Bhagavadgita
with the commentaries of Sridhara, (Madhusudana), Visvanatha and Baladeva

Input by ... (Gaudiya Grantha Mandira)





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description:multibyte sequence:
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long A Ā
long i ī
long I Ī
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vocalic r
vocalic R
long vocalic r
vocalic l
vocalic L
long vocalic l
velar n
velar N
palatal n ñ
palatal N Ñ
retroflex t
retroflex T
retroflex d
retroflex D
retroflex n
retroflex N
palatal s ś
palatal S Ś
retroflex s
retroflex S
anusvara
visarga
long e ē
long o ō
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r underbar
n underbar
k underbar
t underbar

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BhG 1.1

dhṛtarāṣṭra uvāca
dharma-kṣetre kuru-kṣetre samavetā yuyutsavaḥ |
māmakāḥ pāṇḍavāś caiva kim akurvata saṃjaya ||1||


Śrīdharaḥ -

śeṣāśeṣa-mukha-vyākhyā-cāturyaṃ tv eka-vaktrataḥ |
dadhānam adbhutaṃ vande paramānanda-mādhavam ||

śrī-mādhavaṃ praṇamyo mādhavaṃ viśveśam ādarāt |
tad-bhakti-yantritaḥ kurve gītā-vyākhyāṃ subodhinīm ||

bhāṣya-kāra-mataṃ samyak tad-vyākhyātṛ-giras tathā |
yathāmati samālocya gītā-vyākhyāṃ samārabhe ||

gītā vyākhyāyate yasyāḥ pāṭha-mātra-prayatnataḥ |
seyaṃ subodhinī ṭīkā sadā dhyeyā manīṣibhiḥ ||

iha khalu sakala-loka-hitāvatāraḥ parama-kāruṇiko bhagavān devakī-nandanas tattvājñāna-vijṛmbhita-śoka-moha-bhraṃśita-vivekatayā nija-dharma-parityāga-pūrvaka-para-dharmābhisandhinam arjunaṃ dharma-jñāna-rahasyopadeśa-plavena tasmāc choka-moha-sāgarād uddadhāra | tam eva bhagavad-upadiṣṭam arthaṃ kṛṣṇa-dvaipāyanaḥ saptabhiḥ śloka-śatair upanibabandha | tatra ca prāyaśaḥ śrī-kṛṣṇa-mukhād viniḥsṛtān eva ślokān alikhat | kāṃścit tat-saṅgataye svayaṃ ca vyaracayat | yathoktaṃ gītā-māhātmye -

gītā sugītā kartavyā kim anyaiḥ śāstra-vistaraiḥ |
yā svayaṃ padmanābhasya mukha-padmād viniḥsṛtā || iti |

tatra tāvad dharmakṣetre ity ādinā | viṣīdann idam abravīd ity antena granthena śrī-kṛṣṇārjuna-saṃvāda-prastāvāya kathā nirūpyate | tataḥ param āsamāptes tayor dharma-jñānārthe saṃvādaḥ | tatra dharma-kṣetra ity ādinā ślokena dhṛtarāṣṭrena hastināpura-sthitaṃ sva-sārathiṃ samīpasthaṃ sañjayaṃ prati kurukṣetra-vṛttānte pṛṣṭhe sañjayo hastināpurasthito 'pi vyāsa-prasāda-labdha-divya-cakṣuḥ kurukṣetra-vṛttāntaṃ sākṣāt paśyann iva dhṛtarāṣṭrāya nivedayāmāsa | dṛṣṭvā tu pāṇḍavānīkam ity ādinā |

dhṛtarāṣṭra uvāceti | dharmakṣetra iti | bhoḥ sañjaya | dharmakṣete dharma-bhūmau kurukṣetre | dharma-kṣetra iti kurukṣetra-viśeṣaṇam | eṣām ādi-puruṣaḥ kaścit kuru-nāmā babhūva | tasya kuror dharma-sthāne māmakā mat-putrāḥ pāṇḍu-putrāś ca yuyutsavo yoddhum icchantaḥ samavetāḥ militāḥ santaḥ kim akurvata kiṃ kṛtavantaḥ ||1||

Viśvanāthaḥ -

gaurāṃśukaḥ sat-kumuda-pramodī
svābhikhyayā gos-tamaso nihantā |
śrī-kṛṣṇa-caitanya-sudha-nidhir me
mano 'dhitiṣṭhan svaratiṃ karotu ||

prācīna-vācaḥ suvicārya so 'ham
ajño 'pi gītāmṛta-leśa-lipsuḥ |
yateḥ prabhor eva mate tad atra
santaḥ kṣamadhvaṃ śaraṇāgatasya ||

iha khalu sakala-śāstrābhimata-śrīmac-caraṇa-saroja-bhajanaḥ svayaṃ bhagavān narākṛti-para-brahma-śrī-vasudeva-sūnuḥ sākṣāc-chrī-gopāla-puryām avatīryāpāra-paramātarkya-prāpañcika-sakala-locana-gocarīkṛto bhavābdhi-nimajjamānān jagaj-janān udhṛtya sva-saundarya-mādhuryāsvādanayā svīya-prema-mahāmbudhau nimajjayāmāsa |

śiṣṭa-rakṣā duṣṭa-nigraha-vrata-niṣṭhā-mahiṣṭha-pratiṣṭho 'pi bhuvo bhāra-duḥkhāpahāra-miṣeṇa duṣṭānām api sva-dveṣṭṝṇām api mahā-saṃsāra-grāsībhūtānām api mukti-dāna-lakṣaṇaṃ parama-rakṣaṇam eva kṛtvā svāntardhānottara-kāla-janiṣyamāṇān anādy-avidyā-bandha-nibadnhana-śoka-mohādyākulān api jīvān uddhartuṃ śāstra-kṛn-muni-gaṇa-gīyamāna-yaśaś ca dhartuṃ sva-priya-sakhaṃ tādṛśa-svecchā-vaśād eva raṇa-mūrdhany udbhūta-śoka-mohaṃ śrīmad-arjunaṃ lakṣyīkṛtya kāṇḍa-tritayātmaka-sarva-veda-tātparya-paryavasitārtha-ratnālaṅkṛtaṃ śrī-gītā-śāstram aṣṭādaśādhyāyam
antarbhūtāṣṭādaśa-vidyaṃ sākṣād vidyamānīkṛtam iva parama-puruṣārtham āvirbhāvayāmbabhūva |

tatrādhyāyānāṃ ṣaṭkenan prathamena niṣkāma-karma-yogaḥ | dvitīyena bhakti-yogaḥ | tṛtīyena jñāna-yogo darśitaḥ | tatrāpi bhakti-yogasyātirahasyatvād ubhaya-saṅjīvakatvenābhyarhitatvāt sarva-durlabhatvāc ca madhyavartīkṛtaḥ | karma-jñānayor bhakti-rāhityena vaiyarthyāt te dve bhakti-miśre eva sammatīkṛte |

bhaktis tu dvividhā kevalā pradhānībhūtā ca | tatrādyā svata eva parama-prabalā | te dve karma-jñāne vinaiva viśuddha-prabhāvatī akiñcanā ananyādi-śabda-vācyā | dvitīyā tu karma-jñāna-miśrety akhilam agre vivṛtībhaviṣyati |

athārjunasya śoka-mohau kathambhūtāv ity apekṣāyāṃ mahābhārata-vaktā śrī-vaiśampāyano janamejayaṃ prati tatra bhīṣma-parvaṇi kathām avatārayati dhṛtarāṣṭra uvāca iti | kurukṣetre yuyutsavo yuddhārthaṃ saṅgatā māmakā duryodhanādyāḥ pāṇḍavāś ca yudhiṣṭhirādayaḥ kiṃ kṛtavantas tad brūhi | nanu yuyutsava iti tvaṃ bravīṣy evāto yuddham eva kartum udyatās te tad api kim akurvateti kenābhiprāyeṇa pṛcchasīty ata āha dharmakṣetra iti | kurukṣetraṃ deva-yajanam iti śrutes tat-kṣetrasya dharma-pravartakatvaṃ prasiddham |

atas tat-saṃsarga-mahimnā yady adharmikāṇām api duryodhanādīnāṃ krodha-nivṛttyā dharme matiḥ syāt | pāṇḍavās tu svabhāvata eva dhārmikās tato bandhu-hiṃsanam anucitam ity ubhayeṣām api viveke udbhūte sandhir api sambhāvyate | tataś ca mamānanda eveti sañjayaṃ prati jñāpayitum iṣṭo bhāvo bāhyaḥ | ābhyantaras tu sandhau sati pūrvavat sakaṇṭakam eva rājyaṃ mad-ātmajānām iti me durvāra eva viṣādaḥ | tasmād asmākīno bhīṣmas tv arjunena durjaya evety ato yuddham eva śreyas tad eva bhūyād iti tu tan-manorathopayogī durlakṣyaḥ |

atra dharma-kṣetre iti kṣetra-padena dharmasya dharmāvatārasya saparikara-yudhiṣṭhirasya dhānyasthānīyatvam | tat-pālakasya śrī-kṛṣṇasya kṛṣi-bala-sthānīyatvam | kṛṣṇa-kṛta-nānā-vidha-sāhāyyasya jala-secana-setu-bandhanādi-sthānīyatvam | śrī-kṛṣṇa-saṃhārya-duryodhanāder dhānya-dveṣi-dhānyākāra-tṛṇa-viśeṣa-sthānīyatvaṃ ca bodhitaṃ sarasvatyā ||1||


Baladevaḥ --

satyānantācintya-śakty-eka-pakṣe
sarvādhyakṣe bhakta-rakṣātidakṣe |
śrī-govinde viśva-sargādi-kaṇḍe
pūrṇānande nityam āstāṃ matir me ||

ajñāna-nīradhir upaiti yayā viśeṣaṃ
bhaktiḥ parāpi bhajate paripoṣam uccaiḥ |
tattvaṃ paraṃ sphurati durgamam apy ajasraṃ
sādguṇya-bhṛt svaracitāṃ praṇamāmi gītām ||

atha sukha-cid-ghanaḥ svayaṃ bhagavān acintya-śaktiḥ puruṣottamaḥ sva-saṅkalpāyatta-vicitra-jagad-udayādi-viriñcy-ādi-sañcintya-caraṇaḥ sva-janmādi-līlayā sva-tulyān sahāvirbhūtān pārṣadān praharṣayaṃs tayaiva jīvān bahūn avidyāśārdūlīvadanād vimocya svāntardhānottara-bhāvino 'nyānuddidhīrṣur āhava-mūrdhni svātma-bhūtam apy arjunam avitarkya-sva-śaktyā samoham iva kurvan tan-moha-vimārjanāpadeśena saparikara-svātma-yāthātmyaika-nirūpikāṃ sva-gītopaniṣadam upādiśat |

tasyāṃ khalv īśvara-jīva-prakṛti-kāla-karmāṇi pañcārthā varṇyante | teṣu vibhu-saṃvid īśvaraḥ | aṇu-saṃvij jīvaḥ | sattvādi-guṇa-trayāśrayo dravyaṃ prakṛtiḥ | traiguṇya-śūnyaṃ jaḍa-dravyaṃ kālaḥ | puṃ-prayatna-niṣpādyam adṛṣṭādi-śabda-vācyaṃ karmeti |

teṣāṃ lakṣaṇāni | eṣv īśvarādīni catvāri nityāni | jīvādīni tv īśvara-vaśyāni | karma tu prāg-abhāvavad anādi vināśi ca | tatra saṃvit-svarūpo 'pīśvaro jīvaś ca saṃvettāsmad-arthaś ca - vijñānam ānandaṃ brahma, yaḥ sarvajñaḥ sarvavit, mantā boddhā kartā vijānātmā puruṣaḥ, ity ādi śruteḥ | so 'kāmayata bahu syām, sukham aham asvāpsaṃ na kiñcid avediṣam ity ādi śruteś ca | na cobhayatra mahat-tattva-jāto 'yam ahaṅkāraḥ |

tadā tasyānutpatter vilīnatvāc ca | sa ca sa ca kartā bhoktā siddhaḥ sarvajñaḥ sarva-vit kartā boddhā iti padebhyaḥ | anubhavitṛtvaṃ kahlu bhoktṛtvaṃ sarvābhyupagatam | so 'śnute sarvān kāmān saha brahmaṇā vipaścitā iti śrutes tūbhayos tat pravyaktam | yadyapi saṃvit-svarūpāt saṃvettṛtvādi nānyat prakāśa-svarūpād raver iva prakāśakatvādi, tathāpi viśeṣa-sāmarthyāt tad-anyatva-vyavahāraḥ | viśeṣaś ca bheda-pratinidhir na bhedaḥ | sa ca bhedābhāve 'pi bheda-kāryasya dharma-dharmi-bhāvādi-vyavahārasya hetuḥ |sattā satī bhedo bhinnaḥ kālaḥ sarvadāstīty ādiṣu vidvadbhiḥ pratītaḥ | tat-pratīty-anyathānupapattyā - evaṃ dharmān pṛthak paśyaṃs
tān evānuvidhāvati iti śrutyā ca siddhaḥ | iha hi brahma-dharmān abhidhāya tad-bhedaḥ pratiṣidhyate |

na khalu bheda-pratinidhes tasyāpy abhāve dharma-dharmi-bhāva-dharma-bahutve śakye vaktum ity anicchubhir api svīkāryāḥ syuḥ ta ime 'rthāḥ śāstre 'smin yathāsthānam anusandheyāḥ | iha hi jīvātma-paramātma-tad-dhāma tat-prāpty-upāyānāṃ svarūpāṇi yathāvan nirūpyante | tatra jīvātma-yāthātmya-paramātma-yāthātmyopayogitayā paramātma-yāthātmyaṃ tu tad-upāsanopayogitayā prakṛtyādikaṃ tu paramātmanaḥ sraṣṭur upakaraṇatayopadiśyate |

tad-upāyāś ca karma-jñāna-bhakti-bhedāt tredha | tatra śruta-tat-tat-phalanair apekṣeṇa kartṛtvābhiniveśa-parityāgena cānuṣṭhitasya sva-vihitasya karmaṇaḥ hṛd-viśuddhi-dvārā jñāna-bhaktyor upakāritvāt paramparayā tat-prāptāv upāyatvam | tac ca śruti-vihita-karma hiṃsā-śūnyam atra mukhyam | mokṣa-dharme pitā-putrādi-saṃvādāt hiṃsāvat tu gauṇaṃ viprakṛṣṭatvāt tayos tu sākṣād eva tathātvam |

nanu, tathānuṣṭhitena karmaṇā hṛd-viśuddhyā jñānodayena muktau satyāṃ bhaktyā ko viśeṣaḥ | ucyate, jñānam eva kiñcid viśeṣād bhaktir iti | nirṇimeṣa-vīkṣaṇa-kaṭākṣa-vīkṣaṇa-vadanayor antaraṃ cid-vigrahatayānusandhir jñānaṃ tena tat sālokyādiḥ | vicitra-līlā-rasāśrayatayānusandhis tu bhaktis tayā kroḍīkṛta-sālokyādi-tad-varīvasyānanda-lābhaḥ pumarthaḥ | bhakter jñānatvaṃ tu "sac-cid-ānandaika-rase bhakti-yoge tiṣṭhati" iti śruteḥ siddham |

tad idaṃ śravaṇādi-bhāvādi-śabda-vyapadiṣṭaṃ dṛṣṭam | jñānasya śravaṇādyākāratvaṃ cit-sukhasya viṣṇoḥ kuntalādi-pratīkatvavat pratyetavyam iti vakṣyāmaḥ | ṣaṭ-trike 'smin śāstre prathamena ṣaṭkeneśvarāṃśasya jīvasyāṃśīśvara-bhakty-upayogi-svarūpa-darśanam | tac cāntar-gata-jñāna-niṣkāma-karma-sādhyaṃ nirūpyate | madhyena parama-prāpyasyāṃśīśvarasya prāpaṇī bhaktis tan-mahima-dhī-pūrvikābhidhīyate | antyena tu pūrvoditānām eveśvarādīnāṃ svarūpāṇi pariśodhyante | trayāṇāṃ ṣaṭkānāṃ karma-bhakti-jñāna-pūrvatā-vyapadeśas tu tat-tat-prādhānyenaiva | carame bhakteḥ pratipatteś coktis tu
ratna-sampuṭordhva-likhita-tat-sūcaka-lipi-nyāyena |

asya śāstrasya śraddhāluḥ sad-dharma-niṣṭho vijitendriyo 'dhikārī | sa ca sa-niṣṭha-pariniṣṭhita-nirapekṣa-bhedāt trividhaḥ | teṣu svargādi-lokān api didṛkṣr niṣṭhayā sva-dharmān hary-arcana-rūpān ācaran prathamaḥ | loka-saṃjighṛkṣayā tān ācaran hari-bhakti-nirato dvitīyaḥ | sa ca sa ca sāśramaḥ | satya-tapo-japādibhir viśuddha-citto hary-eka-niratas tṛtīyo nirāśramaḥ | vācya-vācaka-bhāvaḥ sambandhaḥ | vācya ukta-lakṣaṇaḥ śrī-kṛṣṇaḥ | vācakas tad-gītā-śāstraṃ tādṛśaḥ so 'tra viṣayaḥ | aśeṣa-kleśa-nivṛtti-pūrvakas tat-sākṣāt-kāras
tu prayojanam ity anubandha-catuṣṭayam | atreśvarādiṣu triṣu brahma-śabdo 'kṣara-śabdaś ca baddha-jīveṣu tad-deheṣu ca kṣara-śabdaḥ | īśvara-jīva-dehe manasi buddhau dhṛtau yatne cātma-śabdaḥ | triguṇāyāṃ vāsanāyāṃ śīle svarūpe ca prakṛti-śabdaḥ | sattābhiprāya-svabhāva-padārtha-janmasu kriyāsv ātmasu ca bhāva-śabdaḥ | karmādiṣu triṣu citta-vṛtti-nirodhe ca yoga-śabdaḥ paṭhyate | etac chāstraṃ khalu svayaṃ bhagavataḥ sākṣād vacanaṃ sarvataḥ śreṣṭhaṃ --
gītā sugītā kartavyā kim anyaiḥ śāstra-vistaraiḥ |
yā svayaṃ padmanābhasya mukha-padmād viniḥsṛtā || iti pādmāt |

dhṛtarāṣṭrādi-vākyaṃ tu tat-saṅgati-lābhāya dvaipāyanena viracitam | tac ca lavaṇākara-nipāta-nyāyena tan-mayam ity upodghātaḥ |

saṅgrāma-mūrdhni saṃvādo
yo 'bhūd govinda-pārthayoḥ |
tat-saṅgatyai kathāṃ prākhyād
gītāsu prathame muniḥ ||

iti tāvad bhagavad-arjuna-saṃvādaṃ prastautuṃ kathā nirūpyate| dharmakṣetre ity ādibhiḥ sapta-viṃśatyā | tad-bhagavataḥ pārtha-sārathyaṃ vidvān dhṛtarāṣṭraḥ sva-putra-vijaye sandihānaḥ sañjayaṃ pṛcchatīty āha | janmejayaṃ prati vaiśampāyanaḥ dhṛtarāṣṭra uvāceti | yuyutsavo yoddhum icchavo māmakā mat-putrāḥ pāṇḍavāś ca kurukṣetre samavetāḥ kim akurvateti |

nanu yuyutsavaḥ samavetā iti tvam evātthya tato yudherann eva punaḥ kim akurvateti kas te bhāva iti cet, tatrāha - dharmakṣetra iti | "yad anu kurukṣetraṃ devānāṃ deva-yajanaṃ sarveṣāṃ bhūtānāṃ brahma-sadanam ity ādi-śravaṇād dharma-prarohi-bhūmi-bhūtaṃ kurukṣetraṃ prasiddham | tat-prabhāvād vinaṣṭa-vidveṣā mat-putrāḥ kiṃ pāṇḍavebhyas tad-rājyaṃ dātuṃ niścikyuḥ | kiṃ vā, pāṇḍavāḥ sadaiva dharma-śīlā dharma-kṣetre tasmin kula-kṣaya-hetukād adharmād bhītā vana-praveśam eva śreyo vimamṛśur iti | he sañjayeti vyāsa-prasādād vinaṣṭa-rāga-dveṣas
tvaṃ tathyaṃ vadety-arthaḥ | pāṇḍavānāṃ māmakatvānuktir dhṛtarāṣṭrasya teṣu droham abhivyanakti | dhānya-kṣetrāt tad-virodhināṃ dhānyābhāsānām iva dharma-kṣetrāt tad-virodhināṃ dharmābhāsānāṃ tvat-putrāṇām apagamo bhāvīti dharma-kṣetra-śabdena gīr-devyā vyajyate ||1||



__________________________________________________________

BhG 1.2

saṃjaya uvāca

dṛṣṭvā tu pāṇḍavānīkaṃ vyūḍhaṃ duryodhanas tadā |
ācāryam upasaṃgamya rājā vacanam abravīt ||2||

Śrīdharaḥ - sañjaya uvāca dṛṣṭvety-ādi | pāṇḍavānām anīkaṃ sainyaṃ vyūḍhaṃ vyūha-racanayā adhiṣṭhitaṃ dṛṣṭvā droṇācārya-samīpaṃ gatvā rājā duryodhano vakṣyamāṇaṃ vacanam uvāca ||2||

Viśvanāthaḥ - vidita-tad-abhiprāyas tad-āśāṃsitaṃ yuddham eva bhavet | kintu tan-manoratha-pratikulam iti manasi kṛtvā uvāca dṛṣṭveti | vyūḍhaṃ vyūha-racanayāvasthitam | rājā duryodhanaḥ sāntarbhayam uvāca | paśyaitām iti navabhiḥ ślokaiḥ ||2||

Baladevaḥ - evaṃ janmāndhasya prajñā-cakṣuṣo dhṛtarāṣṭrasya dharma-prajñā-vilopān mohāndhasya mat-putraḥ kadācit pāṇḍavebhyas tad-rājyaṃ dadyād iti vimlāna-cittasya bhāvaṃ vijñāya dharmiṣṭhaḥ sañjayas tvat-putraḥ kadācid api tebhyo rājyaṃ nārpayuṣyatīti tat-santoṣam utpādayann āha dṛṣṭveti | pāṇḍavānām anīkaṃ sainyaṃ vyūḍhaṃ vyūha-racanayāvasthitam | ācāryaṃ dhanur-vidyā-pradaṃ droṇam upasaṅgamya svayam eva tad-antikaṃ gatvā rājā rāja-nīti-nipuṇaḥ vacanam alpākṣaratvaṃ gambhīrārthatvaṃ saṅkrānta-vacana-viśeṣam
| atra svayam ācārya-sannidhigamanena pāṇḍava-sainya-prabhāva-darśana-hetukaṃ tasyāntar-bhayaṃ guru-gauraveṇa tad-antikaṃ svayam āgatavān asmīti bhaya-saṅgopanaṃ ca vyajyate | tad idaṃ rāja-nīti-naipuṇyād iti ca rāja-padena ||2||



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BhG 1.3

paśyaitāṃ pāṇḍuputrāṇām ācārya mahatīṃ camūm |
vyūḍhāṃ drupadaputreṇa tava śiṣyeṇa dhīmatā ||3||

Śrīdhara: tad eva vacanam āha paśyaitām ity ādibhiḥ navabhiḥ ślokaiḥ | paśyety ādi he ācārya | pāṇḍavānāṃ mahatīṃ vitatāṃ camūṃ senāṃ paśya | tava śiṣyeṇa drupada-putreṇa dhṛṣṭadyumnena vyūḍhāṃ vyūha-racanayādhiṣṭhitām ||3||

Viśvanātha: drupada-putreṇa dhṛṣṭadyumnena tava śiṣyeṇa sva-vadhārtham utpanna iti jānatāpi tvayāyam adhyāpita iti tava manda-buddhitvam | dhīmateti śatror api tvattaḥ sakāśāt tvad-vadhopāya-vidyā gṛhītety asya mahābuddhitvaṃ phal-kāle 'pi paśyeti bhāvaḥ ||3||

Baladeva: tat tādṛśaṃ vacanam āha paśyaitām ity ādinā | priya-śiṣyeṣu yudhiṣṭhirādiṣu snehātiśayād ācāryo na yudhyed iti vibhāvya tat-kopotpādanāya tasmiṃs tad-avajñāṃ vyañjayann āha etām iti | etām atisannihitāṃ prāgalbhyenācāryam atiśūraṃ ca tvām avigaṇayya sthitāṃ dṛṣṭvā tad-avajñāṃ pratīhīti, vyūḍhāṃ vyūha-racanayā sthāpitāṃ | drupada-putreṇeti tvad-vairiṇā drupadena tvad-vadhāya dhṛṣṭadyumnaḥ putro yajñāgni-kuṇḍād utpādito 'stīti | tava śiṣyeṇeti tvaṃ sva-śatruṃ jānann api dhanur-vidyām adhyāpitavān asīti tava manda-dhītvam | dhīmateti śatros tvattas tvad-vadhopāyo gṛhīta iti tasya sudhītvam | tvad-apekṣyakāritaivāsmākam
anartha-hetur iti ||3||


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BhG 1.4-6

atra śūrā maheṣvāsā bhīmārjunasamā yudhi |
yuyudhāno virāṭaś ca drupadaś ca mahārathaḥ ||4||
dhṛṣṭaketuś cekitānaḥ kāśirājaś ca vīryavān |
purujit kuntibhojaś ca śaibyaś ca narapuṃgavaḥ ||5||
yudhāmanyuś ca vikrānta uttamaujāś ca vīryavān |
saubhadro draupadeyāś ca sarva eva mahārathāḥ ||6||


Śrīdhara: atrety ādi | atra asyāṃ camvām | iṣavo bāṇā asyas te kṣipyante ebhir iti iṣāsāḥ dhanūṃṣi | mahānta iṣvāso yeṣāṃ te maheṣvāsāḥ | bhīmārjunau tāvad atrātiprasiddhau yoddhārau | tābhyāṃ samāḥ śūrāḥ śauryeṇa kṣātra-dharmeṇopetāḥ santi | tān eva nāmabhir nirdiśati yuyudhānaḥ sātyakiḥ | kiṃ ca dhṛṣṭaketur iti | vikrānto yudhāmanyur nāmaikaḥ | saubhadro 'bhimanyur draupadeyāḥ draupadyāṃ pañcabhyo yudhiṣṭhirādibhyo jātāḥ putrāḥ prativindhyādayaḥ pañca | mahārathādīnāṃ lakṣaṇam -


eko daśa sahasrāṇi yodhayed yas tu dhanvinām |
śastra-śāstra-pravīṇaś ca mahārtha iti smṛtaḥ ||
amitān yodhayed yas tu samprokto 'tirathas tu saḥ |
caikena yo yudhyet tan-nyūno 'rdha-rathaḥ smṛtaḥ || iti ||4-6||

Viśvanātha: atra camvām | mahāntaḥ śatrubhiś chettum aśakyā iṣvāsā dhanūṃṣi yeṣāṃ te | yuyudhānaḥ sātyakiḥ | saubhadro 'bhimanyuḥ | draupadeyā yudhiṣṭhirādibhyaḥ pañcabhyo jātāḥ prativindhyādayaḥ | mahārathādīnāṃ lakṣaṇam -

eko daśa sahasrāṇi yodhayed yas tu dhanvinām |
śastra-śāstra-pravīṇaś ca mahārtha iti smṛtaḥ ||
amitān yodhayed yas tu samprokto 'tirathas tu saḥ |
caikena yo yudhyet tan-nyūno 'rdha-rathaḥ smṛtaḥ || iti ||4-6||

Śrīdhara: nanv ekena dhṛṣṭadyumnenādhiṣṭhitālpikā senāsmadīyenaikenaiva sujeyā syād atas tvaṃ mā trāsīr iti cet tatrāha atreti | atra camvāṃ mahāntaḥ śatrubhiś chettum aśakyā iṣvāsāś cāpā yeṣāṃ te | yuddha-kauśalam āśaṅkyāha bhīmeti | yuyudhānaḥ sātyakiḥ | mahāratha iti yuyudhānīdānāṃ trayāṇām | nara-puṅgava iti purujid-ādīnāṃ trayāṇām | yudyeti vikrānta iti yudhāmanyoḥ | vīryavān ity uttamaujasaś ceti viśeṣaṇam | saubhadro 'bhimanyuḥ | draupadeyā yudhiṣṭhirādibhyaḥ pañcabhyaḥ kramād draupadyāṃ jātāḥ prativindhya-śrutasena-śrutakīrti-śatānīka-śrutakarmākhyāḥ pañca-putrāḥ
| ca-śabdād anye ca ghaṭotkacādayaḥ | pāṇḍavās tv atikhyātatvāt na gaṇitāḥ | ye ete saptadaśa gaṇitāḥ, ye cānye tat-pakṣīyās te sarve mahārathā eva | atirathasyāpy upalakṣaṇam etat | tal-lakṣaṇaṃ coktam -

eko daśa sahasrāṇi yodhayed yas tu dhanvinām |
śastra-śāstra-pravīṇaś ca mahārtha iti smṛtaḥ ||
amitān yodhayed yas tu samprokto 'tirathas tu saḥ |
caikena yo yudhyet tan-nyūno 'rdha-rathaḥ smṛtaḥ || iti ||4-6||

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BhG 1.7

asmākaṃ tu viśiṣṭā ye tān nibodha dvijottama |
nāyakā mama sainyasya saṃjñārthaṃ tān bravīmi te ||7||

Śrīdhara: asmākam iti | nibodha budhyasva | nāyakā netāraḥ | saṃjñārthaṃ samyag jñānārtham ||7||

Viśvanātha: nibodha budhyasva | saṃjñārthaṃ samyag jñānārtham ||7||

Baladeva: tarhi kiṃ pāṇḍava-sainyād bhīto 'sīty ācārya-bhāvaṃ sambhāvyāntarjātām api bhītim ācchādayan dhārṣṭyenāha - asmākam iti | asmākaṃ sarveṣāṃ madhye ye viśiṣṭāḥ paramotkṛṣṭā budhyādi-bala-śālino nāyakā netāraḥ | tān saṃjñārthaṃ samyak jñānārthaṃ bravīmīti | pāṇḍava-premṇā tvaṃ cen no yotsyase, tadāpi bhīṣmādibhir mad-vijayaḥ setsyaty eveti tat kopotpādanārthaṃ dyotyam ||7||


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BhG 1.8-9

bhavān bhīṣmaś ca karṇaś ca kṛpaś ca samitiṃjayaḥ |
aśvatthāmā vikarṇaś ca saumadattir jayadrathaḥ ||8||
anye ca bahavaḥ śūrā madarthe tyaktajīvitāḥ |
nānāśastrapraharaṇāḥ sarve yuddhaviśāradāḥ ||9||

Śrīdhara: tān eṣāha bhavān iti dvābhyām | bhavān droṇaḥ | samitiṃ saṃgrāmaṃ jayatīti tathā | saumadattiḥ somadattasya putro bhūriśravāḥ | anye ceti mad-arthe mat-prayojanārthaṃ jīvitaṃ tyaktum adhyavasitā ity arthaḥ | nānā anekāni śastrāni praharaṇa-sādhanāni yeṣāṃ te | yuddhe viśāradā nipuṇā ity arthaḥ ||8-9||

