. xiv. 64.

     1 maṇḍalena;
     2 maṇḍalākāreṇa, M. n.;
     3 cakrākāreṇa.

CIRCULATE (v. t.):
     I Of the blood: pari-calati (cal, c. 1.) (?).
     II Fig.: bhramati or bhrāmyati (bhram, c. l. and 4.), and this strange news c. d. among the citizens: abhramacca paurajānapadeṣviyabhadbhutāyamānā vārtā, D. III. Ph.: c. ing medium: *vinimayadvāram; c. ing library: *bhrāmyatpustakālayaḥ.

     I Of the blood: paricalanam (?).
     II Diffusion:
     1 prasarpaṇam;
     2 prasaraḥ.
     III Currency:
     1 pracāraḥ;
     2 pracalanam.

CIRCUMCISE (v.): liṅgāgracarma chinatti (chid, c. 7.) or kṛntati (kṛt, c. 7.) (with gen.) (?); C. d:
     1 chinnaliṅgāgracarman (mfn.) (?);
     2 duścarman (mfn.) (?) M.

CIRCUMCISION: liṅgāgracarmacchedaḥ -nam (?).

     1 paridhiḥ;
     2 pariveśaḥ;
     3 pariveṣṭanam.

CIRCUMFLEX: svaritaḥ.

CIRCUMFLUENT: paritaḥ or samantataḥ visārin (f. ṇī) or pravahat (f. ntī) etc.: v. To flow.

     1 caturdiśyaḥ (śyā śyaṃ);
     2 paritaḥ sthitaḥ (tā taṃ).

CIRCUMLOCUTION: bhaṅgiḥ or vākyamaṅgiḥ

CIRCUMNAVIGATE: nāvā or potena paribhramati (bhram, c. l.) or paryaṭati (aṭ, c. 1.)

CIRCUMNAVIGATION: potena paribhramaṇam or paryaṭanam.

CIRCUMNAVIGATOR: potena paribhramakārin (f. ṇī).

CIRCUMPOSITION: maṇḍalīkaraṇam.

     I To describe: q. v.
     II To confine, limit: niyacchati (yam, c. l.)
     III To encircle, surround: q. v.

     1 smīkṣyakārin (f. ṇī);
     2 vimṛśyakārin (f. ṇī): v. Careful.

     1 samokṣyakāritā;
     2 vimṛśyakāritāḥ v. Prudence, caution.

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CIRCUMSPECTLY: parito vīkṣya, (Ki. ii. 2.) or avekṣya; samīkṣya, etc.

     I Condition: q. v.: avasthā.
     II An event, incident: q. v.:
     1 vṛttāntaḥ;
     2 vṛttam.


     I Minute, particular: q. v.: saviśeṣaḥ (ṣā ṣaṃ).
     II Consisting of particular incidents: Ph.: c. evidence: *vṛttāntaghaṭitaṃ pramāṇam.

     1 saviśeṣaṃ (=minutely);
     2 yathāvṛttam (=as it happened).

CIRCUMVALLATE: vapreṇa veṣṭayati (c. of veṣṭ).

CIRCUMVENT: pratārayati (c. of tṝ): v. To cheat, deceive.

CIRCUMVENTION: pratāraṇāḥ v. Fraud, deception.

CIRCUS: *maṇḍalaraṅgaḥ; maṇḍalākāro raṅgabhūmiḥ.

CISTERN: kṛṇḍam (?): v. Reservoir.

CITADEL: durgam: v. Fortress.

     I A summons: q. v.
     II A quotation: q. v.

CITE: diśati ut- nir-, (diś, c. 6.): v. To adduce, quote, summon.

CITHERN or CITTERN: bīṇāviśeṣaḥ.

     1 pauraḥ, of c. s. and villagers: paurajānapadānām, B. p.;
     2 paurajanaḥ puravāsin (m.), and sim. comp. s.;
     3 nāgaraḥ or nāgarikaḥ (rare).

CITIZENSHIP: pauratvam (?).

CITRINE: jambīrābhaḥ (bhā bhaṃ).

     I The tree mātuluṅgaḥ; -kaḥ,
     2 vījapūraḥ.
     II The fruit: vījapūram; mātuluṅgaphalam.

CITY (subs.):
     1 nagaram -rī;
     2 puram -rī;
     3 pur (f.): v. town.

CITY (adj.):
     1 by a tat. com. a., c. gate: puradvāram;
     2 pauraḥ (rī raṃ).

CIVET: gandhadravyabhedaḥ.

CIVET or CIVET-CAT: An animal:
     1 gandhamārjāraḥ;
     2 gandhotuḥ.

CIVIC: pauraḥ (rī raṃ): v. Civil.

     I Polite: q. v.
     II Civic:
     1 pauraḥ (rī raṃ);
     2 nāgaraḥ (rī raṃ). Ph.: c. war: *antaryūddham or sim. yuddham (when the sense is clear); c. death: *vaidhamṛtyuḥ.

     I One versed in civil law: *sādhāraṇavidhijñaḥ.
     II A non-mlitaryman: *paurakāryādhikṛtaḥ.

CIVILITY: saujanyam: v. Politeness, attention.


     1 śiṣṭācārān śikṣayati (c. of śikṣ) (?);
     2 sabhyapadavīm adhirohayati (c. of ruh) (?).

CIVILLY: v. Politely.

     1 vasānaḥ (nā naṃ) (with acc.);
     2 paridadhat (f. ) (with acc);
     3 bibhrat (f. ) (with acc.);
     4 by a comp. with vīta saṃvīta, etc. (=covered), c. clean bark: śucivalkavītavapus (mfn.), Ki. vi. 31.: v. To clothe.

CLAIM (v. t.): expr. by circum.: who c. s. anything: mamedamiti yo brūyāt, M. viii. 31.; the owners of the two mares went up to the king, both claiming (the colt): madīyo'yaṃ madīyo'yamiti (bruvāṇau) vaḍavādhipatī rājāntikamagacchatām, Raj.; c. s. a bow from him: mamānena dhanurdeyamiti nirdiśati, K. b.

CLAIM (subs.):
     1 expr. by verb;
     2 uktam (when the context fixes the meaning), to establish one's c.: uktaṃ pratipādayati, K. b.;
     3 abhiyogaḥ (legal c.): v. Demand.

     1 arthin (m.) (=plaintiff);
     2 by circum.

CLAMBER: v. To climb.

CLAMMINESS, CLAMMY: v. Viscidity, viscous; glutinousness, glutinous.

CLAMOROUS: Noisy, Turbulent. Ph. c. for his banishment: tasya nirvāsanārthamutkrośanti.

CLAMOUR (subs.): utkrośaḥ: v. Noise, cry (II).

CLAMOUR (v.) utkrośati (kruś, c. l.): v. To shout, make noise.

CLAMP (subs.): kīlaḥ (?).

CLAMP (v. t.): kīlena sambadhnāti (bandh, c. 9.) or saṅghaṭayati (ghaṭ, c. 10.) (?)

     1 gaṇa:, of the village classes and c. s: grāmaśreṇīgaṇānām, Vri.;
     2 kulam: v. Tribe, race.

CLANDESTINE: pracchannaḥ (nnā nnaṃ): v. Secret.

     1 channam, D.: v. Secretly;
     2 bhoṣeṇa, D.: v. By stealth.

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CLANG, CLANK (v.): ṭaṅkaroti (kṛ, c. 8.) (rare): v. To jingle, sound.

CLANG, CLANK (subs): ṭaṅkāraḥ or ṭaṅkṛtam, by the c. of bells: ghaṇṭānāṃ ṭaṅkṛtena, K.: v. Din, noise.

CLANSHIP: gaṇatvam. (?): v. Clan, race.

CLAP (v. t.): Ph. to c. the hands: karatālaṃ or karatālikāṃ dadāti (, c. 3.), Si. xv. 39.;
     2 talatālaṃ vādayati (c. of vad), Mah.;
     3 hastatālam arpayati (c. of ), (rare), N. iii. 6.; to c. the wings: pakṣau dhunoti or dhunute (dhu, c. 7.), N. iii. 1. C. sometimes = to applaud; also = to cast: q. v.

     I Of hands:
     1 karatāla-(lī)-dānam;
     2 talatālavādanam. N. B. C. did not, among the Hindus, usually express applause, but note the following ex.: cheered me with huzzas and c. s. harṣayāmāsurmāṃ siṃhanādatalasvanaiḥ, Mah.
     II Of thunder:
     1 sphūrjathusphūrjitam, Vi.;
     2 vajraniṣpeṣaḥ;
     3 vajranirghoṣaḥ;
     4 medhagarjitam.
     III Any loud noise: q. v.

CLAPPER: of a bell: *ghaṇṭātāḍanī.

CLAP-TRAP: v. Deceptive, counterfeit.

CLARET: raktavarṇo madyaviśeṣaḥ.

     1 śodhanam;
     2 śuddhiḥ;
     3 pāvanam.

     1 śodhayati (c. of śu);
     2 punāti (, c. 9.).

CLARION: kāhalaḥ (?); śuṣiravādyaviśeṣaḥ. C. -et: muralī (?).

CLASH (v. i.):
     I Lit.:
     1 saṃghaṭṭate or ghaṭṭayati (ghaṭṭa, c. l. and 10).;
     2 samāhanti (han, c. 2.).
     II Fig. To contradict, interfere: q. v.: viruṇaddhi (rudh. c. 7.) (with acc.).
     II Noise produced by c. ing: caṭacaṭāśabdaḥ, Mah.
     III Opposition, contradiction: q. v.: virodhaḥ.

CLASH (subs.):
     I Lit.:
     1 saṃghaṭṭaḥ;
     2 samāghātaḥ.

CLASP (subs.):
     I Lit.: *saṃśleṣakaḥ.
     II An embrace: q. v.: pariṣvaṅgaḥ.

CLASP (v. t.):
     I Fasten (with acc.): q. v.: sambadhnāti (bandh, c. 9.).
     II Embrace: q. v.: pariṣvajate (svañj, c. l.). Ph.: with c. ed hands kṛtāñjali or baddhāñjali (mfn.).
     III To entwine: q. v.

CLASPER: i. e. tendril: pratānaḥ.

CLASP-KNIFE: bhaṅgayogyā churikā (?).

CLASS (subs.):
     I Of individuals: gen. not expr. d: there can be no association between the higher and lower c. es: sahāpakṛṣṭairmahatāṃ na saṃgatam Ki.; c. es. of citizens: paurāṇāṃ śreṇayaḥ, Nil.: v. Party, caste.
     II Of students: śreṇī (or -ṇiḥ).
     III A division of objects:
     1 vargaḥ, we will now specify the c. es. of flesh: ata ūdhvaṃ māṃsavargānudekṣyābhaḥ, Sr.;
     2 gaṇaḥ (specially of verbs);
     3 jātiḥ (=species).

CLASS (v. t.):
     1 vargīkaroti (?);
     2 vargān nirdiśati (diś, c. 6.) (?).

CLASSIC (subs.):
     I In pl. the Greek and Latin literature: *grīkalāṭinasāhityam.
     II A c. al writer: viśiṣṭalekhakaḥ, and sim. comp. s

     I Well: viśiṣṭam.
     II In classes: śreṇyanusāreṇa.

     1 varganirdeśaḥ (?);
     2 vargīkaraṇam (?).

CLASSIFY: v. To class.

CLATTER (v.): v. To rattle, prate.

CLATTER, CLATTERING (subs.): c. of thunderclouds: ghanaghaṭāghargharadhvaniḥ: v. Rattle.

     I An article or stipulation: q. v.: prakaraṇam (?).
     II A part of a sentence: aṅgavākyam, Nil.

CLAVICLE: jatru (n.).

CLAW (subs.): nakhaḥ or nakharaḥ, R. xvi. 16.

CLAW (v. t.): nakhairvidārayati (c. of dṝ): v. To tear, scrakS.

CLAY: cikvanamṛttikā, Bha.; mṛdumṛd (f.), C., and sim. comp.s; potters' c.: kulālamṛttikā; bricks' c.: iṣṭakāmṛttikā (?). Made of c. mṛnmayaḥ: (yī yaṃ).

CLAYEY: cikvanamṛdbahulaḥ (lā laṃ) (?).

CLEAN (adj.):
     1 śuddhaḥ (ddhā ddhaṃ), vi- pari-, c. after a bath: snānaviśuddhagātraḥ (f. trī), Ku.;
     2 śuci (mfn.) (gen. = pure), c. ivory throne: gajadantāsanaṃ śuci, R.;
     3 ghautaḥ (tā taṃ) (= washed), wearing a suit of fine c. clothes: dhaute dukūle dadhatā, K.;
     4 nirmalaḥ (lā laṃ) (=free from dirt: often = clear). To become c.: śudhyati (śudha, c. 4.), M.

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CLEAN (v. t.):
     1 śodhayati vi- pari-, (c. of śudh), should c. teeth every day: dantānnityaṃ viśodhayet, Sr.;
     2 mārṣṭi or mārjayati pra- saṃ-, (mṛj, c. 2 and 10) (=by rubbing or brushing), c. ing of ornaments: bhṛṣaṇamṛjākriyā, D. vi.;
     3 dhāvayati or dhāvati (dhāv, c. 10 and l.)(with water), call Radanikā to c. our feet: radanikāṃ śabdāyasva pādau dhāvitum, Mr. iii.;
     4 punāti (, c. 9.) (from dirt: gen. fig: v. To purify);
     5 nenekti or niṃkte nir-, (nij, c. 3. and 2) (rare).

CLEAN (adv.): v. Entirely, altogether.

     1 śuddhiḥ vi- pari-;
     2 śaucam;
     3 nirmalatā;
     4 śaucaparāyaṇatā (?) (habitual c.). For dif.: v. Clean.

CLEANLY (adj.): ācāraśuddhaḥ (ddhā ddhaṃ) (?) or śaucaparāyaṇaḥ (ṇā ṇaṃ) (?): v. Neat. Ph. c. (i. e. cleansing) powder: śodhanacūrṇam, Sr.

CLEANLY (adv.): expr. by adj., c. dressed: śucivastradharaḥ (rā raṃ), V. p.: v. Neatly.

CLEANNESS: v. Cleanliness, purity.

CLEANSE (v.): śodhayati; punātiḥ v. To clean.

CLEANSING (subs.): Lit. or Fig.:
     1 śodhanam or śuddhiḥ vi- pari-;
     2 mārjana- or mṛjākriyā (by rubbing or brushing);
     3 dhāvanam (with water).

CLEAR (adj.):
     I Transparent, bright:
     1 vimalaḥ nirmalaḥ or amalaḥ (lā laṃ), c. sky: vimalaṃ nabhaḥ, Ki.; c. -rayed moon: vimalakiraṇacandraḥ, Ri.;
     2 prasannaḥ (f. nnā), c. sky: prasannaṃ namaḥ; the c. (lake) Mānasa: prasannaṃ mānasam, K.;
     3 viśadaḥ (dā daṃ).
     II Plain, perspicuous: q. v.:
     1 prasannaḥ (nnā nnaṃ);
     2 viśadaḥ (dā daṃ);
     3 vimalaḥ (lā laṃ) or nirmalaḥ (lā laṃ).
     III Audible: Ph. c. language: viviktavarṇā sarasvatī, Ki.: in c. voice: spaṣṭavarṇayā girā, K.
     IV Evident: q. v.: Ph.: c. profit: śuddhalābhaḥ, my mind is c. (now): mamāntarātmāviśado jātaḥ, Sa. iv.; c. of any crime: viśuddhaḥ (ddhā ddhaṃ), Mr.

CLEAR (v. t.):
     I To make bright:
     1 viśadīkaroti, I may c. your sight: dṛṣṭiṃ viśadāṃ karavāṇi, Sa. iii.;
     2 prasādayati (c. of sad) (rare).
     II To exculpate: śodhayati Krishna accepted that precious gem to c. himself: acyutastanmaṇiratnamātmaśodhanāya jagrāha, V. p.
     III To make open: śodhayati, to c. a road: mārgaṃ śodhayati, M. vii. 185.; with c. ed back: śuddhapārṣṇiḥ, R. Ph.: c. ed forests: vipināni prakāśāni cakāra, R. iv. 31.
     IV Of profits: v. To gain. Ph. to c. a doubt: saṃśayaṃ chinatti, Da.; to c. a debt: ṛṇaṃ śodhayati, K. b.; to c. (i. e. to leap over) a dikS: parikhām ullaṅghayati.

CLEAR UP (v. t.): viśadīkaroti (kṛ, c. 8.): v. To explain.

     1 prasīdati (sad, c. l.), the quarters c. ed: diśaḥ praseduḥ, S. p.;
     2 prasādaṃ gacchati vrajati, etc., the sky did not quite c. off: dyaurucitaṃ prasādhaṃ na gatā (after Ki.);
     3 vimalībhavati (bhū, c. l.).

     I The act of c. ing: śodhanam.
     II Of vessels: *śodhanam.
     III Clear profit: śuddhalābhaḥ.

CLEARLY: v. Plainly, distinctly, obviously, clear.

     1 vimaladhīḥ (n. -dhi);
     2 viśadabuddhi (mfn.).

     I Trasparency, brightness:
     1 prasādaḥ or prasannatā;
     2 vaimalyam;
     3 vaiśadyam.
     II Plainness, perspicuity:
     1 vaiśadyam, impressive on account of c.: vaiśadyahṛdyaḥ (dyā dyaṃ), N.;
     2 vaimalyam, perspicuity consists in c. of meaning: arthavaimalyātmā prasādaḥ, Kav.;
     3 nirmalatvam, S. Ph.: with c. of voice: spaṣṭavarṇayā girā, K.

CLEAR-SIGHTED: vimaladṛśa (mfn.) (Lit. and Fig.): v. Sagacious.

CLEAVE (v. i.):
     I To adhere: q. v.: sajjate (sajñ, c. 1).
     II To part asunder
     1 sphaṭati (sphaṭ, c. 1);
     2 dīryate.
     III To suit: q. v.

CLEAVE (v. t.):
     1 sphāṭayati (c. of sphaṭ);
     2 vi-dārayati (c. of dṝ).

CLEAVER: i. e. a bukSer's knife: kartarī, K. b.

CLEF: svarasaṃkramacihram.

CLEFT (part. and adj.): v. Cloven.

CLEFT (subs.):
     I A crack, chasm: q. v.: darī.
     II A piece: q. v.

     I Kindness: q. v.: dayā.
     II Mildness: q. v.: mārdavam.

CLEMENT: v. Kind, merciful, gentle.

CLEMENTLY: sadayam: v. Kindly, gently.

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CLENCH (v.):
     I Lit.: to grasp: q. v. Ph. to c. the fist: muṣṭiṃ badhnāti; to c. a nail: *nālam āvarjya badhnāti.
     II Of arguments: draḍhayatiḥ v. To confirm, establish.

CLEPSYDRA: kapālayantram, Su. xiii. 23.

CLERGY: purohitavargaḥ, and sim. comp. s

CLERGYMAN: purohitaḥ (?); dharmaśāsakaḥ (?).

     I Belonging to a clergyman: expr. by comp., c. dress: purohitaveṣaḥ.
     II Relating to a clerk: expr. by comp. or by gen.: c. mistake: lekhakasya bhramaḥ.

     I A clergyman: q. v.
     II A scholar: q. v.
     III In ordinary sense: lekhakaḥ.

     I Business of a clerk: lekhakatvam (?); lekhakapadam.
     II Scholarship: q. v.

     1 caturaḥ (rā raṃ);
     2 vicakṣaṇaḥ (ṇā. ṇaṃ): v. Skilful, expert.

     1 nipuṇam;
     2 sapāṭavam;
     3 caturam.

     1 vaicakṣaṇtham;
     2 naipuṇyam;
     3 cāturyam;
     4 vaidagdhyam.: v. Skilfulness, dexterity.

CLEW: v. Clue.

     I Verb: ṭaṅkaroti (?).
     II Subs.: ṭaṅkāraḥ.

     I A dependent: āśritaḥ (tā taṃ).
     II In law: *śrāvakaḥ.

     I Dependency: q. v.: adhīnatā.
     II In law: *śrāvakatvam.

     1 prapātaḥ;
     2 bhṛguḥ (rare), fall from a c.: bhṛgupatanam, D.

CLIMACTER, CLIMACTERIC: pariṇāmakālaḥ (?).

     I Temperature etc.: deśaprakṛtiḥ (?); vāyutāpau (m. dual) (?).
     II A region: q. v.: pradeśaḥ.

     I Acme:
     1 parā koṭiḥ;
     2 cūḍā.
     II In Rhetoric:
     1 sāraḥ, Kav. x. 37.;
     2 sārālaṅkāraḥ.

CLIMB (v.): arohati adhi- (ruh. c. 1), (with acc.) to c. up the top of a tree: vṛkṣāgramārohati, S. c. Ph.: c. d over the wall: prākāramatyalaṅghayam, D. iii.; he knows how to c.: sa vṛkṣādyāroḍhuṃ jānāti (sim. āroḍhuṃ) (will be ambiguous, as it often means riding.).

     I In gen.:
     1 bhārohin or adhirohin (f. ṇī);
     2 āroḍhṭa (f. ḍhrī).
     II A climbing plant:
     1 vratatī;
     2 vallarī. The supporting tree on which a climber rises:
     1 saṃśrayadrumaḥ, Ku.;
     2 upadhnataruḥ, R.
     III A climbing bird: ārohin (f. ṇī).

CLIME: pradeśaḥ: v. Climate, region.

CLINCH: v. To clench.

CLINCHER: i. e. a decisive argument: upasaṃhāraḥ.

CLING (v. l.): sajjate ā- pra- saṃ- (sañj, c. l.), who c. s to my dress: ko nu khalu nivasane me sajjate, Sa. iv.; with trees c. ing: saṃsaktakṣitiruhajālam, Vi.;
     2 lagati saṃlagati (lag, c. l.), clung to the Śinsapā trce: śiṃśapāvṛkṣe lalāga, Vet.; c. ing to the teeth: dantalagnaḥ (gnā gnaṃ), Ku. Ph. c. to a hope: āśāṃ na muñcati jahāti, etc.

CLINICAL: Ph. c. medicine: śayyāgatarogicikitsā (?), or -śāstram (?).

CLINK (subs.): kvaṇitam: v. Tinkling, jingling.

CLINK (v.): kvaṇati (kvaṇ, c. l.): v. To tinkle, jingle.

     I To embrace, encompass: q. v.
     II To shear, cut off: kalpati (klṭp, c. l), (rare), with hair, nails, and beard c. ped: kḷptakeśanakhaśmaśraḥ, M. iv. 35.
     III To curtail: q. v.

CLIPPING: v. Cutting, paring.

CLIQUE: dalam (?): v. Faction, party.

CLOAK (subs.):
     1 kañcukaḥ, her body covered with a blue c. hanging down to the ankle: āgulphāvalambinā nīlakañcukenācchannaśarīrām, K.;
     2 prāvāraḥ (gen. = blanket or shawl), Mr.

CLOAK (v.): avaguṇṭhayati (guṇṭh, c. 10): v. To hide, palliate.

CLOCK: *ghaṭikā; sidereal-c.: *nākṣatraghaṭikā; what o'c. is it? *kiyato ghaṭikā?

CLOCKWORK: ghaṭīyantram.

     1 loṣṭa (mn.);
     2 leṣṭuḥ.


GLOG (v.): pratibadhnāti (bandha, c. 9): v. To obstruct, fetter.

GLOG (subs.):
     I A shoe: pādukā (gen. term).
     II An impediment: q. v.: pratibandhaḥ.
     III Of animals: pratibandhaḥ, K.

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     I A portico: q. v.
     II A monastery: q. v.: vihāraḥ.

CLOISTRAL: v. Monastic.

CLOSE (v. t.):
     I To shut: q. v.: api-dadhāti (dhā, c. 3), c. the back door: pidhehi pakṣadvārakam, Mr.; to c. the eyes: locane mīlayati ni-, (c. of mol), Me.
     II To bring into contact: saṃhanti (han, c. 2).
     III To conclude, finish: q. v.: samāpayati (c. of āp).
     IV To confine: q. v. To c. in or round: parivṛṇotiḥ v. To surround.

CLOSE (v. i.):
     I To come together:
     1 nimīlati (mīl, c. l) (of the eye);
     2 samārohati (ruh, c. l) (of wounds).: v. To unite.
     II To come to an end: expr. by avasitaḥ (tā taṃ), samāptaḥ (ptā ptaṃ), etc.; when he c. d: vacasyavasite tasmin, Ku.

CLOSE ON or UPON: sthirīkarotiḥ v. Agree, decide.

CLOSE UP: avṛṇoti (vṛ, c. 5): v. To block up.

     I To close on: q. v.
     II To unite with: q. v.
     III To grapple with: saṃgacchati (gam, c. 4), sameti (i, c. 2), etc.

CLOSE (adj.):
     I Shut fast:
     1 pihitaḥ (tā taṃ);
     2 saṃvṛtaḥ (tā taṃ);
     3 baddhaḥ (ddhā ddhaṃ) (=bound).
     II Secret, retired: q. v.: viviktaḥ (ktā ktaṃ).
     III Confined, as air: niruddhaḥ (ddhā ddhaṃ).
     IV Reticent, taciturn: q. v. V. Niggardly: q. v.: baddhamuṣṭi (mfn.).
     VI Dense, compact: q. v.: ghanaḥ (nā naṃ).
     VII Adjoining, near: q. v.: sannihitaḥ (tā taṃ), are always c. at hand: haste nityasānnidhyāni, D.
     VIII Of style: v. Concise.
     IX Intimate:
     1 ghanaḥ (nā naṃ);
     2 niviḍaḥ (ḍā ḍaṃ), very c. friendship: niviḍatamā maitrī, Bha.
     X Accurate, careful: q. v.

CLOSE (adv.):
     I Densely: q. v.
     II Near: q. v.:
     1 upānte;
     2 samīpataḥ.

CLOSE (subs.):
     I An enclosure: q. v.: vṛtiḥ.
     II End, termination: q. v.: avasānam, c. of the day: divāvasānam, R.
     III Junction: q. v.

CLOSE-FISTED, CLOSE-HANDED: baddhamuṣṭi (mfn.), your c. ness in giving me a look: dṛṣṭidāne tava baddhamuṣṭitā, N.

CLOSELY: v. Densely; nearly; strictly; accurately; firmly; secretly.

     I Compact: q. v.: ghanatā.
     II Nearness: q. v.: naikaṭyam.
     III Niggardliness: q. v.
     IV Of air: niruddhavātatā. V. Of style: v. Conciseness.
     VI Narrowness: q. v.
     VII Accuracy: q. v.
     VIII Secrecy: q. v.

CLOSE-STOOL: *upaśayanapīṭham; viṇmūtrādhāraḥ.

CLOSET (subs.): koṣṭhaḥ.

CLOSET (v.):
     I To conceal: q. v.
     II To consult: q. v.

CLOT (v. t.): piṇḍa (mn.).

CLOT (v.):
     1 piṇḍībhavati;
     2 ghanībhavati. C. ted hair: jaṭā -jūṭaḥ.

     I Lit.:
     1 vastram, coarse c. sthūlavastram, P. ii. 5.; fine c.: sūkṣmavastram, N. com.;
     2 paṭaḥ or paṭṭaḥ, making of different kinds of c.: anekavidhapaṭaracanā, P. ii. 5.: v. Also clothes.
     II A profession: q. v.

CLOTHE (v.):
     I To put on c. s: c. ing herself: gṛhītavastrā, Ku.; c. ing himself: paridhāya vāsasī, K.: v. To put on clothes.
     II To invest with raiment: vastraṃ etc. paridhāpayati (c. of dhā) or vāsayati (c. of vas).
     III To provide with c. s: but should feed and c. her: grāsācchādanantu deyameva, K. b.
     IV To cover or invest: q. v.

     1 vasanam, when (her) c. were being drawn off: ākṛṣyamāṇe vasane, Mah.;
     2 vastram, taking off c.: vastrāṇi mocayitvā, P.;
     3 vāsas (n.), Basantasenā's c. are wet: klinne vāsasī vasantasenāyāḥ, Mr.;
     4 aṃśukam;
     5 ambaram (rare);
     6 paricchadaḥ, pretty c. kamanīyaparicchadaḥ, Ki.;
     7 paridhānam (=under-c.), by whom even her c. was taken away: yenāsyāḥ paridhānamapyapahṛtam, Ve. N.B. The first five words gen. = a single piece of cloth and their dual is often used to denote a suit of c. as the Hindu's dress consisted only of two pieces of garment: v. Dress.

     1 paṭa- or paṭṭakāraḥ (maker);
     2 vastravikretṛ (m.) (seller).

CLOUD (subs.):
     1 meghaḥ;
     2 jaladaḥ;
     3 jala- dharaḥ;
     4 ghanaḥ;
     5 parjanyaḥ;
     6 abhram;
     7 balāhakaḥ;
     8 jīmūtaḥ;
     9 nīradaḥ;
     10 payomuc (m.). C. born: medhyaḥ (dhyā dhyaṃ); c.-producing: meghaṅkaraḥ (rī raṃ), Si. xx. 61. and 65.; a long line of c. s: kādambinī, Ku. Fig.: a c. of dust dhūlīpaṭalaḥ; I am under a c. now: sāmprataṃ mamopari śanerdyaṣṭiḥ (?).

     1 abhraṃlihaḥ (hā haṃ);
     2 abhraṃkaṣaḥ (ṣā ṣaṃ);
     3 ambaralekhin (f. ).

     I Lit: meghāvṛtaḥ (tā taṃ);
     2 meghācchannaḥ (nnā nnaṃ);
     3 ghanoparuddhaḥ (ddhā ddhaṃ).
     II Fig. v. Dark, gloomy, sullen.

     1 ameghaḥ (ghā ghaṃ);
     2 nirabhraḥ (bhrā bhraṃ);
     3 vyabhraḥ (f. bhrā), V. p.;
     4 vītabalāhakaḥ (kā kaṃ), Ki.; and sim. comp. s.

     I Lit., clouded: q. v.:
     1 amritaḥ (tā taṃ), R. iii. 12;
     2 sābhraḥ (f. bhrā), Me. ii. 29. Ph. c. weather durdinam.
     II Fig., dark, obscure: q. v.: tamovṛtaḥ (tā taṃ).

CLOUT: cīram: v. PakS.

     I The plant: lavaṅgaḥ.
     II The fruit: lavaṅgam.

     1 sphāṭitaḥ (tā taṃ);
     2 dīrṇaḥ vi-, (rṇā rṇaṃ);
     3 khaṇḍitaḥ (tā taṃ). C.-hoofed: dviśaphaḥ (phā pham). C.-tongued: dvijihvaḥ (hvā hvaṃ) (=double-tongued), Śi.

CLOVER: triparṇī (?). To live in c. i. e. luxuriously: q. v.

     I A countryman:
     1 grāmikaḥ;
     2 grāmyajanaḥ;
     3 kṛṣīvalaḥ (=agriculturist).
     II A buffoon: q. v.: bhaṇḍaḥ.

     1 grāmyaḥ (myā myaṃ);
     2 aśiṣṭaḥ (ṣṭā ṣṭaṃ) (not polite.).

     1 grābhyatā;
     2 aśiṣṭatā.

CLOY (v.): saṃ-tarpayati (c. of tṛp): v. To satiate.

CLUB (subs.):
     I A cudgel:
     1 yaṣṭiḥ;
     2 laguḍaḥ, to maul severely with c. s. laguḍaprahārairjarjarīkaroti, P.
     II An association: q. v.: samājaḥ (?), who will not come to the c. today: yo'dya samāje nāgamiṣyati, V. p.

     I To eat together: saṃkhādati (khād, c. 1) (?)
     II To contribute: q. v.

CLUB-FOOTED: vikṛtapādaḥ (dā daṃ).

CLUCK (subs.): cūṅkṛtam (?).

CLUCK (v.): cūṅkaroti (?).

     I A ball of thread: sūtrakopam (?).
     II Anything serving to guide: Ph. to get a c. sandhānaṃ prāpnoti (?); to give a. c. sandhānaṃ dadāti (?).

     1 gucchaḥ;
     2 nicayaḥ saṃhatiḥ, etc. in comp., a c. of creepers: virunnicayaḥ, Ve.; c. of plantain trees: kadalīṣaṇḍaḥ, Mah. or kadalīgulmaḥ Ra.;
     3 vanam (a large c.), a c. of lotus: kumudvanam, Ki.

     1 asamyak;
     2 asundaram;
     3 apaṭu.

     1 asaundaryam (=inelegancy);
     2 grāmyatā (=rusticity);
     3 apāṭavam (=unskilfulness).

     1 asundaraḥ (rī raṃ) (=inelegant);
     2 grāmyaḥ (myā myaṃ) (=rustic);
     3 akṛtin (f. ) (=unskilful).

CLUSTER (subs.):
     1 cayaḥ ni-, c. of ashes: bhasmanāṃ cayaḥ, Ki.;
     2 saṃhatiḥ, R.;
     3 stavakaḥ (of fruit or flower), with fresh c. s of flower prasūnastavakairnavīnaiḥ, N.: v. Crowd, assemblage.

CLUSTER (v.): c. ed by wind: anilena viracitasaṃhatiḥ, K.: v. To flock, swarm. "C. ing grapes." *stavakamayāni drākṣāphalāni.

CLUTCH (v.): ādatte (, c. 3): v. To seize, grasp. To c. the hand: muṣṭiṃ badhnāti.

CLUTCHES (subs.): hastaḥ, under the c. of death: mṛtyuhastavartin (f. ), D.

CLYSTER: v. Injection.

COACH: rathaḥ: v. Carriage, chariot.

COACH-MAN: sārathiḥ: v. Charioteer.

COADJUTOR: sahāyaḥ: v. Assistant.

     1 ghanībhavati;
     2 śyāmībhavati;
     3 śyāyate (śyai, c. l).

COAGULATION: expr. by verb.

     1 aṅgāra, (=charcoal);
     2 aṅgārāśman (m.) or aṅgāramṛttikā. C.-heaver: aṅgāravāhakaḥ (?). C.-pit: aṅgārabhūmiḥ (?).

COALESCE: v. To unite, combine.

COALITION: saṃyogaḥ: v. Communion, alliance.

     I Not fine: sthūlaḥ (lā laṃ), c. cloth sthalavastram, P.; body is of two kinds, c. and fine: dvividhaṃ śarīraṃ sthūlaṃ sūkṣmaṃ ca, S. iv. 3.
     II Rude, unpolished, mean: q. v.

COARSELY: v. Rudely, impolitely, meanly.

     I Lit.:
     1 sthūlatā;
     2 sthaulyam.
     II Rudeness; vulgarity: q. v.

COAST (subs.): tīram, whether he reached the c. tīramagamadvā, D.: v. Shore. Ph.: c.-line velā, R. xiii. 15.; "the c. is clear (i. e. danger is over): niṣkaṇṭakā bhūmiḥ (?).

COAST (v. i.): upakūlaṃ potaṃ vāhayati or potena gacchati (?).

COASTING (adj.): Ph.: c. vessel (i. e. a coaster) *upakūlapotaḥ, c. -trade: *upakūlavāṇijyam.

COAT (subs.): An article of dress: *koṭabh.
     II A covering: q. v.
     1 āvaraṇam, c. s. of mail: dehāvaraṇāni, Ki.: v. Armour;
     2 paṭalam (of the eye). Ph.: c. of arms: *colacihnam.