Viśvanātha: saumadattir bhūriśravāḥ | tyakta-jīvitā iti jīvita-tyāgenāpi yadi mad-upakāraḥ syāt tadā tad api kartuṃ pravṛttā ity arthaḥ | vastutas tu mayaivaite nihatāḥ pūrvam eva nimitta-mātraṃ bhava savyasācin iti bhagavad-ukter duryodhana-sarasvatī satyam evāha sma || 8-9||

Baladeva: bhavān iti | bhavān droṇaḥ | vikarṇo mad-bhrātā kaniṣṭhaḥ | saumadattir bhūriśravāḥ | samitiñjayaḥ saṃgrāma-vijayīti droṇādīnāṃ saptānāṃ viśeṣaṇam | nanv etāvanta eva mat-sainye viśiṣṭāḥ kintv asaṅkhyeyāḥ santīty āha anye ceti | bahavo jayadratha-kṛtavarma-śalya-prabhṛtayaḥ | tyaktety-ādi karmaṇi niṣṭhā jīvitāni tyaktuṃ kṛta-niścayā ity arthaḥ | itthaṃ ca teṣāṃ sarveṣāṃ mayi snehātirekāt śauryātirekād yuddha-pāṇḍityāc ca mad-vijayaḥ siddhyed eveti dyotyate ||8-9||

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BhG 1.10

aparyāptaṃ tad asmākaṃ balaṃ bhīṣmābhirakṣitam |
paryāptaṃ tv idam eteṣāṃ balaṃ bhīmābhirakṣitam ||10||

Śrīdhara: tataḥ kiṃ? ata āha - aparyāptam ity ādi | tat tathābhūtaiḥ vīrair yuktam api bhīṣmeṇābhirakṣitam api asmākaṃ balaṃ sainyaṃ aparyāptaṃ taiḥ saha yoddhuṃ asamarthaṃ bhāti | idam eteṣāṃ pāṇḍavānāṃ balaṃ bhīmābhirakṣitam sat paryāptaṃ samarthaṃ bhāti | bhīṣmasyobhaya-pakṣapātitvāt asmad-balaṃ pāṇḍava-sainyṃ pratyasamartham | bhīmasyika-pakṣapātitvāt pāṇḍavānāṃ balaṃ samartham ||10||

Viśvanātha: aparyāptam aparipūrṇam | pāṇḍavaiḥ saha yoddhuṃ akṣamam ity arthaḥ | bhīṣmeṇātisūkṣma-buddhinā śastra-śāstra-pravīṇenābhito rakṣitam api bhīṣmasyobhaya-pakṣapātitvāt | eteṣāṃ pāṇḍavānāṃ tu bhīmena sthūla-buddhinā śastra-śāstrānabhijño 'pi rakṣitam paryāptaṃ paripūrṇam | asmābhiḥ saha yuddhe pravīṇam ity arthaḥ ||10||

Baladeva: nanv ubhayoḥ sainyayos taulyāt tavaiva vijayaḥ katham ity āśaṅkya sva-sainyādhikyam āha aparyāptam iti | aparyāptam aparimitam asmākaṃ balam | tatrāpi bhīṣmeṇa mahā-buddhimatātirathenābhirakṣitam | eteṣāṃ pāṇḍavānāṃ balaṃ tu paryāptaṃ parimitam | tatrāpi bhīmena tuccha-buddhinārdharathenābhirakṣitam | ataḥ siddha-vijayo 'ham ||10||


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BhG 1.11

ayaneṣu ca sarveṣu yathābhāgam avasthitāḥ |
bhīṣmam evābhirakṣantu bhavantaḥ sarva eva hi ||11||

Viśvanātha: tasmād yuṣmābhiḥ sāvadhānair bhavituvyam ity āha ayaneṣu vyūha-praveśa-mārgeṣu yathā-bhāgaṃ vibhaktāḥ svāṃ svāṃ raṇa-bhūmim aparityajyaivāvasthitā bhavanto bhīṣmam evābhitas tathā rakṣantu yathānyair yudhyamāno 'yaṃ pṛṣṭhataḥ kaiścin na hanyate | bhīṣma-balenaivāsmākaṃ jīvitam iti bhāvaḥ ||11||

Baladeva: athaivaṃ mad-ukti-bhāvaṃ vijñāyācāryaś ced udāsīta tadā mat-kārya-kṣatir iti vibhāvya tasmin sva-kārya-bhāram arpayann āha ayaneṣv iti | ayaneṣu sainya-praveśa-vartmasu yathābhāgaṃ vibhaktāṃ svāṃ svāṃ yuddha-bhūmim aparityajyāvasthitā bhavanto bhavad-ādayo bhīṣmame evābhito rakṣantu yuddhābhiniveśāt pārśvataḥ pṛṣṭhataś cāpaśyantaṃ taṃ yathānyo na vihanyāt tathā kurvantv ity arthaḥ | senāpatau bhīṣme nirbodhe mad-vijaya-siddhir iti bhāvaḥ |

ayam āśayaḥ - bhīṣmo 'smākaṃ pityāmahaḥ | bhavāṃs tu guruḥ | tau yuvām asmad ekānta-hitaiṣiṇau viditau | yāvakṣa-sadasi mad-anyāyaṃ vidantāv api draupadyā nyāyaṃ pṛṣṭau nāvocatāṃ mayā tu pāṇḍaveṣu pratītaṃ snehābhāsaṃ tyājayituṃ tathā niveditam iti ||11||

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BhG 1.12
tasya saṃjanayan harṣaṃ kuru-vṛddhaḥ pitāmahaḥ |
siṃha-nādaṃ vinadyoccaiḥ śaṅkhaṃ dadhmau pratāpavān ||12||

Śrīdhara: tad evaṃ bahu-māna-yuktaṃ rāja-vākyaṃ śrutvā bhīṣmaḥ kiṃ kṛtavān | tad āha tasyety ādi | tasya rājño harṣaṃ kurvan pitāmaho bhīṣma uccair mahāntaṃ siṃha-nādaṃ vinadya kṛtvā śaṅkhaṃ dadhmau vāditavān ||12||

Viśvanātha: tataś ca sva-saṃmāna-śravaṇa-janita-harṣas tasya duryodhanasya bhava-vidhvaṃsanena harṣaṃ sañanayituṃ kuru-vṛddho bhīṣmaḥ siṃha-nādam iti upamāne karmaṇi ceti ṇamul siṃha iva vinadyety arthaḥ ||12||

Baladeva: evaṃ duryodhana-kṛtāṃ sva-stutim avadhārya sa-harṣo bhīṣmas tad-antar-jātāṃ bhītim utsādayituṃ śaṅkhaṃ dadhmāv ity āha | siṃha-nādam ity upamāne karmaṇi ceti pāṇini-sūtrāt ṇamul | cāt kartary upamāne ity arthaḥ | siṃha iva vinadyety arthaḥ | mukhataḥ kiñcid anuktvā śaṅkha-nāda-mātra-karaṇena jaya-parājayau khalv īśvarādhīnau tvad-arthe kṣatra-dharmeṇa dehaṃ tyakṣyāmīti vyajyate ||12||

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BhG 1.13

tataḥ śaṅkhāś ca bheryaś ca paṇavānakagomukhāḥ |
sahasaivābhyahanyanta sa śabdas tumulo 'bhavat ||13||

Śrīdhara: tad evaṃ senāpateḥ bhīṣmasya yuddhotsavam ālokya sarvato yuddhotsavaḥ pravṛtta iy āha tata ity ādinā | paṇavā mārdalāḥ | ānakāḥ gomukhāś ca vādya-viśeṣāḥ | sahasā tat-kṣaṇam evābhyahanyanta vāditāḥ | sa ca śaṅkhādi-śabdas tumulo mahān abhūt ||13||

Viśvanātha: tataś cobhayatraiva yuddhotsāhaḥ pravṛtta ity āha tata iti | paṇavā mārdalāḥ | ānakāḥ paṭahāḥ | gomukhā vādya-viśeṣāḥ ||13||

Baladeva: tata iti | senāpatau bhīṣme pravṛtte tat-sainye sahasā tat-kṣaṇam eva śaṅkhādayo 'bhyahanyanta vāditāḥ | karma-kartari prayogaḥ | paṇavādayas trayo vāditra-bhedāḥ | sa śabdas tumula ekākāratayā mahān āsīt ||13||

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BhG 1.14

tataḥ śvetair hayair yukte mahati syandane sthitau |
mādhavaḥ pāṇḍavaś caiva divyau śaṅkhau pradadhmatuḥ ||14||

Śrīdhara: tataḥ pāṇḍava-sainye pravṛttaṃ yuddhotsāham āha tata ity ādibhiḥ pañcabhiḥ | tataḥ kaurava-sainya-vādya-kolāhalānantaraṃ mahati syandane rathe sthitau santau śrī-kṛṣṇārjunau divyau śaṅkhau prakarṣeṇa dadhmatur vādayāmāsatuḥ | ||12||

Viśvanātha: Nothing ||14||

Baladeva: atha pāṇḍava-sainye pravṛttaṃ yuddhosavam āha tata iti | anyeṣām api ratha-sthitatve saty api kṛṣṇārjunayoḥ ratha-sthitatvoktis tad-rathasyāgni-dattatvaṃ trailokya-vijetṛtvaṃ mahā-prabhavatvaṃ ca vyajyate ||14||

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BhG 1.15-18

pāñcajanyaṃ hṛṣīkeśo devadattaṃ dhanaṃjayaḥ |
pauṇḍraṃ dadhmau mahāśaṅkhaṃ bhīmakarmā vṛkodaraḥ ||15||
anantavijayaṃ rājā kuntīputro yudhiṣṭhiraḥ |
nakulaḥ sahadevaś ca sughoṣamaṇipuṣpakau ||16||
kāśyaś ca parameṣvāsaḥ śikhaṇḍī ca mahārathaḥ |
dhṛṣṭadyumno virāṭaś ca sātyakiś cāparājitaḥ ||17||
drupado draupadeyāś ca sarvaśaḥ pṛthivīpate |
saubhadraś ca mahābāhuḥ śaṅkhān dadhmuḥ pṛthak pṛthak ||18||


Śrīdhara: tad eva vibhāgena darśayann āha pāñcajanyam iti | pāñcajanyādīni nāmāni śrī-kṛṣṇādi-śaṅkhānām | bhīmaḥ ghoraṃ karma yasya saḥ | vṛkavat udaraṃ yasya sa vṛkodaro mahā-śaṅkhaṃ pauṇḍraṃ dadhmāv iti | ananteti | nakulaḥ sughoṣaṃ nāma śaṅkhaṃ dadhmau | sahadevo maṇipuṣpakaṃ nāma | kāśyaś ceti | kāśyaḥ kāśirājaḥ | kathambhūtaḥ | paramaḥ śreṣṭhaḥ iṣvāso dhanur yasya saḥ | drupada iti | he pṛthivīpate dhṛtarāṣṭra ||15-18||

Viśvanātha: pāñcajanyādayaḥ śaṅkhādīnāṃ nāmāni | aparājitaḥ kenāpi parājetum aśakyatvāt | athavā cāpena dhanuṣā rājitaḥ pradīptaḥ ||15-18||

Baladeva: pāñcajanyam ity ādi pāñcajanyādayaḥ kṛṣṇādi-śaṅkhānām āhvayāḥ | atra hṛṣīkeśa-śabdena parameśvara-sahāyitvam | pāñcajanyādi-śabdaiḥ prasiddhāhvayāneka-divya-śaṅkhavattvam | rājā bhīmakarmā dhanañjaya ity ebhir yudhiṣṭhirādīnāṃ rāja-sūya-yājitva-hiḍimbādi-nihantṛtva-digvijayāhṛtānanta-dhanatvāni ca vyajya pāṇḍava-senā-sūtkarṣaḥ sūcyate | para-senāsu tad-abhāvād apakarṣaś ca | kāśya iti | kāśyaḥ kāśirājaḥ | parameṣvāsaḥ mahā-dhurdharaḥ | cāparājito dhanuṣā dīptaḥ | drupada iti | pṛthivīpate he dhṛtarāṣṭreti tava durmantraṇodayaḥ kula-kṣaya-lakṣaṇo ' narthaḥ samāsata
iti sūcyate ||15-18||

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BhG 1.19

sa ghoṣo dhārtarāṣṭrāṇāṃ hṛdayāni vyadārayat |
nabhaś ca pṛthivīṃ caiva tumulo vyanunādayan ||19||

Śrīdhara - sa ca śaṅkhānāṃ nādas tvadīyānāṃ mahābhayaṃ janayāmāsety āha sa ghoṣa ity ādi | dhārtarāṣṭrāṇāṃ tvadīyānāṃ hṛṇḍayāṇi vyadārayat vidāritavān | kiṃ kurvan | nabhaś ca pṛthivīṃ caiva tumulo 'bhyanunādayan pratidhvanibhir apūryan ||19||

Viśvanātha - Nothing.

Baladeva - sa iti | pāṇḍavaiḥ kṛtaḥ śaṅkha-nādo dhārtarāṣṭrāṇāṃ bhīṣmādīnāṃ sarveṣāṃ hṛṇḍayāṇi vyadārayat | tad-vidāraṇa-tulyāṃ pīḍām ajanayad ity arthaḥ | tumulo 'titīvraḥ abhyanunādayan pratidhvanibhiḥ p”ryann ity arthaḥ | dhārtarāṣṭraiḥ kṛtas tu śaṅkhādinādas tumulo 'pi teṣāṃ kiñcid api kṣobhaṃ nājanayat tathānukter iti bodhyam ||19||


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BhG 1.20-23

atha vyavasthitān dṛṣṭvā dhārtarāṣṭrān kapidhvajaḥ |
pravṛtte śastrasaṃpāte dhanur udyamya pāṇḍavaḥ ||20||

Śrīdhara - etasmin samaye śrī-kṛṣṇam arjuno vijñāpayāmāsety āha atha ity ādibhiḥ caturbhiḥ ślokaiḥ | atheti athānantaraṃ vyavasthitān yuddhodyogena sthitān | kapidhvajo 'rjunaḥ ||20||

Viśvanātha - Nothing.

Baladeva - evaṃ dhārtarāṣṭrāṇāṃ yuddhe bhītiṃ pradarśya pāṇḍavānāṃ tu tatrotsāham āha atheti sārdhakena | atha ripu-śaṅkha-nāda-kṛtotsāha-bhaṅgānantaraṃ vyavasthitān tad-bhaṅga-virodhi-yuyutsayāvasthitān dhārtarāṣṭrān bhīṣmādīn kapidhvajo 'rjuno yena śrī-dāśarather api mahānti kāryāni purā sādhitāni tena mahāvīreṇa dhvajam adhitiṣñhitā hanumatānugṛhīto bhaya-gandha-śūnya ity arthaḥ | he mahīpate pravṛtte pravartamāne | hṛṣīkeśam iti hṛṣīkeśaṃ sarvendriya-pravartakaṃ kṛṣṇaṃ tad idaṃ vākyam uvāceti | sarveśvaro harir yeṣāṃ niyojyas teṣāṃ tad ekānta-bhaktānāṃ pāṇḍavānāṃ
vijaye sandeha-gandho 'pi neti bhāvaḥ ||20||


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BhG 1.21-23

hṛṣīkeśaṃ tadā vākyam idam āha mahīpate |
senayor ubhayor madhye rathaṃ sthāpaya me 'cyuta ||21||
yāvad etān nirīkṣe 'haṃ yoddhukāmān avasthitān |
kair mayā saha yoddhavyam asmin raṇasamudyame ||22||
yotsyamānān avekṣe 'haṃ ya ete 'tra samāgatāḥ |
dhārtarāṣṭrasya durbuddher yuddhe priyacikīrṣavaḥ ||23||

Śrīdhara - tad eva vākyam āha senayor ubhayor ity ādi | yāvad etān iti | nanu tvaṃ yoddhā na tu yuddha-prekṣakas tatrāha kair mayety ādi | kaiḥ saha mayā yoddhavyam | yotsyamānān iti dhārtarāṣṭrasya duryodhanasya priyaṃ kartum icchanto ye iha samāgatāḥ tān ahaṃ drakṣyāmi yāvat | tāvad ubhayoḥ senayor madhye me rathaṃ sthāpayety anvayaḥ ||21-23||

Viśvanātha - Nothing.

Baladeva -arjuna-vākyam āha senayor iti | he acyutedi svabhāva-siddhād bhakta-vātsalyāt pāramaiśvaryāc ca na cyavase smeti tena tena ca niyantirto bhaktasya me vākyāt tatra rathaṃ sthitaṃ kuru nirbhaya tatra ratha-sthāpane phalam āha yāvad iti | yoddhu-kāmān na tu sahāsmābhiḥ sandhiṃ cikīrṣūn | avasthitān na tu bhītyā pracalitān |

nanu tvaṃ yoddhā, na tu yuddha-prekṣakas tatas tad-darśanena kim iti cet tatrāha kair iti | asmin bandhūnām eva mitho raṇodyoge kair bandhubhiḥ saha mama yuddhaṃ bhāvīty etaj-jñānāyaivaa madhye ratha-sthāpanam iti |

nanu bandhutvād eet sandhim eva vidhātsyantīti cet tatrāha yotsyamānān iti na tu sandhiṃ vidhāsyataḥ | avekṣe pratyemi | durbuddheḥ kudhiyaḥ svajīvanopāyānabhijñasya yuddhe na tu durbuddhy-apanayane | ato mad-yuddha-pratiyogi-nirīkṣaṇaṃ yuktam iti ||21-23||

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BhG 1.24-25

evam ukto hṛṣīkeśo guḍākeśena bhārata |
senayor ubhayor madhye sthāpayitvā rathottamam ||24||
bhīṣma-droṇa-pramukhataḥ sarveṣāṃ ca mahīkṣitām |
uvāca pārtha paśyaitān samavetān kurūn iti ||25||

Śrīdhara: tataḥ kiṃ vṛttam | ity apekṣāyāṃ sañjaya uvāca evam ukta ity ādi | uḍākā nidrā tasya īśena jita-nidreṇa arjunena evam uktaḥ san | he bhārata, he dhṛtarāṣṭra senayor madhye rathānām uttamaṃ rathaṃ hṛṣīkeśaḥ sthāpitavān | bhīṣma-droṇa iti mahīkṣitāṃ rājñāṃ ca pramukhataḥ sammukhe rathaṃ sthāpayitvā | he pārtha etān kurūn paśyeti śrī-bhagavān uvāca ||24-25||

Viśvanātha: hṛṣīkeśaḥ sarvendriya-niyantāpy evam ukto 'rjunenādiṣṭaḥ | arjuna-vāg-indriya-mātreṇāpi niyamyo 'bhūd ity aho prea-vaśyatvaṃ bhagavata iti bhāvaḥ | guḍākeśena guḍā yathā mādhurya-mātra-prakāśakās tat tathā svīya-sneha-rasāsvāda-prakāśakā akeśā viṣṇu-brahma-śivā yasya tena akāro viṣṇuḥ ko brahmā īśo mahā-devaḥ | yatra sarvāvatāri-cūḍāmaṇīndraḥ svayaṃ bhagavān śrī-kṛṣṇa eva premādhīnaḥ sann ājñānuvartī babhūva | tatra guṇāvatāratvāt tad-aṃśāḥ viṣṇu-brahma-rudrāḥ katham aiśvaryaṃ prakāśayantu | kintu svakartṛkaṃ sneha-rasaṃ prakāśyaiva svaṃ svaṃ
kṛtārthaṃ manyanta ity arthaḥ | yad uktaṃ śrī-bhagavatā para-vyoma-nāthenāpi dvijātmamajā me yuvayor didṛkṣuṇā iti |

yad vā, guḍāko nidrā tasyā īśena jita-nidrenety arthaḥ | atrāpi vyākhyāyāṃ sākṣān māyāyā api niyantā yaḥ śrī-kṛṣṇaḥ sa cāpi yena premṇā vijitya vaśīkṛtas tenārjunena māyā-vṛttir nidrā varākī jiteti kiṃ citram iti bhāvaḥ | bhīṣma-droṇayoḥ pramukhataḥ pramukhe sammukhe sarveṣāṃ mahīkṣitāṃ rājñāṃ ca | pramukhataḥ iti samāsa-praviṣṭe 'pi pramukhataḥ-śabda ākṛṣyate ||24-25||

Baladeva: tataḥ kiṃ vṛttam ity apekṣāyāṃ sañjayaḥ prāha evam iti | guḍākā nidrā tasyā īśaḥ sva-sakha-śrī-bhagavad-guṇa-lāvaṇya-smṛti-niveśena vijita-nidras tat-parama-bhaktas tenārjunenaivam uktaḥ pravartito hṛṣīkeśas tac-citta-vṛtty-abhijño bhagavān senayor madhye bhīṣma-droṇayoḥ sarveṣāṃ ca mahīkṣitāṃ bhū-bhujāṃ ca pramukhataḥ sammukhe rathottamaṃ agnidattaṃ rathaṃ sthāpayitvovāca he pārtha samavetān etān kurūn paśyeti | pārtha-hṛṣīkeśa-śabdābhyām idaṃ sūcyate matipitṛ-svasṛ-putratvāt tvat-sārathyam ahaṃ kariṣyāmy eva tvaṃ tv adhunaiva yuyutsāṃ
tyakṣyasīti kiṃ śatru-sainya-vīkṣaṇeneti sopahāso bhāvaḥ ||24-25||

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BhG 1.26

tatrāpaśyat sthitān pārthaḥ pitṝn atha pitāmahān |
ācāryān mātulān bhrātṝn putrān pautrān sakhīṃs tathā ||
śvaśurān suhṛdaś caiva senayor ubhayor api ||26||

Śrīdhara: tataḥ kiṃ pravṛttam ity āha tatrety ādi | pitṝn pitṛvyān ity arthaḥ | putrān pautrān iti duryodhanādīnāṃ ye putrāḥ pautrāś ca tān ity arthaḥ | sakhīn mitrāṇi | suhṛdaḥ kṛtopakārāṃś ca apaśyat |

Viśvanātha: duryodhanādīnāṃ ye putrāḥ pautrāś ca tān |

Baladeva: evaṃ bhagavatokto 'rjunaḥ para-senām apaśyad ity āha tatreti sārdhakena | tatra para-senāyāṃ pitṝn pitṛvyān bhūriśravaḥ-prabhṛtīn, pitāmahān bhīṣma-somadattādīn, ācāryān droṇa-kṛpādīn, mātulān śalya-śakuny-ādīn, bhrātṝn duryodhanādīn, putrān lakṣmaṇādīn, pautrān naptṝn, lakṣmaṇādi-putrān, sakhīn vayasyān drauṇi-saindhavādīn, suhṛdaḥ kṛtavarma-bhagadattādīn | evaṃ sva-sainye 'py upalakṣaṇīyam | ubhayor api senayor avasthitān tān sarvān samīkṣyety anvayāt ||26||

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BhG 1.27

tān samīkṣya sa kaunteyaḥ sarvān bandhūn avasthitān |
kṛpayā parayāviṣṭo viṣīdann idam abravīt ||27||

Śrīdhara: tataḥ kiṃ kṛtavān ity āha tān iti | senayor ubhayor evaṃ samīkṣya kṛpayā mahatyā āviṣṭaḥ viṣaṇṇaḥ san idam arjuno 'bravīt | ity uttarasya ardha-ślokasya vākyārthaḥ | āviṣṭo vyāptaḥ ||27||

Viśvanātha: Nothing.

Baladeva: atha sarveśvaro dayāluḥ kṛṣṇaḥ saparikarātmopadeśena viśvam uddidhīrṣur arjunaṃ śiṣyaṃ kartuṃ tat-sva-dharme 'pi yuddhe mā hiṃsyāt sarva-bhūtāni iti śruty-arthābhāsenādharmatām ābhāsya taṃ saṃmohaṃ kṛtavān ity āha tān samīkṣyate kaunteya iti svīya-pitṛ-svasṛ-putratvoktyā tad-dharmo moha-śokau tadā tasya vyajyete | kṛpayā kartryā ity ukteḥ | svabhāva-siddhasya kṛpeti dyotsyate | ataḥ parayeti tad-viśeṣaṇam | aparayeti vā cchedaḥ sva-sainye pūrvam api kṛpāsti para-sainye tv aparāpi sābhūd ity arthaḥ | viṣīdann anutāpaḥ vindan | atrokti-viṣādayor aika-kālyādy-ukti-kāle
viṣāda-kāryāṇy-aśru-kampa-sanna-kaṇṭhādīni vyajyate ||27||

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BhG 1.28-29

dṛṣṭvemān svajanān kṛṣṇa yuyutsuṃ samupasthitam |
sīdanti mama gātrāṇi mukhaṃ ca pariśuṣyati ||28||
vepathuś ca śarīre me romaharṣaś ca jāyate |
gāṇḍīvaṃ sraṃsate hastāt tvak caiva paridahyate ||29||

Śrīdhara: kim abravīd ity apekṣāyām āha dṛṣṭvemān ity ādi yāvad adhyāya-samāpti | he kṛṣṇa yoddhum icchataḥ purataḥ samavasthitān svajanān bandhu-janān dṛṣṭvā madīyāni gātrāṇi karacaraṇādīni sīdanti viśīryante | kiṃ ca vepahtuś cetyādi | vepathuḥ kampaḥ | romaharṣaḥ romāñcaḥ | sraṃsate nipatati | paridahyate sarvataḥ santapyate ||28-29||

Viśvanātha: dṛṣṭvety atra sthitasyety adhyāhāryam ||28-29||

Baladeva: kaunteyaḥ śoka-vyākulaṃ yad āha tad anuvadati dṛṣṭvemam iti | svajanaṃ sva-bandhu-vargaṃ jātāv eka-vacanaṃ sa-gotra-bāndhava-jñāti-bandhu-sva-svajanāḥ samāḥ ity amaraḥ | dṛṣṭvāsavthitasya mama gātrāṇi kara-caraṇādīni sīdanti śīryante pariśuṣyatīti śramādi-hetukāc choṣād atiśayitvam asya śoṣasya vyajyate | vepathuḥ kampaḥ | romaharṣaḥ pulakaḥ | gāṇḍīva-bhraṃśenādhairyaṃ tvag-dāhnea hṛd-vidāho darśitaḥ ||28-29||

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BhG 1.30

na ca śaknomy avasthātuṃ bhramatīva ca me manaḥ |
nimittāni ca paśyāmi viparītāni keśava ||30||

Śrīdhara: api ca na śaknomīty ādi | viparītāni nimittāni aniṣṭa-sūcakāni śakunāni paśyāmi ||30||

Viśvanātha: viparītāni nimittāni dhana-nimittako 'yam atra me vāsa itivan nimitta-śabdo 'yaṃ prayojana-vācī | tataś ca yuddhe vijayino mama rājya-lābhāt sukhaṃ na bhaviṣyati, kintu tad-viparītam anutāpa-duḥkham eva bhāvīty arthaḥ ||30||

Baladeva: api ceti avasthātuṃ sthiro bhavituṃ mano bhramtīva ceti daurbalya-mūrcchayor udayaḥ | nimittāni phalāny atra yuddhe viparītāni paśyāmi | vijayino me rājya-prāptir ānando na bhaviṣyati kintu tad-viparīto 'nutāpa eva bhāvīti | nimitta-śabdaḥ phala-vācī kasmai nimittāyātra vasasi ity ādau tathā pratīteḥ ||30||


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BhG 1.31

na ca śreyo 'nupaśyāmi hatvā svajanam āhave |
na kāṅkṣe vijayaṃ kṛṣṇa na ca rājyaṃ sukhāni ca ||31||

Śrīdhara: kiṃ ca na cety ādi | āhave yuddhe svajanaṃ hatvā śreyaḥ phalaṃ na paśyāmi | vijayādikaṃ phalaṃ kiṃ na paśyasīti cet tatrāha na kāṅkṣa iti ||31||

Viśvanātha: śreyo na paśyāmīti dvāv imau puruṣau loke sūrya-maṇḍala-bhedinau | parivrāḍ yoga-yuktaś ca raṇe cābhimukhe hataḥ || ity ādinā hatasyaiva śreyo-vidhānāt | hantus tu na kim ap sukṛtam | nana dṛṣṭaṃ phalaṃ yaśo rājyaṃ vartate yuddhasyety ata āha na kāṅkṣa iti ||31||

Baladeva: evaṃ tattva-jñāna-pratikūlaṃ śokam uktvā tat-pratikūlāṃ viparīta-buddhim āha na ceti | āhave svajanaṃ hatvā śreyo naiva paśyāmīti | dvāv imau puruṣau loke sūrya-maṇḍala-bhedinau | parivrāḍ yoga-yuktaś ca raṇe cābhimukhe hataḥ || ity ādinā hatasya śreyaḥ-smaraṇāt hantur me na kiñcic chreyaḥ | asvajanam iti vā cchedaḥ asvajana-vadhe 'pi śreyaso 'bhāvāt svajana-vadhe punaḥ kutastarāṃ tad ity arthaḥ |

nanu yaśo-rājya-lābho dṛṣṭaṃ phalam astīti cet tatrāha na kāṅkṣa iti | rājyādi-spṛhā-virahād upāye vijaye mama pravṛttir na yuktā, randhane yathā bhojanechā-virahiṇaḥ | tasmād araṇya-nivasanam evāsmākaṃ ślāghya-jīvanatvaṃ bhāvīti ||31||


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BhG 1.32-35

kiṃ no rājyena govinda kiṃ bhogair jīvitena vā |
yeṣām arthe kāṅkṣitaṃ no rājyaṃ bhogāḥ sukhāni ca ||32||
ta ime 'vasthitā yuddhe prāṇāṃs tyaktvā dhanāni ca |
ācāryāḥ pitaraḥ putrās tathaiva ca pitāmahāḥ ||33||
mātulāḥ śvaśurāḥ pautrāḥ śyālāḥ saṃbandhinas tathā |
etān na hantum icchāmi ghnato 'pi madhusūdana ||34||
api trailokyarājyasya hetoḥ kiṃ nu mahīkṛte |
nihatya dhārtarāṣṭrān naḥ kā prītiḥ syāj janārdana ||35|||


Śrīdhara: etad eva prapañcayati kiṃ no rājyena ity ādi sārdha-dvayena | ta ime iti | yad-artham asmākaṃ rājyādikam apekṣitam te ete prāṇa-dhanāni tyaktvā tyāgam aṅgīkṛtya yuddhārtham avasthitāḥ | ataḥ kim asmākaṃ rājyādibhiḥ kṛtyam ity arthaḥ |

nanu yadi kṛpayā tvam etān na haṃsi tarhi tvām ete rājya-lobhena haniṣyanty eva | atas tvam evaitān hatvā rājyaṃ bhuṅkṣveti | tatrāha etān ity ādi sārdhena | ghnato 'pi asmān mārayato 'pi etān | apīti | trailokya-rājyasyāpi hetoḥ tat-prāpty-artham api hantuṃ necchāmi | kiṃ punar mahīmātra-prāptaya ity arthaḥ ||32-35||

Viśvanātha: Nothing.