COAT (v.): v. To cover, overlay.

COATING (subs.): v. Covering, coat (II). C. (of a paint): lepaḥ, K.

COAX (v.): v. To wheedle, fondle, soothe.

COAXING (subs.): v. Coaxingly.

COAXINGLY: i. e. by c.:
     1 priyaśatamadhurābhirvāgbhiḥ K.;
     2 cāṭūktibhiḥ or cāṭuśataiḥ (by flattery), H.;
     3 abhyarthanābhiḥ (begging), K.

COB: aśvaviśeṣaḥ.

     I To mend: q. v.
     II To do badly: v. To do, badly.

COBBLER: *pādukāsandhātṛ (m.).

COBRA: A snake: phaṇakaraḥ.

     I Lit.: jāla (mn.) or markaṭakīṭasūtrajālam, V. d., and sim. comp. s (when the meaning is not clear).
     II Fig.: jāla (mn.), D.

     1 lākṣā;
     2 jatu (n.). C. -insect: titibhaḥ.

COCK (subs.):
     1 kukkuṭaḥ;
     2 tāmracūḍaḥ kṛkavākuḥ. A. c. sparrow: caṭakaḥ: v. Male. "The c. of the club:" samājapuṅgavaḥ (?). C. -a-hoop: dṛptaḥ (ptā ptaṃ).

COCK (v.):
     I To turn up: q. v.: unnamayati (c. of nam).
     II To c. a gun: *bandukasya ghoṭakam unnamayati (ghoṭakaḥ = c. in Bengali). (A) c. ed (hat) sāciniveśitaḥ (tā taṃ) (?).

COCKADE: *cūḍā; padādisacakaḥ śiraskopari bhṛto'laṅgāraviśeṣaḥ.

COCKATOO: śukajātīyaścūḍāvān pakṣiviśeṣaḥ

COCK'ATRICE: v. Basilisk.

COCK-BOAT: kṣudranaukāḥ v. Boat.

COCK-CHAFER: gomayotthāprabhedaḥ.

     1 kukkuṭayuddham;
     2 tāmracūḍayuddham, D. v.

     I A plant: oṣadhibhedaḥ.
     II A shellfish: dīrghakoṣikā (?).

     1 candraśālā;
     2 śirogṛham.

COCKNEY: nāgaraḥ: v. Citizen.

     1 tailapā or tailapāyikā;
     2 paroṣṇī;
     3 khalādhārā.

COCKSCOMB: cūḍāḥ v. Coxcomb.

COCOA: *kokam.

COCOANUT: nārikelam. C. -husk: nārikelīphalavalkalam, K.; c. tree: nārikelaḥ -lī; c. water: nārikelāpaḥ or nārikelāntarāpaḥ, Si. iii. 81.; nārikelīrasaḥ, Vi.; c. wine: nārikelāsavaḥ, R. iv. 42.

     1 kṛmikośaḥ (ṣaḥ);
     2 guṭikā.

COD: matsyaviśeṣaḥ C. -liver-oil: *kaḍamatsyatailam.

CODE: saṃhitā, c. of Manu: manusaṃhitā; penal c.: *daṇḍavidhisaṃhitā.

CODICIL: *icchāpatrasya pariśiṣṭam.

CODIFY: p. p. To c. laws: *vidhīn saṃhitāyāṃ nibadhnāti (bandh, c. 9.).

COEFFICIENT: mānam, c. of an unknown quantity: avyaktarāśermānam, Vij.

CO-EQUAL: samaḥ (mā. maṃ): v. Equal.

COERCE (v.): niyantrayati (yantr, c. 10.): v. To restrain, compel.

COERCION: niyantraṇā, K.: v. Restraint, compulsion.

COERCIVE: niyaṇtrṛ (f. ntrī) (?); expr. by circum.

CO-ESSENTIAL: samasvabhāvaḥ (vā vaṃ) (?).

CO-ETERNAL: expr. by circum: v. Eternal.

     1 samakālīnaḥ (nā naṃ);
     2 samānakālīnaḥ (nā naṃ), V. d.;
     3 tulyakālaḥ (lā laṃ), V. p.

CO-EXIST (v.): samaṃ or ekatra vartate (vṛt, c. l.) or vidyate (vid, c. 4.).

CO-EXISTENCE: ekakālāvasthāyitvam, V. d.; better by circum.

CO-EXISTENT: expr. by circrm., pleasure and pain are not c.: sukhaduḥkhe na vartete samam.

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CO-EXTENSIVE: *samavistāraḥ (rā raṃ); or by circum.

COFFEE: *kāphiḥ, c. -house: *kāphigṛham; c. -pot: *kāphipātram.

COFFER: dhanabhāṇḍam (?), his c. s are empty: riktāni tasya dhanabhāṇḍāni (?)

COFFIN: śavādhāraḥ, and sim. com. s (?).

COG (subs.): dantaḥ (when the sense is clear) (?); cakradantaḥ (?).

COG (v.): v. To deceive, cheat. C. ged, i. e. furnished with c. s: dantaviśiṣṭaḥ (ṣṭā ṣṭaṃ), and sim. comp.

COGENCY: sāmarthyam: v. Force, weight.

COGENT: balavat (f. ): v. Forcible, weighty.

COGENTLY: v. Forcibly, convincingly.

COGITATE, COGITATION: v. Meditate, meditation.

COGNATE: v. Kindred.

COGNITION: jñānam: v. Knowledge.

COGNITIVE: Ph. c. faculty: jñānendriyam.

     I Knowledge: q. v.
     II Jurisdiction: q. v.
     III A badge: q. v. Ph. I cannot take c. of it: *idamavekṣituṃ bhe'medhikāro nāsti.

COGNOMEN: paddhatiḥ (?).

     1 sahavāsaṃ karoti (kṛ, c. 8.);
     2 saṃvasati (vas, c. 1.).

COHABITATION: sahavāsaḥ or saṃvāsaḥ, M. viii. 373.

COHEIR, COHEIRESS: ṛkthabhāgin (f. ).

     I Adherence: q. v.
     II Connexion, consistency: q. v.

COHERE (v.):
     I To adhere, stick together: q. v.
     II To agree, be consistent: q. v.

     I Cleaving: saṃsaktaḥ (ktā ktaṃ).
     II Consistent, adapted: q. v.

     1 saṃlagnatā;
     2 saṃsaktiḥ;
     3 samāsaktiḥ.

COHESIVE: saṃlagnaśīlaḥ (lā laṃ) (?).

COHORT gulmaḥ (?).

     1 śiraskam;
     2 śirastram.

COIL (subs.):
     1 guṇaḥ (of a rope);
     2 kuṇḍalam (of a serpent);
     3 vyāvartanam (c. ing round), by the c. s of the serpent-king: vyāvartanairahipateḥ, Ki.

COIL (v.):
     1 piṇḍīkaroti (into a globe);
     2 kuṇḍalīkaroti, V. p. com. C. ed round by the serpent-king: sarparājena bhogenāveṣṭitaḥ (tā taṃ), V. p.

COIN (subs.):
     1 mudrā, copper -c.: tāmramudrā;
     2 nāṇakam (rare), Mr. To pay any one in his own c. *sadṛśaśodhaṃ dadāti.

COIN (v.):
     I To stamp: ṭaṅkayati (nomi.) (?).
     II To invent, originate: q. v. sṛjati (sṛj, c. 6.).

     I Coining: ṭaṅkanam (?).
     II Money coined: mudrā.
     III Invention: q. v.: sṛṣṭiḥ.

     I To Agree, correspond, concur: q. v.
     II To agree in position: ekībhavati.

     I Agreement, correspondence: q. v.
     II Agreement in position expr. by verb.
     III Accident: daivayogaḥ.

     I Of time: samakālīnaḥ (nā naṃ).
     II Consistent: q. v.
     III Corresponding: q. v.

     I Lit.: mudrākāraḥ (?).
     II An inventor, maker: q. v.

COITION: saṅgamaḥ: v. Copulation.

COLANDER: cālanī (=a sieve).

COLD (adj.):
     I Lit:
     1 śītaḥ (tā taṃ), c. weather: śītakālaḥ, Ri. vi. 7.;
     2 śītalaḥ (lā laṃ) (gen. = cool), c. nights: śītalā rātrayaḥ, Ri. V. 4.;
     3 śiśiraḥ (rā raṃ), c. as ice: tuṣāraśiśiraḥ (rā raṃ) K.;
     4 himaḥ (mā maṃ) (rare);
     5 tuṣāraḥ (rā raṃ) (rare);
     6 niruṣṇaḥ (ṣṇā ṣṇaṃ), agharmaḥ (rmā. rmaṃ) etc. (poet). C. season:
     1 hemanta (mn.) (from about the middle of November to about the m. of January);
     2 śiśira (mn.) (from a. the m. of J. to a. the m. of March). Ph. I am c. śītaṃ me, P. iii. 7.
     III Fig.: indifferent, reserved: q. v.

COLD (subs.):
     I Lit.:
     1 śītam, capacity of enduring c.: śītasahiṣṇutā, Ka.;
     2 himam, suffering from c.: himārtaḥ Sa.; save me from c.: himatrāṇaṃ vidhīyatāṃ, P.
     II Catarrh:
     1 prati(tī)śyāyaḥ, giving c.: pratiśyāyakaraḥ (rī raṃ), Sr.;
     2 pīnasaḥ, suffering from c. pīnasin (), Sr. Ph.: to cakS c.: pratiśyāyaḥ sam-jāyate (jan, c. 4.) or bhavati (with gen. of the person).

COLDISH: īṣacchītaḥ (tā taṃ): v. Cool.

COLDLY: anādareṇaḥ v. Indifferently, coolly.

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     I Lit.:
     1 śaityam or śītatā, from great c.: atiśaityāt, M. n.;
     2 niruṣṇatā, etc. (poet).
     II Apathy, indifference: q. v.: anādaraḥ.

COLEWORT: śākaviśeṣaḥ.

     1 śūlam;
     2 vātaśūlam.

COLLAPSE (subs.):
     I Lit.: saṃkocaḥ.
     II Fig.: kṣayaḥ: v. Fall, ruin.

     I To shrink up: q. v.: saṃkucati (kuc, c. 6.).
     II Fig.: to fail q. v.: kṣayaṃ or nāśaṃ gacchati vrajati, etc.

COLLAR (subs.):
     1 graiveyam or graiveyakam;
     2 kaṇṭhikā;
     3 kaṇṭhabhūṣaṇam. C. (of machines): *parikaraḥ.

COLLAR (v. t.):
     1 graiveyakena dharati (dhṛ, c. l.) or gṛhvāti (grah, c. 9.): v. To seize.

COLLAR-BONE: jatru (n.).

     I To compare critically:
     1 parīkṣate (īkṣ, c. 1.);
     2 samavalokate (lok, c. l.).
     II To appoint, to confer: q. v.: niyojayati (yuj, c. 10).

     I Indirect: q. v.: prāsaṅgikaḥ (kī kaṃ).
     II Of pedigree: not in the direct line: minnaśāsvaḥ (khā khaṃ) (?); upalomaḥ (mā maṃ) (?).

COLLATERALLY: Of indirect descent: expr. by circum.

     I Comparison:
     1 parīkṣā;
     2 samavalokanam.
     II Presentation to a benefice: niyogaḥ or viniyogaḥ.
     III Cold repast: kalyavartaḥ.

COLLEAGUE: sahakārin (f. ṇī) (?). C. -ship: sahakāritvam (?).

COLLECT (v. t.):
     I To gather:
     1 saṃ-gṛhvāti (grah, c. 9.), to c. dust: pāṃśūn saṃgṛhṇāti, M.;
     2 samāharati (hṛ, c. 1.), c. ing dictionaries: koṣān samāhṛtya, Nil.;
     3 samarjayati (arj, c. 10.) (of earning), c. ing gems: samarjayan ratnāni, K.;
     4 sannipātayati (c. of pat) (=to assemble: q. v.);
     5 ādatte (, c. 3.) (=to take) (only of taxes etc.);
     6 rāśīkaroti pūgīkaroti or puñjīkaroti (c. into a heap). Ph.: to c. one's self ātmānaṃ saṃsthāpayati paryava-, (c. of sthā), Mr. iii. To infer: q. v.

COLLECT (v. i.):
     1 samāgacchati (gam, c. 2.), samaiti (i, c. 2.), etc.: v. To assemble;
     2 rāśībhavati pūgībhavati puñjībhavati (=to c. into a heap).

COLLECT (subs.): sūktam (?): v. Prayer.

COLLECTED (adj.): i. e. not disconcerted, cool: sthiraḥ (rā raṃ), you should be always c. like this: evameva sadā bhāvyaṃ sthireṇa..., Mah.

     I The act:
     1 saṃgrahaḥ;
     2 samāhāraḥ (rare).
     II Assemblage, crowd: q. v.: saṅghaḥ.
     III Money collected. Ph.: pay your c. s *yaddhanaṃ tvayā samāhṛtaṃ taddehi.
     IV Conclusion: q. v.

     1 samavetaḥ (tā taṃ);
     2 saṃhataḥ (tā taṃ). C. -ness: saṅghavṛttitā, Ki.

COLLECTIVELY: expr. by adj., the birds c.: saṃhatāstu vihaṅgamāḥ, H.: v. Jointly, together.

COLLECTOR: saṃgrahītṛ or samāhartṛ (f. rtrīṃ) (?), tax -c.: *karasamāhartā; c. of a district (in India): karanāyakaḥ (after daṇḍanāyakaḥ magistrate); c. of customs: *śulkanāyakaḥ.

COLLEGE: vidyālayaḥ or pradhānavidyālayaḥ, and sim. comp. s; of your c. -life atramavataḥ vidyāgṛhamadhivasataḥ, K.

COLLEGIAN: chātraḥ (=student, pupil: q. v.).

COLLEGIATE: expr. by com., c. church: *vidyālayadharmamandiram.

COLLIER: *aṅgārakhanakaḥ or aṅgārāśamakhanakaḥ.

COLLIERY: *aṅgārakhaniḥ; aṅgārāśmakhaniḥ.

COLLISION: saghaṭṭaḥ (with a defining word when the sense is not clear, as *lohapathayānasaṅghaṭṭaḥ to denote railway c.).

COLLOCATION: vityāsaḥ: v. Arrangement.

COLLOP: phālikā, c. of meat: māṃsaphālikā, N. xvi. 82.: v. Piece.

COLLOQUIAL: Ph.: c. language prākṛtabhāṣā (?); c. talent: sambhāṣaṇaśaktiḥ (?).

COLLOQUIALISM: prākṛtabhāṣāprayogaḥ (?), Latin c.: *prākṛtalāṭinabhāṣāprayogaḥ.

COLLOQUY: v. Coversation.

COLLUDE: v. To conspire.

     1 nibhṛtasaṃyogaḥ (=secret union);
     2 śaṭhyam (=deceit: q. v.).

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COLLUSIVELY: nibhṛtasaṃyogena (?);
     2 śāṭhyena: v. Deceitfully.

     1 indravāruṇī;
     2 mṛgādanī.

COLON: *dvibinducihnam; kolanam.

COLONEL: vāhinīpatiḥ.

COLONELCY, COLONELSHIP: *vāhinīpatitvam; vāhinīpatipadam.

COLONIAL: expr. by comp. c. governor: *adhiniveśapālaḥ.

COLONIST: *adhiniveśin (f. ) or adhiniveśavāsin (f. ).

COLONIZE: *adhiniveśayati (c. of viś), should c. places by the excess population of one's country: janapadaṃ svadeśābhiṣyandavamanena niveśayet, M. n.

COLONNADE: *stambhāvaliḥ.

COLONY: adhiniveśaḥ.

COLOSSAL: mahāpramāṇaḥ (ṇā ṇaṃ), K. v.: Huge.

COLOSSUS: *kolakṣaḥ bṛhatpratimābhedaḥ.

COLOUR (subs.):
     I A property of bodies:
     1 varṇaḥ, seeing that it changed c. in a golden vessel: kanakabhājane varṇāntaramupagatamupalabhya, Mu. ii.;
     2 rāgaḥ or raṅgaḥ (rare), c. of the cheek: kapolarāgaḥ, Ki.
     II A pigment:
     1 raṅgaḥ, of lasting c. sthiraraṅgaḥ (ṅgā ṅgaṃ);
     2 varṇaḥ -kaḥ (rare), from the vividness of the c. varṇakocchvāsāt, Sa. vi. Ph.: you know how to paint sin in the blackest c. s: *ghorakṛṣṇaraṅgaiḥ pātakaṃ citrayituṃ jānāsi.
     III Pretext q. v.: vyapadeśaḥ.
     IV In pl. a. flag, ensign: q. v.: dhvajaḥ.

COLOUR (v. t.):
     I Lit:
     1 rañjayati (c. of rañj);
     2 varṇayati (varṇ, c. 10.) (rare in this sense);
     3 citrayati (citr, c. 10.) (=to paint).
     II To palliate, pretend: q. v.

COLOUR (v. i.): Ph.: his face c. ed *tasya vadanamāraktaṃ babhūva or raktavarṇamāpede or bheje.

COLOURABLE: v. Plausible.

COLOURED (adj.): Ph.: red -c. raktavarṇaḥ (rṇā rṇaṃ); many -c. nānāvarṇaḥ (rṇā rṇaṃ) c. people. āphrikādideśīyakṛṣṇavarṇalokāḥ.

COLOURING (subs.):
     I Lit.: rañjanam.
     II Fig., of style: varṇanam: v. Ornament.

COLOURIST: citrakaraḥ (=painter: q. v.: not rañjakaḥ, which = dyer).

     1 avarṇaḥ (rṇā rṇaṃ);
     2 varṇahīnaḥ (nā naṃ).

COLOURMAN: raṅgavikrayī or raṅgavikretā (?).