Baladeva: govindeti | gāḥ sarvendriya-vṛttīḥ vindasīti tvam eva me manogataṃ pratīhīty arthaḥ | rājyādy-anākāṅkṣāyāṃ hetum āha yeṣām iti | prāṇān prāṇāśāṃ dhanāni9 dhanāśām iti laksaṇayā bodhyam | sva-prāṇa-vyaye 'pi sva-bandhu-sukhārthā rājya-spṛhā syāt teṣām apy atra nāśa-prāpter apārthaiva yuddhe pravṛttir iti bhāvaḥ |

nanu tvaṃ cet kāruṇikas etān na hanyās tarhi te sva-rājyaṃ niṣkaṇṭakaṃ kartuṃ tvām eva hanyur iti cet tatrāh etān iti | māṃ ghnato 'pi hiṃsato 'py etān hantum ahaṃ necchāmi | trailokya-rājyasya prāptaye 'pi kiṃ punar bhū-mātrasya |

nanv anvayān hitvā dhṛtarāṣṭra-putrā eva hantavyā, bahu-duḥkha-dātṝṇāṃ teṣāṃ ghāte sukha-sambhavād iti cet tatrāha nihatyeti | dhārtarāṣṭrān duryodhanādīn nihatya sthitānāṃ naḥ pāṇḍāvānāṃ kā prītiḥ prasannatā syān na kāpīti acira-sukhābhāsa-spṛhayā ciratara-naraka-hetu-bhrāṛho na yogya iti bhāvaḥ | he janārdaneti yady ete hantavyās tarhi bhūbhārāpahārī tvam eva tān hahi pareśasya te pāpa-gandha-sambandho na bhaved iti vyajyate ||32-35||

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BhG 1.36

pāpam evāśrayed asmān hatvaitān ātatāyinaḥ |
tasmān nārhā vayaṃ hantuṃ dhārtarāṣṭrān svabāndhavān |
svajanaṃ hi kathaṃ hatvā sukhinaḥ syāma mādhava ||36||

Śrīdhara: nanu ca agnido garadaś caiva śastra-pāṇir dhanāpahaḥ | kṣetra-dārāpahārī ca ṣaḍ ete hy ātatāyinaḥ || iti smaraṇād agni-dāhādibhiḥ ṣaḍbhir hetubhir ete tāvad ātatāyinaḥ ātatāyināṃ ca vadho yukta eva | ātatāyinam āyāntaṃ hanyād evāvicārayan | nātatāyi-vadhe doṣo hantur bhavati kaścana || iti vacanāt |

tatrāha pāpam evety ādi-sārdhena | ātatāyinam āyāntam ity ādikam artha-śāstram | tac ca dharma-śāstrāt durbalam | yathoktaṃ yājñavalkyena smṛtyor virodhe nyāyas tu balavān vyavahārataḥ | artha-śāstrāt tu balavān dharma-śāstram iti sthitiḥ || iti | tasmād ātatāyinām apy eteṣām ācāryādīnāṃ vadhe 'smākaṃ pāpam eva bhavet | anyāyyatvād adharmatvāc caitad vadhasya amutra ceha vā na sukhaṃ syād ity āha svajanam iti ||36||
Viśvanātha: nanu agnido garadaś caiva śastra-pāṇir dhanāpahaḥ | kṣetra-dārāpahārī ca ṣaḍ ete hy ātatāyinaḥ || iti | ātatāyinam āyāntaṃ hanyād evāvicārayan | nātatāyi-vadhe doṣo hantur bhavati kaścana || ity ādi-vacanād eṣāṃ vadha ucita eveti | tatrāha pāpam iti | etān hatvā sthitān asmān | ātatāyinam āyāntam ity ādikam artha-śāstraṃ dharma-śāstrāt durbalam | yad uktaṃ yājñavalkyena artha-śāstrāt tu balavad dharma-śāstram iti smṛtam || iti | tasmād ācāryādīnāṃ vadhe pāpaṃ syād eva | na caihikaṃ sukham api syād ity āha svajanam iti ||36||

Baladeva: nanu agnido garadaś caiva śastra-pāṇir dhanāpahaḥ | kṣetra-dārāpahārī ca ṣaḍ ete hy ātatāyinaḥ || ātatāyinam āyāntaṃ hanyād evāvicārayan | nātatāyi-vadhe doṣo hantur bhavati kaścana || ity ukter eṣāṃ ṣaḍ-vidhyenātatāyināṃ yukto vadha iti cet tatrāha pāpam iti | etān hatvā sthitān asmān pāpam eva bandhu-kṣaya-hetukam āśrayet | ayaṃ bhāvaḥ ātatāyinam āyāntam ity ādikam artha-śāstraṃ mā hiṃsyāt sarva-bhūtāni iti dharma-śāstrāt durbalam | artha-śāstrāt tu balavad dharma-śāstram iti sthitiḥ || iti smṛteḥ | tasmād durbalārtha-śāstra-balena pūjyānāṃ droṇa-bhīṣmādīnāṃ vadhaḥ pāpa-hetur eveti
| na ca śreyo 'nupaśyāmīty ārabhyoktam upasaṃharati tasmād iti | pāpa-sambhavāt | daihika-sukhasyāpy abhāvāc cety arthaḥ | na hi gurubhir bandhu-janaiś ca vināsmākaṃ rājya-bhogaḥ sukhāyāpi tu anutāpāyaiva sampatsyate | he mādhaveti śrīpatis tvam aśrīke yuddhe kathaṃ pravartayasiīti bhāvaḥ ||36||

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BhG 1.37

yady apy ete na paśyanti lobhopahata-cetasaḥ |
kula-kṣaya-kṛtaṃ doṣaṃ mitra-drohe ca pātakam ||37||
kathaṃ na jñeyam asmābhiḥ pāpād asmān nivartitum |
kulakṣayakṛtaṃ doṣaṃ prapaśyadbhir janārdana ||38||



Śrīdhara: nanu tavaiteṣām api bandhu-vadha-doṣe samāne sati yathaivaite bandhu-vadha-doṣam aṅgīkṛtyāpi yuddhe pravartate | tathaiva bhavān api pravartatāṃ kim anena viṣādenety ata āha yadyapīti dvābhyām | rājya-lobhenopahataṃ bhraṣṭa-vivekaṃ ceto yeṣāṃ te ete duryodhanādayo yadyapi doṣaṃ na paśyanti, tathāpi asmābhir doṣaṃ prapaśyadbhir asmāt pāpāt nivartituṃ kathaṃ na jñeyaṃ nivṛttāv eva buddhiḥ kartavyety arthaḥ ||37-38||

Viśvanātha: nanv ete tarhi kathaṃ yuddhe vartante | tatrāha yadyapīti ||37-38||

Baladeva: nanu āhūto na nivarteta dyūtād api raṇād api viditaṃ kṣatriyasyeti kṣatra-dharma-smaraṇāt tair āhūtānāṃ bhavatāṃ yuddhe pravṛttir yukteti cet tatrāha yadyapīhi dvābhyām | pāpe pravṛttau lobhas teṣāṃ hetur asmākaṃ tu lobha-virahān na tatra pravṛttir iti | iṣṭa-sāvadhānatā-jñānaṃ khalu pravartakam | iṣṭaṃ cāniṣṭān anubandhi-vācyam | yad uktam -

phalato 'pi ca yat karma nānārthenānubadhyate |
kevala-prīti-hetutvāt tad-dharm iti kathyate || iti |

tathā ca śyenenābhicaran yajeta ity ādi śāstrokte 'pi śyenādāv ivāniṣṭānubandhitvād yuddhe 'smin naḥ pravṛttir na yukteti | āhūta ity ādi śāstraṃ tu kula-kṣaya-doṣaṃ vinā bhūta-viṣayaṃ bhāvi | he janārdaneti prāgvat ||37-38||


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BhG 1.39

kulakṣaye praṇaśyanti kuladharmāḥ sanātanāḥ |
dharme naṣṭe kulaṃ kṛtsnam adharmo 'bhibhavaty uta ||39||

Śrīdhara: tam eva doṣaṃ darśayati kula-kṣaya ity ādi | sanātanāḥ parasparāprāptāḥ | uta api avaśiṣṭaṃ kṛtsnam api kulam adharmo 'bhibhavati vyāpnotīty arthaḥ ||39||

Viśvanātha: kula-kṣaya iti sanātanāḥ kula-parasparā-prāptatvena bahu-kālataḥ prāptā ity arthaḥ ||39||

Baladeva: doṣam eva prapañcayati kula-kṣaya iti | kula-dharmāḥ kulocitā agni-hotrādayo dharmāḥ sanātanāḥ kula-paraspara-prāptāḥ praṇaśyanti kartur vināśāt | utety apy arthe kṛtsnam ity anena sambadhyate | dharme naṣṭe saty avaśiṣṭaṃ bālādi-kṛtsnam api kulam adharmo 'bhibhavati satīty arthaḥ ||39||

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BhG 1.40

adharmābhibhavāt kṛṣṇa praduṣyanti kulastriyaḥ |
strīṣu duṣṭāsu vārṣṇeya jāyate varṇa-saṃkaraḥ ||40||

Śrīdhara: tataś ca adharmābhibhavād ity ādi ||40||

Viśvanātha: praduṣyantīti | adharma eva tā vyabhicāre pravartayatīti bhāvaḥ ||40||

Baladeva: tataś cādharmābhibhavād iti | asmad-bhartṛbhir dharmam ullaṅghya yathā̆akula-kṣaya-lakṣaṇe pāpe vartitaṃ, tathāsmābhiḥ pātivratyam avajñāya durācāre vartitavyam iti durbuddhi-hatāḥ kula-striyaḥ praduṣyeyur ity arthaḥ ||40||

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BhG 1.41

saṃkaro narakāyaiva kulaghnānāṃ kulasya ca |
patanti pitaro hy eṣāṃ luptapiṇḍodakakriyāḥ ||41||

Śrīdhara: evaṃ sati saṅkara ity ādi | eṣāṃ kula-ghnānāṃ pitaraḥ patanti | hi yasmāt luptāḥ piṇḍodaka-kriyā yeṣāṃ te tathā |

Viśvanātha: Nothing.

Baladeva: kulasya saṅkaraḥ kula-ghnānāṃ narakāyaiveti yojanā | na kevalaṃ kula-ghnā eva narake patanti, kintu tat-pitaro 'pīty āha patantīti hir hetau | paṇḍādi dātṝṇāṃ putrādīnām abhāvād vilupta-piṇḍādi-kriyā santas te narakāyaiva patanti ||41||

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BhG 1.42

doṣair etaiḥ kulaghnānāṃ varṇasaṃkarakārakaiḥ |
utsādyante jātidharmāḥ kuladharmāś ca śāśvatāḥ ||42||

Śrīdhara: ukta-doṣam upasaṃharati doṣair iti dvābhyāṃ | utsādyante lupyante | jāti-dharmā varṇa-dharmāḥ kula-dharmāś ceti ca-kārād āśrama-dharmādayo 'pi gṛhyante ||42||

Viśvanātha: doṣair iti | utsādyante lupyante ||42||

Baladeva: ukta-doṣam upasaṃharati doṣair iti dvābhyāṃ | utsādyante vilupyante | jāti-dharmāḥ kṣatriyatvādi-nirbandhanāḥ | kula-dharmās tv asādhāraṇāḥ | ca-śabdād āśrama-dharmā grāhyāḥ ||42||


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BhG 1.43

utsanna-kula-dharmāṇāṃ manuṣyāṇāṃ janārdana |
narake niyataṃ vāso bhavatīty anuśuśruma ||43||

Śrīdhara: utsanneti | utsannāḥ kula-dharmā yeṣām iti utsanna-jāti-dharmānām apy upalakṣaṇam | anuśuśruma śrutavanto vayam | prāyaścittam akurvāṇāḥ pāpeṣu niratā narāḥ | apaśāt-tāpinaḥ kaṣṭān nirayān yānti dāruṇān || ity ādi vacanebhyaḥ ||43||

Viśvanātha: Nothing.

Baladeva: utsanneti | jāti-dharmādīnāṃ upalakṣaṇam etat | anuśuśruma śrutavanto vayaṃ guru-mukhāt | prāyaścittam akurvāṇāḥ pāpeṣu niratā narāḥ | apaśāt-tāpinaḥ kaṣṭān nirayān yānti dāruṇān || ity ādi vākyaiḥ ||43||

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BhG 1.44

aho bata mahat pāpaṃ kartuṃ vyavasitā vayam |
yad rājyasukhalobhena hantuṃ svajanam udyatāḥ ||44||

Śrīdhara: bandhu-vadhādhyavasāyena santy upamāne āha aho batetyādi | svajanaṃ hantum udyatā iti yat etan-mahat-pāpaṃ kartum adhyavasāyaṃ kṛtavanto vayam | aho bata mahat kaṣṭam ity arthaḥ ||44||

Viśvanātha: Nothing.

Baladeva: bandhu-vadhādhyavasāyenāpi pāpaṃ sambhāvyānupapannāha aho iti | bateti sandehe ||44||


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BhG 1.45

yadi mām apratīkāram aśastraṃ śastra-pāṇayaḥ |
dhārtarāṣṭrā raṇe hanyus tan me kṣemataraṃ bhavet ||45||

Śrīdhara: evaṃ santaptaḥ san mṛtyum evāśaṃsamāna āha yadi mām ity ādi | apratīkāraṃ tuṣṇīm upaviṣṭaṃ māṃ yadi haniṣyanti tarhi tad-dhananaṃ mama kṣemataram atyantaṃ hitaṃ bhavet pāpāniṣpatteḥ ||45||

Viśvanātha: Nothing.

Baladeva: nanu tvayi bandhu-vadhād vinivṛtte 'pi bhīṣmādibhir yuddhotsukais tva-vadhaḥ syād eva tataḥ kiṃ vidheyam iti cet tatrāha yadi mām ity ādi | apratīkāram akṛta-mad-vadhādhyavasāya-pāpa-prāyaścittam | kṣemataram atihitaṃ prāṇānta-prāyaścittenaivaitat pāpāvamarjanam | bhīṣmādayas tu na tat-pāpa-phalaṃ prāpsyanty eveti bhāvaḥ ||45||

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BhG 1.46

evam uktvārjunaḥ saṃkhye rathopastha upāviśat |
visṛjya saśaraṃ cāpaṃ śokasaṃvignamānasaḥ ||46||

Śrīdhara: tataḥ kiṃ vṛttam ity apekṣāyāṃ sañjaya uvāca evam uktvety ādi | saṅkhye saṅgrāme rathopasthe rathasyopari upāviśat upaviveśa | śokena saṃvignaṃ prakampitaṃ mānasaṃ cittaṃ yasya saḥ ||46||

iti śrī-śrīdhara-svāmi-kṛtāyāṃ bhagavad-gītā-ṭīkāyāṃ subodhinyām
arjuna-viṣādo nāma prathamo 'dhyāyaḥ ||

Viśvanātha: saṅkhye saṅgrāme | rathopasthe rathopari |

iti sārārtha-varṣiṇyāṃ harṣiṇyāṃ bhakta-cetasām |
gītāsu prathamo 'dhyāyaḥ saṅgataḥ saṅgataḥ satām ||46||

Baladeva: tataḥ kim abhūd ity apekṣāyāṃ sañjaya uvāca evam utveti | saṅkhye yuddhe rathopasthe rathopari upāviśat upaviveśa | pūrvaṃ yuddhāya pratiyoddhṛ-vilokanāya cotthitaḥ san ||

ahiṃsrasyātma-jijñāsā dayārdrasyopajāyate |
tad viruddhasya naiveti prathamād upadhāritam ||46||



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Bhagavadgita 2

BhG 2.1

saṃjaya uvāca
taṃ tathā kṛpayāviṣṭam aśrupūrṇākulekṣaṇam |
viṣīdantam idaṃ vākyam uvāca madhusūdanaḥ ||1||

śrīdharaḥ : dvitīye śoka-saṃtaptam arjunaṃ brahma-vidyayā | pratibodhya hariś cakre sthita-prajñasya lakṣaṇam | tataḥ kiṃ vṛttam ity apekṣāyāṃ sañjaya uvāca - taṃ tathety ādi | aśrubhiḥ pūrṇe ākule īkṣaṇe yasya taṃ tathā, ukta-prakāreṇa visam arjunaṃ prati madhusūdana idaṃ vākyam uvāca ||1||

madhusūdanaḥ : ahiṃsā paramo dharmo bhikṣāśanaṃ cety evaṃ-lakṣaṇayā buddhyā yuddha-vaimukhyam arjunasya śrutvā svaputrāṇāṃ rājyam apracalitam avadhārya svastha-hṛdayasya dhṛtarāṣṭrasya harṣa-nimittāṃ tataḥ kiṃ vṛttam ity ākāṅkṣām apaninīṣuḥ saṃjayas taṃ pratyuktavān ity āha vaiśampāyanaḥ |

kṛpā mamaita iti vyāmoha-nimittaḥ sneha-viśeṣaḥ | tayāviṣṭaṃ svabhāva-siddhyā vyāptam | arjunasya karmatvaṃ kṛpāyāś ca kartṛtvaṃ vadatā tasyā āgantukatvaṃ vyudastam | ataeva viṣīdantaṃ sneha-viṣayī-bhūta-svajana-vicchedāśaṅkā-nimittaḥ śokāpara-paryāyaś citta-vyākulī-bhāvo viṣādas taṃ prāpnuvantam | atra viṣādasya karmatvenārjunasya kartṛtvena ca tasyāgantukatvaṃ sūcitam |

ataeva kṛpā-viṣāda-vaśād aśrubhiḥ pūrṇe ākule darśanākṣame cekṣaṇe yasya tam | evam aśru-pāta-vyākulī-bhāvākhya-kārya-dvaya-janakatayā paripoṣaṃ gatābhyāṃ kṛpā-viṣādābhyām udvignaṃ tam arjunam idaṃ sopapattikaṃ vakṣyamāṇaṃ vākyam uvāca na tūpekṣitavān | madhusūdana iti | svayaṃ duṣṭa-nigraha-kartārjunaṃ praty api tathaiva vakṣyatīti bhāvaḥ ||1||

viśvanāthaḥ :
ātmānātma-vivekena śoka-moha-tamo nudan |
dvitīye kṛṣṇa-candro 'tra proce muktasya lakṣaṇam ||1||

baladevaḥ :
dvitīye jīva-yāthātmya-jñānaṃ tat-sādhanaṃ hariḥ |
niṣkāma-karma ca proce sthita-prajñasya lakṣaṇam ||

evam arjuna-vairāgyam upaśrutya sva-putra-rājyābhraṃśāśayā hṛṣyantaṃ dhṛtarāṣṭram ālakṣya sañjaya uvāca taṃ tatheti | madhusūdana iti tasya śokam api madhuvan nihaniṣyatīti bhāvaḥ ||1||

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BhG 2.2

śrī-bhagavān uvāca
kutas tvā kaśmalam idaṃ viṣame samupasthitam |
anārya-juṣṭam asvargyam akīrti-karam arjuna ||2||

śrīdharaḥ : tad eva vākyam āha śrī-bhagavān uvāca kuta iti | kuto hetos tvā tvāṃ viṣame saṅkaṭe idaṃ kuśalaṃ samupasthitam ayaṃ mohaḥ prāptaḥ, yata āryair asevitam | asvargyam adharmyam ayaśaskaraṃ ca ||2||

madhusūdanaḥ : tad eva bhagavato vākyam avatārayati kutas tveti |

aiśvaryasya samagrasya dharmasya yaśasaḥ śriyaḥ |
vairāgyasyātha mokṣasya ṣaṇṇāṃ bhaga itīṅganā || [ViP 6.74]

samagasyeti pratyekaṃ sambandhaḥ | mokṣasyeti tat-sādhanasya jñānasya | iṅganā saṃjñā | etādṛśaṃ samagramaiśvaryādikaṃ nityam apratibandhena yatra vartate sa bhagavān | nitya-yoge matup | tathā-

utpattiṃ ca vināśaṃ ca bhūtānām āgatiṃ gatim |
vetti vidyām avidyāṃ ca sa vācyo bhagavān iti || [ViP 6.78]

atra bhūtānām iti pratyekaṃ sambadhyate | utpatti-vināśa-śabdau tat-kāraṇasyāpy upalakṣakau | āgati-gatī āgaminyau sampadāpadau | etādṛśo bhagavac-chabdārthaḥ śrī-vāsudeva eva paryavasita iti tathocyate |

idaṃ svadharmāt parāṅmukhatvaṃ kṛpā-vyāmohāśru-pātādi-puraḥ-saraṃ kaśmalaṃ śiṣṭa-garhitatvena malinaṃ viṣame sa-bhaye sthāne tvā tvāṃ sarva-kṣatriya-pravaraṃ kuto hetoḥ samupasthitaṃ prāptam ? kiṃ mokṣecchātaḥ ? kiṃ vā svargecchātaḥ ? iti kiṃ-śabdenākṣipyate | hetu-trayam api niṣedhati tribhir viśesaṇair uttarārdhena | āryair mumukṣubhir na juṣṭam asevitam | sva-dharmair āśaya-śuddhi-dvārā moks icchadbhir apakva-kaṣāyair mumukṣubhiḥ kathaṃ sva-dharmas tyājya ity arthaḥ | saṃnyāsādhikārī
tu pakva-kaṣāyo 'gre vakṣyate | asvargyaṃ svarga-hetu-dharma-virodhitvān na svargecchayā sevyam | akīrtikaraṃ kīrty-abhāva-karam apakīrtikaraṃ vā na kīrtīcchayā sevyam | tathā ca mokṣa-kāmaiḥ svarga-kāmaiḥ kīrti-kāmaiś ca varjanīyam | tat kāma eva tvaṃ sevasva ity aho anucitaṃ ceṣṭitaṃ taveti bhāvaḥ ||2||

viśvanāthaḥ : kaśmalaṃ mohaḥ | viṣame 'tra saṅgrāma-saṅkaṭe | kuto hetoḥ | upasthitaṃ tvāṃ prāptam abhūt | anārya-juṣṭaṃ supratiṣṭhita-lokair asevitam | asvargyam akīrtikaram iti pāratrikaihika-sukha-pratikūlam ity arthaḥ ||2||

baladevaḥ : tad vākyam anuvadati śrī-bhagavān iti |

aiśvaryasya samagrasya dharmasya yaśasaḥ śriyaḥ |
vairāgyasyātha mokṣasya ṣaṇṇāṃ bhaga itīṅganā || [ViP 6.74]

iti parāśaroktaiśvaryādibhiḥ ṣaḍbhir nityaṃ viśiṣṭaḥ | samagrasyety etat ṣaṭsu yojyam | he arjuna ! idaṃ sva-dharma-vaimukhyaṃ kaśmalaṃ śiṣṭa-nindyatvān malinaṃ kuto hetos tvāṃ kṣatriya-cūḍāmaṇiṃ samupasthitam abhūt ? viṣame yuddha-samaye | na ca mokṣāya svargāya kīrtaye vaitad-yuddha-vairāgyam ity āha anāryeti | āryair mumukṣubhir na juṣṭam sevitam | āryāḥ khalu hṛd-viśuddhaye svadharmān ācaranti | asvargyaṃ svargopalambhaka-dharma-viruddham | akīrti-karaṃ kīrti-viplāvakam ||2||

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BhG 2.3

klaibyaṃ mā sma gamaḥ pārtha naitat tvayy upapadyate |
kṣudraṃ hṛdaya-daurbalyaṃ tyaktvottiṣṭha paraṃtapa ||3||

śrīdharaḥ : klaibyaṃ mā sma gama iti | tasmāt he pārtha ! klaibyaṃ kātaryaṃ mā sma gamaḥ | na prāpnuhi | yatas tvayi etan nopapadyate yogyaṃ na bhavati | kṣudraṃ tucchaṃ hṛdaya-daurbalyaṃ kātaryaṃ yuddhāya uttiṣṭha, he parantapa śatru-tāpana ! ||3||

madhusūdanaḥ : nanu bandhu-senāvekṣaṇa-jātenādhairyeṇa dhanur api dhārayitum aśaknuvatā mayā kiṃ kartuṃ śakyam ity ata āha klaibyam iti | klaibyaṃ klīb-bhāvam adhairyam ojas-teja-ādi-bhaṅga-rūpaṃ mā sma gamo mā gā | he pārtha pṛthā-tanaya! pṛthayā deva-prasāda-labdhe tat-tanaya-mātre vīryātiśayasya prasiddhatvāt pṛthā-tanayatvena tvaṃ klaibyāyogya ity arthaḥ | arjunatvenāpi tad-ayogyatvam āha naitad iti | tvayi arjune sākṣān-maheśvareṇāpi saha kṛtāhave prakhyāta-mahā-prabhāve nopapadyate na yujyata etat-klaibyam ity asādhāraṇyena tad-ayogyatva-nirdeśaḥ |

nanu na ca śaknomy avasthātuṃ bhramatīva ca me manaḥ iti pūrvam eva mayoktam ity āśaṅkyāha kṣudram iti | hṛdaya-daurbalyaṃ manaso bhramaṇādi-rūpam adhairyaṃ kṣudratva-kāraṇatvāt kṣudraṃ sunirasanaṃ vā tyaktvā vivekenāpanīyottiṣṭha yuddhāya sajjo bhava | he parantapa ! paraṃ śatruṃ tāpayatīti tathā saṃbodhyate hetu-garbham ||3||

viśvanāthaḥ : klaibyaṃ klīb-dharmaṃ kātaryam | he pārtheti tvaṃ pṛthā-putraḥ sann api gacchasi | tasmān mā sma gamaḥ, mā prāpnuhi, anyasmin kṣatra-bandhau varam idam upapadyatām, tvayi mat-sakhau tu nopayujyate |

nanv idaṃ śauryābhāva-lakṣaṇaṃ klaibyaṃ mā śaṅkiṣṭhāḥ | kintu bhīṣma-droṇādi-guruṣu dharma-dṛṣṭyā viveko 'yaṃ dhārtarāṣṭreṣu tu durbaleṣu mad-astrāghātam āsādya martum udyateṣu dayaiveyam iti tatrāha kṣudram iti | naite tava viveka-daye, kintu śoka-mohāv eva | tau ca manaso daurbalya-vyañjakau | tasmāt hṛdaya-daurbalyam idaṃ tyaktvā uttiṣṭha | he parantapa ! parān śatrūn tāpayan yudhyasva ||3||

baladevaḥ : nanu bandhu-kṣayādhyavasāya-doṣāt prakampitena mayā kiṃ bhāvyam iti cet tatrāha klaibyam iti | he pārtha ! devarāja-prasādāt pṛthāyām utpanna ! klaibyaṃ kātaryaṃ mā sma gamaḥ prāpnuhi | tvayi viśva-vijetari mat-sakhe 'rjune kṣatra-bandhāv ivaitad īdṛśaṃ klaibyaṃ nopayujyate |

nanu na me śauryābhāva-rūpaṃ klaibyaṃ kintu bhīṣmādiṣu pūjyeṣu dharma-buddhyā viveko 'yaṃ duryodhanādiṣu bhrātṛṣu mac-chastra-prahāreṇa mariṣyatsu kṛpeyam iti cet tatrāha kṣudram iti | naite tava viveka-kṛpe, kintu kṣudraṃ laghiṣṭhaṃ hṛdaya-daurbalyam eva | tasmāt tat tyaktvā yuddhāyottiṣṭha sajjībhava | he parantapa ! śatru-tāpaneti śatru-hāsa-pātratāṃ mā gāḥ ||3||

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BhG 2.4

arjuna uvāca
kathaṃ bhīṣmam ahaṃ saṃkhye droṇaṃ ca madhusūdana |
iṣubhiḥ pratiyotsyāmi pūjārhāv arisūdana ||4||

śrīdharaḥ : nāhaṃ kātaratvena yuddhāt uparato 'smi, kintu yuddhasya anyāyyatvād adharmyatvāc cety āha arjuna uvāca katham iti | bhīṣma-droṇau pūjārhau pūjāyām arho yogyau tau prati katham ahaṃ yotsyāmi, tatrāpi iṣubhiḥ yatra vācāpi yotsyāmīti vaktum anucitaṃ tatra bāṇaiḥ kathaṃ yotsyāmīty arthaḥ | he ari-sūdana śatru-mardana ||4||

madhusūdanaḥ : nanu nāyaṃ svadharmasya tyāgaḥ śoka-mohādi-vaśāt kintu dharatvābhāvād adharmatvāc cāsya yuddhasya tyāgo mayā kriyata iti bhagavad-abhiprāyam apratipadyamānasyārjunasyābhiprāyam avatārayati katham iti | bhīṣmaṃ pitāmahaṃ droṇām cācāryaṃ saṅkhye raṇa iṣubhiḥ sāyakaiḥ pratiyotsyāmi prahariṣyāmi katham ? na kathaṃcid apīty arthaḥ | yatas tau pūjārhau kusumādibhir arcana-yogyau | pūjārhābhyāṃ saha krīḍā-sthāne 'pi vācāpi harṣa-phalam api līlā-yuddham anucitaṃ kiṃ punar yuddha-bhūmau śaraiḥ prāṇa-tyāga-phalakaṃ praharaṇam ity arthaḥ |

madhusūdanārisūdaneti sambodhana-dvayaṃ śoka-vyākulatvena pūrvāpara-parāmarśa-vaikalyāt | ato na madhusūdanārisūdanety asyārthasya punar uktatvaṃ doṣaḥ | yuddha-mātram api yatra nocitaṃ dūre tatra vadha iti pratiyotsyāmīty anena sūcitam |

athavā pūjārhau kathaṃ pratiyotsyāmi | pūjārhayor eva vivaraṇaṃ bhīṣmaṃ droṇaṃ ceti | dvau brāhmaṇau bhojaya deva-dattaṃ yajña-dattaṃ cetivat sambandhaḥ | ayaṃ bhāvaḥ - duryodhanādayo nāpuraskṛtya bhīṣma-droṇau yuddhāya sajjībhavanti | tatra tābhyāṃ saha yuddhaṃ na tāvad dharmaḥ pūjādivad avihitatvāt | na cāyam aniṣiddhatvād adharmo 'pi na bhavatīti vācyam | guruṃ huṅkṛtya tvaṃkṛtya ity ādinā śabda-mātreṇāpi guru-droho yadāniṣṭa-phalatva-pradarśanena niṣiddhas tadā kiṃ vācyaṃ tābhyāṃ saha saṅgrāmasyādharmatve niṣiddhatve ceti ||4||

viśvanāthaḥ : nanu pratibadhnāti hi śreyaḥ pūjya-pūjā-vyatikramaḥ iti dharma-śāstram | ato 'haṃ yuddhān nivarta ity āha katham iti | pratiyotsyāmi pratiyotsye | nanv etau yudhyete tarhy anayoḥ pratiyoddhā bhavituṃ tvaṃ kiṃ na śaknoṣi ? satyaṃ na śaknomy evety āha pūjārhāv iti | anayoś caraṇeṣu bhaktyā kusumāny eva dātum arhāmi na tu krodhena tīkṣṇa-śarān iti bhāvaḥ | bho vayasya kṛṣṇa tvam api śatrūn eva yuddhe haṃsi, na tu sandīpaniṃ sva-guruṃ, nāpi bandhūn yadūn ity āha he madhusūdaneti | nanu mādhavo yadava eva | tatrāha he arisūdana ! madhur nāma daityo yas tavārir iti bravīmīti ||4||

baladevaḥ : nanu bhīṣmādiṣu pratiyoddhṛṣu satsu tvayā kathaṃ na yoddhavyam | āhūto na nivarteta iti yuddha-vidhānāc ca kṣatriyasyeti cet tatrāha katham iti | bhīṣmaṃ pitāmahaṃ droṇaṃ ca vidyā-gurum | iṣubhiḥ kathaṃ yotsye ? yad imau pūjārhau puṣpādibhir abhyarcyau, parihāsa-vāgbhir api yābhyāṃ yuddhaṃ na yuktam | tābhyāṃ saheṣubhis tat kathaṃ yujyeta ? pratibadhnāti hi śreyaḥ pūjya- pūjya-pūjā-vyatikramaḥ iti smṛteś ca | madhusūdanārisūdaneti sambodhana-punar-uktiḥ | śokākulasya pūrvottarānusandhi-virahāt | tad-bhāvaś ca tvam api śatrūn eva yuddhe nihaṃsi na tūgrasena-sāndīpany-ādīn
pūjyān iti ||4||