     1 aśvaśāvaḥ (of a horse);
     2 gardabhaśāvaḥ (of an ass).

     I A pillar: q. v.: stambhaḥ.
     II Military: sūciḥ or sūcivyūhaḥ, should march in file or c.: daṇḍavyūhena sūcyā vā yāyāt, M.
     III Of a page: *dhārā.

COMB (subs.):
     I For hair:
     1 prasādhanī;
     2 kaṅkatikā.
     II For carding wool: *mārjanī (?).
     III Of a cock: cūḍā.
     IV Honeycomb: q. v. V. A valley: q. v.

COMB (v. t.): sammārjayati (mṛj, c. 10): v. To dress.

COMBAT (subs.): v. Battle, contest. Ph.: single-c. dvandvayuddham, close c.: niyuddham.

COMBAT (v. i.): v. To contend, struggle.

COMBAT (v. t.):
     I To fight with: q. v.
     II To oppose, resist: q. v.

     I Lit: yoddhṛ (f. ddhrī).
     II Fig.: virodhin (f. ).

COMBATIVE: yuyutsu (mfn.).

     1 saṃhatiḥ, to break their c.: tatsaṃsaṃhatibhedāya, Mu. II.; c. even of little things: alpānāmapi vastūnāṃ saṃhatiḥ, H.;
     2 samavāyaḥ, much more their c.: kimutasamavāyaḥ, K.: v. Union. Ph.: c. of letters: sandhiḥ, c. (in algebra) *samavāyaḥ.

     I Trans.: v. To join, unite.
     II Intrans.: expr. by the parts: saṃhataḥ (tā taṃ), samavetaḥ (tā taṃ), or militaḥ (tā taṃ), they c. d together to invade it: itamabhiyoktuṃ militā babhubuḥ.

     1 dāhyaḥ (hyā hyaṃ);
     2 dahanīyaḥ (yā yaṃ). Any c. material:
     1 dāhyam or dāhyapadārthaḥ;
     2 indhanam, R. xiii. 4.

     1 dāhaḥ;
     2 dahanam.

     1 āgacchati (gam, c. l), I am c. ing: ayamāgato'smi, Mr. ix.; does not c. (back) yet: nādyāpyagacchati, Mr. v.; will he c. here: kimayamatrāgamiṣyati, K.;
     2 eti (i, c. 2), c. c. my child: ehyehi vatsa, Vi. i.;
     3 āyāti (, c. 2), came to Yudhishthira: yudhiṣṭhiraṃ samāyayau, Ki. i. 1. Ph.: the summer season is c.: nidādhakālo'yamupāgataḥ, Ri. i. l.; the news of his father's death is c.: tasya pitṛmaraṇavārtā samāgatā. N. B. These verbs take an acc.

COME ABOUT: v. Pass, come to.

     I To go after, follow: q. v.: anugacchati (gam, c. l).
     II To come for: Ph.: he came after a book: *sa pustakārthamājagāma.

COME AGAIN: pratyāgacchati (gam, c. l): v. To come back, return.

     1 āgacchati;
     2 eti: v. To come.

COME AT: adhigacchati (gam, c. l): v. To reach, attain.

     I To depart: q. v.
     II To come off: q. v.

     1 pratyāgacchati;
     2 pratyāyāti (, c. 2);
     3 pratyāvartate (vṛt, c. 2).

COME BY: i. e. to gain, obtain, acquire: q. v.

     I To get down, descend: q. v. avatarati (tṝ, c. l).
     II To be handed down: Ph. the writings of Kālidāsa have c. to us: kālidāsakṛtaprabandhā asmatsakāśamāgatāḥ.

COME FORTH: nirgacchati (gam, c. l): v. To come out.

     I To enter: q. v.: praviśati (viś, c. 6):
     II To comply: q. v.
     III To become fashionable: v. Fashionable.

COME IN FOR: Ph.: they did not c. in for a share: *aṃśagrahaṇāya nājagmuḥ.

COME INTO: v. To agree, comply. Ph.: c. into vogue: pracalitaḥ (tā taṃ) bhavati (bhū, c. l); then they will c. into my power: vaśameṣyanti me tadā, H. i.

     I Lit.: upasarpati (sṛp, c. l): v. To approach.
     II Fig.: Ph.: nothing ancient or modern c. s near this achievement *etādṛśaṃ karma kadāpi na sampannam.

COME OF: i. e. to issue or produce from: q. v.

     I To come out of: niṣpatati (pat, c. l), fire came off his eye: akṣṇaḥ kṛśānuḥ kila niṣpapāta, Ku.:
     II To be carried through: nirgacchati.
     III To take place: q. v.: āpatati.

     I Lit.: nirgacchati;
     2 niṣkrāmati: v. To go out.
     II Of the teeth etc.:
     1 udgacchati nir-, (gam, c. l);
     2 udeti (i, c. 2);
     3 udbhinatti (bhid, c. 7), as no beard had c. out anubhdinnaśmaśrurājitayā, K. iii. To be published: nirgacchati or bahirgacchati: v. To publish.

     1 pratyudgacchati (gam, c. l), R. viii. 64.;
     2 pratyudeti (i, c. 2);
     2 pratyudyāti (, c. 2).

     I To pass over: Ph.: if they get an assailant like you, they will leave him and c. over to you: tvadṛśamabhiyoktāramāsādyai naṃ parityajya tvāmevāśrayante, Mu. iv.
     II Of feelings, etc. Ph.: a sudden chill came over him *sahasā tasya gātraṃ śītaṃ babhūva.

COME ROUND: Ph.: he will c. round to our opinion: sa svamataṃ parityajyāsmākaṃ mataṃ grahīṣyati or matāvalambanaṃ kariṣyati.

COME SHORT: nyūnībhavati (bhū, c. l): v. To Fall short.

     I Lit.: v. To come. N. B. With respect to persons sakāśaṃ should be used: I have c. to you here: tvatsakāśamihāgataḥ, M. p. Ph.: c. to memory smṛtibhāgacchati, A. r.; c. to one's ears: śrutipathamāyāti, Sa., śrutimāgacchati, N.; c. to pieces: khaṇḍakhaṇḍaṃ bhavati, let it never c. to pass: māsmabhūt, Ki.; c. to one's self: saṃjñāṃ labhate (labh, c. l) v. To recover; c. to life: ujjīvati (jīv, l); c. to an end: avasānaṃ gacchatiḥ v. To end; c. to an agreement: v. To agree.
     II To arrive at: q. v. III: To amount to: q. v.

     I Lit.: āpatati prā- sanni-, (pat, c. l), saw Keyuraka c. -ing up: āpatantaṃ keyūrakamadrākṣīt, K.
     II To spring, come out: q. v.: nirgacchati.

     I To arrive at:
     1 samupagacchati;
     2 samāgacchati;
     3 samāyāti:
     4 samupasarpati (sṛp, c. l).
     II Fig.: to equal: q. v.

COME UP WITH: v. To overtake.

COME UPON: ākrāmati (kram, c. l): v. To attach.

     I An actor: q. v.: naṭaḥ.
     II A writer: *harṣapradhānanāṭakalekhakaḥ, or racayitṛ (m.) or -kṛta,

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COMEDY: *harṣapradhānanāṭakaṃ (or less precisely) nāṭakam.

COMELINESS: v. Suitableness, symmetry, gracefulness.

     I Becoming: q. v.
     II Beautiful, handsome: q. v.: sudarśanaḥ (nā naṃ).

     1 dhūmaketuḥ, Ku. iii. 32.;
     2 ketuḥ, Vi.

     1 by comp. with dhamaketu-;
     2 by gen. of dhūmaketu.

COMFIT: v. Sweetmeat.

COMFORT (v. t.): āśvāsayati (c. of śvas): v. Console, cheer.

COMFORT (subs.):
     I Consolation, solace: q. v.: āśvāsaḥ.
     II Pleasure: sukham, enjoying every c. sarvasukhānyanumavantaḥ, K.

COMFORTABLE: are you c. here: apyatra bhavatyāḥ sukham? V. p.: v. Pleasant.

COMFORTABLY: sukha-, in comp., sleeping c.: sukhasuptaḥ (ptā ptaṃ), Mah.: v. Pleasantly, conveniently.

COMFORTER: āśvāsakaḥ or expr. by verb: v. To console.

COMFORTLESS; v. Uncomfortable.

     I Diverting, sportive: q. v.:
     1 hāsakaraḥ (rī raṃ);
     2 hāsajananaḥ (nī naṃ).
     II Relating to a comedy: is this drama c. *api nāṭakamidaṃ harṣapradhānam.

     I Subs: āgamaḥ -naṃ.
     II Adj.: āgāmin (f. ).

COMMA: *kamā; padavicchedakacihnaviśeṣaḥ.

COMMAND (v. t.):
     I To give a c.:
     1 ājñāpayati saṃ-, (c. of jñā) (with two acc.), c. (me) what you have to be done: ājñāpaya yatte karaṇīyamasti, Ku. iii. 3;
     2 ā-diśati ni-, (diś, c. 6): v. To order.
     II To be in c. of:
     1 adhitiṣṭhati (sthā, c. l), the forces c. ed by my father: tātādhiṣṭhitānāṃ balānām, Ve. iii.;
     2 adhyāste (ās, c. 2), Virūpāksha wanted to c. the heart of the city: virūpākṣaḥ purodaramavyāsisiṣāṃcakre, B. xiv. 16.
     III To govern, control: q. v.
     IV Of position; expr. by circum, the house c. s a beautiful view of the lake: *asmādgṛhātsaraḥ sundaramavalokayintuṃ śakyate.

COMMAND (subs.):
     I Order:
     1 ājñā, at Rāma's c. rāmājñayā, R.;
     2 ādeśa: or nideśaḥ, receiving their master's c.: bharturādeśaṃ samavāpya, Ki. vi. 43,;
     3 śāsanam (a stronger term), who would transgress your majesty's c.: kodevasya śāsanamullaṅghayiṣyati, Mu. iii.;
     4 niyogaḥ (=direction), by his father's c.: piturniyogāt, R. xiv. 43.
     II The power to c.: expr. by circum., putting himself in c. of his treasury and army: tatkoṣavāhanamātmādhiṣṭhitaṃ kṛtvā, D. viii.: v. To command (II); appoint (him) to the c. of the army: abhiṣicyatāṃ saināpatye, Ve.
     III Control, government: q. v.

COMMANDANT: v. Commander.

     I Lit.:
     1 ājñāpakaḥ, c. of all kings: sarvabhūtalabhujāmājñāpakaḥ, Mu. ii.;
     2 ādeṣṭṭa (m.).
     II Of an army:
     1 senānīḥ;
     2 senāpatiḥ;
     3 senādhyakṣaḥ
     III Of a vessel: potādhyakṣaḥ; potanāyakaḥ; and im. comp. s. Ph.: c. -in-chief: mahāsanāpatiḥ (used in ancient grants): v. Generalissimo.

COMMEMORATE: kīrtayati saṃ-, (kīrt, c. 10) (?): v. To celebrate.

COMMEMORATION: saṃkīrtanam (?): v. Celebration.

COMMEMORATIVE: smārakaḥ (kī kaṃ) (?).

     1 ārabhate (rabh, c. l);
     2 prakramate (kram, c. l): v. To begin.

     1 ārambhaḥ;
     2 prārambhaḥ: v. Beginning.

COMMEND (v. t.):
     I To entrust, deliver: q. v.: arpayati (c. of ).
     II To praise: q. v.: praśaṃsati (śaṃs, c. l).
     III To recommend: q. v.
     IV To present as worthy of regard: expr. by abhimataḥ (tā taṃ) or circum., what you say does not c. to me: tvadvaco nāminandāmi, Sa.

COMMENDABLE: śalādhyaḥ (dhthā ghyaṃ): v. Praiseworthy.

COMMENDABLY: v. Laudably.

     I Approbation, praise: q. v.
     II Recommendation: q. v.
     III Compliments: q. v.

     I Subs.: v. Praise.
     II Adj.: expr. by comp. Ph.: this is c.: arthavāda eṣaḥ, U.

COMMENSURABLE: sajātīyaḥ (yā yaṃ) (?).

     I Lit.: sajātīyaḥ (yā yaṃ) (?).
     II Proportional: q. v.

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     I To annotate: q. v.
     II To make remarks: anuyunakti (yuj, c. l) (?): v. Remark.

COMMENT (subs.):
     I In pl., observations, remarks: q. v.
     II Annotation, explanation: q. v.

     I Lit.:
     1 vyākhyā;
     2 vṛttiḥ, c. on Manu: manuvṛttiḥ, K. b.;
     3 ṭīkā, Rāmāyaṇa with its c.: saṭīkaṃ rāmāyaṇam;
     4 bhāṣyam (=c. on aphorisms).
     II Criticism: q. v. Ph.: c. s. of Caesar.: *kiṃśūravyākhyānam.

     1 vyākhyātṛ (m.);
     2 ṭīkākāraḥ;
     3 bhāṣyakāraḥ (c. of aphorisms).

COMMENTITIOUS: kālpanikaḥ (kī kaṃ): V. Fictitious.

     I Trade, traffic: vāṇijyam.
     II Intercourse: q. v.

     1 comp. with vāṇijya-;
     2 vāṇijyaviṣayakaḥ (kā kaṃ). C.-treaty *vāṇijyadravyāṇāmāgamanirgamaviṣayakaḥ sandhiḥ; a c. nation *vāṇijyaparāyaṇā jātiḥ.

COMMINATION: tarjanamḥ v. Threat, menace.

COMMINGLE: miśrayati saṃ-, (miśr, c. 10.): v. To mingle.

COMMINUTE: cūrṇayati (cūrṇ, c. 10.): v. To pulverize, grind.

COMMISERATE: dayate (day, c. l.): v. To pity.

     1 dayā;
     2 anukampāḥ v. Pity.

     I The department: *vīvadhadānavibhāgaḥ
     II Commissaryship: adhikāraḥ (?)

COMMISSARY: adhikṛtaḥ (?), c. of horse: *aśvādhikṛtaḥ.

     I Perpetration: q. v.: Ph.: c. of sin: pāpācaraṇam, K. b.; was caught in the c. of theft: cauryaṃ kurvan gṛhītaḥ.
     II Entrusting: arpaṇam sam-.
     III The business entrusted: niyogaḥ, attend to your c.: svaṃ niyogamaśūnyaṃ kuru, Sa.
     IV A number of persons joined in an office or trust: *parīkṣakāḥ (m. pl.). V. Allowance for transacting business: no equiv.: expr. by circum.
     VI In the army: padam (?).

COMMISSION (v.): niyuṃkte (yuj, c. 7.): v. To charge, empower.

     I In gen. sense: adhikṛtaḥ, a careless c.: adhikṛtaḥ pramādī, H.
     II Of a divi sion: pradeśapālaḥ.

COMMIT (v. t.):
     I To entrust: q. v.: arpayati, sam-, (c. of ), c. these (prisoners) to his care: tasmai samarpayaitān, P. Ph.: was c. ted to prison: bandhanamanīyata, D. ii.; to c. to the sessions: *adhiveśanavicārārtham arpayati; to c. to memory: kaṇṭhasthaṃ karoti; c. (this) to writing : abhilikhyatām, Mr. ix.
     II To perpetrate : karoti (kṛ, c. 8.), to c. crimes wilfully: kāmataḥ pāpāni karoti M.; one who c. s an offence : aparādhin (f. ).
     III To makS: q. v.

COMMITMENT: To the sessions: *adhiveśana- vicārārpaṇam. For other senses: v. To commit.


COMMODIOUS: v. Convenient, comfortable.

COMMODIOUSLY: v. Conveniently, comfort ably.

     I Convenience: q. v.
     II. Spaciousness: q. v.

COMMODITY: paṇyam, import and export of c. s paṇyānāmāgamanirgamau, M.

COMMON (adj.):
     I Belonging to more than one:
     1 sādhāraṇaḥ (ṇī ṇaṃ), c. property sādhāraṇadhanam, Da.; c. to many: bahusādhāraṇa (ṇī ṇaṃ), Da.;
     2 sāmānyaḥ (nyā nyaṃ), thi (gem) is c. to me and Balabhadra: etanma. balabhadrasya ca sāmānyam, V. p.
     II Usual, ordinary
     1 sādhāraṇaḥ (ṇī ṇaṃ), c. council: sādhāraṇasabhā c. crier: *sādhāraṇaghoṣakaḥ; c. noun: *sādhāraṇanāma (n.);
     2 sāmānyaḥ (nyā nyaṃ), "c. dame" sāmānyanāyikā, Sah.; c. weaver: sābhānyakaulika P. ii. 5.; c. word: sāmānyaśabdaḥ, N. d,; a c. man: sāmānyajanaḥ, Ra. v. (itaraḥ, V. p.). Ph. c. saying: janapravādaḥ, N.; c. gender: strīpuṃliṅgam c. law: deśācāraḥ; the c. people: laukikāḥ, T. or prakṛtayaḥ, R.; c. sense: vivekaḥ.

     1 sāmānyena or sāmānyataḥ, but the three gems were held in c.: kintu ratnatrayaṃ sābhānye sthitabh, Vet.;
     2 sādhāraṇyena, in c. with others *anyeṣāṃ sādhāraṇyena.

COMMON (subs.): sādhāraṇapracārabhūmiḥ, V. p. com.

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     I Adj.: sāmānyaḥ (nyā nyaṃ). C. book: *sāmānyasanniveśaḥ.
     II Subs.: sādhāraṇapravādaḥ.

COMMONAGE: sādhāraṇabhūmau pracārādhikāraḥ.

COMMONALTY: v. Commons. (I)

     I The mass of the people:
     1 prajāḥ (f. pl.);
     2 prakṛtayaḥ (f. pl.);
     3 lokāḥ (m. pl.). The House of C.: *prajāsabhā. A member of the H. of C.: *prajāsabhāsadasyaḥ or prajāsabhāsthaḥ.
     II Provisions, food: q. v.

     1 sādhāraṇyena;
     2 sāmānyataḥ: v. Usually.

COMMOMWEALH: sādhāraṇatantram (?).

COMMOTION: kṣobhaḥ: v. Agitation, tumult.

COMMUNE (v. i.): sambhāṣate (bhāṣa c. l.): v. To converse.

COMMUNE: (subs.): maṇḍalam (?).

     1 deyaḥ pra-, (yā yaṃ), (what can be given);
     2 kathanīyaḥ (yā yaṃ) (what can be spoken).

     I To impart, bestow: q. v.:
     1 dadāti (, c. 4.), to c. knowledge: vidyāṃ dātum, Ki.;
     2 vitarati (tṝ, c. l.), c. d. meditatian yogaṃ vitatāra, Ki.
     II To reveal: q. v.:
     1 kathayati (katha, c. 10.), c. (to us) the cause of your distemper: kathaya kiṃnimittaste'yaṃ santāpaḥ, Sa. iii.: v. To speak;
     2 ākhyāti (khyā, c. 2.), what cannot be c. d: anākhyeyaḥ (yā yaṃ), K.: v. To represent.
     III To share: q. v.

     I To share: q. v.
     II To converse: q. v.

     I The act of imparting:
     1 dānam;
     2 vitaraṇam.
     II Conversation: q. v.
     III Intercourse: q. v.
     IV News: q. v.: sandeśaḥ: v. Passage: q. v.

COMMUNICATIVE: v. Frank, affable.


     I Intercourse: q. v.: saṃsargaḥ.
     II The Lord's supper: *prabhorbhojanam.
     III A. body of Christians: samājaḥ.

     I Common possession: sāmānyam.
     II A society of people: samājaḥ.
     III The people in general: prajāḥ (f. pl.).

COMMUTABLE: expr. by ph.: v. To COMMUTE.

COMMUTATION: parivartanam: v. Change, exchange.

     I To exchange: q. v.
     II Of punishment: his sentence of death was c. d to banishment: *tasya prāṇadaṇḍamunmūlya nirvāsanabhādiṣṭam.

COMPACT (adj.):
     1 saṃhataḥ (tāṃ taṃ), su-;
     2 niviḍaḥ (ḍā ḍaṃ);
     3 sāndraḥ (ndrā ndraṃ): v. Dense.

COMPACT (v. t.): su-saṃhataḥ (tā taṃ) karoti.

COMPACT (subs.): saṃvid (f.): v. Contract, agreement.

COMPACTLY: expr. by adj.: v. Densely.

     I Density, solidity,: q. v.: saṃdhātaḥ
     II Of style: saṃkṣepaḥ.

     1 sahacaraḥ (f. ), in the hand of his c. spring: sahacaramadhuhaste, Ku.;
     2 sakhā (f. khī) (=boon c.), in the presence of her two c. s.: sakhyoḥ samakṣam, Ku.;
     3 sahacārin (f. ṇī), they were c. s from childhood and exceedingly fond of each other: tau bālyāt prabhṛti sahacāriṇau parasparamatīva snehaparau, P.: v. Also partner, attendant.

COMPANIONABLE: v. Affable, sociable.

     1 sāhacaryam, Ku.;
     2 sahacaratvam, M. n..

     I Companionship: q. v. To bear c.: v. To accompany. To keep c.: v. To associate.
     II An assemblage or association: q. v.:
     1 samājaḥ;
     2 dalam.
     III For trading purposes: *dalam.
     IV Of soldiers:
     1 gulbhaḥ;
     2 dalam (?). V. A ship's crew: q. v.

     1 tulyaḥ (lyā lyaṃ);
     2 sadṛśaḥ (śī śaṃ): v. Like.

     I Not positive: Ph.: c. levity to water: *jalāpekṣayā lāghavam; the c. advantages of this place: anyānyasthānāpekṣāyāsya sthānasya guṇāḥ.
     II In gram.: dvayorekasyātiśayadyotakaḥ (kā kaṃ).
     III Based on comprehensive comparison: c. anatomy: *viśvavyavacchedavidyāsāraḥ.

COMPARATIVELY: often not expr., c. taller: drādhīyasa (f. ), Ki. xi. 2.; c. lovelier: pūrvākārādhikatararuc, R. viii. 95.: v. Comparative (I.)

COMPARE (v. t.):
     I To examine: q. v.: ekatraparīkṣate (īkṣ, c. l.).
     II To liken q. v.:
     1 tulayati (tul, c. 10.), and it is c. d with the moon: tadapi ca śaśāṅkena tulitam, J.;
     2 upamimīte (, c. 3.), there is nothing to be c. d with you nor any thing with which you may be c. d: nopamānamasi nāpyupameyaḥ, Ki.

     1 tulanayā;
     2 aupamyena;
     3 better by comp. degree.

     1 tulā or tulanā, then there could be c. with her: asyāstataḥ syāttulanāpi nāma, N.;
     2 upabhā -naṃ, bore c. with trees: mahīruhāṇāmupamānaṃ dadhuḥ, Si.: v. Likeness. Standard of c.: upamānam, your body which was the standard of c. on account of its beauty: upamānamabhūtkaraṇaṃ yattava kāntimattayā, Ku. Subject of c.: upameyaḥ (yā yaṃ) of the standard and the subject of c. upamānopameyayoḥ, Kav.

     I Of an edifice:
     1 kakṣā;
     2 śālā; houses with numerous c. s: bhūriśālāni gṛhāṇi, Si.
     II A division:
     1 khaṇḍa (mn.);
     2 paricchedaḥ;
     3 vimāgaḥ.

COMPASS (subs.):
     I Circuit, extent: q. v.: parisaraḥ.
     II An instrument: diṅnirṇayayantram.

     I To encompass: q. v.
     II To attain: q. v.: adhigacchati.
     III To contrive: q. v.

     1 anukampā, c. for animals: bhūtānukampā, R.;
     2 anukrośaḥ (rare): v. Pity.

COMPASSION, TO HAVE or FEEL: anukampate (kamp, c. l.) (with acc.). v.: To pity.

COMPASSIONATE (adj.): karuṇārdraḥ (rdrā rdraṃ);
     2 sadayaḥ (yā yaṃ);
     3 kṛpālu (mfn.);
     4 dayālu (mfn.);
     5 sānukampaḥ (mpā mpaṃ);
     6 kāruṇikaḥ (kī kaṃ): v. Pitiful.

     1 sānukampam;
     2 sadayam;
     3 kṛpayā.

COMPATIBLE: susaṅgataḥ (tā taṃ): v. Suitable.

COMPATRIOT: svadeśīyasahayogin (m.) (?).

COMPEER: vayasyaḥ: v. Friend, companion.

     I To constrain: expr. by casual form with balāt or balena, should be c. led to reside: balād vāsayitavyaḥ, Vri.; to c. to do work: balādiṣṭaṃ karma kārayati, Viv.
     II To seize: balād gṛhṇāti (grah, c. 9.). C. led: sometime = must: q. v.

COMPELLABLE: expr. by future pass. part: c. to pay: balāddāpyaḥ (pyā pyaṃ); c. to do: balāt kāryaḥ (ryā ryaṃ).

COMPLELLATION: sambhāṣaṇam; ābhāṣaṇam.

COMPEND: v. Compendium.

COMPENDIOUS: saṃkṣiptaḥ (ptā ptaṃ): v. Brief, concise.

COMPENDIOUSLY: samāsenaḥ v. Briefly, concisely.

     1 sāraḥ, c. of political science: notisāraḥ;
     2 sārasaṃgrahaḥ, S. g.

     I To recompense: udayaṃ dadāti (, c. 3.), Viv.
     II To counterbalance, c. for: often expr. by dūrīkaroti (=distance.).

     1 udayaḥ;
     2 niṣkṛtiḥ (of a debt).

COMPETE: spardhate (spardh, c. l.), the accursed Rākshasa is c. ing with me: mayā saha spardhate rākṣasahatakaḥ, Mu.: v. To emulate, contend.

     1 sāmarthyam;
     2 śaktiḥ, according to one's c. śaktyapekṣam, N.: v. Ability, sufficiency.

     I Fit.: q. v.: yogyaḥ (gyā gyaṃ), c. minister: yogyasacivaḥ, Ra.; c. to give evidence: sākṣitvayogyaḥ (gyā gyaṃ), K. b.
     II Able: q. v.: samarthaḥ (rthā rthaṃ).
     III Belonging to: q. v.

COMPETENTLY: expr. by adj.: v. Sufficiently.

COMPETITION: spardhā (=emulation); pratiyogitā (=opposition); *sahārthitā.

COMPETITOR: pratispardhin (f. ); sahārthin (f. ) (?).

     I The act: saṅkalanam.
     II A compiled work: saṅkalitagranthaḥ.

COMPILE (v. t.): Ph.: a Sanskrit dictionary c. d by Tārānāth Bhaṭṭāchārya śrītārānāthamaṭṭācāryeṇa saṅkalitaṃ (kal c. l. and 10.) saṃskṛtābhidhānam; c. d. from the works of the elders: pūrveṣāṃ śāstrāṇyāloḍyopanyāsthat (asa, c. 4.), D. s.

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COMPILER: saṅkalayitṛ (f. trī) (when the meaning is clear); śāstrāntarebhyaḥ saṅkalayitṛ (f. trī).

     I Satisfaction: q. v.: prasādaḥ.
     II Civility: saujanyam.

COMPLACENT: prasannaḥ (nnā nnaṃ): v. Pleasing.

     1 expr. by the adj;
     2 prasannamanasā.

COMPLAIN: did not c. of her husband: bharturavarṇaṃ nāvadata, R.; c. ed all this in piteous language: kathayamāsa tatsarvaṃ khedātkaruṇabhāṣiṇī, V. p.; otherwise I will go and c. in the court: anyathā rājakulaṃ gatvā nivedayiṣyāmi, P.: To represent, lament, accuse.

     1 abhiyoktṛ (f. ktrī);
     2 arthin (f. );
     3 vādin (f. ).

     I In law: abhiyogaḥ
     II A discase: pīḍā.
     III In gen. sense:
     1 duḥkham (=distress);
     2 vilāpaḥ (= lamentation). Ph.: I have heard c. s against you: śruto mayā tavāpavādaḥ, P.

COMPLAISANCE: dākṣiṇyam, from c. towards (us) seeking your favour praṇayiṣu dākṣiṇyavaśāt, V.: v. Courtesy.

     I Of men:
     1 dakṣiṇaḥ (ṇā ṇaṃ);
     2 dākṣiṇyaparavaśaḥ (śā śaṃ), L.
     II Of acts: priyaḥ (yā yaṃ), conduct (of gentlemen) is c.: priyaprāyā vṛttiḥ, U.; with hundreds of c. language like these: ityādibhiḥ priyaśataiḥ, U.

COMPLAISANTLY: dākṣiṇyena or dākṣiṇyātiśayena: v. Courteously.

     I That which completes: pūrakaḥ (kā kaṃ).
     II An accessory: sahāyaḥ, Sah.

COMPLETE: (adj.):
     1 pūrṇaḥ (f. rṇā), pari- saṃ-, (=full), not c. by one: ekenāpūrṇaḥ (f. rṇā), R. iii. 33.;
     2 samāptaḥ (ptā ptaṃ) (=finished, concluded), one whose knowledge is c.: samāptavidyaḥ (dyā dyaṃ), R.

COMPLETE (v. t.):
     I To accomplish, finish:
     1 samāpayati pari-, (c. of āp) (best equi.), to bring Chandrāpida, who had c. d his knowledge of all arts: parisamāptasakalakalāvijñānaṃ candrāpīḍamānetum, K.;
     2 avasāyayati (c. of so), c. ing the injunction: vidhimavasāyya, R. v. 76;
     3 aśeṣayati (nomi.), c. ing what was to be done: kṛtyamaśeṣayitvā, Ku. vii. 29.
     II To make up: pūrayati pari- saṃ-, (pūr, c. 10.), he has c. d it now: tadasau samprati parya pūrayat, Si. xvi. 36.

     1 sampūrṇam (=fully);
     2 aśeṣataḥ and sim. comp. s (=without anything left), (their) wishes are c. fulfilled: niravaśeṣaṃ phalitā manorathāḥ, Ma. x.: v. Entirely.

     1 sampūrṇatā;
     2 paripūrṇatā;
     3 pūrṇatā.

     1 samāpanam (the act): v. Accomplishment;
     2 samāptiḥ (the state): v. End.

COMPLEX: viṣamaḥ (mā maṃ): v. Intricate.

     I Colour of the skin: varṇaḥ, of a dark c.: kṛṣṇavarṇaḥ (rṇā rṇaṃ). Ph.: their c. fell: sa vivarṇabhāvaṃ prapede, R. vi. 63.
     II Appearance: q. v.: ākāraḥ.
     III Temperament: q. v.

COMPLEXITY: vaiṣamyam: v. Intricacy.

     1 anukūlatā;
     2 anuvṛttiḥ;
     3 anuvidhāyitvam.

     I Pliant: q. v.
     II Obliging:
     1 anurodhin (f. );
     2 anuvidhāyin (f. );
     3 anuvṛttikuśalaḥ (lā laṃ).

     1 viṣamīkaroti;
     2 saṅkulīkaroti.

COMPLICATION: saṅkaṭam (?).

     1 sahāyitā;
     2 sahayogitā;
     3 sahakāritā.

COMPLIMENT (subs.): Perh: abhinandanavacaḥ, Parashurāma presents his c. s. to the king of Ceylon and states: paraśurāmo laṅkeśvaramabhinandha bravīti, Vi.

COMPLIMENT (v. t.): praśaṃsati (śaṃs, c. l.): v. To praise.

COMPLIMENTARY: abhinandakaḥ (kā kaṃ); abhinanda- in comp.

COMPLY (v.):
     1 anuvidhatte (dhā, c. 3.): v. To obey;
     2 anumanyate (man, c. 4): v. To assent;
     3 pūrayati (pūra, c. 10.): v. To satisfy.

COMPLYING (adj.): v. Compliant.

COMPONENT (subs.): sādhanam: v. Part, element.

     I To agree: q. v.
     II To behave: q. v.: vyavaharati (hṛ, c. l.).
     III To bear: q. v.

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COMPOSE (v. t.):
     I To constitute: q. v.
     II Of books etc.:
     1 racayati vi-, (rac, c. 10.), c. d this aphorism: idaṃ sūtraṃ racayāṃcakāra, Mis.; c. d by Bāṇabhaṭṭa: bāṇabhaṭṭaviracitaḥ (tā taṃ), K.;
     2 praṇayati (, c. l.), c. d the life of Rāma: radhupateḥ praṇināya vṛttam, Ki.;
     3 nibadhnāti (bandh, c. 9.), this tale is c. d by him: teneyaṃ kathā nibaddhā, K.;
     4 sampādayati (c. of pad), to c. a speech: bhāratiṃ sampādayati, Ki.;
     5 grathnāti (granth, c. 9.) (poet), Si.;
     6 vidadhāti (dhā, c. 3.) (rare), B.
     III To settle: q. v.
     IV To calm, appease: q. v.: sthirīkaroti, Śakuntalā should be c. d by you two: bhavatīmyāṃ sthirīkartavyā śakuntalā, Sa. iv. V. In printing: *vinyasyati (asa, c. 4.).

COMPOSED (adj.):
     I Calm: sthiraḥ (rā raṃ), don't cry, be c.: alaṃ ruditena sthirā bhava, Sa. iv.
     II C. of: v. Made of, consisting of.

     1 sthiram;
     2 śāntacittenaḥ v. Calmly.

COMPOSEDNESS: v. Composure.

     I Of books etc.:
     1 racayitṛ (f. trī), vi-;
     2 praṇetṛ (f. trī);
     3 nibandhṛ (f. ndhrī) (rare).
     II One who calms: śabhayitṛ (f. trī).

     I Of books etc.:
     1 racanā vi-;
     2 praṇayanam.
     II A book etc. composed: expr. by verb, this poem is Kālidās's c.: kāvyamidaṃ kālidāsena praṇītam: v. Work.
     III Combinatin: q. v.
     IV Adjustment of an obligation: Perh: nistāraḥ.

COMPOSITOR: *vinyāsakārin (f. ṇī);

     I Manure: q. v.
     II A mixture: q. v.

COMPOSURE: dhairyam, the son of Pāṇḍu, although enraged, maintained his c.: jahau na dhairyaṃ kupito'pi pāṇḍavaḥ, Ki.: v. Tranquillity.

     1 sahapānam;
     2 sampītiḥ.

COMPOUND (adj.): yaugikaḥ (kiṃ kaṃ), c. word: yaugikaśabdaḥ. Ph.: c. interest cakravṛddhiḥ, Viv.

COMPOUND (subs.):
     I A. c. substance: yaugikapadārthaḥ.
     II A c. word:
     1 yogikaśabdaḥ;
     2 samāsaḥ, determined the analysis of c. s: samāsayorvigrahaṃ vyavasasuḥ, Si.

COMPOUND (v. i.): v. To compromise.

COMPOUND (v. t.):
     I To make: q. v.: viracayati (rac, c. 10.), I will c. auspicious ointment: maṅgalasamālabhanaṃ viracayāmi, Sa.
     II To combine: q. v.
     III To settle: saṃdhatte (dhā, c. 3.) (?).

     I To comprise, include: q. v.
     II To understand, grasp mentally:
     1 gṛhvāti pari-, (grah, c. 9.), you have well c. ed my meaning: samyaggṛhītavānasi madāśayam, Mu. iii.;
     2 vetti (vid, c. 2.), who c. s your real nature: yāthārthyaṃ veda kastava, R.: v. To understand.