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BhG 2.5

gurūn ahatvā hi mahānubhāvāñ
śreyo bhoktuṃ bhaikṣyam apīha loke |
hatvārtha-kāmāṃs tu gurūn ihaiva
bhuñjīya bhogān rudhira-pradigdhān ||5||

śrīdharaḥ : tarhi tān ahatvā tava deha-yātrāpi na syād iti cet, tatrāha gurūn iti | gurūn droṇācāryādīn ahatvā para-loka-viruddhaṃ guru-vadham akṛtvā iha-loke bhaikṣyaṃ bhikṣānnam api bhoktuṃ śreya ucitam | vipakṣe tu na kevalaṃ paratra duḥkhaṃ, kintu ihaiva ca naraka-duḥkham anubhaveyam ity āha hatveti | gurūn hatvā ihaiva tu rudhireṇa pradigdhān prakarṣeṇa liptān artha-kāmātmakān bhogān ahaṃ bhuñjīya aśnīyām | yad vā artha-kāmān iti gurūṇāṃ viśeṣaṇam | artha-tṛṣṇākulatvād ete tāvad yuddhān na nivarteran tasmād etad vadhaḥ prasajyetaivety arthaḥ | tathā ca yudhiṣṭhiraṃ prati bhīṣmeṇoktaṃ -


arthasya puruṣo dāso dāsas tv artho na kasyacit |
iti satyaṃ mahārāja baddho 'smy arthena kauravaiḥ || iti [ṃBh 6.41.36] ||5||

madhusūdanaḥ : nanu bhīṣma-droṇayoḥ pūjārhatvaṃ gurutvenaiva, evam anyeṣām api kṛpādīnāṃ, na ca teṣāṃ gurutvena svīkāraḥ sāmpratam ucitaḥ -

guror apy avaliptasya kāryākāryam ajānataḥ |
utpathapratipannasya parityāgo vidhīyate || [ṃbh 5.178.24]

iti smṛteḥ | tasmād eṣāṃ yuddha-garveṇāvaliptānām anyāya-rājya-grahaṇena śiṣya-droheṇa ca kāryākārya-viveka-śūnyānām utpatha-niṣṭhānāṃ vadha eva śreyān ity āśaṅkyāha gurūn iti |

gurūn ahatvā para-lokas tāvad asty eva | asmiṃs tu loke tair hṛta-rājyānāṃ no nṛpādīnāṃ niṣiddhaṃ bhaikṣam api bhoktuṃ śreyaḥ praśasyataram ucitaṃ na tu tad-vadhena rājyam api śreya iti dharme 'pi yuddhe vṛtti-mātra-phalatvaṃ gṛhītvā pāpam āropya vrate |

nanv avaliptatvādinā teṣāṃ gurutvābhāva ukta ity āśaṅkyāha mahānubhāvān iti | mahānubhāvaḥ śrutādhyayana-tapa-ācārādi-nibandhanaḥ prabhāvo yeṣāṃ tān | tathā ca kāla-kāmādayo 'pi yair vaśīkṛtās teṣāṃ puṇyātiśaya-śālināṃ nāvaliptatvādi-kṣudra-pāpma-saṃśleṣa ity arthaḥ | himahānubhāvān ity ekaṃ vā padam | himaṃ jāḍyam apahantīti himahā ādityo 'gnir vā tasyaivānubhāvaḥ sāmarthyaṃ yeṣāṃ tān | tathā cātitejasvitvāt teṣām avaliptatvādi-doṣo nāsty eva |

dharma-vyatikramo dṛṣṭa īśvarāṇāṃ ca sāhasam |
tejīyasāṃ na doṣāya vahneḥ sarva-bhujo yathā || [BhP 10.33.30]

nanu yadārtha-lubdhāḥ santo yuddhe pravṛttās tadaiṣāṃ vikrītātmanāṃ kutastyaṃ pūrvoktaṃ māhātmyaṃ, tathā coktaṃ bhīṣmeṇa yudhiṣṭhiraṃ prati -

arthasya puruṣo dāso dāsas tv artho na kasyacit |
iti satyaṃ mahārāja baddho 'smy arthena kauravaiḥ || [ṃBh 6.41.36]

ity āśaṅkyāha hatveti | artha-lubdhā api te mad-apekṣayā guravo bhavanty eveti punar guru-grahaṇenoktam | tu-śabdo 'py arthe īdṛśān api gurūn hatvā bhogān eva bhuñjīya na tu mokṣaṃ labheya | bhujyanta iti bhogā viṣayāḥ karmaṇi ghañ | te ca bhogā ihaiva na para-loke | ihāpi ca rudhira-pradigdhā ivāpayaśo-vyāptatvenātyanta-jugupsitā ity arthaḥ | yadehāpy evaṃ tadā para-loka-duḥkhaṃ kiyad varṇanīyam iti bhāvaḥ |

athavā gurūn hatvārtha-kāmātmakān bhogān eva bhuñjīya na tu dharma-mokṣāv ity artha-kāma-padasya bhoga-viśeṣaṇatayā vyākhyānāntaraṃ draṣṭavyam ||5||

viśvanāthaḥ : nanv evaṃ te yadi svarājye 'smin nāsti jighṛkṣā, tarhi kayā vṛttyā jīviṣyasīty atrāha gurūn ahatveti | guru-vadham akṛtvā bhaikṣyaṃ kṣatriyair vigītam api bhikṣānnam api bhoktuṃ śreyaḥ | aihika-duryaśo-lābhe 'pi pāratrikam amaṅgalaṃ tu naiva syād iti bhāvaḥ | na caiva guravo 'valiptāḥ kāryākāryam ajānantaś cādhārmika-duryodhanādy-anugatās tyājyā eva | yad uktaṃ -

guror apy avaliptasya kāryākāryam ajānataḥ |
utpatha-pratipannasya parityāgo vidhīyate || [ṃbh 5.178.24] iti vācyam |

ity āha - mahānubhāvān iti | kāla-kāmādayo 'pi yair vaśīkṛtās teṣāṃ bhīṣmādīnāṃ kutas tad-doṣa-sambhava iti bhāvaḥ | nanu -

arthasya puruṣo dāso dāsas tv artho na kasyacit |
iti satyaṃ mahārāja baddho 'smy arthena kauravaiḥ || [ṃBh 6.41.36]

iti yudhiṣṭhiraṃ prati bhīṣmeṇaivoktam ataḥ sāmpratam artha-kāmatvād eteṣāṃ mahānubhāvatvaṃ prāktanaṃ vigalitam ? satyam, tad apy etān hatavato mama duḥkham eva syād ity āha artha-kāmānartha-lubdhān apy etān kurūn hatvāhaṃ bhogān bhuñjīya kintv eteṣāṃ rudhireṇa pradigdhān praliptān eva | ayam arthaḥ - eteṣām artha-lubdhatve 'pi mad-gurutvam asty eva, ataevaitad-vadhe sati guru-drohiṇo mama khalu bhogo duṣkṛti-miśraḥ syād iti ||5||

baladevaḥ : nanu svarājye spṛhā cet tava nāsti tarhi deha-yātrā vā kathaṃ setsyatīti cet tatrāha gurūn iti | gurūn ahatvā guru-vadham akṛtvā sthitasya me bhaikṣyānnaṃ kṣatriyāṇāṃ nindyam api bhoktuṃ śreyaḥ praśastataram | aihika-duryaśo-hetutve 'pi para-lokāvighātitvāt |

nanv ete bhīṣmādayo guravo 'pi yuddha-garvāvalepāt chadmanā yuṣmad-rājyāpahāraṃ yuṣmad-drohaṃ ca kurvatāṃ duryodhanādīnāṃ saṃsargeṇa kāryākārya-viveka-virahāc ca samprati tyājyā eva-

guror apy avaliptasya kāryākāryam ajānataḥ |
utpathapratipannasya parityāgo vidhīyate || [ṃbh 5.178.24] iti smṛteḥ |

iti cet tatrāha - mahānubhāvān iti | mahān sarvotkṛṣṭo 'nubhāvo vedādhyayana-brahmacaryādi-hetukaḥ prabhāvo yeṣāṃ tān | kāla-kāmādayo 'pi yad-vaśyās teṣāṃ tad-doṣa-sambandho neti bhāvaḥ |

nanu -
arthasya puruṣo dāso dāsas tv artho na kasyacit |
iti satyaṃ mahārāja baddho 'smy arthena kauravaiḥ || [ṃBh 6.41.36]

iti bhīṣmokter artha-lobhena vikrītātmanāṃ teṣāṃ kuto mahānubhāvatā ? tato yuddhe hantavyās te iti cet tatrāha hatvārtha-kāmān iti | artha-kāmān api gurūn hatvāham ihaiva loke bhogān bhuñjīya, na tu para-loke | tāṃś ca rudhira-pradigdhān tad-rudhira-miśrān eva, na tu śuddhān bhuñjīya tad-dhiṃsayā tal-lābhāt | tathā ca yuddha-garvāvalepādi-mattve 'pi teṣāṃ mad-gurutvam asty eveti punar guru-grahaṇena sūcyate ||5||

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BhG 2.6

na caitad vidmaḥ kataran no garīyo
yad vā jayema yadi vā no jayeyuḥ |
yān eva hatvā na jijīviṣāmas
te 'vasthitāḥ pramukhe dhārtarāṣṭrāḥ ||6||

śrīdharaḥ : kiṃ ca yadyapy adharmam aṅgīkariṣyāmaḥ tathāpi kim asmākaṃ jayaḥ parājayo vā garīyān bhaved iti na jñāyata ity āha na ced ity ādi | etad dvayor madhye no 'smākaṃ katarat kiṃ nāma garīyo 'dhikataraṃ bhaviṣyatīti na vidmaḥ | tad eva dvayaṃ darśayati | yad vā etān vayaṃ jayema jeṣyāmaḥ yadi vā no 'smān ete jayeyuḥ jeṣyantīti | jayo 'pi kiṃ cāsmākaṃ katarat jaya-parājayayor madhye kiṃ khalu garīyo 'dhikataraṃ bhaviṣyati etan na vidmaḥ | tad eva pakṣa-dvayaṃ darśayati etān vayaṃ jayema, no 'smān vā ete jayeyur iti | kiṃ
ca jayo 'py asmākaṃ phalataḥ parājaya evety āha yān eveti ||6||

madhusūdanaḥ : nanu bhikṣāśanasya kṣatriyaṃ prati niṣiddhatvād yuddhasya ca vihitatvāt svadharmatvena yuddham eva tatra śreyaskaram ity āśaṅkyāha na caitad iti | etad api na jānīmo bhaikṣa-yuddhayor madhye kataran no 'smākaṃ garīyaḥ śreṣṭham | kiṃ bhaikṣaṃ hiṃsā-śūnyatvād uta yuddhaṃ svadharmatvād iti | idaṃ ca na vidma ārabdhe 'pi yuddhe yad vā vayaṃ jayemātiśayīmahi yadi vā no 'smān jayeyur dhārtarāṣṭrāḥ | ubhayoḥ sāmya-pakṣo 'py arthād boddhavyaḥ |

kiṃ ca jāto 'pi jayo naḥ phalataḥ parājaya eva | yato yān bandhūn hatvā jīvitum api vayaṃ necchāmaḥ kiṃ punar viṣayānupabhoktum ? ta evāvasthitāḥ saṃmukhe dhārtarāṣṭrā dhṛtarāṣṭra-sambandhino bhīṣma-droṇādayaḥ sarve 'pi | tasmād bhaikṣād yuddhasya śreṣṭhatvaṃ na siddham ity arthaḥ |

tad evaṃ prāktanena granthena saṃsāra-doṣa-nirūpaṇād adhikāri-viśeṣaṇāny uktāni | tatra na ca śreyo 'nupaśyāmi hatvā svajanam āhave ity atra raṇe hatasya parivrāṭ-samāna-yoga-kṣematvokteḥ anyac chreyo 'nyad utaiva preyaḥ [KaṭhU 2.1] ity ādi-śruti-siddhaṃ śreyo mokṣākhyam upanyastam | arthāc ca tad itarad aśreya iti nityānitya-vastu-viveko darśitaḥ, na kāṅkṣe vijayaṃ kṛṣṇety [Gītā 1.32] atraihika-phala-virāgaḥ | api trailokya-rājyasya [Gītā 1.35] hetor ity atra pāralaukika-phala-virāgaḥ | narake niyataṃ vāsa [Gītā 1.44] ity atra sthūla-dehātirikta ātmā, kiṃ no rājyena [Gītā 1.32] iti vyākhyāta-vartmanā śamaḥ | kiṃ bhogair [Gītā 1.32] iti damaḥ
| yadyapy ete na paśyanti [Gītā 1.38] ity atra nirlobhatā | tan me kṣemataraṃ bhaved [Gītā 1.46] ity atra titikṣā | iti prathamādhyāyārthaḥ saṃnyāsa-sādhana-sūcanam | asmiṃs tv adhyāye śreyo bhoktuṃ bhaikṣam api [Gītā 2.5] ity atra bhikṣā-caryopalakṣitaḥ saṃnyāsaḥ pratipāditaḥ ||6||

viśvanāthaḥ : kiṃ ca guru-drohe pravṛttasyāpi mama jayaḥ parājayo vā bhaved ity api na jñāyata ity āha na caitad ity ādi | tathāpi no 'smākaṃ katarat jaya-parājayayor madhye kiṃ khalu garīyo 'dhikataraṃ bhaviṣyati etan na vidmaḥ | tad eva pakṣa-dvayaṃ darśayati -- etān vayaṃ jayema, no 'smān vā ete jayeyur iti | kiṃ ca jayo 'py asmākaṃ phalataḥ parājaya evety āha yān eveti ||6||

baladevaḥ : nanu bhaikṣa-bhojanaṃ kṣatriyasya vigarhitaṃ, yuddhaṃ ca sva-dharmaṃ vijānann api vibhāṣase iti cet tatrāha na caitad iti | etad vayaṃ na vidmaḥ | bhaikṣya-yuddhayor madhye no 'smākaṃ katarad garīyaḥ praśastataram | hiṃsā-virahād bhaikṣaṃ garīyaḥ svadharmatvād yuddhaṃ veti, etac ca na vidmaḥ | samārabdhe yuddhe vayaṃ dhārtarāṣṭrān jayema te vā no 'smān jayeyur iti |

nanu mahā-vikramiṇāṃ dharmiṣṭhānāṃ ca bhavatām eva vijayo bhāvīti cet tatrāha yān eveti | yān dhārtarāṣṭrān bhīṣmādīn sarvān | na jijīviṣāmo jīvitum api necchāmaḥ kiṃ punar bhogān bhoktum ity arthaḥ | tathā ca vijayo 'py asmākaṃ phalataḥ parājaya eveti | tasmād yuddhasya bhaikṣād garīyas tvam aprasiddham iti | evam etāvatā granthena tasmād evaṃvic chānta-dānta uparatas titikṣuḥ śraddhānvito bhūtvātmany evātmānaṃ paśyet iti śruti-prasiddham arjunasya jñānādhikāritvaṃ darśitam | tatra kiṃ no rājyena [Gītā 1.32] iti śama-damau | api trailokya-rājyasya [Gītā 1.35] ity aihika-pāratrika-bhogopekṣā-lakṣaṇā uparatiḥ
| bhaikṣaṃ bhoktuṃ śreya iti dvandva-sahiṣṇutva-lakṣaṇā titikṣā | guru-vākya-dṛḍha-viśvāsa-lakṣaṇā śraddhā tūttara-vākye vyaktībhaviṣyati, na khalu śamādi-śūnyasya jñāne 'sty adhikāraḥ paṅgāder iva karmaṇīti ||6||

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BhG 2.7

kārpaṇya-doṣopahata-svabhāvaḥ
pṛcchāmi tvāṃ dharma-saṃmūḍha-cetāḥ |
yac chreyaḥ syān niścitaṃ brūhi tan me
śiṣyas te 'haṃ śādhi māṃ tvāṃ prapannam ||7||

śrīdharaḥ : upadeśa-grahaṇe svādhikāraṃ sūcayati kārpaṇyety ādi | arthāt kārpaṇya-doṣopahata-svabhāvaḥ etān hatvā kathaṃ jīviṣyāma iti kārpaṇyaṃ dosaś ca svakula-kṣaya-kṛtaḥ, tābhyām upahato 'bhibhūtaḥ svabhāvaḥ śauryādi-lakṣaṇo yasya so 'haṃ tvāṃ pṛcchāmi, tathā dharme saṃmūḍhaṃ ceto yasya saḥ | yuddhaṃ tyaktvā bhikṣāṭanam api kṣatriyasya dharmo 'dharmo veti sandigdha-cittaḥ sann ity arthaḥ | ato me yan niścitaṃ śreyaḥ yuktaṃ syāt tad brūhi | kiṃ ca te 'haṃ śiṣyaḥ śāsanārhaḥ
| atas tvāṃ prapannaṃ śaraṇāgataṃ māṃ śādhi śikṣaya ||7||

madhusūdanaḥ : gurūpasadanam idānīṃ pratipādyate samadhigata-saṃsāra-doṣa-jātasyātitarāṃ nirviṇṇasya vidhivad gurum upasannasyaiva vidyā-grahaṇe 'dhikārāt | tad evaṃ bhīṣmādi-saṃkaṭa-vaśāt | vyutthāyātha bhikṣācaryaṃ caranti [BAU 3.5.1] iti śruti-siddha-bhikṣā-carye 'rjunasyābhilāṣaṃ pradarśya vidhivad gurūpasattim api tat-saṅkaṭa-vyājenaiva darśayati kārpaṇyeti |

yaḥ svalpām api citta-kṣatiṃ na kṣamate sa kṛpaṇa iti loke prasiddhaḥ | tad-vidhatvād akhilo 'nātma-vid aprāpta-puruṣārthatayā kṛpaṇo bhavati | yo vā etad akṣaram gārgy aviditvā asmāl lokāt praiti sa kṛpaṇa [BAU 3.8.10] iti śruteḥ | tasya bhāvaḥ kārpaṇyam anātmādhyāsavattvaṃ tan-nimitto 'smin janmany eta eva madīyās teṣu hateṣu kiṃ jīvitenety abhiniveśa-rūpo mamatā-lakṣaṇo doṣas tenopahatas tiraskṛtaḥ svabhāvaḥ kṣātro yuddhodyoga-lakṣaṇo yasya sa tathā | dharme viṣaye nirṇāyaka-pramāṇaādarśanāt saṃmūḍhaṃ kim eteṣāṃ vadho dharmaḥ kim etat-paripālanaṃ
dharmaḥ | tathā kiṃ pṛthvī-paripālanaṃ dharmaḥ kiṃ vā yathāvasthito 'raṇya-nivāsa eva dharma ity ādi-saṃśayair vyāptaṃ ceto yasya sa tathā | na caitad vidmaḥ kataran no garīya ity atra vyākhyātam etat | evaṃvidhaḥ sann ahaṃ tvā tvām idānīṃ pṛcchāmi śreya ity anuṣaṅgaḥ |

ato yan niścitam aikāntikam ātyantikaṃ ca śreyaḥ parama-pumartha-bhūtaṃ phalaṃ syāt tan me mahyaṃ brūhi | sādhanānantaram avaśyambhāvitvam aikāntikatavaṃ, jātasyāvināśa ātyantikatvam | yathā hy auṣadhe kṛte kadācid roga-nivṛttir na bhaved api jātāpi ca roga-nivṛttiḥ punar api rogotpattyā vināśyate | evaṃ kṛte 'pi yāge pratibandha-vaśāt svargo na bhaved api jāto 'pi svargo duḥkhākrānto naśyati ceti naikāntikatvam ātyantikatvaṃ vā tayoḥ | tad uktam -

duḥkha-trayābhighātāj jijñāsā tad-apaghātake hetau |
dṛṣṭe sāpārthā cen naikāntātyantato 'bhāvāt || (Sa.K. 1) iti |
dṛṣṭavad ānuśravikaḥ sa hy avaiśuddhi-kṣayātiśaya-yuktaḥ |
tad-viparītaḥ śreyān vyaktāvyaktajña-vijñānāt || (Sa.K. 1) iti |

nanu tvaṃ mama sakhā na tu śiṣyo 'ta āha śiṣyas te 'ham iti | tvad-anuśāsanayogyatvād ahaṃ tava śiṣya eva bhavāmi na sakhā nyūna-jñānatvāt | atas tvāṃ prapannaṃ śaraṇāgataṃ māṃ śādhi śikṣaya karuṇayā na tv aśiṣyatva-śaṅkayopekṣaṇīyo 'ham ity arthaḥ | etena - tad vijñānārthaṃ sa gurum evābhigacchet samit-pāṇiḥ śrotriyaṃ brahma-niṣṭham [ṃuṇḍU 1.2.11], bhṛgur vai vāruṇiḥ | varuṇaṃ pitaram upasasāra | adhīhi bhagavo brahmeti [TaittU 3.1] ity ādi-gurūpasatti-pratipādakaḥ śruty-artho darśitaḥ ||7||

viśvanāthaḥ : nanu tarhi sopapattikaṃ śāstrārthaṃ tvam eva bruvāṇaḥ kṣatriyo bhūtvā bhikṣāṭanaṃ niścinoṣi tarhy alaṃ mad-uktyeti tatrāha kārpaṇyeti | svābhāvikasya śauryasya tyāga eva me kārpaṇyam | dharmasya sūkṣmā gatir ity ato dharma-vyavasthāyām apy ahaṃ mūḍha-buddhir evāsmi | atas tvam eva niścitya śreyo brūhi |

nanu mad-vācas tvaṃ paṇḍata-mānitvena khaṇḍayasi cet, kathaṃ brūyām ? tatrāha śiṣyas te 'ham asmi | nātaṃ paraṃ vṛthā khaṇḍayāmīti bhāvaḥ ||7||
baladevaḥ : atha tad vijñānārthaṃ sa gurum evābhigacchet samit-pāṇiḥ śrotriyaṃ brahma-niṣṭham [ṃuṇḍU 1.2.11], ācāryavān puruṣo veda [Chā 6.14.2] ity ādi śruti-siddhāṃ gurūpasattiṃ darśayati kārpaṇyeti | yo vā etad akṣaram gārgy aviditvā asmāl lokāt praiti sa kṛpaṇa [BAU 3.8.10] iti śravaṇād abrahmavittvaṃ kārpaṇyam | tena hetunā yo doṣo yān eva hatveti bandhu-vargam amatālakṣaṇas tenopahata-svabhāvo yuddha-spṛhā-lakṣaṇaḥ svadharmo yasya saḥ | dharme saṃmūḍhaṃ kṣatriyasya me yuddhaṃ svadharmas tad vihāya bhikṣāṭanaṃ vety evaṃ sandihānaṃ ceto yasya saḥ
| īdṛśaḥ sann ahaṃ tvām idānīṃ pṛcchāmi - tasmān niścitaṃ ekāntikaṃ ātyantikaṃ yan me śreyaḥ syāt tat tvaṃ brūhi | sādhanottaram avaśyaṃbhāvitvaṃ aikāntikatvaṃ, bhūtasyāvināśitvaṃ ātyantikatvam |

nanu śaraṇāgatasyopadeśaḥ tad vijñānārthaṃ sa gurum evābhigacchet ity ādi-śruteḥ | sakhāyaṃ tvāṃ katham upadiśāmīti cet tatrāha śiṣyas te 'ham iti | śādhi śikṣaya ||7||

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BhG 2.8

na hi prapaśyāmi mamāpanudyād
yac chokam ucchoṣaṇam indriyāṇām |
avāpya bhūmāv asapatnam ṛddhaṃ
rājyaṃ surāṇām api cādhipatyam ||8||
śrīdharaḥ : tvam eva vicārya yad yuktaṃ tat kurv iti cet, tatrāha na hi prapaśyāmīti | indriyāṇām ucchoṣaṇam atiśoṣaṇa-karaṃ madīyaṃ śokaṃ yat karma apanudyāt apanayet tad ahaṃ na prapaśyāmīti | yadyapi bhūmau niṣkaṇṭakaṃ samṛddhaṃ rājyaṃ prāpsyāmi | tathā surendratvam api yadi prāpsyāmi evam abhīṣṭaṃ tat tat sarvam avāpyāpi śokāpanodanopāyaṃ na prapaśyāmīty anvayaḥ ||8||

madhusūdanaḥ : nanu svayam eva tvaṃ śreyo vicāraya śruta-sampanno 'si kiṃ para-śiṣyatvenety ata āha nahīti | yac-chreyaḥ prāptaṃ sat-kartṛ mama śokam apanudyād apanuden nivārayet tan na paśyāmi hi yasmāt tasmān māṃ śādhīti so 'haṃ bhagavaḥ śocāmi taṃ mā bhagavāñ chokasya pāraṃ tārayatu [ChāU 7.1.3] iti śruty-artho darśitaḥ | śokānapanode ko doṣa ity āśaṅkya tad-viśeṣaṇam āha indriyāṇām ucchoṣaṇam iti | sarvadā santāpa-karam ity arthaḥ |

nanu yuddhe prayatamānasya tava śoka-nivṛttir bhaviṣyati jeṣyasi cet tadā rājya-prāptyā dvāv etau puruṣau loke ity ādi-dharma-śāstrād ity āśaṅkyāha avāpyety ādinā | śatru-varjitaṃ sasyādi-sampannaṃ ca rājyaṃ tathā surāṇām ādhipatyaṃ hiraṇyagarbhatva-paryantam aiśvaryam avāpya sthitasyāpi mama yac chokam apanudyāt tan na paśyāmīty anvayaḥ | tad yatheha karma-jito lokaḥ kṣīyata evam evāmutra puṇya-jito lokaḥ kṣīyate [Chā 8.1.6] iti śruteḥ | yat-kṛtakaṃ tad-anityam ity anumānāt pratyakṣeṇāpy aihikānāṃ vināśa-darśanāc ca naihika āmutriko vā bhogaḥ śoka-nivartakaḥ kintu sva-sattā-kāle 'pi bhoga-pāratantryādinā vināśa-kāle 'pi vicchedāc choka-janaka
eveti na yuddhaṃ śoka-nivṛttaye 'nuṣṭheyam ity arthaḥ | etenehāmutra-bhoga-virāgo 'dhikāri-viśeṣaṇatvena darśitaḥ ||8||

viśvanāthaḥ : nanu mayi tava sakhya-bhāva eva, na tu gauravam | atas tvāṃ katham ahaṃ śiṣyaṃ karomi ? tasmād yatra tava gauravaṃ taṃ kam api dvaipāyanādikaṃ prapadyasva ity ata āha na hīti | mama śokam apanudyāt dūrīkuryād evaṃ janaṃ na prakarṣeṇa paśyāmi trijagaty ekaṃ tvāṃ vinā | svasmād adhika-buddhimantaṃ bṛhaspatim api na jānāmīty ataḥ śokārta eva khalu kaṃ prapadyeya iti bhāvaḥ | yad yataḥ śokād indriyāṇām ucchoṣaṇaṃ mahā-nidāghāt kṣudra-sarasām iva utkarṣeṇa śoṣo bhavati |

nanu tarhi sāmprataṃ tvaṃ śokārta eva khalu yudhyasva | tataś caitān jitvā rājyaṃ prātavatas tava rājya-bhogābhiniveśenaiva śoko 'payāsyatīty āha avāpyeti | bhūmau niṣkaṇṭakaṃ rājyaṃ svarge surāṇām ādhipatyaṃ vā prāpyāpi sthitasya mamendriyāṇām etad ucchoṣaṇam evety arthaḥ ||8||

baladevaḥ : nanu tvaṃ śāstrajño 'si sva-hitaṃ vicāryānutiṣṭha, sakhyur me śiṣyaḥ kathaṃ bhaver iti cet tatrāha na hīti | yat karma mama śokam apanudyād dūrīkuryāt tad ahaṃ na prapaśyāmi | śokaṃ viśinaṣṭi - indriyāṇām ucchoṣaṇam iti | tasmāc choka-vināśāya tvāṃ prapanno 'smīti | itthaṃ ca so 'haṃ bhagavaḥ śocāmi taṃ māṃ bhavān śokasya pāraṃ tārayatu iti śruty-artho darśitaḥ |

nanu tvam adhunā śokākulaḥ prapadyase yuddhāt sukha-samṛddhi-lābhe viśoko bhaviṣyasīti cet tatrāha avāpyeti | yadi yuddhe vijayī syāṃ tadā bhūmāv asapatnaṃ niṣkaṇṭakaṃ rājyaṃ prāpya yadi ca tatra hataḥ syāṃ tadā svarge surāṇām ādhipatyaṃ prāpya sthitasya me viśokatvaṃ na bhaved ity arthaḥ | tad yatheha karma-jito lokaḥ kṣīyata evam evāmutra puṇya-jito lokaḥ kṣīyate [ChāU 8.1.6] iti śruter naihikaṃ pāratrikaṃ vā yuddha-labdhaṃ sukhaṃ śokāpahaṃ tasmāt tādṛśam eva śreyastvaṃ brūhīti na yuddhaṃ śoka-haram ||8||


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BhG 2.9

saṃjaya uvāca
evam uktvā hṛṣīkeśaṃ guḍākeśaḥ parantapaḥ |
na yotsya iti govindam uktvā tūṣṇīṃ babhūva ha ||9||

śrīdharaḥ : evam uktvārjunaḥ kiṃ kṛtavān ity apekṣāyāṃ sañjaya uvāca evam ity ādi | spaṣṭārthaḥ ||9||

madhusūdanaḥ : tad-anantaram arjunaḥ kiṃ kṛtavān iti dhṛtarāṣṭrākāṅkṣāyāṃ sañjaya uvāca evam ity ādi | guḍākeśo jitālasyaḥ parantapaḥ śatru-tāpano 'rjuno hṛṣīkeśaṃ sarvendriya-pravartakatvenāntaryāmiṇaṃ govindaṃ gāṃ veda-lakṣaṇāṃ vāṇīṃ vindatīti vyutpattyā sarva-vedopādānatvena sarvajñam ādāv evaṃ kathaṃ bhīṣmam ahaṃ saṅkhya ity ādinā yuddha-svarūpāyogyatām uktvā tad-anantaraṃ na yotsya iti yuddha-phalābhāvaṃ coktvā tūṣṇīṃ babhūva bāhyendriya-vyāpārasya yuddhārthaṃ pūrvaṃ kṛtasya nivṛttyā nirvyāpāro jāta ity arthaḥ
| svabhāvato jitālasye sarva-śatru-tāpane ca tasminn āgantukam ālasyam atāpakatvaṃ ca nāspadam ādhāsyatīti dyotayituṃ ha-śabdaḥ | govinda-hṛṣīkeśa-padābhyāṃ sarvajñatva-sarva-śaktitva-sūcakābhyāṃ bhagavatas tan-mohāpanodanam anāyāsa-sādhyam iti sūcitam ||9||

viśvanāthaḥ : Nothing.