     1 grāhyaḥ (hyā hyaṃ), pari (rare), in easily c. discourse: sukhagrāhyanibandhanena, Ku. vii. 90.; not c.: durgrahaḥ (hā haṃ) M. n.;
     2 subodhaḥ (dhā dhaṃ) (=easily c.), M. n.; not c.: durbodhaḥ (dhā dhaṃ), Ku. i. 6.: v. Intelligible.

     I The act of comprehending:
     1 bodhaḥ, beyond c.: bodhātītaḥ (tā taṃ);
     2 anubhavaḥ
     II A summary: q. v.
     III Understanding: q. v. dhīḥ.

     1 vyāpin (f. ) (?);
     2 vistīrṇaḥ (rṇā rṇaṃ) (?).

     1 vyāpakatā (?) (as of definitions);
     2 vistīrṇatā (?) (=extensiveness).

COMPRESS (v. t.): saṃkṣipati (kṣipa, c. l.): v. To contact.

COMPRESSIBILITY: saṅkocaśīlatā.

COMPRESSIBLE: saṅkocaśīlaḥ (lā laṃ).

COMPRESSION: saṅkocaḥ -nam.

COMPRISE: parigṛhvāti (grah, c. 9.): v. To include, contain.

COMPRISED, BE: antarbhavati (bhū, c. l.), is c. in motion: gamane'ntarbhaviṣyati, Ta.: v. To include.

     I To compound: *āpoṣayati (puṣ, c. 10.).
     II To involve: saṃkrāmayati (c. of kram), will c. me in this misdeed: idamakāryaṃ mayi saṃkrāmayet, Mr.
     III To endanger: q. v.

COMPROMISE (subs.): *āpoṣaḥ.

COMPULSION: balam (=force), everything done under c.: sarvān balakṛtānarthān, N. To use c.: sampīḍayati (pīḍ, c. 10.), Viv.: v. To compel.

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     I Compelling: expr. by bala or balātkāraḥ, c. gift: balāddattam, M.
     II Obligatory: expr. by avaśyam.

COMPUNCTION: anuśayaḥ: v. Repentance.

     1 gaṇyaḥ or gaṇanīyaḥ (yā yaṃ), not c.: agaṇya: (f. ṇyā);
     2 saṃkhyeyaḥ (yā yaṃ).

COMPUTATION: gaṇanā: v. Reckoning, calculation.

COMPUTE (v.): gaṇayati (gaṇ, c. 10.): v. Count, reckon.

COMRADE: sahacaraḥ (rī raṃ): v. Companion.

CONCATENATE: anubadhnāti (bandh, c. 9.): v. To connect.

     1 paramparā;
     2 anubandhaḥ.

CONCAVE: *puṭākāraḥ (rā raṃ); madhyanimnaḥ (mnā mnaṃ).

CONCAVITY: *puṭākāratā or puṭākṛtiḥ; madhyanimnatā.

CONCEAL (v. t.):
     1 gūhati -te (gūh, c. l.), to c. your good fortune: ātmano saumāgyaṃ nigūhitum, V. ii.; I climbed up a tamarind tree and lay c. ed: ciñcāvṛkṣamāruhya gūḍhatanuratiṣṭham, D. iv.;
     2 gopayati (gup, c. 10.), if it is not a subject to be c. ed: na cedgopyamasti, D. iv.;
     3 pracchādayati (c. of chad), and those who c. it (stolen property): ye ca pracchādayanti tān, Kat.: v. To cover;
     4 nihvute (hnu, c. 2.) (=to keep back the truth), desirous of c. ing from the mistress: devyā nihnotumicchuḥ, Mu.;
     5 līyate (, c. 4.) (=to lie c. ed), have now c. ed yourself in the mire: paṅke'dhunā līyase, Ve.

     1 gūhakaḥ ni-;
     2 goptṛ saṃ-, (m.), buyer, receiver, and c. of stolen property: coritadravyāṇāṃ krotā grahītā saṃgoptā ca, Viv.

     1 gopanam saṃ-;
     2 gūhanam ni-;
     3 pracchādanam;
     4 nihnavaḥ apahnu tiḥ (of facts). In c.: guptam: v. Privately.

     I To allow: q. v.: anumanyate (man, c. 4.).
     II To suffer to pass: kṣamate (kṣam, c. l.): v. To admit.

     I Conception: q. v.
     II Freak, fancy: q. v.
     III Self -c.: abhimānam: v. Vanity.
     IV Opinion: q. v.: Ph.: to put any one out of c. with: virañjayati (rañj, c. 10.).

CONCEITED: abhimānin (f. ): v. Vain, proud.

     1 sābhimānam;
     2 sāhaṅkāram;
     3 sāṭopam.

CONCEITEDNESS: abhimānitā: v. Vanity.

CONCEIVABLE: bhāvyaḥ (vyā vyaṃ) or bhāvanīyaḥ (yā yaṃ), vi- fortitude whose power is not c.: dhairyamabibhāvyavaibhavam, Ki.: v. Comprehensible.

     I To c. a child: garbhaṃ dadhāti or dhatte (dhā, c. 3.) or dhārayati or dharati (dhṛ, c. 10. and 1.), to c. by him: tasmādgarbhaṃ dadhāti (after R.). Ph.: and the Queen of Benares c. d a daughter: kāśirājasya patnyāśca garbhe kanyā āsīt, V. p.: v. Pregnant.
     II To form in the mind: bhāvayati vi-, (c. of bhū), c. ing the frailty of every substance: bhāvayitvānityatāṃ sarvabhāvānāṃ, K.: v. Think, desire.
     III To imagine: q. v.: sambhāvayati (c. of bhū), who would c. that king Chandragupta would sell ornaments: maurye bhūṣaṇāvikrayaṃ narapatau ko nāma sambhāvayet, Mu.

     I To bring together: samāharati (hṛ, c. l.).
     II Of the mind expr. by adj.: ekāgracittaḥ (ttā ttaṃ), ananyamanaskaḥ (skā skaṃ), etc.

     I Bringing together: samāhāraḥ
     II Of the mind:
     1 ekāgratā;
     2 ananyamanaskatā.

     I The act of conceiving (offspring):
     1 garbhādhānam;
     2 garbhadhāraṇam.
     II Formation in the mind: bhāvanā vi-.: v. Imagination.
     III The faculty of c.: dhīḥ. v. Understanding.
     IV Notion, idea: q. v.

CONCERN (subs.):
     I Affairs, business: q. v.: vyāpāraḥ
     II Care, anxiety: q. v.: cintā. Ph.: with much c.: sodvegam, Mu.
     III A firm: sampradāyaḥ (?)

     I To affect the interest of: Ph.: this c. s you: bhavatastāvadayaṃ vyāpāraḥ, H.
     II To make interested in: expr. by verbs: cintayati: (cint, c. 10.) (=to think) or avekṣate (īkṣ, c. 10.) (=to look after).
     III To make uneasy: expr. by adj. s: udvignaḥ (gnā gnaṃ), utsukaḥ (kā kaṃ) or vyagraḥ (grā graṃ).

CONCERNING (prep.): viṣayaḥ (yā yaṃ).: v. About (III).

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CONCERT (v.): mantrayati (mantra, c. 10.), well c. ed measures succeed: sivyanti kāryāṇi sumantritāni, B.: v. To devise, plan.

CONCERT (subs.):
     I Agreement: q. v.: aikyam.
     II Harmony: q. v.
     III A musical entertainment: saṅgītam.

     I The act of conceding:
     1 anumodanam;
     2 anumatiḥ.
     II A boon: q. v.

     I A shell: śaṅtaḥ.
     II A Bahamite: *śaṅghaḥ; bāhamavāsin (f. ).

     1 anurañjayati (rañj, c. 10.);
     2 prasādayati (c. of sad).

     1 anurañjanam;
     2 prasādanam.

     1 anurañjakaḥ (kā kaṃ);
     2 prāsādanaḥ (nā. naṃ).

     I As applied to language:
     1 saṃkṣiptaḥ (ptā ptaṃ), Si. ii. 24.;
     2 laghuḥ (f. ghvī) (=terse), Si. ii. 23.
     II As applied to writers etc. expr. by the above: he is a very c. writer: tasya bhāṣātisaṃkṣiptā.

     1 saṃkṣepataḥ: v. Briefly;
     2 salāghavam v. Tersely.

     1 saṃkṣiptatā;
     2 lāghavam, Ki. xi. 38.

     I A private assembly: gūḍhasabhā.
     II Of cardinals: *romakadharmaniyantṝṇāṃ sabhā.

     I To shut up: q. v.
     II To include: q. v.
     III To infer, guess q. v.: bhāvayati (c. of bhū).
     IV To finish: q. v.: samāpayati (c. of āp). Ph.: when he c. d: vacasyavasite tasmin, Ku. ii. 53; to c. a treaty: sandhiṃ karoti or vidadhāti (dhā, c. 3.), H. V. To decide: q. v.: avadhārayati (dhṛ, c. 10.), K.

     I End: q. v.:
     1 samāptiḥ, c. of a song: gītasamāptiḥ, K.;
     2 avasānam, at the c. of Sunandā's speech: sunandāvacanāvasāne, R.
     II Decision, determination: q. v.:
     1 avadhāraṇā;
     2 nirṇayaḥ, come to a c.: nirṇayam āsīdati, N.
     III Inference: q. v.: anubhavaḥ, K.
     IV Logical c.:
     1 nigamanam, N. d.;
     2 nirṇayaḥ, N. d.

CONCLUSIVE: akhaṇḍyaḥ (ṇḍyā ṇḍyaṃ) (=irrefutable: q. v.).

     1 expr. by adj.;
     2 niścayena (=certainly).

CONCLUSIVENESS: akhaṇḍatā or akhaṇḍanīyatā (=irrefutableness).

     I To digest: q. v.
     II To ripen: q. v.
     III To devise, contrive, plot: q. v.

     I Digestion: q. v.
     II Contrivance: q. v.

CONCOCTIVE: pācanaḥ (nī naṃ): v. Digestive.

CONCOMITANCE: saṅgaḥ (with gen.); often expr. by sim. saha (=with).

     1 ānuṣaṅgikaḥ (kī kaṃ);
     2 sahavartin (f. ).

     I Union: q. v.: aikyam.
     II Compact: q. v.
     III In gram:
     1 anvayaḥ sam-;
     2 yojanā, remote c.: vyavahitayojanā, Da.
     IV Harmony: q. v.: aikyam.

     I Agreement: q. v.
     II A glossary: nirghaṇṭaḥ.

     I A crowd: q. v.: janasamūhaḥ.
     II A collection: samavāyaḥ.

     1 saṃhatiḥ;
     2 saṅghātaḥ, hard by c.: saṅghātakaṭhinaḥ (nā naṃ), Ku.

CONCRETE (adj.):
     I United in growth:
     1 saṃhataḥ (tā taṃ);
     2 saṅghātavat (f. ).
     II Not abstract: Perh. sthūlaḥ (lā laṃ).

CONCRETE (subs.): saṃhatapadārthaḥ.

CONCUBINAGE: vinā vivāhena sahavāsaḥ.

CONCUBINE: upapatnī.

CONCUPISCENCE: kāmaḥ: v. Lust.

CONCUPISCENT: kāmukaḥ (kā kaṃ): v. Lustful.

     I To agree: q. v.: abhyupagacchati (gam, c. l.).
     II To assent: anumanyate (man, c. 4.).

     I Union: q. v.
     II Agreement, consent: q. v.: sammatiḥ Ph.: without the c. of (my) mother: ananumoditā mātrā, K.

     I Concomitant: q. v.
     II Equal: q. v.: samānaḥ (nā naṃ).

     1 samameva, Ku. iv. 22.;
     2 sahaiva, Ki. xiv. 56.

CONCUSSION: saṃkṣomaḥ: v. Agitation, shock.

CONDEMN (v. t.):
     I To censure: q. v.: nindati (nind, c. l.)
     II To pass sentence: daṇḍayati (daṇḍ, c. 10.) or daṇḍaṃ karoti or daṇḍam ājñāpayati (c. of jñā) Mu. Ph.: c. to death: vadham ādiśati (diś, c. 6.), P.

     1 daṇḍārhaḥ (rhā rhaṃ) (=deserving of punishment);
     2 nindyaḥ (ndyā ndyaṃ) (=censurable).

     I Censure: q. v.: upālambhaḥ.
     II Judicial c.: aparādhanirṇayaḥ, and sim. comp. s;
     2 daṇḍapraṇayanam (=passing sentence).

CONDEMNATORY: aparādhavādin (f. ) (?).

CONDEMNER: aparādhavādin (f. ) (?): v. Censurer. punisher.

     I The act: saṃhananam (?).
     II The state: saṃhatiḥ.
     III Of stile: Perh: samāhāraḥ.

     I Trans.: saṃhanti (han, c. 2).
     II Intrans.: saṃhataḥ (tā taṃ) bhavati (bhū, c. l.).

CONDENSER: saṃhatiyantram.

CONDESCEND: prasīdati (sad, c. l.) (=be pleased), c. to amuse yourself in the southern regions: prasīda rantuṃ malayasthalīṣu, R. vi. 64.: v. To yield, vouchsafe.

CONDESCENDING: dakṣiṇaḥ (ṇā,) (=complaisant): v. Courteous.

CONDESCENDINGLY: prasannaḥ (nnā nnaṃ) bhūtvā; dākṣiṇyena.

     1 dākṣiṇyam (=complaisance);
     2 prasādaḥ (=favour).

CONDIGN: yathārhaḥ (rhā rhaṃ): v. Suitable; to deserve.

CONDIGNNESS: yathārhatāḥ v. Fitness.

CONDIMENT: upaskaraḥ.

     I State, predicament:
     1 daśā, very bad c. of the tanks: dīrghikāṇāṃ sudurdaśā, Ku.; that (body) is reduced to this c.: tadidaṃ gatamīdṛśīṃ daśām, Ku. iv. 5.;
     2 avasthā, in all c. s: sarvāvasthāsu, Me. ii. 47.
     II Stipulation:
     1 samayaḥ;
     2 abhisandhiḥ. I will give it back on one c.; ekenābhisandhinā pratyarpayāmi, Sa.
     III Quality, property: q. v.

     I Lit:
     1 samayayuktaḥ (ktā ktaṃ);
     2 sābhisandhi (mfn.).
     II In gram.: vikalpasūcakaḥ (kā kaṃ).

     1 samayapūrvakam,
     2 sābhisandhi.

     1 śocati (śuc, c. l.): v. To grieve.

CONDOLENCE: samaduḥkhatā: v. Also grief.

CONDONATION: kṣamā: v. Forgiveness.

CONDONE: kṣamate (kṣam, c. l.): v. To forgive.

     1 vardhayati (c. of vṛdh) (=to increase)
     2 ābahati (vah, c. l.) (=to bring about);
     3 janayati (c. of jan) (=to produce).

     1 āvahaḥ (hā haṃ) in comp., c. to sorrow: śokāvahaḥ (hā haṃ);
     2 karaḥ (rī raṃ) in comp. (=producing), c. to good: hitakara (rī raṃ).

CONDUCT (subs.):
     I The act of leading: expr. by verb.
     II Management, guidance: q. v.
     III Skilful guidance: kauśalam.
     IV One who c. s.: expr. by verb. V. Behaviour:
     1 vyavahāraḥ;
     2 vṛttiḥ or vṛttam, by your c.: tava vṛttena, R.:
     3 ceṣṭā or ceṣṭitam, his brother's c.: bhrātṛceṣṭitam, P.

CONDUCT (v. t.):
     I To lead:
     1 nayati (, c. l.), c. (me) to my residence in a new cloud: naya māṃ navena vasatiṃ payomucā, V.;
     2 prāpayati (c. of āp), to conduct mistresses to the residence of their lovers: kāmināṃ vasatiṃ priyāḥ prāpayitum, Ku. iv. II.;
     3 anugacchati (gam, c. l.) to accompany Mr.
     II To direct, control: q. v.
     III To manage: q. v.: nirvāhayati (c. of vah).
     IV To behave: q. v.:
     1 ācarati (car, c. l.);
     2 vyavaharati (hṛ, c. l.).

     I A leader, guide: q. v.: nāyakaḥ
     II Of heat, etc.: *pravāhakaḥ.

CONDUIT: praṇālī: v. Canal, pipe.

     I A solid: śaṅkuḥ (?); sūcighanakṣetram, K. d.
     II A cone-shaped fruit: *śaṅkuḥ.

CONEY or CONY: śaśakaḥ (?).

CONFABULATE: saṃkathayati (kath, c. 10.): v. To converse.

CONFABULATION: saṃkathā: v. Conversation.

CONFECTION: *śarkarāphalādi (comp. śarkarodakam, Bha.).

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     1 āpūpikaḥ;
     2 piṣṭakājīvaḥ;
     3 miṣṭakāraḥ.

     1 miṣṭam (=sweetmeat);
     2 piṣṭakaḥ (=cake).

     I A league: sandhiḥ.
     II The states bound by a league: sandhibaddharāṣṭrāṇi (n. pl.) (?).

     I Adj.: sandhibaddhaḥ (ddhā ddhaṃ); saṃhataḥ (tā taṃ) (=combined).
     II Subs.; mitram (=ally).

CONFEDERATION: v. Confederacy.

CONFER (v. t.):
     1 saṃvadati (vad, c. l.): v. To converse;
     2 mantrayati (mantr, c. l.): v. To consult.

CONFER (v. t.); vitarati (tṝ, c. l.), to c. knowledge: vidyāṃ vitarati, U.: v. To give. C. a favour: anugṛhvāti (grah, c. 9.): v. To favour.

CONFERENCE: saṃvādaḥ, Mah.: v. Conversation.

     I To acknowlege: q. v.:
     1 svīkaroti;
     2 pratipadyate (pad, c. 4.), and he himself c. ed it: svayaṃ ca pratipannaḥ, Mr. x.
     II To disclose, reveal: q. v.: prakāśayati (c. of kāś).

CONFESSEDLY: asaṃśayam (=undoubtedly): v. Avowedly, undisputably.

     1 svīkāraḥ;
     2 pratipattiḥ: v. Acknowledgment.

CONFESSIONAL: *svīkāraśravaṇāsanam, and sim. comp. s.

     I A priest who hears confessions: *svīkāraśrotṛ (m.).
     II One who confesses:
     1 svīkartṛ (m.);
     2 abhyupagantṛ (m.).

CONFIDANT: viśvāsabhūmiḥ viśrambhabhūmiḥ, and sim. comp. s: c. in one's all private affairs: sarvaviśrambhabhūmiḥ, K.

CONFIDE (v. i.): viśvasiti (śvas, c. 2.): v. Rely.

CONFIDE (v. t.): nyasyati (as, c. 4.): v. To entrust.

     I Reliance:
     1 viśvāsaḥ to give the birds c.: viśvāsāya vihaṅgānām, R. i. 51.; raising c.: viśvāsapradaḥ (dā daṃ), B. vi. 89.;
     2 viśrambhaḥ, an object of c. viśrambhasthānam, K. Ph.: had so much c. in her: tathā tasyāṃ viśaśvasuḥ, Ku. V. 15.: viśrambhaṃ jagmuḥ, M. n.; to inspire with c.: viśvāsayati (c. of śvas). H.; to do evil to one who has put c.: viśrabdhe pāpamācarati, H.; order me with c. what is to be done: viśrabdhamādiśyatāṃ kartavyam, K.
     II Self-c.: prāgalbhyam or pragalbhatā, Ki. xvi. 27.

     I Having confidence: viśvāsin (f. ).
     II Bold, impudent: q. v.: pragalbhaḥ (lbhā lbhaṃ). To be c. of: niścitaḥ (tā taṃ) manyate, is c. of victory: jayaṃ niścitaṃ manyate: v. Certain.

     I Enjoying confidence:
     1 viśvasta (f. stā);
     2 viśrabdha (f. bdhā);
     3 āpta (f. ptā), with some c. princes: katipayāptarājaputraparivṛtaḥ, K.
     II Private, secret: Ph.: c. talk: viśrambhālāpaḥ, H.; in all c. matters: sarvaviśrambheṣu, K.

     1 viśvastam;
     2 viśrabdham, K.: v. Privately.

     I Boldly, firmly: q. v.: pragalbham.
     II Confidentially: q. v.

     1 viśvāsabhāj (mfn.);
     2 viśvāsabhuj (mfn.), N.; and sim. comp. s.

CONFIGURATION: ākāraḥ: v. Figure.

CONFINE (subs.): sīmā: v. Boundary. On the c s of: paryantasthaḥ (sthā sthaṃ).

CONFINE (v. l.): v. To border.

CONFINE (v. t.):
     1 ruṇaddhi ava- ni-, (rudh, c. 7.), should be c. d in the Fail: cārake niroddhavyā, D. i.;
     2 saṃyacchati (yam, c. l.) (=to c. tightly), c. d in irons: nigaḍasaṃyataḥ (tā taṃ), Ra.; should c. her in the house: saṃyatāṃ vāsāyedgṛham, M.;
     3 badhnāti (bandh, c. 9.) (=saṃyacchati). Ph.: c. ed themselves to the boundaries of their divisions: pravibhāgasīmāṃ na vyatīyuḥ, R.: v. To transgress; to be c. d (i. e. in child-bed): āsannaprasavā, P.

     I Restraint: q. v.
     II Imprisonment:
     1 nirodhaḥ -nam ava-;
     2 bandhanam (c. by tying), putting in c.: bandhane kṣiptvā, D. i.
     III In childbirth: prasavāvasthā (?).

     I To make firm: draḍhayati (nomi.) or dṛḍhīkaroti, to c. it still more: dṛḍhatarīkartam: v. To establish.
     II To ratify: q. v.
     III To c. Christians: *pratipādayati (c. of pad).

     I Establishment: q. v.: dṛḍhīkaraṇam.
     II Ratification: q. v.
     III Of Christians: *pratipādanam.

CONFIRMATORY: i. e. serving to confirm: expr. by verb.

     1 dṛḍhaḥ (ḍhā ḍhaṃ): v. Firm;
     2 sthiraḥ (rā raṃ): v. Constant.

CONFISCATE: Ph.: the king should c. their property: niḥsvān kārayennṛ paḥ; the whole property should be c. d: sarvasvahāramarhanti, M. ix. 231. and 242.

CONFISCATION: sarvasvaharaṇam. and sim. comp. s.

CONFLAGRATION: dāhaḥ, c. of Tripura: tripuradāhaḥ, Ki.: v. Burning. C. in a forest: dāvānalaḥ, Ki.

CONFLICT (subs.):
     I Contest: q. v.: virodhaḥ.
     II Opposition:
     1 virodhaḥ, c. of two Smritis: smṛtyorvirodhaḥ, Y.;
     1 vipratiṣedhaḥ, c. of the two duties: dvayoḥ kāryayorvipratiṣedhaḥ, Si. ii. 6.

CONFLICT (v.): v. To contend, clash. C. ing: viruddhaḥ (ddhā ddhaṃ).

     I Of rivers:
     1 saṅgamaḥ;
     2 sambhedaḥ, this is the c. of the two great rivers: ayamasau mahānadyoḥ sambhedaḥ, Ma. iv.;
     3 toyavyatikaraḥ (poet), R. viii. 95.
     II Concourse: q. v.

CONFLUENT: sahavāhin (f. ) (?).

     I Trans: v. To accommodate, suit.
     II Intrans.: v. To comply, obey.

     I Suitable, like: anurūpaḥ (pā paṃ).
     II Compliant: anuvidhāyin (f. ).

CONFORMABLY: anusāreṇa: v. Accordance with, in.

     I Agreement: q. v.
     II Form: q. v.: ākāraḥ.

CONFORMITY: v. Agreement. In c. with: v. Accordace with, in.

     I To mix and confuse: expr. by manyate (man, c. 4), c. s ignorance of distinction as impartiality: aviśeṣajñatāpakṣapātitvamiti manyate, Ph.: c. ing, (lit. coupling) truth and falsehood: satyānṛte mithunīkṛtya, S.
     II To perplex: q. v.: ākulīkaroti (kṛ, c. 8.). Ph.: being c. ed: sasambhramam, V. III. To ruin: q. v.: ucchinati (chid, c. 7).

CONFOUNDEDLY: atyantama: v. Exceedingly.

CONFRATERNITY: v. Fraternity.

     I Lit.:
     1 sammukhayati or abhimukhayati (nomi.), to c. the Lord: īśamabhimukhayitum, Ki.;
     2 sammukhīkaroti or abhimukhīkaroti, M. n.
     II To oppose: q. v.

     I To mix wrongly: saṅkirati (ka, c. 6): v. To mix.
     II To perplex: q. v.: ākulīkaroti.

     I With bewilderment: sasambhramam.
     II Without order: kramaṃ vihāya.

     I Irregular mixture: saṅkaraḥ, c. of castes: varṇasaṅkaraḥ, Kal.
     II Tumult, disorder: viplavaḥ, when the duties prescribed by the Vedas and Smritis will be in a state of great c.: śrautasmārtadharme viplavamatyantamupagate, V. p. Ph.: in the c. (i. e. in the crowd): saṅkule, D.
     III Bewilderment:
     1 sambhramaḥ;
     2 vailakṣyam (from shame), Ra.
     IV Ruin, defeat: q. v.

CONFUTATION: khaṇḍanam: v. Refutation.

     1 khaṇḍayati (khaṇḍ, c. 10.): v. To refute;
     2 uttaraṃ harati (hṛ, c. l.), Ki., or niruttarīkaroti, M. n. (=to put to silence).

CONGEAL (v.): Trans.: ghanīkaroti (kṛ, c. 8.)
     II Intrans.: dhanīmavati (bhū, c. l.), c. ed snow; ghanībhūto himaḥ, M. n.

CONGENER: sajātīyaḥ (yā yaṃ).

     I Kindred: ekaprakṛti (mfn.) (?).
     II Suitable: q. v.: anurūpaḥ (pā paṃ).

CONGENIALITY: ekaprakṛtitvam (?).

CONGENITAL: sahajaḥ (jā jaṃ); expr. by janman (n.), c. blindness: janmāndhatā.

CONGER: The sea-eel: samudrakuñcikā (?).

CONGERIES: rāśiḥ: v. Heap.

CONGESTION: *raktasaṃgrahaḥ; śoṇitasamāhāraḥ.

CONGLOBATE, -D: piṇḍībhūtaḥ (tā taṃ).

CONGLOMERATE (v. t.): stūpīkaroti

CONGLOMERATE (subs.): stūpaḥ: v. Mass.

CONGLUTINATE: v. To cement, glue.

CONGLUTINATION: sandhiḥ: v. Union.

CONGRATULATE: abhinandati (nand, c. l.), c. d. by the nuns: tāpasībhirabhinandyamānā, Sa. N. B. Often expr. by diṣṭayā (lit. by luck), I c. you on having such a boy as the gentle Rāma: diṣṭayā vardhase yadīdṛśaste vatso rāmabhadraḥ, Vi.; we should c. ourselves that the king has returned to the city: diṣṭayā rājā pratinivṛtto nagaram, V.

CONGRATULATION: abhinandanam (?). To offer c.: v. To congratulate.

CONGRATULATORY abhinandakaḥ (kā kaṃ) (?).

     I Intrans: samāgacchati (gam, c. l.): v. To assemble.
     II Trans: samāharati (hṛ, c. l.): v. To collect.

     I Collection: T. v.: samāhāraḥ.
     II An assembly: v.: samājaḥ.

CONGREGATIONAL: sāmājikaḥ (kī kaṃ) (?).

CONGRESS: mahāsabhā.

CONGRUITY: saṅgatatā. C. (of a sentence): ākāṅkṣā, Ki.

CONGRUOUS: saṅgataḥ (tā taṃ).

CONIC, -AL: *śaṅkvākāraḥ (rā raṃ). C. section: śaṅkukhaṇḍaḥ.

     1 vaitarkikaḥ (kī kaṃ) (rare): ānumānikaḥ (kī kaṃ).

     1 vitarkaḥ, your c. is right: upapannaste vitarkaḥ;
     2 ūhaḥ or ūhā (=guess);
     3 śaṅkā (=apprehension);
     4 anumānam (= inference).

     1 tarkayati vi- (tak, c. 10) which do you c. (to be Śakuntalā): tvaṃ tāvatkatamāṃ tarkayasi, Sa. vi.;
     2 ūhate (ūh, c. 1), c. d that they were devoid of hostile feelings: auhiṣṭa tān vītaviruddhabuddhīn, B. iii. 48.

CONJOIN: saṃyojayati (yuj, c. 10): v. To join.

CONJOINT: saṃhataḥ (tā taṃ): v. Unitedly.

     1 expr. by adj., but c.: saṃhatāstu, H.;
     2 sambhūya, all c.: sarve sambhūya, Mat: v. Together.

CONJUGAL: Ph.: c. love: dampatyoḥ prema; transgression of c. duties: dampatyoḥ parasparaṃ dharmavyatikramaḥ, K. b.; c. fidelity: avyamicāraḥ, K. b.: v. Chastity.

     1 dāmpatyam;
     2 saṃyogaḥ (= union).

CONJUGATE (v): Ph.: c. bhū in the liṭ. bhūdhātorliṭrūpāṇi (n. pl.) brūhi vada, etc.: v. To say.

     I The act: dhāturūpākhyānam.
     II A class of verbs: gaṇaḥ.
     III A scheme: dhāturūpādarśaḥ.

     I Union: q. v.
     II In gram.: samuccayārthakamavyayam.
     III In astro.: yogaḥ saṃ-, Planetary c.: grahayoryogaḥ, Su.

     I Connection: q. v.
     II Occasion: avasaraḥ.

     I An entreaty: q. v.
     II Enchantment: q. v.: indrajālam, to practise c. indrajālamācarati, K.
     III Magic: q. v.

CONJURE (v. t.):
     I To adjure, implore: q. v.
     II To enchant: mohayati (c. of muh), c. ing the king af Mālava by my c. ing art: indrajālavidyayā mālavendra mohayan, D. C. up: utthāpayati (c. of sthā).

CONJURER: indrajālikaḥ or aindrajālikaḥ Ra.

CONNECT: sambadhnāti abhi-, (rare) (bandh, c. 9.), it is not an iota c. ed with its faults or merits: tatkṛtena doṣeṇa guṇena vā'ṇumātre ṇāpi sa na sabhbadhyate, S.; c. ed with each other: itaretarābhisambaddhaḥ (ddhā ddhaṃ), N. d.: v. To unite.

     1 sasambandham;
     2 saṅgatam (consistently).

     1 sabhbandhaḥ (best equiv.), an enviable c.: ślādhyasambandhaḥ, R.; the c. between the families of Fanaka and Raghu janakānāñca raghūṇāñca sambandhaḥ, Vi.;
     2 samparkaḥ, to disallow c.: samparkam nānujānāti, Mal.;
     3 saṅgaḥ (=being together), with your c.: saṅgena vaḥ, Ku.: v. Association;
     4 prabandhaḥ (=connectedness, as of a discourse), Ki.;
     5 saṅgamaḥ (sp. sexual c.).

CONNECTIVE: sambandhin (f. ), Da.

CONNIVANCE: upekṣā (?).

CONNIVE AT: upekṣate (īkṣ, c. l.) (?).

     1 guṇajñaḥ;
     2 abhijñaḥ.

CONNUBIAL: v. Conjugal, nuptial.

     1 jayati (ji, c. l.), to c. Persia: pārasikān jetum, R. iv. 60; one who has c. ed his passions: jitendriyaḥ, Ku.;
     2 vijayate (ji, c. l.), c. ed him in battle: yudhi taṃ vijigye, Vi.;
     3 nirjayati avajayati (rare), one who has c. ed the world: avajitabhuvanaḥ, Ki.: v. To subdue, subjugate, surmount.

     1 jetrī;
     2 vijetrī.

CONQUERING (adj.): jayin vijayin (f. ), c. power: vijayivīryam, Vi.

     1 jetṛ vi-, (rarely ava-,) (m.), c. of the (three) worlds: jagatāṃ jetā, Vi.;
     2 jit (m.) in comp., c. of Indra: indrajit.

     I The act: jayaḥ vi-: v. Victory, subjugation.
     II That which is conquered: expr. by jitaḥ (tā taṃ).

CONSANGUINITY: sagotratā; sanābhitā.

CONSCIENCE: no equiv.: *saṃjñānam.

CONSCIENTIOUS: saṃjñānin (f. ): v. Upright, just.

CONSCIENTIOUSLY: *saṃjñānena; amāyayā (=sincerely).

CONSCIENTIOUSNESS: *saṃjñānitā; dhārmikatā (= piety); nyāparāyaṇatā (=uprightness).

     I Possessing c. ness: cetanaḥ or sacetanaḥ (nā naṃ), even by (those) who are not c.: vicetanairapi, Ku.
     II Aware, sensible: expr. by the verbs; jānāti (jñā, c. 9.), vetti (vid, c. 2.), etc, (=to know: q. v.); though c. unable to control the organs: jānānāpyaprabhavantī karaṇānām, K.; which one can only be c. of: svasaṃvedyaḥ (dyā dyaṃ), K.

     1 jñānāt;
     2 jñānataḥ;
     3 jñānapūrvam.

     I Sensation: cetanā or caitanyam, deprived her of c.: tasyāścetanāṃ jahāra, K.;
     2 saṃjñā, to restore c.: saṃjñāṃ grāhayati, K.
     II Knowledge:
     1 jñānam;
     2 upalabdhiḥ.

     I Sub.: v. Recruit.
     II Adj.: patrāropitaḥ (tā taṃ).

CONSCRIPTION: balasamutthānam, D., and sim. comp. s.

     1 pratiṣṭhāpayati (c. of sthā) (of idols, etc.), Mat.,
     2 pavitrīkaroti or pavitrayati (=to make sacred), will c. my language: madgiraṃ pavitrayiṣyati, N. i. 2.

CONSECRATE, -D (adj.): v. Sacred, holy.

     1 pratiṣṭhāpanam, V. m.;
     2 better by verb.

CONSECUTIVE: expr. by adv.: anukrameṇa, for five c. years: anukrameṇa pañcavarṣam.

CONSECUTIVELY: anukrameṇa.

CONSENT (subs.): sammatiḥ, to obtain your c.: tava sammatimadhigantum, N. ii. 48.; sells without the c. of the owner: svāmyasammato vikrīṇīte, M.

     1 sammatiṃ dadāti (, c. 3.);
     2 sammataḥ (tā taṃ) bhavati. Ph.: I c. to what has been written above: mataṃ me yadatropari lekhitam, Y.

     I Result, effect: q. v.: phalam, of evil c. s: aniṣṭaphalaḥ (lā laṃ), Mu. Ph.: in c. of: v. For, account of, on; the c. of which was: tataḥ or ataḥ.
     II Logical: nigamanam.
     III Importance. Ph.: of no c. nirarthakaḥ (kā kaṃ); a matter of great c. gurvarthaḥ; doing what is of little c.: yatkiñcanakāritā, K.

CONSEQUENT (adj.): v. Attendant. C. upon: v. After.

     I Logic: nigamanam.
     II Of rations: Perh. antaḥ.

     I Lit.: ānuṣaṅgikaḥ (kī kaṃ).
     II Pompous, conceited: q. v.

     I Logically: q. v.
     II Eventually: q. v.
     III In a regular series: anukrameṇa paurvāparyeṇa.
     IV Pompously, conceitedly: q. v.

CONSEQUENTLY: ataḥ, c. the behaviour of men is the same as of (lower) animals: ataḥ samānaḥ paśvādibhiḥ puruṣāṇāṃ vyavahāraḥ, S.: v. Therefore.