baladevaḥ : tato 'rjunaḥ kim akarod ity apekṣāyāṃ sañjaya uvāca evam uktvety ādi | guḍākeśo hṛṣīkeśaṃ prati evaṃ na hi prapaśyāmīty ādinā yuddhasya śokānivartakatvam uktvā parantapo 'pi govindaṃ sarva-vedajñaṃ prati na yotsye iti coktveti yojyam | tatra hṛṣīkeśatvād buddhiṃ yuddhe pravartayiṣyati | sarva-veda-vittvād yuddhe sva-dharmatvaṃ grāhayiṣyatīti vyajya dhṛtarāṣṭra-hṛdi saṃjātā sva-putra-rājyāśā nirasyate ||9||

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BhG 2.10

tam uvāca hṛṣīkeśaḥ prahasann iva bhārata |
senayor ubhayor madhye viṣīdantam idaṃ vacaḥ ||10||

śrīdharaḥ : tataḥ kiṃ vṛttam ity apekṣāyām āha tam uvāceti | prahasann iva prasanna-mukhaḥ sann ity arthaḥ ||10||

madhusūdanaḥ : evaṃ yuddham upekṣitavaty apy arjune bhagavān nopekṣitavān iti dhṛtarāṣṭra-durāśā-nirāsāyā 'ha tam uvāceti | senayor ubhayor madhye yuddhodyamenāgatya tad-virodhinaṃ viṣādaṃ mohaṃ prāpnuvantaṃ tam arjunaṃ prahasann ivānucitācāraṇa-prakāśanena lajjāmbudhau majjayann iva hṛṣīkeśaḥ sarvāntaryāmī bhagavān idaṃ vakṣyamāṇam aśocyān ity ādi vacaḥ parama-gambhīrārtham anucitācaraṇa-prakāśakam uktavān na t”pekṣitavān ity arthaḥ |

anucitācaraṇa-prakāśanena lajjotpādanaṃ prahāsaḥ | lajjā ca duḥkhātmiketi dveṣa-viṣaya eva sa mukhyaḥ | arjunasya tu bhagavat-kṛpā-viṣayatvād anucitācaraṇa-prakāśanasya ca vivekotpatti-hetutvād eka-dalābhāvena gauṇa evāyaṃ prahāsa iti kathayitum iva-śabdaḥ | lajjām utpādayitum iva vivkam utpādayitum arjunasyānucitācaraṇaṃ bhagavatā prakāśyate | lajjotpattis tu nāntarīyakatayāstu māstu veti na vivakṣiteti bhāvaḥ |

yadi hi yuddhārambhāt prāg eva sthito yuddham upekṣeta tadā nānucitaṃ kuryāt | mahatā saṃrambheṇa tu yuddha-bhūmāv āgatya tad-upekṣaṇam atīvānucitam iti kathayituṃ senayor ity ādi-viśeṣaṇam | etac cāśocyānityādau spaṣṭaṃ bhaviṣyati ||10||

viśvanāthaḥ : aho tvāpy etāvān khalv aviveka iti sakhya-bhāvena taṃ prahasan anaucitya-prakāśena lajjāmbudhau nimajjayan iveti tadānīṃ śiṣya-bhāvaṃ prāpte tasmin hāsyam anucitam ity adharoṣṭha-nikuñcanena hāsyam āvṛṇvaṃś cety arthaḥ | hṛṣīkeśa iti pūrvaṃ premāivārjuna-vāṅ-niyamyo 'pi sāmpratam arjuna-hita-kāritvāt premṇaivārjuna-mano-niyantāpi bhavatīti bhāvaḥ | senayor ubhayor madhe ity arjunasya viṣādo bhagavatā prabodhaś ca ubhābhyāṃ senābhyāṃ sāmānyato dṛṣṭa eveti bhāvaḥ ||10||

baladevaḥ : vyaṅgam arthaṃ prakāśayann āha tam uvāceti taṃ viṣīdantam arjunaṃ prati hṛṣīkeśo bhagavān aśocyān ity ādikam atigambhīrārthaṃ vacanam uvāca | ahotavāpīdṛg vivekaḥ iti sakhya-bhāvena prahasan | anaucitya-bhāṣitvena trapā-sindhau nimajjayan ity arthaḥ | iveti tadaiva śiṣyatāṃ prāpte tasmin hāsānaucityādīṣad adharollāsaṃ kurvann ity arthaḥ | arjunasya viṣādo bhagavatā tasyopadeśaś ca sarva-sākṣika iti bodhayituṃ senayor ubhayor ity etat ||10||
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BhG 2.11

śrī-bhagavān uvāca
aśocyān anvaśocas tvaṃ prajñā-vādāṃś ca bhāṣase |
gatāsūn agatāsūṃś ca nānuśocanti paṇḍitāḥ ||11||

śrīdharaḥ : dehātmanor avivekād asyaivaṃ śoko bhavatīti tad-viveka-darśanārthaṃ śrī-bhagavān uvāca aśocyān ity ādi | śokasyāviṣayī-bhūtān eva bandhūn tvam anvaśocaḥ anuśocitavān asi dṛṣṭvemān svajanān kṛṣṇa ity ādinā | tatra kutas tvā kaśmalam idaṃ viṣame samupasthitam ity ādinā mayā bodhito 'pi punaś ca prajñāvatāṃ paṇḍitānāṃ vādān śabdān kathaṃ bhīṣmam ahaṃ saṅkhye ity ādīn kevalaṃ bhāṣase, na tu paṇḍito 'si, yataḥ gatāsūn gata-prāṇān bandhūn agatāsūṃś ca jīvato 'pi, bandhu-hīnā ete kathaṃ jīviṣyantīti nānuśocanti paṇḍitā vivekinaḥ ||11||

madhusūdanaḥ : HERE

viśvanāthaḥ : bho arjuna ! tavāyaṃ bandha-vadha-hetukaḥ śoko bhrama-mūlaka eva, tathā kathaṃ bhīṣmam ahaṃ saṅkhye ity ādiko vivekaś cāprajñā-mūlaka evety āha aśocyān ity ādi | aśocyān śokānārhān eva tvam anvaśoco 'nuśocitavān asi | tathā tvāṃ prabodhayantaṃ māṃ prati prajñā-vādān prajñāyāṃ satyām eva ye vādāḥ kathaṃ bhīṣmam ahaṃ saṅkhye ity ādīni vākyāni tān bhāṣase, na tu tava kāpi prajñā vartate iti bhāvaḥ | yataḥ paṇḍitāḥ prajñāvanto gatāsūn gatā niḥsṛtā bhavanty asavo yebhyas tān sthūla-dehān na śocanti, teṣāṃ naśvara-bhāvatvād iti bhāvaḥ | agatāsūn aniḥsṛta-prāṇān
sūkṣma-dehān api na śocanti, te hi mukteḥ pūrvaṃ naśvarā eva | ubhayeṣām api tathā tathā svabhāvasya duṣpariharatvāt | mūrkhās tu pirtrādi-dehebhyaḥ prāṇeṣu niḥsṛteṣv eva śocanti, sūkṣma-dehāṃs tu na, te prāyaḥ paricinvantyas atas tair alam | ete hi sarve bhīṣmādayaḥ sthūla-sūkṣma-deha-sahitā ātmāna eva | ātmanāṃ tu ityatvāt teṣu śoka-pravṛttir eva nāstīty atas tvayā yat pūrvam artha-śāstrāt dharma-śāstraṃ balavad ity uktaṃ tatra mayā tu dharma-śāstrād api jñāna-śāstraṃ balavad ity ucyata iti bhāvaḥ ||11||

baladevaḥ : evaṃ arjune tūṣṇīṃ sthite tad-buddhim ākṣipan bhagavān āha aśocyān iti | he arjuna ! aśocyān śocitum ayogyān eva dhārtarāṣṭrāṃs tvaṃ anvaśocaḥ śocitavān asi | tathā māṃ prati prajñā-vādān prajñāvatām iva vacanāni dṛṣṭvemaṃ svajanam ity ādīni, kathaṃ bhīṣmam ity ādīni ca bhāṣase, na ca te prajñā-leśo 'py astīti bhāvaḥ | ye tu prajñāvantas te gatāsūn nirgata-prāṇān sthūla-dehān, agatāsūṃś cānirgata-prāṇān sūkṣma-dehāṃś ca, śabdād ātmanaś ca na śocanti | ayam arthaḥ - śokaḥ sthūla-dehānāṃ vināśitvāt, nāntyaḥ sūkṣma-dehānāṃ
mukteḥ prāg avaināśitvāt tadvatām ātmanāṃ tu ṣaḍ-bhāva-vikāra-varjitānāṃ nityatvān na śocyāteti | dehātma-svabhāva-vidāṃ na ko 'pi śoka-hetuḥ | yad-artha-śāstrād dharma-śāstrasya balavattvam ucyate | tat kila tato 'pi balavatā jñāna-śāstreṇa pratyucyate | tasmād aśocye śocya-bhramaḥ pāmara-sādhāraṇaḥ paṇḍitasya te na yogya iti bhāvaḥ ||11||

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BhG 2.12

na tv evāhaṃ jātu nāsaṃ na tvaṃ neme janādhipāḥ |
na caiva na bhaviṣyāmaḥ sarve vayam ataḥ param ||12||

śrīdharaḥ : aśocyatve hetum āha na tv evāham iti | yathāhaṃ parameśvaro jātu kadācit līlā-vigrahasyāvirbhāva-tirobhāvato nāsam iti tu naiva | api tv āsam eva anāditvāt | na ca tvaṃ nāsīḥ nābhūḥ, api tv āsīr eva | ime vā janādhipā nṛpā nāsann iti na, api tu āsann eva mad-aṃśatvāt | tathātaḥ param ita upary api na bhaviṣyāmo na sthāsyāma iti ca naiva, api tu sthāsyāma eveti janma-maraṇa-śūnyatvād aśocyā ity arthaḥ ||12||

madhusūdanaḥ :

viśvanāthaḥ : athavā sakhe tvām aham evaṃ pṛcchāmi | kiṃ ca prītyāspadasya maraṇe dṛṣṭe sati śoko jāyate, tatreha prītyāspadam ātmā deho vā ? sarveṣām eva bhūtānāṃ nṛpa svātmaiva vallabhaḥ [BhP 10.14.57] iti śukokter ātmaiva prīty-āspadam iti cet tarhi jīveśvara-bhedena dvividhasyaivātmano nityatvād eva maraṇābhāvād ātmā śokasya viṣayo nety āha na tv evāham iti | ahaṃ paramātmā jātu kadācid api pūrvaṃ nāsam iti na, api tv āsam eva | tathā tvam api jīvātmā āsīr eva | tatheme janādhipā rājānaś ca jīvātmāna āsann eveti prāg-abhāvābhāvo darśitaḥ | tathā sarve vayam ahaṃ tvam ime janādhipāś cātaḥ paraṃ na bhaviṣyāmo na sthāsyāma iti na, api tu sthāsyāma eveti dhvaṃsābhāvaś
ca darśita iti paramātmano jīvātmanāṃ ca nityatvād ātmā na śoka-viṣaya iti sādhitam | atra śrutayaḥ - nityo nityānāṃ cetanaś cetanānām eko bahūnāṃ yo vidadhāti kāmān [ŚvetU 6.13] ity ādyāḥ ||12||

baladevaḥ : evam asthāna-śocitvād apāṇḍityam arjunasyāpādya tattva-jijñāsuṃ niyojitāñjaliṃ taṃ prati sarveśvaro bhagavān nityo nityānāṃ cetanaś cetanānām eko bahūnāṃ yo vidadhāti kāmān [ŚvetU 6.13] iti śruti-siddhaṃ svasmāj jīvānāṃ ca pāramarthikaṃ bhedam āha na tv evāham iti | he arjuna ! ahaṃ sarveśvaro bhagavān itaḥ
pūrvasminn ādau kāle jātu kadācin nāsam iti na, api tv āsam eva | tathā tvam arjuno nāsīr iti na, kintv āsīr eva | ime janādhipā rājāno nāsann iti na, kintv āsann eva | tathetaḥ parasminn ante kāle sarve vayam ahaṃ ca tvaṃ ca ime ca na bhaviṣyāma iti na, kintu bhaviṣyāma eveti | sarveśvaravaj jīvānāṃ ca traikālika-sattā-yogitvāt tad-viṣayako na śoko yukta ity arthaḥ | na cāvidyā-kṛtatvād vyavahāriko 'yaṃ bhedaḥ | sarvajñe bhagavaty avidyā-yogāt | idaṃ jñānam upāśritya ity ādinā mokṣe 'pi tasyābhidāsyamānatvāc ca | na cābhedajñasyāpi harer bādhitānuvṛtti-nyāyeneyam arjunādi-bheda-dṛṣṭir iti vācyam | tathā saty upadeśāsiddheḥ | maru-marīcikādāv udaka-buddhir bādhitāpy anuvartamānā mithyārtha-viṣayatva-niścayān
nodakāharaṇādau pravartayed evam abheda-bodha-bādhitāpy anuvartamānārjunādi-bheda-dṛṣṭis tattva-niścayān nopadeśādau pravartayiṣyatīti yat kiñcid etat |

nanu phalavaty ajñāte 'rthe śāstra-tātparya-vīkṣaṇāt tādṛśo 'bhedas tātparya-viṣayo vaiphalyāj jñātatvāc ca | bhedas tad-viṣayo na syāt, kintu adbhyo vā eṣa prātar udety apaḥ sāyaṃ praviśati ity ādi-śruty-arthavad anuvādya eva sa iti cen mandam etat | pṛthag ātmānaṃ preritāraṃ ca matvā juṣṭas tatas tenāmṛtatvam eti [ŚvetU 1.6] ity ādinā bheda evāmṛtatva-phala-śravaṇāt | viruddha-dharmāvacchinna-pratiyogikatayā loke tasyājñātatvāc ca | te ca dharmā vibhutvāṇutva-svāmitva-bhṛtyatvādayaḥ śāstraika-gamyā mitho viruddhā bodhyāḥ | abhedas tv aphalas tatra phalānaṅgīkārāt | ajñātaś ca śaśa-śṛṅgavad asattvāt | tasmāt paramārthikas tad-bhedaḥ siddhaḥ ||12||

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BhG 2.13

dehino 'smin yathā dehe kaumāraṃ yauvanaṃ jarā |
tathā dehāntara-prāptir dhīras tatra na muhyati ||13||

śrīdharaḥ : nanv īśvarasya tava janmādi-śūnyatvaṃ satyam eva, jīvānāṃ tu janma-maraṇe prasiddhe | tatrāha dehina ity ādi | dehino dehābhimānino jīvasya yathāsmin sthūla-dehe kaumārādy-avasthās tad-deha-nibandhanā eva, na tu svataḥ, pūrvāvāsthā-nāśe |vasthāntarotpattāv api sa evāham iti pratyabhijñānāt | tathaiva etad-deha-nāśe dehāntara-prāptir api liṅga-deha-nibandhanaiva | na tāvad ātmano nāśaḥ, jāta-mātrasya pūrva-saṃskāreṇa stanya-pānādau pravṛtti-darśanāt | ato dhīro dhīmān tatra tayor deha-nāśotpattyor na muhyati | ātmaiva mṛto jātaś ceti na manyate ||13||

madhusūdanaḥ :

viśvanāthaḥ : nanu cātma-sambandhena deho 'pi prīty-āspadaṃ syāt, deha-sambandhena putra-bhrātrādayo 'pi, tat-sambandhena tat-putrādayo 'pi | atas teṣāṃ nāśe śokaḥ syād eveti ced ata āha dehina iti | dehino jīvasyāsmin dehe kaumāra kaumāraṃ kaumāra-prāptir bhavati, tataḥ kaumāra-nāśānantaraṃ jarā-prāptir yathā tathaiva dehāntara-prāptir iti | tatas cātma-sambandhināṃ kaumārādīnāṃ prīty-āspadānāṃ nāśe yathā śoko na kriyate tathā dehasyāpi ātma-sambandhinaḥ prītyāspadasya nāśe śoko na kartavyaḥ | yauvanasya nāśe jarā-prāptau śoko jāyate iti cet kaumārasya nāśe yauvana-prāptau harṣo 'pi jāyate ity ato bhīṣma-droṇādīnāṃ jīrṇa-deha-nāśe khalu navya-dehāntara-prāptau
tarhi harṣaḥ kriyatām iti bhāvaḥ | yad vā, ekasminn api dehe kaumārādīnāṃ yathā prāptis tathaivaikasyāpi dehino jīvasya nānā-dehānāṃ prāptir iti ||13||

baladevaḥ : nanu bhīṣmādi-dehāvacchinnānām ātmanāṃ nityatve 'pi tad-dehānāṃ tad-bhogāyatanānāṃ nāśe yuktaḥ śoka iti cet tatrāha dehino 'sminn iti | traikālikā bahavo dehā yasya santi, tasya dehino jīvasyāsmin vartamāne dehe kramāt kaumāra-yauvana-jarās tisro 'vasthā bhavanti | tāsām ātma-sambandhināṃ tad-bhogopayuktānāṃ pūrva-pūrva-vināśena para-para-prāptau yathā na śokas tathaiva tad-deha-vināśe sati dehāntara-prāptir yayāti-yauvana-prāpti-nyāyena harṣa-hetur eveti, na tad-deha-vināśa-hetukaḥ śokas tavocita iti bhāvaḥ | dhīro dhīmān deha-svabhāva-jīva-karma-vipāka-svarūpa-jñaḥ | atra dehina ity eka-vacanaṃ jāty-abhiprāyeṇa bodhyaṃ pūrvatrātma-bahutvokteḥ |

atrāhuḥ - eka eva viśuddhātmā tasyāvidyayāparicchinnasya tasyāṃ pratibimbitasya vā nānātmatvam | śrutiś caivam āha ākāśam ekaṃ hi yathā ghaṭādiṣu pṛthag bhavet, tathātmaiko hy anekastho jalādhāreṣv ivāṃśumān iti | tad-vijñānena tasya vināśe tu tan-nānātva-nivṛttyā tad-aikyaṃ sidhyatīty eka-vacanenaitat pārtha-sārathir āheti | tan-mandaṃ jaḍayā tayā caitanya-rāśeś chedāsambhavāt | tair api tad-viṣayatvānaṅgīkārāc ca | vāstave cchede vikāritvādy-āpattiḥ ṭaṅka-chinna-pāṣāṇavat syāt - nīrūpasya vibhoḥ pratibimbāsambhavāc ca | anyathākāśādi-gādīnāṃ tad-āpattiḥ | na ca pratīty-anyathānupapattir evākāśasya pratibimbe mānaṃ tad-varti-graha-nakṣatra-prabhā-maṇḍalaṃ
tasyiavāmbhasi bhāsamānatvena pratīteḥ | ākāśam ekaṃ hi iti śrutis tu paramātma-viṣayā tasyākāśavat sūryavac ca bahu-vṛttikatvaṃ vadatīty aviruddham | na cātmaikyasyopadeṣṭā sambhavati | sa hi tattvavin na vā ? ādye 'dvitīyam ātmānaṃ vijānatas tasyopadeśyāpari-sphūrtiḥ | antye tv ajñatvād eva nātma-jñānopadeṣṭṛtvam | bādhitānuvṛttyāśrayaṇaṃ tu pūrva-nirastam ||13||

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BhG 2.14

mātrā-sparśās tu kaunteya śītoṣṇa-sukha-duḥkhadāḥ |
āgamāpāyino 'nityās tāṃs titikṣasva bhārata ||14||

śrīdharaḥ : nanu tān ahaṃ na śocāmi, kintu tad-viyogādi-duḥkha-bhājaṃ mām eveti cet tatrāha mātrā-sparśā iti | mīyante jāyante viṣayā ābhir iti mātrā indriya-vṛttayaḥ, tāsāṃ sparśā viṣayeṣu sambaddhāḥ, te śītoṣṇādi-pradā bhavanti | te tu āgamāpāyitvād anityā asthirāḥ | atas tān titikṣasva sahasva | yathā jalātapādi-saṃsargās tat-tat-kāla-kṛtāḥ svabhāvataḥ śītoṣṇādi prayacchanti evam iṣṭa-saṃyoga-viyogā api sukha-duḥkhāni prayacchanti, teṣāṃ cāsthiratvāt sahanaṃ tava dhīrasyocitaṃ na tu tan-nimitta-harṣa-viṣāda-pāravaśyam ity arthaḥ
||14||

madhusūdanaḥ :

viśvanāthaḥ : nanu satyam eva tattvam | tad apy avivekino mama mana evānarthakāni vṛtahiva śoka-moha-vyāptaṃ duḥkhayatīti | tatra na kevalam ekaṃ mana evāpi tu manaso vṛttayo 'pi sarvās tv agādīndriya-rūpāḥ sva-viṣayān anubhāvyānarthakāriṇya ity āha mātrā indriya-grāhya-viṣayās teṣāṃ sparśā anubhavāḥ | śītoṣṇety āgamāpāyina iti yad eva śītala-jalādikam uṣṇa-kāle sukhadam | tad eva śīta-kāle duḥkhadam ato 'niyatatvād āgamāpāyitvāc ca tān viṣayānubhavān titikṣasva sahasva | teṣāṃ sahanam eva śāstra-vihito dharmaḥ | nahi māghe māsi jalasya duḥkhatva-buddhyaiva śāstre vihitaḥ snāna-rūpo dharmas tyajyate
| dharma eva kāle sarvānartha-nivartako bhavati | evam eva ye putra-bhrātrādyotpatti-kāle dhanādy-upārjana-kāle ca sukhadās ta eva mṛtyu-kāle duḥkhadā āgamāpāyino 'nityās tān api titikṣasva | na tu tad-anurodhena yuddha-rūpaḥ śāstra-vihitaḥ sva-dharmas tyājyo vihita-dharmānācaraṇaṃ khalu kāle mahānarthakṛd eveti bhāvaḥ ||14||

baladevaḥ : nanu bhīṣmādayo mṛtāḥ kathaṃ bhaviṣyantīti tad-duḥkha-nimittaḥ śoko mābhūt | tad-viccheda-duḥkha-nimittas tu me mana-prabhṛtīni pradahantīti cet tatrāha mātreti | mātrās tv agādīndriya-vṛttayaḥ mīyante paricchidyante viṣayā abhir iti vyutpatteḥ | sparśās tābhir viṣayāṇām anubhavānte khalu śītoṣṇa-sukha-duḥkhadā bhavanti | yad eva śītalam udakaṃ grīṣme sukhadaṃ tad eva hemante duḥkhadam ity ato 'niyatatvād āgamāpāyitvāc cānityān asthirāṃs tān titikṣasva sahasva | etad uktaṃ bhavati māgha-snānaṃ duḥkha-karam api dharmatayā vidhānād yathā kriyate tathā
bhīṣmādibhiḥ saha yuddhaṃ duḥkha-karam api tathā vidhānāt kāryam eva | tatratyo duḥkhānubhavas tv āgantuko dharma-siddhatvāt soḍhavyaḥ | dharmāj jñānodayena mokṣa-lābhe tūttaratra tasya nānuvṛttiś ca jñāna-niṣṭhā paripākaṃ vinaiva dharma-tyāgas tv anartha-hetur iti | kaunteya bhārateti padābhyām ubhaya-kula-śuddhasya te dharma-bhraṃśo nocita iti sūcyate ||14||

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BhG 2.15

yaṃ hi na vyathayanty ete puruṣaṃ puruṣarṣabha |
sama-duḥkha-sukhaṃ dhīraṃ so 'mṛtatvāya kalpate ||15||

śrīdharaḥ : tat-pratikāra-prayatnād api tat-sahanam evocitaṃ mahā-phalatvād ity āha yaṃ hīti | ete mātrā-sparśā yaṃ puruṣaṃ na vyathayanti nābhibhavanti | same duḥkha-sukhe sa tam | sa tair avikṣipyamāṇo dharma-jñāna-dvārā amṛtatvāya mokṣāya kalpate yogyo bhavati ||15||

madhusūdanaḥ :

viśvanāthaḥ : evaṃ vicāreṇa tat-tat-sahanābhyāse sati te viṣayānubhavāḥ kāle kila nāpi duḥkhayanti | yadi ca na duḥkhayanti, tadātma-muktiḥ sva-pratyāsannaivety āha yam iti | amṛtatvāya mokṣāya ||15||

baladevaḥ : dharmārtha-duḥkha-sahanābhyāsasyottaratra sukha-hetutvaṃ darśayann āha yaṃ hīti | ete mātrā-sparśāḥ priyāpriya-viṣayānubhāvā yaṃ dhīraṃ dhiyam īrayati dharmeṣv iti vyutpatter dharma-niṣṭhaṃ puruṣaṃ na vyathayanti sukha-duḥkha-mūrcchitaṃ na kurvanti so 'mṛtatvāya muktaye kalpyate | na tu tādṛśo duḥkha-sukha-mūrcchita ity arthaḥ | uktam arthaṃ sphuṭayan puruṣaṃ viśinaṣṭi sameti | dharmānuṣṭhānasya kaṣṭa-sādhyatvād duḥkham anuṣaṅga-labdhaṃ sukhaṃ ca yasya samaṃ bhavati tābhyāṃ
mukha-mlānitollāsa-rahitam ity arthaḥ ||15||

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BhG 2.16

nāsato vidyate bhāvo nābhāvo vidyate sataḥ |
ubhayor api dṛṣṭo 'ntas tv anayos tattva-darśibhiḥ ||16||

śrīdharaḥ : nanu tathāpi śītoṣṇādikam atiduḥsahaṃ kathaṃ soḍhavyam | atyantaṃ tat-sahane ca kadācid deha-nāśaḥ syād ity āśaṅkya tattva-vicārataḥ sarvaṃ soḍhuṃ śakyam ity āśayenāha nāsato vidyata iti | asato 'nātma-dharmatvād avidyamānasya śītoṣṇāder ātmani bhāvaḥ sattā na vidyate | tathā sataḥ sat-svabhāvasyātmano 'bhāvo nāśo na vidyate | evam ubhayoḥ sad-asator anto nirṇayo dṛṣṭaḥ | kaiḥ ? tattva-darśibhiḥ vastu-yāthārthya-vedibhiḥ | evambhūta-vivekena sahasvety arthaḥ ||16||

madhusūdanaḥ :

viśvanāthaḥ : etac ca viveka-daśān adhirūḍhān prati uktam | vastutas tu asaṅgo hy ayaṃ puruṣaḥ iti śruter jīvātmanaś ca sthūla-sūkṣma-dehābhyāṃ tad-dharmaiḥ śoka-mohādibhiś ca sambandho nāsty eva | tat-sambandhasya avidyā kalpitatvād ity āha neti | asato 'nātma-dharmatvād ātmani jīve avartamānasya śoka-mohādes tad-āśrayasya dehasya ca bhāvaḥ sattā nāsti | tathā sataḥ satya-rūpasya jīvātmano 'bhāvo nāśo nāsti | tasmād ubhayor etayor asat-sator anto nirṇayo 'yaṃ dṛṣṭaḥ | tena bhīṣmādiṣu tvad-ādiṣu ca jīvātmasu satyatvād anaśvareṣu deha-daihika-viveka-śoka-mohādayo naiva santi kathaṃ bhīṣmādayo naṅkṣanti | kathaṃ
vā tāṃs tvaṃ śocasīti bhāvaḥ ||16||

baladevaḥ : tad evaṃ bhagavatā pārthasyāsthānāśocitvena tat-pāṇḍityam ākṣiptam | śoka-haraṃ ca svopāsanam eva tac copāsopāsaka-bheda-ghaṭitam ity upāsyāj jīvāṃśinaḥ svasmād upāsakānāṃ jīvāṃśānāṃ tāttvikaṃ dvaitam upadiṣṭam | atha yad ātma-tattvena tu brahma-tattvaṃ dīpopameneha yuktaḥ prapaśyet [ŚvetU 2.15] ity ādāv aṃśa-svarūpa-jñānasyāṃśi-svarūpa-jñānopayogitva-śravaṇāt tad ādau saniṣṭhādīn sarvān pratyaviśeṣeṇopadeśyaṃ tac ca dehātmanor vaidharmya-dhiyam antarā na syād iti tad-vaidharmya-bodhāyārabhyate nāsata ity ādibhiḥ | asataḥ pariṇāmino dehāder bhāvo 'pariṇāmitvaṃ na vidyate
| sato ' pariṇāmina ātmanas tv abhāvaḥ pariṇāmitvaṃ na vidyate | dehātmānau pariṇāmāpariṇāma-svabhāvau bhavataḥ | evam ubhayor asat-sac-chabditayor dehātmanor anto nirṇayas tattva-darśibhis tad-ubhaya-svabhāva-vedibhiḥ puruṣair dṛṣṭo 'nubhūtaḥ | atrāsac-chabdena vinaśvaraṃ dehādi jaḍaṃ sac-chabdena tv avinaśvaram ātma-caitanyam ucyate | evam eva śrī-viṣṇu-purāṇe 'pi nirṇītaṃ dṛṣṭaṃ jyotīṃṣi viṣṇur bhuvanāni viṣṇur [ViP 2.12.38] ity upakramya yad asti yan nāsti ca vipra-varya [?] ity asti | nāsti-śabda-vācyayoś cetana-jaḍayos tathātvaṃ vastv asti kiṃ kutradcid ity ādibhir nirūpitaḥ | tatra nāsti śabda-vācyaṃ
jaḍam | asti-śabdavātyaṃ tu caitanyam iti svayam eva vivṛtam | yat tu sat-kārya-vāda-sthāpanāyai tat-padyam ity āhus tan-niravadhānaṃ dehātma-svabhāvānabhijñāna-mohitaṃ prati tan-moha-vinivṛttaye tat-svabhāvābhijñāpanasya prakṛtatvāt ||16||


__________________________________________________________

BhG 2.17

avināśi tu tad viddhi yena sarvam idaṃ tatam |
vināśam avyayasyāsya na kaścit kartum arhati ||17||

śrīdharaḥ : atra sat-svabhāvam avināśi vastu sāmānyenoktaṃ tataṃ tat-sākṣitvena vyāptaṃ taṃ tu ātma-svarūpam avināśi vināśa-śūnyaṃ viddhi jānīhi | tatra hetum āha vināśam iti ||17||

madhusūdanaḥ :

viśvanāthaḥ : nābhāvo vidyate sataḥ ity asyārthaṃ spaṣṭayati avināśīti | taṃ jīvātma-svarūpaṃ yena sarvam idaṃ śarīraṃ tataṃ vyāptam | nanu śarīra-mātra-vyāpi-caitanyatve jīvātmano madhyama-parimāṇatvena anityatva-prasaktiḥ ? maivam | sūkṣmāṇām apy ahaṃ jīvaḥ iti bhagavad-ukteḥ | eṣoṇur ātmā cetasā veditavyo yasmin prāṇaḥ pañcadhā saṃviveśa iti,

bālāgra-śata-bhāgasya śatadhā kalpitasya ca |
bhāgo jīvaḥ sa vijñeyaḥ [ŚvetU 5.9] iti,