CONSERVATION: rakṣāḥ v. Preservation.

CONSERVATIVE (subs.): *navavidveṣin (f. ṇī); sthitipālaḥ (lī laṃ). C. ministry: *navavidveṣisacivamaṇḍalam.

     1 rakṣakaḥ;
     2 pālaḥ, in comp., c. of a forest: vanapālaḥ: v. Preserver.

CONSERVATORY: *prasūnaśālā.

     I Verb: rakṣatiḥ v. To preserve.
     II Subs.: v. Preserve.

     I In gen. sense:
     1 vicārayati (c. of car), if it is c. ed, this quitting of life (by widows) is selfish: atra hi vicāryamāṇe svārtha eva prāṇaparityāgo'yam, K.;
     2 vimṛśa(ṣa)ti (mṛś, or -ṣ, c. 6), without c. ing sayings of Manu and others: manvādivākyānyavimṛśya, Da.;
     3 ālocayati samā- paryā-, (loc, c. 10.), c. ing their (comparative) importance and insignificance: teṣāṃ gurulaghubhāvaṃ paryālocya, K. b.;
     4 cintayati pari- vi-. saṃ-, (cint, c. 10.) (to think of), c. ing the painfulness of affection: cintayitvā duḥkhatāṃ snehasya, K.;
     5 samīkṣate (īkṣ, c. 1) (=to look at), age is not c. ed among elders in virtue: na dharmavṛddheṣu vayaḥ samīkṣate, Ku.
     II To regard, think: manyate (man, c. 4.), one who c. s himself learned: paṇḍitammanyaḥ (nyā nyaṃ), B.

     I Respectable: q. v.
     II Moderately large: analpaḥ (lpā lpaṃ), a c. force: analpaṃ balam, D.: v. Many, large.

CONSIDERABLY: balavat, Sa.: v. Much, exceedingly.

     I Mindful of the feellings or rights of others: no equiv: sadayaḥ (yā yaṃ) (=kind), enjoyed in a c. manner: sadayaṃ bubhuje, R.
     II Circumspect: samīkṣyakārin (f. ṇī); vimṛṣyakārin (f. ṇī).

     I With due regard to others: sadayam (=kindly).
     II Circumspectly:
     1 vimṛśya;
     2 samīkṣya.

     I Thoughtful kindness: dayā (?).
     II Prudence: samīkṣyakāritā.

     I Deliberation:
     1 vicāraḥ or vicāraṇā, agreed without c avicārānumataḥ (tā taṃ), D. ii.;
     2 ālocanā sama- pari-;
     3 vimarśaḥ;
     4 samīkṣā (=circumspection);
     5 cintā (=thinking).
     II Regard: ādaraḥ. To have c. for: ādriyate (dṛ, c. 4.), has no c. for munificence: na tyāgamādriyate, K. In c. of: expr. by inde. past. part., in c. of its being the first (offence): prathamamiti prekṣya, Sa.: v. Account of, on.
     III Respectability: pratiṣṭhā, of c.: labdhapratiṣṭhaḥ (ṣṭhā ṣṭhaṃ): v. Chief.
     IV Motive, reason: q. v.: kāraṇam. V. In law: arthaḥ (?).

CONSIGN: v. To entrust, deliver, send.

     1 preraṇam (=sending);
     2 samarpaṇam (delivery);
     3 nikṣepaḥ (=depositing).

     I To subsist: q. v.
     II To be consistent: v. Consistent.
     III To c. of: Ph.: on what it stands and of what it c. s of yadādhāraṃ yadātmakam, V. p; the science of astronomy c. s of three branches jyotiḥśāstraṃ skandhatrayādhiṣṭhitam, V. m.; the Gāyatri (metre) c. s of 24 syllables caturviśatyakṣarā gāyatrī, Up.: v. C. ing of.
     IV To c. in.: Ph.: perspicuity c. s in clearness of meaning: arthavaimalyātmā prasādaḥ, Kav.; grace c. s in picturesqueness of language: uktivaicitryarūpaṃ mādhuryam, Kav.

     1 -mayaḥ (yī yaṃ), food c. of water, fruit and roots: jalaphalamūlamayeṣvāhāreṣu, K. Ph.: an army c. chiefly of elephants: hāstikaprāyaṃ sainyam, Ra.;
     2 ātmakaḥ (kā kaṃ), in beings c. of five (elements) pañcātmakeṣu bhūteṣu, B. p.;
     3 in some cases by deriv., c. of five elements: pāñcamautikaḥ (kī kaṃ).

     I Firmness, stability: q. v.: sthairyam.
     II Combination: q. v.
     III Congruity: sāṅgatyam.
     IV Thickness: q. v.

     I Congruous: saṅgataḥ (tā taṃ).
     II Firm, solid: q. v.

     1 saṅgatam;
     2 sasambandham.

CONSISTORY: dharmasabhā (?).

     1 āśvāsanīyaḥ (yā yaṃ);
     2 śā () ntvanīyaḥ (yā yaṃ).

     1 āśvāsaḥ;
     2 samāśvāsaḥ;
     3 śāntvanam or sāntvanam -nā. To give c.: v. To console.

     I Adj.: āśvāsakaḥ (sikā sakaṃ);
     2 śokāpanodananipuṇaḥ (ṇā ṇaṃ), K.
     II Subs.: sāntvanam upa-, with mild c. s: mṛdubhirupasāntvanaiḥ, K.

CONSOLE (v. t.):
     1 āśvāsayati sam-, (c. of śvas), K.;
     2 śā(sā)ntvayati upa- abhi-, (śāntv or sāntv, c. 10), B.;
     2 abhyupapadyate (pad, c. 4), to c. Rali: ratimabhyupapattum, Ku. iv. 25;
     3 prakṛtau sthāpayati (c. of sthā) (=to put in natural state), R.

CONSOLE (subs.): niryūhaḥ (?).

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CONSOLER: yaḥ (yā yaṃ) āśvāsayati: v. To console.

     1 saṃhanti (han, c. 2.);
     2 dṛḍhīkaroti (=to make firm).

     I Of sounds: sāmyam.
     II Suitable, consistent: q. v. yogyatā.

     I Accordant: samaḥ (mā maṃ).
     II Suitable, consistent: q. v.

CONSONANT (subs.):
     1 vyañjanam or vyañjanavarṇam;
     2 hal (according to the arrangement of Pāṇini), ending in a c.: halanta (f. ntā).

CONSORT (subs.): i. e. husband or wife: q. v.

CONSORT WITH: v. Associate with.

     I Manifest: q. v.: prakāśaḥ or suprakāśaḥ (śā śaṃ).
     II Prominent, great: q. v.: utkṛṣṭaḥ (ṣṭā ṣṭaṃ).

CONSPICUOUSLY: spaṣṭam: v. Plainly, remarkably.

     I Lit.: prakāśatā.
     II Eminence, renown: q. v.

     1 kucakram (=cabal);
     2 upajāpaḥ (=plot).

     1 kucakrin (f. ṇī);
     2 upajāpaka (f. pikā).

     I To plot: q. v.: upajapati (jap, c. l.).
     II To combine, agree: q. v.

     1 rakṣin (m.) (wakSman);
     2 nāgarikaḥ (=municipal c.?), D. ii. Lord high c.: *mahādaṇḍanāyakaḥ.

     I Firmness:
     1 sthairyam or sthiratā;
     2 niścalatā.
     II Of mind: sthaiyam: v. Fortitude, perserverance.

     I Firm:
     1 sthiraḥ (rā raṃ), my entire fortune is c.: sthirā mama sarvasampat, Si.;
     2 acalaḥ or niścalaḥ (lā laṃ), regard for dependents is not c.: calaṃ gauravamāśriteṣu, Ku.;
     3 avasthitaḥ or vyavasthitaḥ (tā taṃ) (rare), love for woman is not c.: prema dayitāsvanavasthitam, Ku. iv. 28.
     II Continuous: q. v.: satataḥ (tā taṃ).

     I Firmly:
     1 sthiram;
     2 acalam.
     II Continuously, perpetually: q. v.: satatam, think of truths c. in your mind: tattvaṃ cintaya satataṃ citte, J.

CONSTELLATION: rāśiḥ, c. of the lion: siṃharāśiḥ.

CONSTERNATION: saṃtrāsaḥ: v. Terror, amazement.

     1 badhnāti (bandh, c. 9);
     2 avaruṇaddhi (rudh, c. 7.);
     3 avaṣṭabhnāti vi-, (stambh, c. 9);
     4 nahyati ā-, (nah, c. 4.). N. B. These verbs take as their acc. malam purīṣam, etc. C. ing: v. Costive (I).

     1 baddhaviṭkatā, and sim. comp. s, Sr.;
     2 viṣṭambhaḥ, Sr.

CONSTITUENT (adj.): Ph.: c. part: sādhanam: v. Element.

     I An elector: q. v.
     II A component: q. v.

     I To enact, establish: q. v.
     II To appoint, depute: q. v.
     III To form, compose. Ph.: after deciding what c. s a poem: kāvyasvarūpaṃ nirūpya, Kav.; clearness of meaning c. s perspicuity: arthavaimalyātmā prasādaḥ, Kav.; body or wealth does not c. manhood: na vapurvasu vā puṃstvamūlam, D.

     I Formation: q. v.
     II Natural condition, temperament: prakṛtiḥ
     III Government: perh: tantram.

     I Inherent in the constitution: svābhāvikaḥ (kī kaṃ).
     II Regulated by a c.: Ph.: c. government: *vyavasthitatantram; c. law: *tantravyavasthā.

     I Naturally:
     1 prakṛtyā;
     2 svabhāvataḥ
     II Lawfully: q. v.

     I To compel: q. v.: sampīḍayati (pīḍ, c. 10.).
     II To restrain: q. v.
     III To compress: q. v.

     I Compulsion: q. v.
     II Restraint: q. v.

CONSTRICT (v.): saṃkocati (kuc, c. l.): v. To contract.

CONSTRUCT (v.): nirmimīte (, c. 3.): v. To build, make.

     I Making: nirmāṇam.
     II Form: q. v.
     III Of a sentence:
     1 anvayaḥ;
     2 sambandhaḥ;
     3 yojanā.
     IV Sense, meaning: q. v. arthaḥ.

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CONSTRUCTIVE: Perh: phalārtha, c. treason: phalārtharājadrohaḥ

     I To explain the construction of: anvayaṃ vadati (vad, c. l). To be c. d:
     1 anvīyate (pass. of i), Da.;
     2 sambadhyate (pass of bandh), why the word 'so' is not c. d with brother: tayāpadaṃ bhrātraiva kuto na sambadhyate, Da.
     II To explain, interpret: q. v.

CONSUBSTANTIAL: sarūpaḥ (pā paṃ).

     I Ancient: *kaṃsalaḥ; daṇḍanāyakaḥ.
     II An agent of a foreign government: anudūtaḥ.


CONSULT: mantrayati -te (mantr, c. 10.), c. my good: mantrayadhvaṃ hitaṃ mama, Mah.; c. ed with the ministers: mantrimiḥ sārdhaṃ mantrayāmāsa,
     V p.: v. Also, to consider; attend; ask.

     1 mantraṇā;
     2 mantraḥ; -ṇaṃ, to hold c.: mantraṃ karoti, P.: v. Consideration.

CONSUMABLE: kṣayin (f. ṇī): v. Perishable.

CONSUME (v.): kṣapayati (c. of kṣiḥ): v. To destroy, waste.

     I Destroyer: q. v.
     II Devourer: khādakaḥ.

CONSUMMATE (v.): pūrayati (c. of pūr): v. To complete.

CONSUMMATE (adj.): paripakvaḥ (kvā kvaṃ): v. Perfect.

     I Perfection: q. v.: paripākaḥ, seeing his c. in civility: vīkṣya tasya vinaye paripākam, N.
     II Close, end: q. v.

     I Decay, destruction: q. v. kṣayaḥ.
     II Of commodities: perh. best expr. by vikrayaḥ (=sale).
     III A disease:
     1 kṣayarogaḥ;
     2 yakṣman or rājayakṣman (m.);
     3 śoṣaḥ.

CONSUMPTIVE: kṣayarogin (f. ṇī).

CONTACT: Lit.: sparśaḥ.
     II Association: q. v.: samparkaḥ.

     I Contact: sparśaḥ.
     II Infection by c.: sparśasañcāraḥ.

CONTAGIOUS: Ph.: c. disease āmayaḥ sparśasañcārī, Raj.

     I To comprise:
     1 by bah. comp., a dwelling c. ing eight courts: aṣṭaprakoṣṭhaṃ bhavanam, Mr.: v. Having;
     2 by garbhaḥ (rbhā rmaṃ) in comp., this house c. s men: puruṣagarbhametad gṛham, Mu.; c. ing moral instruction: dharmopadeśagarbhaḥ (rbhā rbhaṃ), K.: v. Also, to hold, include. Ph.: I saw that it c. ed this couplet (lit. written on it) tasyāmibhāmabhilikhitāmāryāmapaśyam, K.
     II To restrain: q. v.

CONTAINING: v. To contain (I).

CONTAMINATE: dūṣayati (c. of duṣ): v. To pollute.

CONTAMINATION: dūṣaṇam: v. Pollution.

CONTEMN: avamanyate (man, c. 4): v. To despise.

CONTEMNER: avamantṛ (f. ntrī): v. Despiser.

     I Trans.: v. To consider.
     II Intrans: dhyāyati (dhyai, c. l).: v. To meditate.

     1 cintā: v. Consideration;
     2 dhyānam: v. Meditation. To have in c.: i. e. to intend or purpose: q. v.

     1 dhyānaparaḥ (rā raṃ);
     2 cintāpravaṇaḥ (ṇā ṇaṃ).

CONTEMPLATOR: dhyānin (f. ).

     1 samakālaḥ (lā laṃ);
     2 samakālīnaḥ (nā naṃ);
     3 tulyakālaḥ (lā laṃ), these kings will be c.: ete tulyakālā bhūbhṛto bhaviṣyanti, V. p.

     1 avajñā, was turned out with c.: avajñayā niḥsāritaḥ, P.:
     2 avamānam, c. of each other: anyonyāvamānam, D.;
     3 anādaraḥ, Ki.;
     4 avagaṇanā, M. n. Ph.: to treat with c.: avajānāti (jñā, c. 9.): v. To despise.

     1 nikṛṣṭaḥ (ṣṭā ṣṭaṃ): v. Mean;
     2 garhitaḥ (tā taṃ): v. Despicable.

CONTEMPTUOUS: v. Disdainful, haughty.

     1 avajñayā;
     2 sāvajñam;
     3 sāvamānam,
     4 anāderaṇa;
     5 avagaṇanayā.

     1 vigṛhṇāti (grah, c. 9.) (=to contest), c. ing with the enemy of Namuchi (i. e. Indra): namucidviṣā vigṛhya, Si. i. 51.;
     2 viruṇaddhi (rudh, c. 7.): v. To oppose;
     3 vivadate (vad, c. l.): v. To dispute.
     4 spardhate (spardh, c. l.): v. To ire.

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CONTENDING (part. adj.): vivadamānaḥ (nā naṃ); better expr. by verb.

CONTENT (adj.):
     1 santuṣṭaḥ or tuṣṭaḥ (ṣṭā ṣṭaṃ);
     2 santoṣavat (f. ) (rare), P. Ph.: you should be c.: tvayā santoṣaḥ kāryaḥ, P. ii. 6.

CONTENT, TO BE: tuṣyati saṃ-, (tuṣ, c. 4.), an intelligent man is c. with whatever is his own: yasya yāvat sa tenaiva svena tuṣyati vuddhimān, V. p.

CONTENT (v. t.): santoṣayati (c. of tuṣ): v. To satisfy, please.

CONTENT (subs.):
     I Contentment: q. v.
     II Reward: q. v.: pāritoṣikam.
     III Capacity: q. v.: the cubic c. s of a sphere: golasyāntargataṃ ghanaphalam, Li.
     IV That which is contained: Ph.: the c. s of a book: yadgranthe likhitam; table of c. s: nirdhaṇṭapatram or sūcipatram, Maheshachandra.

CONTENTEDLY: expr. by the adj.: santuṣṭaḥ (ṣṭā ṣṭaṃ).

     I Contest, strife: q. v.: vivādaḥ.
     II Controversy: q. v.: vivādaḥ, Da. Ph.: your c. is not valid: *na saṅgataste vādaḥ.
     III Eagerness: q. v.: Ph.: "c. of mind": manaḥsaṃyogaḥ.

CONTENTIOUS: bivādapriyaḥ (yā yaṃ): v. Quarrelsome, litigious.

CONTENTIOUSNESS: v. Quarrelsomeness, litigiousness.

CONTENTMENT: santoṣaḥ, there is no wealth like c.: santoṣatulyaṃ dhanamasti nānyat, P. ii. 6.

CONTERMINOUS: ekasīmaḥ (mā maṃ) or by circum.: v. Border.

CONTEST (subs.):
     I Dispute: q. v.: vivādaḥ
     II Strife: vigrahaḥ, a farious c.: tumulo vigrahaḥ, Mat.

     I To dispute: q. v.
     II To contend, fight: q. v.: vigṛhṇāti (grah, c. 9).

CONTESTED: expr. by vivāda in comp.: v. Disputed.

CONTEXT: perh. anvayaḥ.

CONTEXTURE: v. System.

     1 saṃlagnatā;
     2 sannikarṣaḥ (=nearness):
     3 samparkaḥ (contact).

     1 saṃlagnaḥ (gnā gnaṃ) (=adjoining):
     2 sannikṛṣṭaḥ (ṣṭā ṣṭaṃ) (=adjacent: q. v.).

     1 saṃyamaḥ;
     2 saṃyamitā;
     3 jitendriyatā -tvaṃ;