ārāgra-mātro hy aparo 'pi dṛṣṭaḥ iti śrutibhyaś ca tasya paramāṇu-parimāṇatvam eva | tad api sampūrṇa-deha-vyāpi-śaktimattvaṃ jatu-jaṭitasya mahā-maṇer mahauṣadhi-khaṇḍasya vā śirasy urasi vā dhṛtasya sampūrṇa-deha-puṣṭi-karaṇa-śaktimattvam iva nāsamañjasam | svarga-naraka-nānā-yoniṣu gamanaṃ ca tasyopādhi-pāravaśyād eva | tad uktaṃ prāṇam adhikṛtya dattātrayeṇa yena saṃsarate pumān iti | ataevāsya sarva-gatatvam apy agrima-śloke vakṣyamāṇaṃ nāsamañjasam | ataevāvyayasya nityasya nityo nityānāṃ cetanaś cetanānām eko bahūnāṃ yo vidadhāti kāmān [ŚvetU 6.13] iti śruteḥ |

yad vā, nanu deho jīvātmā paramātmety etad vastu-trikaṃ manuṣya-tiryag-ādiṣu sarvatra dṛśyate, tatrādyayor deha-jīvayos tattvaṃ nāsato vidyate bhāvaḥ ity anenoktam | tṛtīyasya paramātma-vastunaḥ kiṃ tattvam ity ata āha avināśi tv iti | tu bhinnopakrame | paramātmano māyā-jīvābhyāṃ svarūpataḥ pārthakyād idaṃ jagat ||17||

baladevaḥ : uktaṃ jīvātma-dehayoḥ svabhāvaṃ viśadayaty avināśīti dvābhyām | taj jīvātma-tattvam avināśi nityaṃ viddhi | yena sarvam idaṃ śarīraṃ tataṃ dharma-bhūtena jñānena vyāptam asti | asyāvyayasya parmāṇutvena ca vināśānarhasya vināśaṃ na kaścit sthūlo 'rthaḥ kartum arhati prāṇasyeva dehaḥ | iha jīvātmano deha-parimitatvaṃ na pratyetavyam | eṣo 'ṇur ātmā cetasā veditavyo yasmin prāṇaḥ pañcadhā saṃviveśa [ṃuṇḍU 3.1.9] ity ādiṣu tasya paramāṇutva-śravaṇāt | tādṛśasya nikhila-deha-vyāptis tu dharma-bhūta-jñānenaiva syāt | evam āha bhagavān sūtrakāraḥ - guṇād vālokavad [Vs. 2.3.26] iti | ihāpi svayaṃ vakṣyati
yathā prakāśayaty ekaḥ [Gītā 13.33] ity ādinā ||17||

__________________________________________________________

BhG 2.18

antavanta ime dehā nityasyoktāḥ śarīriṇaḥ |
anāśino 'prameyasya tasmād yudhyasva bhārata ||18||

śrīdharaḥ : āgamāpāya-dharmakaṃ sandarśyati antavanta iti | anto vināśo vidyate yeṣāṃ te antavantaḥ | nityasya sarvadaika-rūpasya śarīriṇaḥ śarīravataḥ | ataevānāśino vināśa-rahitasya aprameyasyaparicchinnasyātmana ime sukha-duḥkhādi-dharmaka-dehā uktās tattva-darśibhiḥ | yasmād evam ātmano na vināśaḥ, na ca sukha-duḥkhādi-sambandhaḥ, tasmān mohajaṃ śoktaṃ tyaktvā yudhyasva | svadharmaṃ mā tyakṣīr ity arthaḥ ||18||

madhusūdanaḥ : nanu sphuraṇa-rūpasya sataḥ katham avināśitvaṃ tasya deha-dharmatvād dehasya cānukṣaṇa-vināśād iti bhūta-caitanya-vādinas tān nirākurvann āsato vidyate bhāva ity etad vivṛṇoti antavanta iti | antavanto vināśina ime 'parokṣā dehā upacitāpacita-rūpatvāc charīrāṇi | bahu-vacanāt sthūla-sūkṣma-kāraṇa-rūpā virāṭ-sūtrāvyākṛtākhyāḥ samaṣṭi-vyaṣṭy-ātmanaḥ sarve nityasyāvināśina eva śarīriṇa ādhyāsika-sambandhena śarīravataekasyātmanaḥ sva-prakāśa-sphuraṇa-rūpasya sambandhino dṛśyatvena bhogyatvena coktāḥ śrutibhir brahma-vādibhiś ca | tathā ca taittirīyake 'nnamayādyānandamayānantān pañca kośān kalpayitvā tad-adhiṣṭhānam akalpitaṃ brahma pucchaṃ pratiṣṭhā
[TaittU 2.5] iti darśitam | tatra pañcīkṛta-pañca-mahābhūta-tat-kāryātmako virāṇ-mūrta-rāśir anna-maya-kośaḥ sthūla-samaṣṭiḥ | tat-kāraṇī-bhūto 'pañcīkṛta-pañca-mahā-bhūta-tat-kāryātmako hiraṇyagarbhaḥ sūtram amūrta-rāśiḥ sūkṣma-samaṣṭiḥ trayaṃ vā idaṃ nāma rūpaṃ karma [BAU 1.6.1] iti bṛhad-āraṇyakokta-try-annātmakaḥ sarva-karmātmakatvena kriyā-śakti-mātram ādāya prāṇa-maya-kośa uktaḥ | nāmātmakatvena jñāna-śakti-mātram ādāyamanomaya-kośa uktaḥ | rūpātmakatvena tad-ubhayāśrayatayā kartṛtvam ādāya vijñāna-maya-kośa uktaḥ | tataḥ prāṇa-maya-mano-maya-vijñāna-mayātmaika eva hiraṇyagarbhākhyo liṅga-śarīra-kośaḥ | tat-kāraṇībhūtas
tu māyopahita-caitanyātmā sarva-saṃskāra-śeṣo 'vyākṛtākhya ānanda-maya-kośaḥ | te ca sarva ekasyaivātmanaḥ śarīrāṇīty uktam | tasyaiṣa eva śārīra ātmā yaḥ pūrvasya [TaittU 2.3.4] iti | tasya prāṇa-mayasyaiṣa eva śarīre bhavaḥ śārīra ātmā yaḥ satya-jñānādi-lakṣaṇo guhā-nihitatvenoktaḥ pūrvasyānna-mayasya | evaṃ prāṇa-maya-mano-maya-vijñāna-mayānanda-mayeṣu yojyam |

athaveme sarve dehās trailokya-varti-sarva-prāṇi-sambandhina ekasyaivātmana uktā iti yojanā | tathā ca śrutiḥ -

eko devaḥ sarva-bhūteṣu gūḍhaḥ
sarva-vyāpī sarva-bhūtāntarātmā |
karmādhyakṣaḥ sarva-bhūtādhivāsaḥ
sākṣī ceto kevalo nirguṇaś ca || [ŚvetU 6.11]

iti sarva-śarīra-sambandhinam ekam ātmānaṃ nityaṃ vibhuṃ darśayati |

nanu nityatvaṃ yāvat-kāla-sthāyitvaṃ tathā cāvidyādivat kālena saha nāśe 'pi tad-upapannam ity ata āha anāśina iti | deśataḥ kālato vastutaś caparicchinasyāvidyādeḥ kalpitatvenānityatve 'pi yāvat-kāla-sthāyi-svarūpam aupacārikaṃ nityatvaṃ vyavahriyate yāvad-vikāraṃ tu vibhāgo lokavat [Vs 2.3.7] iti nyāyāt | ātmanas tu pariccheda-traya-śūnyasyākalpitasya vināśa-hetv-abhāvān mukhyam eva kūṭastha-nityatvaṃ na tu pariṇāmi-nityatvaṃ yāvat-kāla-sthāyitvaṃ cety abhiprāyaḥ |

nanv etādṛśe dehini kiṃcit pramāṇam avaśyaṃ vācyam anyathā niṣpramāṇasya tasyālīkatvāpatteḥ śāstrārambha-vaiyarthyāpatteś ca | tathā ca vastu-paricchedo duṣpariharaḥ śāstra-yonitvāt [Vs 1.1.3] iti nyāyāc ca | ata āha aprameyasyeti | ekadhaivānudraṣṭavyam etad apramayaṃ dhruvam [BAU 4.7.2] apramayam aprameyam |

na tatra sūryo bhāti na candra-tārakaṃ
nemā vidyuto bhānti kuto 'yam agniḥ | [KaṭhU 5.15]

tam eva bhāntam anubhāti sarvaṃ
tasya bhāsā sarvam idaṃ vibhāti [ṃuṇḍU 2.2.10]

iti ca śruteḥ sva-prakāśa-caitanya-rūpa evātmātas tasya sarva-bhāsakasya svabhānārthaṃ na svabhāsyāpekṣā, kintu kalpitājñāna-tat-kārya-nivṛtty-arthaṃ kalpita-vṛtti-viśeṣāpekṣā | kalpitasyaiva kalpita-virodhitvāt | yakṣānurūpo baliḥ iti nyāyāt | tathā ca sarva-kalpita-nivartaka-vṛtti-viśeṣotpatty-arthaṃ śāstrārambhaḥ, tasya tattvam asy ādi-vākya-mātrādhīnatvāt | svataḥ sarvadābhāsamānatvāt sarva-kalpanādhiṣṭhānatvād dṛśyamātra-bhāsakatvāc ca na tasya tucchatvāpattiḥ | tathā caikam evādvitīyaṃ satyaṃ jñānam anantaṃ brahmety ādi-śāstram eva sva-prameyānurodhena svasyāpi kalpitatvam āpādayati anyathā sva-prāmāṇyānupapatteḥ |

kalpitasya cākalpita-paricchedakatvaṃ nāstīti prāk-pratipāditam | ātmanaḥ svaprakāśatvaṃ ca yuktito 'pi bhagavat-pūjyapādair upapāditam | tathā hi - yatra jijñāsoḥ saṃśaya-viparyaya-vyatireka-pramāṇānām anyatamam api nāsti tatra tad-virodhi jñānam iti sarvatra dṛṣṭam | anyathā tritayānyatamāpatteḥ | ātmani cāhaṃ vā nāhaṃ veti na kasyacit saṃśayaḥ | nāpi nāham iti viparyayo vyatirekaḥ pramā veti tat-svarūpa-pramā sarvadāstīti vācyaṃ tasya sarva-saṃśaya-viparyaya-dharmitvāt | dharmyaśe sarvam abhrāntaṃ prakāre tu viparyayaḥ iti nyāyāt | ata evoktam -

pramāṇam apramāṇaṃ ca pramābhāsas tathaiva ca |
kurvanty eva pramāṃ yatra tad-asambhāvanā kutaḥ || [Bṛhad-vāmanaP 1.4.874]

pramābhāsaḥ saṃśayaḥ | sva-prakāśe sad-rūpe dharmiṇi pramāṇāpramāṇayor viśeṣo nāstīty arthaḥ | ātmano 'bhāsamānatve ca ghaṭa-jñānaṃ mayi jātaṃ na vety ādi-saṃśayaḥ syāt | na cāntara-padārthe viṣayasyaiva saṃśayādi-pratibandhakatva-svabhāvaḥ | bāhya-padārthe k ptena virodhi-jñānenaiva saṃśayādi-pratibandha-saṃbhava āntara-padārthe svabhāva-bheda-kalpanāyā anaucityāt | anyathā sarva-viplavāpatteḥ | ātma-mano-yoga-mātraṃ cātma-sākṣātkāre hetuḥ | yasya ca jñāna-mātre hetutvād ghaṭādi-bhāne 'py ātma-bhānaṃ samūhālambana-nyāyena tārkikāṇāṃ pravareṇāpi durnivāraṃ | na ca
cākṣuṣatva-māna-sattvādi-saṅkaraḥ | laukikatvālaukikatvavad aṃśa-bhedenopapatteḥ | saṅkarasyādoṣatvāc cākṣuṣatvāder jātitvānabhyupagamād vā | vyavasāyamātra evātmabhāna-sāmagryā vidyamānatvād anuvyavasāyo 'py apāstaḥ | na ca vyavasāya-bhānārthaṃ sa tasya dīpavat sva-vyavahāre sajātīyānapekṣatvāt | na hi ghaṭa-taj-jñānayor iva vyavasāyānuvyavasāyayor api viṣayatva-viṣayitva-vyavasthāpakaṃ vaijātyam asti vyakti-bhedātirikta-vaidharmyānabhyupagamāt | viṣayatvāvacchedaka-rūpeṇaiva viṣayitvābhyupagame ghaṭa-taj-jñānayor api tad-bhāvāpattir aviśeṣāt |

nanu yathā ghaṭa-vyavahārārthaṃ ghaṭa-jñānam abhyupeyate tathā ghaṭa-jñāna-vyavahārārthaṃ ghaṭa-jñāna-viṣayaṃ jñānam abhyupeyaṃ vyavahārāsya vyavahartavya-jñāna-sādhyatvād iti cet | kānupapattir udbhāvitā devānāṃ-priyeṇa sva-prakāśa-vādinaḥ | nahi vyavahartavya-bhinnatvam api jñāna-viśeṣaṇaṃ vyavahāra-hetutāvacchedakaṃ gauravāt | tathā ceśvara-jñānavadyogi-jñānavat prameyam iti jñānavac ca svenaiva sva-vyavahāropapattau na jñānāntara-kalpanāvakāśaḥ | anuvyavasāyasyāpi ghaṭa-jñāna-vyavahāra-hetutvaṃ kiṃ ghaṭa-jñāna-jñānatvena kiṃ vā ghaṭa-jñānatvenaiveti vivecanīyam | ubhayasyāpi tatra sattvāt | tatra ghaṭa-vyavahāre ghaṭa-jñānatvenaiva hetutāyāḥ k ptatvāt tenaiva
rūpeṇa ghata-jñāna-vyavahāre,pi hetutopapattau na ghaṭa-jñāna-jñānatvaṃ hetutāvacchedakaṃ gauravān mānābhāvāc ca | tathā ca nānuvyavasāya-siddhir ekasyaiva vyavasāyasya vayvasātari vyavaseye vyavasāye ca vyavahāra-janakatvopapatter iti tripuṭī-pratyakṣa-vādinaḥ prābhākarāḥ |

aupaniṣadāstu manyante sva-prakāśa-jñāna-rūpa evātmā na svaprakāśa-jñānāśrayaḥ kartṛ-karma-virodhena tad-bhānānupapatteḥ | jñāna-bhinnatve ghaṭādivaj-jaḍatvena kalpitatvāpatteś ca | svaprakāśa-jñāna-mātra-svarūpo 'py ātmāvidyopahitaḥ san sākṣīty ucyate | vṛtti-mad-antaḥkaraṇopahitaḥ pramātety ucyate | tasya cakṣur-ādīni karaṇāni | sa cakṣur-ādi-dvārāntaḥ-karaṇa-pariṇāmena ghaṭādīn vyāpya tad-ākāro bhavati | tato ghaṭāvacchinna-caitanyaṃ pramātra-bhedāt svājñānaṃ nāśayad aparokṣaṃ bhavati | ghaṭaṃ ca svāvacchedakaṃ sva-tādātmyādhyāsād bhāsayati | antaḥ-karaṇa-pariṇāmaś ca vṛttyākhyo 'tisvacchaḥ svāvacchinnenaiva caitanyena bhāsyata
ity antaḥ-karaṇa-tad-vṛtti-ghaṭānām aparokṣatā | tad etad ākāra-trayam ahaṃ jānāmi ghaṭam iti | bhāsaka-caitanyasyaika-rūpatve 'pi ghaṭaṃ prati vṛtty-apekṣatvāt pramātṛtā | antaḥkaraṇa-tad-vṛttīḥ prati tu vṛtty-anapekṣatvāt sākṣiteti vivekaḥ | advaita-siddhau siddhānta-bindau ca vistaraḥ |

yasmād evaṃ prāg-ukta-nyāyena ntiyo vibhur asaṃsārī sarvadaika-rūpaś cātmā tasmāt tan-nāśa-śaṅkayā svadharme yuddhe prāk-pravṛttasya tava tasmād uparatir na yukteti yuddhābhyanujñayā bhagavān āha - tasmād yudhyasva bhārateti | arjunasya svadharme yuddhe pravṛttasya tata uparati-kāraṇaṃ śoka-mohau | tau ca vicāra-janitena vijñānena vādhitāv ity apavādāpavāda utsargasya sthitir iti nyāyena yudhyasvety anuvādo na vidhiḥ | yathā kartṛ-karmaṇoḥ kṛti [Pāṇ 2.3.65] ity utsargaḥ | ubhaya-prāptau karmaṇi [Pāṇ 2.3.66] ity apavādaḥ | akākārayoḥ strī-pratyayayoḥ prayoge neti vaktavyam iti tad-apavādaḥ | tathā ca mumukṣor brahmaṇor jijñāsety atrāpavādāpavāde punar utsarga-sthiteḥ kartṛ-karmaṇoḥ kṛtīty anenaiva ṣaṣṭhī
| tathā ca karmaṇi ceti niṣedhā-prasārād brahma-jijñāseti karma-ṣaṣṭhī-samāsaḥ siddho bhavati | kaścit tv etasmād eva vidher mokṣe jñāna-karmaṇoḥ samuccaya iti pralapati | tac ca yudhyasvety ato mokṣasya jñāna-karma-samuccaya-sādhyatvāpratīteḥ | vistareṇa caitad agre bhagavad-gītā-vacana-virodhenaiva nirākariṣyāmaḥ ||18||

viśvanāthaḥ : nāsato vidyate bhāvaḥ ity asyārthaṃ spaṣṭayati antavanta iti | śarīriṇo jīvasyāprameyasyāti-sūkṣmatvād durjñeyasya | tasmād yudhyasva iti śāstra-vihitasya svadharmasya tyāgo 'nucita iti bhāvaḥ ||18||

baladevaḥ : antavanto vināśi-svabhāvāḥ, śarīriṇo jīvātmanaḥ | aprameyasyātisūkṣmatvād vijñāna-vijñātṛ-svarūpatvāc ca pramātum aśakyasyety arthaḥ | tathā cedṛśa-svabhāvatvāj jīva-tad-dehau na śoka-sthānam iti jīvātmano deho dharmānuṣṭānuṣṭhāna-dvārā tasya bhogāya mokṣāya ca pareśena sṛjyate | sa ca sa ca dharmeṇa bhavet tasmād yudhyasva bhārata ||18||

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BhG 2.19

ya enaṃ vetti hantāraṃ yaś cainaṃ manyate hatam |
ubhau tau na vijānīto nāyaṃ hanti na hanyate ||19||

śrīdharaḥ : tad evaṃ bhīṣmādi-mṛtyu-nimittaḥ śoko nivāritaḥ, yac cātmano hantṛtva-nimittaṃ duḥkham uktam etān na hantum icchāmi ity ādinā, tad api tavad eva nirnimittam ity āha ya enam iti | enam ātmānam | ātmano hanana-kriyāyāḥ karmatvaṃ kartṛtvam api nāstīty arthaḥ | tatra hetur nāyam iti ||19||

madhusūdanaḥ : nanv evam aśocyān anvaśocacas tvam ity ādinā bhīṣmādi-bandhu-viccheda-nibandhane śoke 'panīte 'pi tad-vadha-kartṛtva-nibandhanasya pāpasya nāsti pratīkāraḥ | nahi yatra śoko nāsti tatra pāpaṃ nāstīti niyamaḥ | dveṣya-brāhmaṇa-vadhe pāpābhāva-prasaṅgāt | ato 'haṃ kartā tvaṃ preraka iti dvayor api hiṃsā-nimitta-pātakāpatter ayuktam idaṃ vacanaṃ tasmād yudhyasva bhāratety āśaṅkya kāṭhaka-paṭhitaya rcā pariharati bhagavān ya enam iti |

enaṃ prakṛtaṃ dehinam adṛśyatvādi-guṇakaṃ yo hantāraṃ hanana-kriyāyāḥ kartāraṃ vetti aham asya hanteti vijānāti | yaś cānya enaṃ manyate hataṃ hanana-kriyāyāḥ karma-bhūtaṃ deha-hananena hato 'ham iti vijānāti | tāv ubhau dehābhimānitvād enam avikāriṇam akāraka-svabhāvam ātmānaṃ na vijānīto na vivekena jānītaḥ śāstrāt | kasmāt yasmān nāyaṃ hanti na hanyate kartā karma ca na bahvatīty arthaḥ |

atra ya enaṃ vetti hantāraṃ hataṃ cety etāvati vaktavye padānām āvṛttir vākyālaṅkārārthā | athavā ya enaṃ vetti hantāraṃ tārkikādir ātmanaḥ kartṛtvābhyupagamāt | tathā yaś cainaṃ manyate hataṃ cārvākādir ātmano vināśitvābhyupagamāt | tāv ubhau na vijānīta iti yojyam | vādi-bheda-khyāpanāya pṛthag upanyāsaḥ | atiśūrātikātara-viṣayatayā vā pṛthag-upadeśaḥ | hantā cen manyate hantuṃ hataś cen manyate hatam [KaṭhU 1.2.19] iti pūrvārdhe śrautaḥ pāṭhaḥ ||19||
viśvanāthaḥ : bho vayasya arjuna ! tvam ātmā | na hanteḥ kartā, nāpi hanteḥ karma ity āha ya iti | enaṃ jīvātmānaṃ hantāraṃ vetti bhīṣmādīn arjuno hantīti yo vettīty arthaḥ, hatam iti bhīṣmādibhir arjuno hanyate iti yo vetti, tāv ubhāv apy ajñāninau | ato 'rjuno 'yaṃ guru-janaṃ hantīty ajñāni-loka-gītād duryaśaḥ kā te bhītir iti bhāvaḥ ||19||

baladevaḥ : uktam avināśitvaṃ draḍhayati | enam ukta-svabhāvam ātmānaṃ jīvaṃ yo hantāraṃ khaḍgādinā hiṃsakaṃ vetti yaś cainaṃ tena hataṃ hiṃsitaṃ manyate tāv ubhau tat-svarūpaṃ na vijānītaḥ | atisūkṣmasya caitanyasya tasya chedādy-asambhavān nāyam ātmā hanti na hanyate | hanteḥ kartā karma ca bhavatīty arthaḥ | hanter deha-viyogārthatvān na tenātmanāṃ nāśo mantavyaḥ | śrutiś caivam āha - hantā cen manyate hantuṃ hataś cen manyate hatam [KaṭhU 1.2.19] ity ādinā | etena mā hiṃsyāt sarva-bhūtāni ity ādi-vākyaṃ deha-viyoga-paraṃ vyākhyātam | na cātrātmanaḥ kartṛtvaṃ
prasiddham iti vācyam | deha-viyojane tat tasya sattvāt ||19||

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BhG 2.20

na jāyate mriyate vā kadācin
nāyaṃ bhūtvā bhavitā vā na bhūyaḥ |
ajo nityaḥ śāśvato 'yaṃ purāṇo
na hanyate hanyamāne śarīre ||20||

śrīdharaḥ : na hanyata ity etad eva ṣaḍ-bhāva-vikāra-śūnyatvena draḍhayati neti | na jāyata ity ādi | na jāyata iti janma-pratiṣedhaḥ | na mriyata iti vināśa-pratiṣedhaḥ | vā-śabdau cārthe | na cāyaṃ bhūtvā utpadya bhavitā bhavati astitvaṃ bhajate, kintu prāg eva svataḥ sad-rūpa iti janmāntarāstitva-lakṣaṇa-dvitīya-vikāra-pratiṣedhaḥ | tatra hetuḥ yasmād ajaḥ | yo hi na jāyate sa hi janmāntaram astitvaṃ bhajate, na tu yaḥ svayam evāsti sa bhūyo 'pi anyad astitvaṃ bhajate ity arthaḥ | nityaḥ sarvdaika-rūpa iti vṛddhi-pratiṣedhaḥ | śāśvataḥ śaśvad-bhava iti apakṣaya-pratiṣedhaḥ
| purāṇa iti vipariṇāma-pratiṣedhaḥ | purāpi nava eva na tu pariṇāmataḥ rūpāntaraṃ prāpya navo bhavatīty arthaḥ |

yad vā na bhavitety asyānuṣaṅgaṃ kṛtvā bhūyo 'dhikaṃ yathā bhaviteti tathā na bhavatīti vṛddhi-pratiṣedhaḥ | ajo nitya iti cobhaya-vṛddhy-ādy-abhāve hetur iti na paunaruktyam | tad evaṃ jāyate asti vardhate vipariṇamate apakṣīyate naśyaty evaṃ yāskādibhir veda-vādibhir uktāḥ ṣaḍ-bhāva-vikārā nirastāḥ | yad artham ete vikārā nirastās taṃ prastutaṃ vināśābhāvam upasaṃharati na hanyate hanyamāne śarīra iti ||20||

madhusūdanaḥ : kasmād ayam ātmā hanana-kriyāyāḥ kartā karma ca na bhavati ? avikriyatvād ity āha dvitīyena mantreṇa | jāyate 'sti vardhate vipariṇamate 'pakṣīyate vinaśyatīti ṣaḍ-bhāva-vikārā iti vārṣyāyaṇiḥ iti nairuktāḥ | tatrādy-antayor niṣedhaḥ kriyate na jāyate mriyate veti | vā-śabdaḥ samuccayārthaḥ | na jāyate na mriyate cety arthaḥ | kasmād ayam ātmā notpadyate ? yasmād ayam ātmā kadācit kasminn api kāle na bhūtvābhūtvā prāg bhūyaḥ punar api bhavitā na | yo hy abhūtvā bhavati sa utpatti-lakṣaṇāṃ vikriyām anubhavati | ayaṃ tu prāg api sattvādyato notpadyate 'to 'jaḥ | tathāyam ātmā bhūtvā prāk kadācid bhūyaḥ punar na bhavitā | na
vā-śabdād vākya-vipari-vṛttiḥ | yo hi prāg-bhūtvottara-kāle na bhavati sa mṛt-lakṣaṇāṃ vikriyām anubhavati | ayaṃ tūttara-kāle 'pi sattvādyato na miryate 'to nityo vināśāyogya ity arthaḥ | atra na bhūtvety atra samāsābhāve 'pi nānupapattir nānuyojeṣv ativat | bhagavatā pāṇininā mahā-vibhāṣādhikāre nañ-samāsa-pāṭhāt | yat tu kātyāyanenoktaṃ samāsa-nityatābhiprāyeṇa vā-vacanānarthakyaṃ tu svabhāva-siddhatvāt iti tad-bhagavat-pāṇiini-vacana-virodhād anādeyam | tad uktam ācārya-śavara-svāminā - asad-vādī hi kātyāyanaḥ iti |

atra na jāyate mriyate veti pratijñā | kadācin nāyaṃ bhūtvā bhavitā vā na bhūya iti tad-upapādanam | ajo nitya iti tad-upasaṃhāra iti vibhāgaḥ | ādyantayor vikārayor niṣedhena madhyavarti-vikārāṇāṃ tad-vyāpyānāṃ niṣedhe jāte 'pi gamanādi-vikārāṇām anuktānām apy upalakṣaṇāyāpakṣayaś ca vṛddhiś ca sva-śabdenaiva nirākriyete | tatra kūṭastha-nityatvād ātmano nirguṇatvāc ca na svarūpato guṇato vāpakṣayaḥ sambhavatīty uktaṃ śāśvata iti | śaśvat sarvadā bhavati nāpakṣīyate nāpacīyata ity arthaḥ | yadi nāpakṣīyate tarhi vardhatām iti nety āha purāṇa iti | purāpi nava eka-rūpo na tv adhunā nūtanāṃ kāñcid avasthām anubhavati | yo hi nūtanāṃ kāñcid upacayāvasthām
anubhavati sa vardhata ity ucyate loke | ayaṃ tu sarvadaika-rūpatvān nāpacīyate nopacīyate cety arthaḥ | astitva-vipariṇāmau tu janma-vināśāntarbhūtatvāt pṛthaṅ na niṣiddhau | yasmād evaṃ sarva-vikāra-śūnya ātmā tasmāc charīre hanyamāne tat-sambaddho 'pi kenāpy upāyena na hanyate na hantuṃ śakyata ity upasaṃhāraḥ ||20||

viśvanāthaḥ : jīvātmano nityatvaṃ spaṣṭatayā sādhayati na jāyate miryate iti janma-maraṇayor vartamānatva-niṣedhaḥ | nāyaṃ bhūtvā bhavitā iti tayor bhūtatva-bhaviṣyatva-niṣedhaḥ | ataeva aja iti kāla-traye 'pi ajasya janmābhāvān nāsya prāg-abhāvaḥ | śāśvataḥ śaśvat sarva-kāla eva vartata iti nāsya kāla-traye 'pi dhvaṃsaḥ | ataevāyaṃ nityaḥ | tarhi bahu-kāla-sthāyitvāj jarā-grasto 'yam iti cen na | purāṇaḥ purāpi navaḥ prācīno 'py ayaṃ navīna iveti ṣaḍ-bhāva-vikārābhāvād iti bhāvaḥ | nanu śarīrasya maraṇād aupacārikaṃ tu maraṇam asyāstu ? tatrāha neti | śarīreṇa saha sambaddhābhāvāt na upacāraḥ
||20||

baladevaḥ : atha jāyate asti vardhate viparaṇamate apakṣīyate vinaśyati iti yāskādy-ukta-ṣaḍ-bhāva-vikāra-rāhityena prāg-ukta-nityatvaṃ draḍhayati na jāyate iti | cārthe vā-śabdau | ayam ātmā jīvaḥ kadācid api kāle na jāyate na mriyate ceti janma-vināśayoḥ pratiṣedhaḥ | na cāyam ātmā bhūtvotpadya bhavitā bhaviṣyatīti janmāntarasyāstitvasya pratiṣedhaḥ | na bhūya iti ayam ātmā bhūyo 'dhikaṃ yathā syāt tathā na bhavatīti buddheḥ pratiṣedhaḥ | kuto bhūyo na bhavatīty atra hetur ajo nitya iti | utpatti-vināśa-yogī khalu vṛkṣādir utpadya vṛddhiṃ gacchan naṣṭaḥ | ātmanas tu tad-ubhayābhāvāt na vṛddhir ity arthaḥ | śāśvata ity
apakṣayasya pratiṣedhaḥ | śaśvat sarvadā bhavati nāpakṣīyate nāpakṣayaṃ bhajatīty arthaḥ | purāṇa iti vipariṇāmasya pratiṣedhaḥ | purāṇaṃ purāpi navo na tu kiṃcin nūtanaṃ rūpāntaram adhunā na labdha ity arthaḥ | tad evaṃ ṣaḍ-bhāva-vikāra-śūnyatvād ātmā nityaḥ | yasmād īdṛśas tasmāc charīre hanyamāne 'pi sa na hanyate | tathā cārjuno 'yaṃ guru-hantety avijñoktyā duṣkīrter abibhyatā tvayā śāstrīyaṃ dharma-yuddhaṃ vidheyam ||20||

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BhG 2.21

vedāvināśinaṃ nityaṃ ya enam ajam avyayam |
kathaṃ sa puruṣaḥ pārtha kaṃ ghātayati hanti kam ||21||

śrīdharaḥ : ataeva hantṛtvābhāvo 'pi pūrvoktaḥ prasiddha ity āha vedāvināśinam ity ādi | nityaṃ vṛddhi-śūnyam | avyayam apakṣaya-śūnyam | ajam avināśinaṃ ca | yo veda sa puruṣaḥ kaṃ hanti | kathaṃ vā hanti ? evaṃ-bhūtasya vadhe sādhanābhāvāt | tathā svayaṃ prayojako bhūtvānyena kaṃ ghātayati ? kathaṃ vā ghātayati ? na kiñcid api | na kathañcid api ity arthaḥ | anena mayy api prayojakatvād doṣa-dṛṣṭiṃ mā kārṣīr ity uktaṃ bhavati ||21||

madhusūdanaḥ : nāyaṃ hanti na hanyata iti pratijñāya na hanyata ity upapāditam idānīṃ na hantīty upapādayann upasaṃharati | na vinaṣṭuṃ śīlaṃ yasya tam avināśinam antya-vikāra-rahitam | tatra hetuḥ - avyayaṃ na vidyate vyayo 'vayavāpacayo guṇāpacayo vā yasya tam avyayam | avayavāpacayena guṇāpacayena vā vināśa-darśanāt tad-ubhaya-rahitasya na vināśaḥ sambhavatīty arthaḥ |

nanu janyatvena vināśitvam anumāsyāmahe nety āha - ajam iti | na jāyate ity ajam ādya-vikāra-rahitam | tatra hetuḥ - nityaṃ sarvadā vidyāmānaṃ, prāg-avidyamānasya hi janma dṛṣṭaṃ na tu sarvatā sata ity abhiprāyaḥ |

athavāvināśinam abādhyaṃ satyam iti yāvat | nityaṃ sarva-vyāpakam | tatra hetuḥ - ajam avyayaṃ | janma-vināśa-śūnyaṃ jāyamānasya vinaśyataś ca sarva-vyāpakatva-satyatvayor ayogāt |

evaṃ sarva-vikriyā-śūnyaṃ prakṛtam enaṃ dehinaṃ svam ātmānaṃ yo veda vijānāti śāstrācāryopadeśābhyāṃ sākṣātkaroti ahaṃ sarva-vikriyā-śūnyaḥ sarva-bhāsakaḥ sarva-dvaita-rahitaḥ paramānanda-bodha-rūpa iti sa evaṃ vidvān puruṣaḥ pūrṇa-rūpaḥ kaṃ hanti ? kathaṃ hanti ? kiṃ-śabda ākṣepe | na kam api hanti na katham api hantīty arthaḥ | tathā kaṃ ghātayati kathaṃ ghātayati kam api na ghātayati katham api na ghātayatīty arthaḥ | nahi sarva-vikāra-śūnyasyākartur hanana-kriyāyāṃ kartṛtvaṃ sambhavati | tathā ca śrutiḥ -

ātmānaṃ ced vijānīyād ayam asmīti pūruṣaḥ |
kim icchan kasya kāmāya śarīram anusaṃjvaret || [BAU 4.4.12]

iti śuddham ātmānaṃ viduṣas tad-ajñāna-nibandhanādhyāsa-nivṛttau tan-mūla-rāga-dveṣādy-abhāvāt-kartṛtva-bhoktṛtvādy-abhāvaṃ darśayati |

ayam atrābhiprāyo bhagavataḥ | vastu-gatyā ko 'pi nakaroti na kārayati ca kiṃcit sarva-vikriyā-śūnya-svabhāvatvāt paraṃ tu svapna ivāvidyayā kartṛtvādikam ātmany abhimanyate mūḍhaḥ | tad uktam ubhau tau na vijānītaḥ [Gītā 2.19] iti | śrutiś ca - dhyāyatīva lelāyatīva [BAU 4.3.7] ity ādiḥ | ataeva sarvāṇi śāstrāṇy avidvad-adhikārikāṇi | vidvāṃs tu samūlādhyāsa-bādhān nātmani kartṛtvādikam abhimanyate sthāṇu-svarūpaṃ vidvān iva coratvam | ato vikriyā-rahitatvād advitīyatvāc ca vidvān na karoti kārayati cety ucyate | tathā ca śrutiḥ -- vidvān na bibheti kutaścana [TaittU 2.9.1] iti | arjuno hi svasmin kartṛtvaṃ bhagavati ca kārayitṛtvam adhyasya hiṃsā-nimittaṃ doṣam ubhayatrāpy āśaśaṅke | bhagavān api viditābhiprāyo hanti
ghātayatīti tad-ubhayam ācikṣepa | ātmani kartṛtvaṃ mayi ca kārayitṛtvam āropya pratyavāya-śaṅkāṃ mā kārṣīr ity abhiprāyaḥ |

avikriyatva-pradarśanenātmanaḥ kartṛtva-pratiṣedhāt sarva-karmākṣepe bhagavad-abhiprete hantir upalakṣaṇārthaḥ puraḥ-sphūrtikatvāt | pratiṣedha-hetos tulyatvāt karmāntarābhyanujñānupapatteḥ | tathā ca vakṣyati tasya kāryaṃ na vidyata [Gītā 3.17] iti | ato 'tra hanana-mātrākṣepeṇa karmāntaraṃ bhagavatābhyanujñāyata iti mūḍha-jana-jalpitam apāstam | tasmād yudhyasvety atra hananasya bhagavatābhyanujñānād vāstava-kartṛtvādy-abhāvasya karma-mātre samatvād iti dik ||21||

viśvanāthaḥ : ata evambhūta-jñāne sati tvaṃ yudhyamāno 'pi ahaṃ yuddhe prerayann api doṣa-bhājau naiva bhavāva ity āha vedeti | nityam iti kriyā-viśeṣaṇam | avināśinam iti, ajam iti, avyayam ity etair vināśa-janyā apekṣayā niṣiddhāḥ | sa puruṣo mal-lakṣaṇaḥ kaṃ ghātayati, kathaṃ vā ghātayati, sa puruṣas tval-lakṣaṇaḥ kaṃ hanti ? kathaṃ vā hanti ? ||21||

baladevaḥ : evaṃ tattva-jñānavān yo dharma-buddhyā yuddhe pravartate yaś ca pravartayati, tasya tasya ca ko 'pi na doṣa-gandha ity āha vedeti | enaṃ prakṛtam ātmānam avināśinam ajam avyayam apakṣaya-śūnyaṃ ca yo veda śāstra-yuktibhyāṃ jānāti, sa puruṣo yuddhe pravṛtto 'pi kaṃ hanti kathaṃ vā hanti ? tatra pravartayann api kaṃ ghātayati kathaṃ vā ghātayati ? kim ākṣepe - na kam api na katham apīty arthaḥ | ntiyam iti vedana-kriyā-viśeṣaṇam ||21||

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BhG 2.22

vāsāṃsi jīrṇāni yathā vihāya
navāni gṛhṇāti naro 'parāṇi |
tathā śarīrāṇi vihāya jīrṇāni
anyāni saṃyāti navāni dehī ||22||

śrīdharaḥ : nanv ātmano 'vināśe 'pi tadīya-śarīra-nāśaṃ paryālocya śocāmīiti cet ? tatrāha vāsāṃsīti | karmaṇi bandhanānāṃ nūtanānāṃ dehānām avaśyambhāvitvāt na taj-jīrṇa-deha-nāśe śokāvakāśa ity arthaḥ ||22||

madhusūdanaḥ : nanv evam ātmano vināśitvābhāve 'pi dehānāṃ vināśitvād yuddhasya ca tan-nāśakatvāt kathaṃ bhīṣmādi-dehānām aneka-sukṛta-sādhanānāṃ mayā yuddhena vināśaḥ kārya ity āśaṅkāyā uttaram vāsāṃsīti |

jīrṇāni vihāya vastrāṇi navāni gṛhṇāti vikriyā-śūnya eva naro yathety etāvataiva virvāhe 'parāṇīit viśeṣaṇam utkarṣātiśaya-khyāpanārtham | tena yathā nikṛṣṭāni vastrāṇi vihāyotkṛṣṭāni jano gṛhṇātīty aucityāyātam | tathā jīrṇāni vayasā tapasā ca kṛśāni bhīṣmādi-śarīrāṇi vihāyānyāni devādi-śarīrāṇi sarvotkṛṣṭāni ciropārjita-dharma-phala-bhogāya saṃyāti samyag-garbha-vāsādi-kleśa-vyatirekeṇa prāpnoti dehī prakṛṣṭa-dharmānuṣṭhātṛ-dehavān bhīṣmādir ity arthaḥ | anyan navataraṃ kalyāṇataraṃ rūpaṃ kurute pitryaṃ vā gandharvaṃ vā daivaṃ vā prājāpatyaṃ vā brāhmaṃ vā ity ādi śruteḥ |

etad uktaṃ bhavati bhīṣmādayo hi yāvaj jīvaṃ dharmānuṣṭhāna-kleśenaiva jarjara-śarīrā vartamāna-śarīra-pātam antareṇa tat-phala-bhogāyāsam arthā yadi dharma-yuddhena svarga-pratibandhakāni jarjarāṇi śarīrāṇi pātayitvā divya-deha-sampādanena svarga-bhoga-yogyāḥ kriyante tvayā tad-atyantam upakṛtvā eva te | duryodhanādīnām api svarga-bhoga-yogya-deha-sampādanān mahān upakāra eva | tathā cātyantam upakārake yuddhe 'pakārakatva-bhramaṃ mā kārṣīr iti | aparāṇi anyāni saṃyātīti pada-traya-vaśād bhagavad-abhiprāya evam abhyūhitaḥ | anena dṛṣṭāntenāvikṛta-pratipādanam ātmanaḥ kriyata iti tu prācāṃ vyākhyānam atispaṣṭam ||22||

viśvanāthaḥ : nanu madīya-yuddhād bhīṣma-saṃjñakaṃ śarīraṃ tu jīvātmā tyakṣyaty eva ity atas tvaṃ cāhaṃ ca tatra hetu bhavāva eva ity ata āha vāsāṃsīti | navīnaṃ vastraṃ paridhāpayituṃ jīrṇa-vastrasya tyajane kaścit kiṃ doṣo bhavatīti bhāvaḥ | tathā śarīrāṇīti bhīṣmo jīrṇa-śarīraṃ parityajya divyaṃ navyaṃ anyac charīraṃ prāpsyatīti kas tava vā mama vā doṣo bhavatīti bhāvaḥ ||22||

baladevaḥ : nanu mā bhūd ātmanāṃ vināśo bhīṣmādi-saṃjñānāṃ tac-charīrāṇāṃ tat-sukha-sādhanānāṃ yuddhena vināśe tat-sukha-viccheda-hetuko doṣaḥ syād eva | anyathā prāyaścitta-śāstrāṇi nirviṣayāṇi syur iti cet tatrāha vāsāṃsīti | sthūla-jīrṇa-vāsas-tyāgena navīna-vāso-dhāraṇam iva vṛddha-nṛ-deha-tyāgena yuva-deva-deha-dhāraṇaṃ teṣām ātmanām atisukhakaram eva | tad ubhayaṃ ca yuddhenaiva kṣipraṃ bhaved ity upakārakāt tasmān mā viraṃsīr iti bhāvaḥ | saṃyātīti samyag-garbha-vāsādi-yātanāṃ vinaiva śīghram eva prāpnotīty arthaḥ | prāyaścitta-vākyāni tu yajña-yuddha-vadhād anyasmin vadhe
neyāni ||22||

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BhG 2.23

nainaṃ chindanti śastrāṇi nainaṃ dahati pāvakaḥ |
na cainaṃ kledayanty āpo na śoṣayati mārutaḥ ||23||

śrīdharaḥ : kathaṃ hantīti anena uktaṃ vadha-sādhanābhāvaṃ darśayann avināśitvam ātmanaḥ sphuṭīkaroti nainam ity ādi | āpo kledayanti mṛdu-karaṇena śithilaṃ na kurvanti | māruto 'py enaṃ na śoṣayati ||23||

madhusūdanaḥ :

viśvanāthaḥ : na ca yuddhe tvayā prayuktebhyaḥ śastrāstrebhyaḥ kāpy ātmano vyathā sambhaved ity āha nainam iti | śastrāṇi khaḍgādīni | pāvaka āgneyāstram api yuṣmad-ādi-prayuktam | āpaḥ pārjanyāstram api | māruto vāyavyāstram ||23||

baladevaḥ : nanu śastra-pātaiḥ śarīra-vināśe tad-antaḥ-sthasyātmano vināśaḥ syāt gṛha-dāhe tan-madhya-sthasyaiva jantor iti cet tatrāha nainam iti | śastrāṇi khaḍgādīni | pāvaka āgneyāstram | āpaḥ pārjanyāstram api | māruto vāyavyāstram | tathā ca tat-prayuktaiḥ śastrāstrair nātmanaḥ kācid vyatheti ||23||

__________________________________________________________

BhG 2.24

acchedyo 'yam adāhyo 'yam akledyo 'śoṣya eva ca |
nityaḥ sarva-gataḥ sthāṇur acalo 'yaṃ sanātanaḥ ||24||

śrīdharaḥ : tatra hetum āha acchedya ity ādinā sārdhena | niravayavatvād acchedyo 'kledyaś ca | amūrtatvād adāhyaḥ | dravatvābhāvād aśoṣya iti bhāvaḥ | itaś ca chedādi-yogyo na bhavati | yato nityo 'vināśī | sarva-gataḥ sthāṇuḥ sthira-svabhāvo rūpāntarāpatti-śūnyaḥ | acalaḥ pūrva-rūpāparityāgī | sanātano 'nādiḥ ||24||

madhusūdanaḥ : śastrādīnāṃ tan-nāśakatvāsāmarthye tasya taj-janita-nāśānarhatve hetum āha acchedya iti | yato 'cchedyo 'yam ato nainaṃ chindanti śastrāṇi | adāhyo 'yaṃ yato 'to nainaṃ dahati pāvakaḥ | yato 'kledyo 'yam ato nainaṃ kledayanty āpaḥ | yato 'śoṣyo 'yam ato nainaṃ śoṣayati māruta iti krameṇa yojanīyam | eva-kāraḥ pratyekaṃ sambadhyamāno 'cchedyatvādy-avadhāraṇārthaḥ | caḥ samuccaye hetau vā | chedādy-anarhatve hetum āhottarārdhena |

nityo 'yaṃ pūrvāpara-koṭi-rahito 'to 'nutpādyaḥ | asarvagatatve hy anityatvaṃ syāt | yāvad-vikāraṃ tu vibhāgaḥ iti nyāyāt parābhyupagata-paramāṇv-ādīnām anabhyupagamāt | ayaṃ tu sarva-gato vibhur ato nitya eva | etena prāpyatvaṃ parākṛtam | yadi cāyaṃ vikārī syāt tadā sarva-gato na syāt | ayaṃ tu sthāṇur avikārī | ataḥ sarva-gata eva | etena vikāryatvam apākṛtam | yadi cāyaṃ calaḥ kriyāvān syāt tadā vikārī syād ghaṭādivat | ayaṃ tv acalo 'to na vikārī | etena saṃskāryatvaṃ nirākṛtam | pūrvāvasthā-parityāgenāvasthāntarāpattir vikriyā | avasthaikye 'pi calana-mātraṃ kriyeti viśeṣaḥ | yasmād evaṃ tasmāt sanātano 'yaṃ sarvadaika-rūpo
na kasyā api kriyāyāḥ karmety arthaḥ | utpatty-āpti-vikṛti-saṃskṛty-anyatara-kriyā-phala-yoge hi karmatvaṃ syāt | ayaṃ tu nityatvān notpādyaḥ | anityasyaiva ghaṭāder utpādyatvāt | sarvagatatvān na prāpyaḥ paricchinnasyaiva paya-ādeḥ prāpyatvāt | sthāṇutvād avikāryaḥ | vikriyāvato ghṛtāder eva vikāryatvāt | acalatvād asaṃskāryaḥ sakriyasyaiva darpaṇādeḥ saṃskāryatvāt | tathā ca śrutayaḥ - ākāśavat sarva-gataś ca nityaḥ [ChāU 3.14.3], vṛkṣa iva stabdho divi tiṣṭhaty ekaḥ [ŚvetU 3.9], niṣkalaṃ niṣkriyaṃ śāntaṃ [ŚvetU 6.19], ity ādayaḥ | yaḥ pṛthivyāṃ
tiṣṭhan pṛthivyā antaro yo 'psu tiṣṭhann adbhyo 'ntaro yas tejasi tiṣṭhaṃs tejaso 'ntaro yo vāyau tiṣṭan vāyor antaraḥ [BAU 3.7.3 ff] ity ādyā ca śrutiḥ sarvagatasya sarvāntaryāmitayā tad-aviṣayatvaṃ darśayati | yo hi śastrādau na tiṣṭhati taṃ śastrādayaś chindanti | ayaṃ tu śastrādīnāṃ sattā-sphūrti-pradatvena tat-prerakas tad-antaryāmī | ataḥ katham enaṃ śastrādīni sva-vyāpāra-viṣayī kuryur ity abhiprāyaḥ | atra yena sūryas tapati tejaseddhaḥ [Taitt. Br. 3.12.97] ity ādi śrutayo 'nusandheyāḥ | saptamādhyāye ca prakaṭīkariṣyati śrī-bhagavān iti dik ||24||

viśvanāthaḥ : tasmād ātmāyam evam ucyata ity āha acchedya iti | atra prakaraṇe jīvātmano nityatvasya śabdato 'rthataś ca paunaruktyaṃ nirdhāraṇa-prayojakaṃ sandigdhadhīṣu jñeyam | yathā kalāv asmin dharmo 'sti dharmo 'stīti tri-caturdhā-prayogād dharmo 'sty eveti niḥsaṃśayā pratītiḥ syād iti jñeyam | sarva-gataḥ svakarma-vaśād deva-manuṣya-tiryag-ādi-sarva-deha-gataḥ | sthāṇur acala iti paunaruktyaṃ sthairya-nirdhāraṇārtham | atisūkṣmatvād avyaktas tad api deha-vyāpi-caitanyatvād acintyo 'tarkyaḥ | janmādi-ṣaḍ-vikārānarhatvād avikāryaḥ ||24-25||

baladevaḥ : chedādy-abhāvād eva tat-tan-nāmabhir ayam ākhyāyata ity āha acchedyo 'yam iti | eva-kāraḥ sarvaiḥ sambadhyate | sarva-gataḥ sva-karma-hetukeṣu deva-mānavādiṣu paśu-pakṣy-ādiṣu ca sarveṣu śarīreṣu paryāyeṇa gataḥ prāpto 'pīty arthaḥ | sthāṇuḥ sthira-svarūpaḥ | acalaḥ sthira-guṇakaḥ | avināśī vā are 'yam ātmānucchitti-dharmā [Bau 4.5.14] iti śruter ity arthaḥ | na cānucchittir eva dharmo yasyeti vyākhyeyaṃ tasyārthasyāvināśīty anenaiva lābhāt | tasmād anucchittayo nityā dharmā yasya sa tathety evārthaḥ | sanātanaḥ śāśvataḥ paunarukta-doṣas tv agre parihariṣyate ||24||

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BhG 2.25

avyakto 'yam acintyo 'yam avikāryo 'yam ucyate |
tasmād evaṃ viditvainaṃ nānuśocitum arhasi ||25||

śrīdharaḥ : kiṃ ca avyakta iti | avyaktaś cakṣur-ādy-aviṣayaḥ | acintyo manaso 'py aviṣayaḥ | avikāryaḥ karmendriyāṇām apy agocara ity arthaḥ | ucyata iti nityatvādibhiyuktoktiṃ pramāṇayati | upasaṃharati tasmād evam ity ādi | tad evam ātmano janma-vināśābhāvān na śokaḥ kārya ity uktam ||25||

madhusūdanaḥ : chedyatvādi-grāhaka-pramāṇa-bhāvād api tad-abhāva ity āha - avyakto 'yam ity-ādy-ardhena | yo hīndriya-gocaro bhavati sa pratyakṣatvād vyakta ity ucyate | ayaṃ tu rūpādi-hīnatvān na tathā | ato na pratyakṣaṃ tatra cchedyatvādi-grāhakam ity arthaḥ |

pratyakṣābhāve 'py anumānaṃ syād ity ata āha acintyo 'yaṃ cintyo 'numeyas tad-vilakṣaṇo 'yam | kvacit pratyakṣo hi vahny-ādir gṛhīta-vyāptikasya dhūmāder darśanāt kvacid anumeyo bhavati | apratyakṣe tu vyāpti-grahaṇāsambhavān nānumeyatvam iti bhāvaḥ | apratyakṣasyāpīndriyādeḥ sāmānyato dṛṣṭānumāna-viṣayatvaṃ dṛṣṭam ata āha avikāryo 'yaṃ yad vikriyāvac cakṣur-ādikaṃ tat-svakāryānyathānupapattyā kalpyamānam arthāpatteḥ sāmānyatodṛṣṭānumānasya ca viṣayo bhavati | ayaṃ tu na vikāryo na vikriyāvān ato nārthāpatteḥ sāmānyato-dṛṣṭasya vā viṣaya ity arthaḥ
| laukika-śabdasyāpi pratyakṣādi-pūrvakatvāt tan-niṣedhenaiva niṣedhaḥ |

nanu vedenaiva tatra ccehdyatvādi grahīṣyata ity ata āha - ucyate vedena sopakaraṇenācchedyāvyaktādi-rūpa evāyam ucyate tātparyeṇa pratipādyate | ato na vedasya tat-pratipādikasyāpi cchedyatvādi-pratipādakatvam ity arthaḥ |

atra nainaṃ chindanti [Gītā 2.23] ity atra śastrādīnāṃ tan-nāśaka-sāmarthyābhāva uktaḥ | acchedyo 'yam ity ādau tasya cchedādi-karmatvāyogyatvam uktam | avyakto 'yam ity atra tac-chedādi-grāhaka-mānābhāva ukta ity apaunaruktyaṃ draṣṭavyam | vedāvināśinam ity ādīnāṃ tu ślokānām arthataḥ śabdataś ca paunaruktyaṃ bhāṣya-kṛdbhiḥ parihṛtam | durbodhatvād ātma-vastunaḥ punaḥ punaḥ prasaṅgam āpādya śabdāntareṇa tad eva vastu nirūpayati bhagavān vāsudevaḥ kathaṃ nu nāma saṃsāriṇām buddhi-gocaratām āpannaṃ tattvaṃ saṃsāra-nivṛttaye syāt iti [Śaṅkara-bhāṣya 2.24] iti vadadbhiḥ |

evaṃ pūrvokta-yuktibhir ātmano nityatve nirvikāratve ca siddhe tava śoko nopapanna ity upasaṃharati tasmād ity ardhena | etādṛśātma-svarūpa-vedanasya śoka-kāraṇa-nivartakatvāt tasmin sati śoko nocitaḥ kāraṇa-bhāve kāryābhāvasyāvaśyakatvāt | tenātmānam aviditvā yad anvaśocas tad yuktam eva | ātmānaṃ viditvā tu nānuśocitum arhasīty abhiprāyaḥ ||25||

viśvanāthaḥ : None.

baladevaḥ : avyaktaḥ pratyaṅ cakṣur-ādy-agrāhyaḥ | acintyas tarkāgocaraḥ śruti-mātra-gamyaḥ | jñāna-svarūpo jñātety ādikaṃ śrutyaiva pratīyate | avikāryaḥ ṣaḍ-bhāva-vikārānarhaḥ | atra avināśi tu tad viddhi ity ādibhir ātma-tattvam upadiśan hariḥ śabdato 'rthataś ca yat punaḥ punar avocat tasya durbodhasya saubodhyārtham evety adoṣaḥ | nirdhāraṇārthaṃ vā | ayaṃ dharmaṃ vettīty uktau tad vedanaṃ niścitaṃ yathā syāt tadvat | evam evāgre vakṣyati āścaryavat paśyati kaścit ity ādinā ||25||

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BhG 2.26

atha cainaṃ nityajātaṃ nityaṃ vā manyase mṛtam |
tathāpi tvaṃ mahābāho naivaṃ śocitum arhasi ||26||

śrīdharaḥ : idānīṃ dehena saha ātmano janma tad-vināśena ca vināśam aṅgīkṛtyāpi śoko na kārya ity āha atha cainam ity ādi | atha ca yadyapy enam ātmānam nityajātaṃ nityaṃ vā manyase mṛtam tathāpi tvaṃ mahābāho naivaṃ śocitum arhasi ||26||

madhusūdanaḥ : evam ātmano nirvikāratvenāśocyatvam uktam idānīṃ vikāravattvam abhyupetyāpi śloka-dvayenāśocyatvaṃ pratipādayati bhagavān | tatrātmā jñāna-svarūpaḥ pratikṣaṇa-vināśīti saugatāḥ | deha evātmā sa ca sthiro 'py anukṣaṇa-pariṇāmī jāyate naśyati ceti pratyakṣa-siddham evaitad iti lokāyatikāḥ | dehātirikto 'pi dehena sahaiva jāyate naśyati cety anye | sargādya-kāla evākāśavaj jāyate deha-bhede 'py anuvartamāna evākalpa-sthāyī naśyati pralaya ity apare | nitya evātmā jāyate mriyate ceti tārkikāḥ | tathā hi - pretya-bhāvo janma | sa cāpūrva-dehendriyādi-sambandhaḥ | evaṃ maraṇam api pūrva-dehendriyādi-vicchedaḥ | idaṃ cobhayaṃ dharmādharma-nimittatvāt tad-ādhārasya nityasyaiva
mukhyam | anityasya tu kṛta-hānya-kṛtābhyāgama-prasaṅgena dharmādharmādhāratvānupapatter na janma-maraṇe mukhye iti vadanti | ntiyasyām evety anye | tatrānityatva-pakṣe 'pi śocyatvam ātmano niṣedhati atha cainam iti |

atheti pakṣāntare | co 'py arthe | yadi durbodhatvād ātma-vastuno 'sakṛc-chravaṇe 'py avadhāraṇā-sāmarthyān mad-ukta-pakṣānaṅgīkāreṇa pakṣāntaram abhyupaiṣi | tatrāpy anityatva-pakṣam evāśritya yady enam ātmānaṃ nityaṃ jātaṃ nityaṃ mṛtaṃ vā manyase | vā-śabdaś cārthe | kṣaṇikatva-pakṣe nityaṃ pratikṣaṇaṃ pakṣāntare āvaśyakatvān nityaṃ niyataṃ jāto 'yaṃ mṛto 'yam iti laukika-pratyaya-vaśena yadi kalpayasi tathāpi he mahābāho ! puruṣa-dhaureyeti sopahāsaṃ kumatābhyupagamāt | tvayy etādṛśī kudṛṣṭir na sambhavatīti sānukampaṃ vā | evaṃ aha bata mahat
pāpaṃ kartuṃ vyavasitā vayam [Gītā 1.45] ity ādi yathā śocasi evaṃ prakāram anuśokaṃ kartuṃ svayam api tvaṃ tādṛśa eva san nārhasi yogyo na bhavasi | kṣaṇikatva-pakṣe dehātma-vāda-pakṣe dehena saha janma-vināśa-pakṣe ca janmāntarābhāvena pāpa-bhayāsambhavāt pāpa-bhayenaiva khalu tvam anuśocasi | tac caitādṛśe darśane na sambhavati bandhu-vināśa-darśitvābhāvād ity adhikaṃ | pakṣāntare dṛṣṭa-duḥkha-nimittaṃ śokam abhyanujñātum evaṃ-kāraḥ | dṛṣṭa-duḥkha-nimitta-śoka-sambhave 'py adṛṣṭa-duḥkha-nimittaḥ śokaḥ sarvathā nocita ity arthaḥ prathama-ślokasya
||26||

viśvanāthaḥ : tad evaṃ śāstrīya-tattva-dṛṣṭyā tvām ahaṃ prabodhayan | vyāvahārahika-tattva-dṛṣṭyāpi prabodhayāmi avadhehīty āha atheti | nitya-jātaṃ dehe jāte saty enaṃ nityaṃ niyataṃ jātaṃ manyase | tathā deha eva mṛte mṛtaṃ nityaṃ niyataṃ manyase | mahā-bāho iti parākramavataḥ kṣatriyasya tava tad api yuddham avaśyakaṃ svadharmaḥ | yad uktaṃ -

kṣatriyāṇām ayaṃ dharmaḥ prajāpati-vinirmitaḥ |
bhrātāpi bhrātaraṃ hanyād yena ghorataras tataḥ || iti bhāvaḥ ||26||

baladevaḥ : evaṃ svoktasya jīvātmano 'śocyatvam uktvā paroktasyāpi tasya tad ucyate para-mata-jñānāya | tad-abhijñaḥ khalu śiṣyas tad-avakarais tan nirasya vijayī san sva-mate sthairyam āsīt | tathā hi manuṣyatvādi-viśiṣṭe bhūmy-ādi-bhūta-catuṣṭaye tāmbūla-rāgavat mada-śaktivac ca caitanyam utpadyate | tādṛśas tac-catuṣṭaya-bhūto deha evātmā | sa ca sthiro 'pi pratikṣaṇa-pariṇāmād utpatti-vināśa-yogīti loka-pratyakṣa-siddham iti lokāyatikā manyante | dehād bhinno vijñāna-svarūpo 'py ātmā pratikṣaṇa-vināśīti vaibhāṣikādayo bauddhā vadanti | tad etad ubhaya-mate 'py ātmanaḥ śocyatvaṃ pratiṣedhati | atheti pakṣāntare | co 'py-arthe | tvaṃ cen mad-ukta-jīvātma-yāthātmyāvagāhanāsamartho
lokāyatikādi-pakṣam ālambase, tatra dehātma-pakṣe enaṃ deha-lakṣaṇam ātmānaṃ nityaṃ vā mṛtaṃ manyase | vā-śabdaś cārthe | tathāpi tvam enaṃ aho bata mahat pāpaṃ ity ādi-vacanaiḥ śocituṃ nārhasi | pariṇāma-svabhāvasya tasya tasya cātmano janma-vināśayor anivāryatvāj janmāntarābhāvena pāpa-bhayāsambhavāc ca | he mahābāho iti sopahāsaṃ sambodhanaṃ kṣatriya-varyasya vaidikasya ca te nedṛśaṃ kumataṃ dhāryam iti bhāvaḥ ||26|

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BhG 2.27

jātasya hi dhruvo mṛtyur dhruvaṃ janma mṛtasya ca |
tasmād aparihārye 'rthe na tvaṃ śocitum arhasi ||27||

śrīdharaḥ : kuta iti ? ata āha jātasyety-ādi | hi yasmāj jātasya svārambhaka-karma-kṣaye mṛtyur dhruvo niścitaḥ | mṛtasya ca tad-deha-kṛtena karmaṇā janmāpi dhruvam eva | tasmād evam aparihārye 'rthe avaśyambhāvini janma-maraṇa-lakṣaṇe 'rthe tvaṃ vidvān śocitum nārhasi yogyo na bhavasi ||27||

madhusūdanaḥ : nanv ātmana ābhūta-saṃplava-sthāyitva-pakṣe ca dṛṣṭādṛṣṭa-duḥkha-sambhavāt tad-bhayena śocāmīty ata āha dvitīya-ślokena jātasya hīti | hi yasmāj jātasya sva-kṛta-dharmādharmādi-vaśāl labdha-śarīrendriyādi-sambandhasya sthirasyātmano dhruva āvaśyako mṛtyus tac-charīrādi-vicchedas tad-ārambhaka-karma-kṣaya-nimittaḥ saṃyogasya viyogāvasānatvāt | tathā dhruvaṃ janma mṛtasya ca prāg-deha-kṛta-karma-phalopabhogārthaṃ sānuśayasyaiva prastutatvān na jīvan-mukte vyabhicāraḥ | tasmād evam aparihārye parihartum aśakye 'smin janma-maraṇa-lakṣaṇe 'rthe viṣaye tvam evaṃ vidvān na śocitum arhasi | tathā ca vakṣyati ṛte 'pi tvāṃ na bhaviṣyanti
sarve [Gītā 11.32] iti | yadi hi tvayā yuddhe 'nāhanyamānā ete jīveyur eva tadā yuddhāya śokas tavocitaḥ syāt | ete tu karma-kṣayāt svayam eva mriyanta iti tat-parihārāsamarthasya tava dṛṣṭ-duḥkha-nimittaḥ śoko nocita iti bhāvaḥ |

evam adṛṣṭa-duḥkha-nimitte 'pi śoke tasmād aparihārye 'rthe ity evottaram | yuddhākhyaṃ hi karma kṣatriyasya niyatam agnihotrādivat | tac ca yudha samprahāre ity asmād dhātor niṣpannaṃ śatru-prāṇa-viyogānukūla-śastra-prahāra-rūpaṃ vihitatvāgnīṣomīyādi-siṃhāvan na pratyavāya-janakam | tathā ca gautamaḥ smarati na doṣo hiṃsāyām āhave 'nyatra vyaśvāsārathyanuyudha-kṛtāñjali-prakīrṇa-keśa-parāṅmukhopaviṣṭa-sthala-vṛkṣārūḍha-dūta-go-brāhmaṇa-vādibhyaḥ iti | brāhmaṇa-grahaṇaṃcātrāyoddhṛ-brāhmaṇa-viṣayaṃ gavādi-prāya-pāṭhād iti sthitam | etac ca sarvaṃ svadharmam api cāvekṣyety atra spaṣṭīkariṣyati
| tathā ca yuddha-lakṣaṇe 'rthe 'gnihotrādivad vihitatvād aparihārye parihartum aśakye tad-akaraṇe pratyavāya-prasaṅgāt tvam adṛṣṭa-duḥkha-bhayena śocituṃ nārahasīti pūrvavat |

yadi tu yuddhākhyaṃ karma kāmyam eva -

ya āhaveṣu yudhyante bhūmy-artham aparāṅmukhāḥ |
akūṭair āyudhair yānti te svargaṃ yogino yathā || [Yajñ. 13.324]

iti yājñavalkya-vacanāt | hato vā prāpsyasi svargaṃ jitvā vā bhokṣyase mahīm [Gītā 2.37] iti bhagavad-vacanāc ca | tadāpi prārabdhasya kāmyasyāpi avaśya-parisamāpanīyatvena nitya-tulyatvāt tvayā ca yuddhasya prārabdhatvād aparihāryatvaṃ tyulyam eva |

athavātma-nityatva-pakṣa eva śloka-dvayam arjunasya paramāstikasya veda-bāhya-matābhyupagamāsambhavāt | akṣara-yojanā tu nityaś cāsau dehendriyādi-sambandha-vaśāj jātaś ceti nitya-jātas tam enam ātmānaṃ nityam api santaṃ jātaṃ cen manyase tathā nityam api santaṃ mṛtaṃ cen manyase tathāpi tvaṃ nānuśocitum arhasīti hetum āha jātasya hīty ādinā | nityasya jātatvaṃ mṛtatvaṃ ca prāg-vyākhyātam | spaṣṭam anyat | bhāṣyam apy asmin pakṣe yojanīyam ||27||

viśvanāthaḥ : hi yasmāt tasya svārambhaka-karma-kṣaye mṛtyur dhruvo niścitaḥ | mṛtasya ca tad-deha-kṛtena karmaṇā janmāpi dhruvam eva | aparihārye 'rthe iti mṛtyur janma ca parihartum a]cakyam eva ity arthaḥ ||27||

baladevaḥ : atha śarīrātirikto nitya ātmā | tasyāpūrva-śarīrendriya-yogo janma | pūrva-śarīrendriya-viyogas tu maraṇaṃ tad-ubhayaṃ ca dharmādharma-hetukatvāt tad-āśrayasya nityasyātmano mukhyaṃ, tad-atiriktasya śarīrasya tu gauṇam | tasyānityasya kṛta-hānya-kṛtābhyāgama-prasaṅgena tad-āśrayatvānupapatter iti tārkikā manyante | tat-pakṣe 'py ātmanaḥ śocyatvaṃ pariharati jātasyeti | hir hetau | jātasya sva-karma-vaśāt prāpta-śarīrādi-yogasya nityasyāpy ātmanas tad-ārambhaka-karma-kṣaya-hetuko mṛtyur dhruvo niścitaḥ | mṛtasya tac-charīra-kṛta-karma-hetukaṃ janma ca dhruvaṃ syāt | tasmād evam aparihārye parihartum aśakye janma-maraṇātmake 'rthe tvaṃ vidvān śocituṃ nārhasi | tvayi yuddhān nivṛtte 'py ete svārambhake
karmaṇi kṣīṇe sati mariṣyanty eva | tava tu svadharmād vicyutir bhāvinīti bhāvaḥ ||27||

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BhG 2.28

avyaktādīni bhūtāni vyakta-madhyāni bhārata |
avyakta-nidhanāny eva tatra kā paridevanā ||28||

śrīdharaḥ : kiṃ ca dehānāṃ svabhāvaṃ paryālocya tad-upādhike ātmano janma-maraṇe śoko na kārya iti | ata āha avyaktādīnīty ādi | avyaktaṃ pradhānam | tad eva ādir utpatteḥ pūrva-rūpaṃ yeṣāṃ tāni avyaktādīni | bhūtāni śarīrāṇi | kāraṇātmanāpi sthitānām eva utpatteḥ | tathā vyaktam abhivyaktaṃ madhyaṃ janma-maraṇāntarālaṃ sthiti-lakṣaṇaṃ yeṣāṃ tāni vyakta-madhyāni | avyakte nidhanaṃ layo yeṣāṃ tānīmāny evaṃ-bhūtāny eva | tatra teṣu kā paridevanā ? kaḥ śoka-nimitto vilāpaḥ ? pratibuddhasya svapna-dṛṣṭa-vastuṣv iva śoko na
yujyata ity arthaḥ ||28||

madhusūdanaḥ : tad evaṃ sarva-prakāreṇātmano 'śocyatvam upapāditam athedānīm ātmano 'śocyatve 'pi bhūta-saṅghātātmakāni śarīrāṇy uddiśya śocāmīty arjunāśaṅkām apanudati bhagavān avyaktādīnīti | ādau janmanaḥ prāg-avyaktāni anupalabdhāni bhūtāni pṛthivyādi-bhūta-mayāni śarīrāṇi madhye janmānantaraṃ maraṇāt prāg-vyaktāni upalabdhāni santi | nidhane punar avyaktāny eva bhavanti | yathā svapnendrajālādau pratibhāsa-mātra-jīvanāni śukti-rūpyādivan na tu jñānāt prāg ūrdhvaṃ vā sthitāni dṛṣṭi-sṛṣṭy-abhyupagamāt | tathā ca - ādāv ante ca yan nāsti vartamāne 'pi tat tathā [ṃā. Kā. 2.6] iti nyāyena madhye 'pi na santy evaitāni | nāsato vidyate bhāvaḥ [Gītā 2.16] iti prāg-ukteś ca |

evaṃ sati tatra teṣu mithyā-bhūteṣv atyanta-tuccheṣu bhūteṣu kā paridevanā ko vā duḥkha-pralāpo na ko 'py ucita ity arthaḥ | na hi svapne vividhān bandhūn upalabhya pratibuddhas tad-vicchedena śocati pṛthag-jano 'pi etad evoktaṃ purāṇe adarśanād āpatitaḥ punaś cādarśanaṃ gataḥ bhūta-saṅgha iti śeṣaḥ | tathā ca śarīrāṇy apy uddiśya śoko nocita iti bhāvaḥ |
ākāśādi-mahā-bhūtābhiprāyeṇa vā śloko yojyaḥ | avyaktam avyākṛtam avidyopahita-caitanyam ādiḥ prāg avasthā yeṣāṃ tāni tathā vyaktaṃ nāma-rūpābhyām evāvidyakābhyāṃ prakaṭībhūtaṃ na tu svena paramārtha-sadātmanā madhyaṃ sthity-avasthā yeṣāṃ tādṛśāni bhūtāni ākāśādīni avyakta-nidhanāny evāvyakte sva-kāraṇe mṛd iva ghaṭādīnāṃ nidhanaṃ pralayo yeṣāṃ teṣu bhūteṣu kā paridevaneti pūrvavat | tathā ca śrutiḥ - tad dhedaṃ tarhy avyākṛtam āsīt tan-nāma-rūpābhyām eva vyākriyata [BAU 1.4.7] ity ādir avyaktopādānatāṃ sarvasya prapañcasya darśayati | laya-sthānatvaṃ tu tasyārtha-siddhaṃ kāraṇa
eva kārya-layasya darśanāt | granthāntare tu vistaraḥ | tathā cājñāna-kalpitatvena tucchāny ākāśādi-bhūtāny apy uddiśya śoko nocitaś cet tat-kāryāṇy uddiśya nocita iti kim u vaktavyam iti bhāvaḥ |

athavā sarvadā teṣām avyakta-rūpeṇa vidyamānatvād vicchedābhāvena tan-nimittaḥ pralāpo nocita ity arthaḥ | bhāratety anena sambodhayan śuddha-vaṃśodbhavatvena śāstrīyam arthaṃ pratipattum arho 'si kim iti na pratipadyasa iti sūcayati ||28||

viśvanāthaḥ : tad evaṃ na jāyate na mriyate ity-ādinā, deha-pakṣe ca jātasya hi dhruvo mṛtyuḥ ity anena śoka-viṣayaṃ nirākṛtya idānīm ubhaya-pakṣe 'pi nirākaroti avyakteti | bhūtāni deva-manuṣya-tiryag-ādīni | avyaktāni na vyaktaṃ vyaktir ādau janma-pūrva-kāle yeṣāṃ, kintu tadānīm api liṅga-dehaḥ sthūla-dehaś ca svārambhaka-pṛthivy-ādi-sattvāt kāraṇātmanā vartamāno 'spaṣṭam āsīd evety arthaḥ | vyaktaṃ vyaktir madhye yeṣāṃ tāni | na vyakti nidhanād anantaraṃ yeṣāṃ tāni | mahā-pralaye 'pi karma-mātrādīnāṃ sattvāt sūkṣma-rūpeṇa bhūtāni santy eva | tasmāt sarva-bhūtāni ādy-antarayor
avyaktāni madhye vyaktānīty arthaḥ | yad uktaṃ śrutibhiḥ - sthira-cara-jātayaḥ syur ajayottha-nimitta-yujaḥ iti | kā paridevanā kaḥ śoka-nimittaḥ vilāpaḥ ? tathā coktaṃ nāradena -

yan manyase dhruvaṃ lokam adhruvaṃ vā na cobhayam |
sarvathā na hi śocyās te snehād anyatra mohajāt || [BhP 1.13.44] iti ||28||

baladevaḥ : atha dehātma-pakṣe ātmātirikta-deha-pakṣe ca deha-vināśa-hetuka-śoko na yuktas tad-ārambhakāṇāṃ bhūta-mātrāṇām avināśād ity āha avyaktādīnīti | avyaktaṃ nāma-rūpa-virahāt sūkṣmaṃ pradhānam ādi ādi-rūpaṃ yeṣāṃ tāni avyakta-nidhanāni | avyakte tādṛśi pradhāne nidhanaṃ nāma-rūpa-vimardana-lakṣaṇo nāśo yeṣāṃ tāni | mṛd-ādike sad-rūpe dravye kambu-grīvādy-avasthā-yoge ghaṭasyotpattis tad-virodhi-kapālādy-avasthā-yogas tu tasya vināśaḥ kathyate | tad-dravyaṃ sarvadā sthāyīti | evam evāha bhagavān parāśaraḥ - mahī ghaṭatvaṃ ghaṭataḥ kapālikā cūrṇa-rajas tato 'ṇuḥ [ViP 2.12.42] iti | evaṃ
śarīrāṇy ādy-antayor nāma-rūpāyogād avyaktimanti | madhye tu tad-yogād vyaktimanti | tad-ārambhakāni bhūtāni tu sarvadā santīti teṣu vastutaḥ satsu kā paridevanā kaḥ śoka-nimitta-vilāpa ity arthaḥ | dehānya-nityātma-pakṣe tu vāsāṃsi ity ādikaṃ na vismartavyam | yat tv ādy-antayor asattvān madhye 'pi bhūtāny asanty evātaḥ svāpnika-rathāśvādi-prakhyāni mṛṣā-bhūtāny eva tena tad-viyoga-hetukaḥ śokaḥ pratibuddhasya na dṛṣṭa iti dṛṣṭi-sṛṣṭim abhyupaityāhus tan mandaṃ tad-abhyupagame vaidikāsatkāryavādāpatteḥ | tad evaṃ mata-dvaye 'pi deha-vināśa-hetukaḥ śoko nāstīti siddham ||28||

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BhG 2.29

āścaryavat paśyati kaścid enam
āścaryavad vadati tathaiva cānyaḥ |
āścaryavac cainam anyaḥ śṛṇoti
śrutvāpy enaṃ veda na caiva kaścit ||29||

śrīdharaḥ : kutas tarhi vidvāṃso 'pi loke śocanti ? ātmā-jñānād eva ity āśayenātmano durvijñeyatvam āha āścaryavad ityādi | kaścid enam ātmānaṃ śāstrācāryopadeśābhyāṃ paśyann āścaryavat paśyati | sarva-gatasya nitya-jñānānada-svabhāvasyātmanaḥ alaukikatvād aindrajālikavad ghaṭamānaṃ paśyann iva vismayena paśyati asambhāvanābhibhūtatvāt | tathā āścaryavad anyo vadati ca | śṛṇoti cānyaḥ | kaścit punaḥ viparīta-bhāvanābhibhūtaḥ śrutvāpi naiva veda | ca-śabdād uktvāpi na dṛṣṭvāpi na samyag vedeti draṣṭavyam ||29||

madhusūdanaḥ : nanu vidvāṃso 'pi bahavaḥ śocanti tat kiṃ mām eva punaḥ punar evam upālabhase | anyac ca vaktur eva hi taj jāḍyaṃ śrotā yatra na budhyate iti nyāyāt tvad-vacanārthāpartipattiś ca tavāpy anyeṣām iva svāśaya-doṣād iti nokta-doṣa-dvayam ity abhipretyātmano durvijñeyatām āha āścaryavad iti |

enaṃ prakṛtaṃ dehinam āścaryeṇādbhutena tulyatayā vartamānam āvidyaka-nānā-vidha-viruddha-dharmavattayā satanm apy asantam iva sva-prakāśa-caitanya-rūpam api jaḍam ivānanda-ghanam api duḥkhitam iva nirvikāram api savikāram iva nityam anityam iva prakāśamānam apy aprakāśamānam iva brahmābhinnam api tad-bhinnam iva muktam api baddham ivādvitīyam api sa-dvitīyam iva sambhāvita-vicitrānekākāra-pratīti-viṣayaṃ paśyati śāstrācāryopadeśābhyām āvidyaka-sarva-dvaita-niṣedhena paramātma-svarūpa-mātrākārāyāṃ vedānta-mahā-vākya-janyāyāṃ sarva-sukṛta-phala-bhūtāyām antaḥkaraṇa-vṛttau pratiphalitaṃ samādhi-paripākena sākṣātkaroti kaścic chama-damādi-sādhana-sampanna-carama-śarīraḥ kaścid eva na tu
sarvaḥ | tathā kaścid enaṃ yat paśyati tad āścaryavad iti kriyā-viśeṣaṇam | ātma-darśanam apy āścaryavad eva yat svarūpato mithyā-bhūtam api satyasya vyañjakam āvidyakam apy avidyāyā vighātakam avidyām upaghnat tat-kāryatayā svātmānam apy upahantīti | tathā yaḥ kaścid enaṃ paśyati sa āścaryavad iti kartṛ-viśeṣaṇam | yato 'sau nivṛttāvidyātat-kāryo 'pi prārabdha-karma-prābalyāt tadvān iva vyaharati sarvadā samādhi-niṣṭho 'pi vyuttiṣṭhati vyutthito 'pi punaḥ samādhim anubhavatīti prārabdha-karma-vaicitryād vicitra-caritraḥ prāpta-duṣprāpa-jñānatvāt sakala-loka-spṛhaṇīyo 'ta āścaryavad eva bhavati | tad etat trayam apy āścaryam ātmā taj jñānaṃ taj-jñātā ceti parama-durvijñeyam ātmānaṃ tvaṃ katham
anāyāsena jānīyā ity abhiprāyaḥ |

īvam upadeṣṭur abhāvād apy ātmā durvijñeyaḥ | yo hy ātmānaṃ jānāti sa eva tam anyasmai dhruvaṃ brūyāt | ajñasyopadeṣṭṛtvāsambhavāt, jānaṃs tu samāhita-cittaḥ prāyeṇa kathaṃ bravītu | vyutthita-citto 'pi pareṇa jñātum aśakyaḥ | yathā kathaṃcij jñāto 'pi lābha-pūjā-khyāty-ādi-prayojanānapekṣatvāc ca bravīty eva | kathaṃcit kāruṇya-mātreṇa bruvaṃs tu parameśvaravad atyanta-durlabha evety āha āścaryavad vadati tathaiva cānya iti | yathājānāti tathaiva vadati | enam ity anukarṣaṇārthaś ca-kāraḥ | sa cānyaḥ sarvājña-jana-vilakṣaṇaḥ | na tu yaḥ paśyati tato 'nya iti vyāghātāt | atrāpi karmaṇi kriyāyāṃ kartari cāścaryavad iti
yojyam | tatra karmaṇaḥ kartuś ca prāg āścaryavattvaṃ vyākhyātaṃ kriyāyās tu vyākhyāyate | sarva-śabdāvācyasya śuddhasyātmano yad vacanaṃ tad āścaryavat | tathā ca śrutiḥ - yato vāco nivartante aprāpya manasā saha iti | kenāpi śabdenāvācyasya śuddhasyātmano viśiṣṭa-śaktena padena jahad-ajahat-svārtha-lakṣaṇāyā kalpita-sambandhena lakṣyatāvacchedakam antareṇaiva pratipādanaṃ tad api nirvikalpa-sākṣātkāra-rūpam atyāścaryam ity arthaḥ |

athavā vinā śaktiṃ vinā lakṣaṇāṃ vinā sambandhāntaraṃ suṣuptotthāpaka-vākya-vat tattvam asyādi-vākyena yadātmatattva-pratipādanaṃ tad āścaryavat | śabda-śakter acintyatvāt | na ca vinā sambandhaṃ bodhanen 'tiprasaṅgaḥ lakṣaṇā-pakṣe 'pi tulyatvāt | śakya-sambandhasyāneka-sādhāraṇatvāt | tātparya-viśeṣān niyama iti cet, na | tasyāpi sarvān praty aviśeṣāt | kaścid eva tātparya-viśeṣam avadhārayati na sarva iti cet | hanta tarhi puruṣa-gata eva kaścid viśeṣo nirdoṣatva-rūpo niyāmakaḥ | na cāsmin pakṣe 'pi na daṇḍa-vāritaḥ | tathā ca yādṛśasya śuddhāntaḥ-karaṇasya tātparyānusandhāna-puraḥ-saraṃ
lakṣaṇayā vākyārtha-bodho bhavadbhir aṅgī kriyate tādṛśasyaiva kevalaḥ śabda-viśeṣo 'khaṇḍa-sākṣātkāraṃ vināpi sambandhena janayatīti kim anupapannam | etasmin pakṣe śabda-vṛtty-aviṣayatvād yato vāco nivartanta iti sutarām upapannam | ayaṃ ca bhagavad-abhiprāyo vārtika-kāraiḥ prapañcitaḥ -

durbalatvād avidyāyā ātmatvād bodha-rūpiṇaḥ |
śabda-śakter acitnyatvād vidmas taṃ moha-hānataḥ ||
agṛhītvaiva sambandham abhidhānābhidheyayoḥ |
hitvā nidrāṃ prabudhyante suṣupter bodhitāḥ paraiḥ ||
jāgradvan na yataḥ śabdaṃ suṣupte vetti kaścana |
dhvaste 'to jñānato 'jñāne brahmāsmīti bhavet phalam ||
avidyā-ghātinaḥ śabdādyāhaṃ brahmeti dhīr bhavet |
naśyaty avidyayā sārdhaṃ hatvā rogam ivauṣadham || [Bṛhat.Vā 1.4.860-863]
ity ādinā granthena |

tad evaṃ vacana-viṣayasya vaktur vacana-kriyāyāś cātyāścarya-rūpatvād ātmano durvijñānatvam uktvā śrotur durmilatvād api tad āha āścaryavac cainam anyaḥ śṛṇoti śrtuvā 'py enaṃ vedeti | anyo draṣṭur vaktuśc a muktād vilakṣaṇo mumukṣur vaktāraṃ brahma-vidaṃ vidhivad upasṛtyainaṃ śṛṇoti śravaṇākhya-vicāra-viṣayī karoti vedānta-vākya-tātparya-niścayenāvadhārayatīti yāvat | śrutvā cainaṃ manana-nididhyāsana-paripākād vedāpi sākṣātkaroty api āścaryavat | tathā cāścaryavat paśyati kaścid enam iti vyākhyātam | atrāpi kartur āścarya-rūpatvam aneka-janmānuṣṭhita-sukṛta-kṣālita-mano-malatayātidurlabhatvāt | tathā ca vakṣyati -

manuṣyāṇāṃ sahasreṣu kaś cid yatati siddhaye |
yatatām api siddhānāṃ kaś cin māṃ vetti tattvataḥ || [Gītā 7.3] iti |

śravaṇāyāpi bahubhir yo na labhyaḥ
śṛṇvanto 'pi bahavo yaṃ na vidyuḥ |
āścaryo vaktā kuśalo 'sya labdhā
āścaryo jñātā kuśalānuśiṣṭaḥ || [KaṭhU 1.2.7] iti śruteś ca |

evaṃ śravaṇa-śrotavyayor āścaryatvaṃ prāgvad vyākhyeyam |

nanu yaḥ śravaṇa-mananādikaṃ karoti sa ātmānaṃ vedeti kim āścaryam ata āha - na caiva kaścid iti | ca-kāraḥ kriyā-karma-padayor anuṣaṅgārthaḥ | kaścid enaṃ naiva veda śravaṇādikaṃ kurvann api | tad akurvaṃs tu na vedeti kim u vaktavyam | aihikam aprastuta-pratibandhe tad-darśanāt [Vs. 3.4.51] iti nyāyāt | uktaṃ ca vārtika-kāraiḥ -

kutas taj-jñānam iti cet tad dhi bandha-parikṣayāt |
asāv api ca bhūtau vā bhāvī vā vartate 'thavā || [Bṛh. Vā. Sa. 294] iti |

śravaṇādi kurvatām api pratibandha-parikṣayād eva jñānaṃ jāyate | anyathā tu na | sa ca pratibandha-parikṣayaḥ kasyacid bhūta eva | yathā hiraṇyagarbhasya | kasyacid bhāvī | yathā vāsudevasya | kasyacid vartate | yathā śvetaketoḥ | tathā ca pratibandha-kṣaya-syātidurlabhatvāt | jñānam utpadyate puṃsāṃ kṣayāt pāpasya karmaṇaḥ iti smṛteś ca durvijñeyo 'yam ātmeti nirgalito 'rthaḥ |

yadi tu śrutvāpy enaṃ veda na caiva kaścid ity eva vyākhyāyeta tadā āścaryo jñātā kuśalānuśiṣṭaḥ [KaṭhU 1.2.7] iti śrutyaika-vākyatā na syāt | yatatām api siddhānāṃ kaś cin māṃ vetti tattvataḥ [Gītā 7.3] iti bhagavad-vacana-virodhaś ceti vidvadbhir avinayaḥ kṣantavyaḥ | athavā na caiva kaścid ity asya sarvatra sambandhaḥ kaścid enaṃ na paśyati na vadati na śṛṇoti śrutvāpi na vedeti pañca prakārā uktāḥ kaścit paśyaty eva na vadati kaścit paśyati na vadati ca kaścit tad-vacanaṃ śṛṇoti ca tad-arthaṃ jānāti ca kaścic chrutvāpi na jānāti na kaścit tu sarva-bahirbhūta iti | avidvat-pakṣe tu asambhāvanā-viparīta-bhāvanābhibhūtatvād āścarya-tulyatvaṃ darśana-vadana-śravaṇeṣv
iti nigada-vyākhyātaḥ ślokaḥ | caturtha-pāde tu dṛṣṭvoktvā śrutvāpīti yojanā ||29||

viśvanāthaḥ : nanu kim idam āścaryaṃ brūṣe | kiṃ caitad apy āścaryam | yad eva prabodhyamānasyāpy aviveko nāpayātīti tatra satyam evem eva ity āha āścaryavad iti | enam ātmānaṃ dehaṃ ca tad-ubhaya-rūpaṃ sarva-lokam ||29||

baladevaḥ : nanu sarvajñena tvayā bahūpadiśyamāno 'py ahaṃ śoka-nivārakam ātma-yāthātmyaṃ na budhye kim etad iti cet tatrāha āścaryavad iti | vijñānāndobhaya-svarūpatve 'pi tad-bhedāpratiyoginaṃ vijñāna-svarūpatve 'pi vijñātṛtayā santaṃ paramāṇutve 'pi vyāpta-bṛhat-kāyaṃ nānā-kāya-sambandhe 'pi tat-tad-vikārair aspṛṣṭam evam ādi bahu-viruddha-dharmatayāścaryavad adbhuta-sādṛśyena sthitam enaṃ mad-upadiṣṭaṃ jīvaṃ kaścid eva svadharmānuṣṭhānena satya-tapo-japādinā ca vimṛṣṭa-hṛd-guru-prasāda-labdha-tādṛśa-jñānaḥ paśyati yāthātmyenānubhavati | āścaryavad iti kriyā-viśeṣaṇaṃ vā kartṛ-viśeṣaṇaṃ veti vyākhyātāraḥ kaścid
enam yat paśyati tad āścaryavat | yaḥ kaścit paśyati so 'py āścaryavad ity arthaḥ | evam agre 'pi | śrutvāpy enam iti kaścit samyag amṛṣṭa-hṛd ity arthaḥ | tathā ca duradhigamaṃ jīvātmayāthātmyam | śrutir apy evam āha -

śravaṇāyāpi bahubhir yo na labhyaḥ
śṛṇvanto 'pi bahavo yaṃ na vidyuḥ |
āścaryo vaktā kuśalo 'sya labdhā
āścaryo jñātā kuśalānuśiṣṭa || [KaṭhU 1.2.7] iti ||29||

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BhG 2.30

dehī nityam avadhyo 'yaṃ dehe sarvasya bhārata |
tasmāt sarvāṇi bhūtāni na tvaṃ śocitum arhasi ||30||

śrīdharaḥ : tad evam avadhyatvam ātmanaḥ saṅkṣepenopadiśan aśocyatvam upasaṃharati dehīty ādi | spaṣṭo 'rthaḥ ||30||

madhusūdanaḥ : idānīṃ sarva-prāṇi-sādhāraṇa-bhrama-nivṛtti-sādhanam uktam upasaṃharati dehīti | sarvasya prāṇi-jātasya dehe vadhyamāne 'py ayaṃ dehī liṅga-dehopādhir ātmā vadhyo na bhavatīti nityaṃ niyataṃ yasmāt tasmāt sarvāṇi bhūtāni sthūlāni sūkṣmāṇi ca bhīṣmādi-bhāvāpannāny uddiśya tvaṃ na śocitum arhasi | sthūla-dehasyāśocyatvam aparihāryatvāt | liṅga-dehasyāśocyatvam ātmavad evāvadhyatvād iti na sthūla-dehasya liṅga-dehasyātmano vā śocyatvaṃ yuktam iti bhāvaḥ ||30||

viśvanāthaḥ : tarhi niścitya brūhi kim ahaṃ kuryāṃ kiṃ vā na kuryām iti | tatra śokaṃ mā kuru yuddhaṃ tu kurv ity āha dehīti dvābhyām ||30||

baladevaḥ : tad evaṃ duradhigamaṃ jīva-yāthātmyaṃ samāsenopadiśann aśocyatvam upasaṃharati dehīti | sarvasya jīva-gaṇasya dehe hanyamāne 'py ayaṃ dehī jīvo nityam avadhyo yasmāt tasmāt tvaṃ sarvāṇi bhūtāni bhīṣmādi-bhāvāpannāni śocituṃ nārhasi | ātmanāṃ nityatvād aśocyatvaṃ tad-dehānāṃ tv avaśya-vināśatvāt tattvam ity arthaḥ ||30||

__________________________________________________________

BhG 2.31

sva-dharmam api cāvekṣya na vikampitum arhasi |
dharmyād dhi yuddhāc chreyo 'nyat kṣatriyasya na vidyate ||31||

śrīdharaḥ : yac coktam arjunena vepathuś ca śarīre me ity ādi tad apy ayuktam ity āha svadharmam apīti | ātmano nāśābhāvād eva etesāṃ hanane 'pi vikampituṃ nārhasi | kiṃ ca svadharmam apy avekṣya vikampitum nārhasi iti sambandhaḥ | yac coktaṃ - na ca śreyo 'nupaśyāmi hatvā svajanam āhava iti tatrāha dharmyād iti | dharmād anapetān nyāyād yuddhād anyat ||31||

madhusūdanaḥ : tad evaṃ sthūla-sūkṣma-śarīra-dvaya-tat-kāraṇāvidyākhyopādhi-trayāvivekena mithyābhūtasyāpi saṃsārasya satyatvātma-dharmatvādi-pratibhāsa-rūpaṃ sarva-prāṇi-sādhāraṇam arjunasya bhramaṃ nirākartum upādhi-traya-vivekenātma-svarūpam abhihitavān | samprati yuddhākhye sva-dharme hiṃsādi-bāhulyenādharmatva-pratibhāsa-rūpam arjunasyaiva karuṇādi-doṣa-nibandhanam asādhāraṇaṃ bhramaṃ nirākartuṃ hiṃsādimattve 'pi yuddhasya sva-dharmatvenādharmatvābhāvaṃ bodhayati bhagavān svadharmam apīti |

na kevalaṃ paramārtha-tattvam evāvekṣya kiṃ tu svadharmam api kṣatriya-dharmam api yuddhāparāṅmukhatva-rūpam avekṣya śāstrataḥ paryālocya vikampituṃ vicalituṃ dharmād adharmatva-bhrāntyā nivartituṃ nārhasi | tatraivaṃ sati yadyapy ete na paśyanti ity ādinā narake niyataṃ vāso bhavati ity antena yuddhasya pāpa-hetutvaṃ tvayā yad uktaṃ kathaṃ bhīṣmam ahaṃ saṅkhye ity ādinā ca guru-vadha-brahma-vadhādy-akaraṇaṃ yad abhihitaṃ tat sarvaṃ dharma-śāstra-paryālocanād evoktam | kasmāt ? hi yasmād dharmyād aparāṅmukhatva-dharmād anapetād yuddhād anyat kṣatriyasya śreyaḥ śreyaḥ-sādhanaṃ
na vidyate | yuddham eva hi pṛthivī-jaya-dvāreṇa prajā-rakṣaṇa-brāhmaṇa-śuśrūṣādi-kṣātra-dharma-nirvāhakam iti tad eva kṣatriyasya praśastataram ity abhiprāyaḥ | tathā coktaṃ parāśareṇa -

kṣatriyo hi prajā rakṣan śastra-pāṇiḥ pradaṇḍayan |
nirjitya para-sainyādi kṣitiṃ dharmeṇa pālayet || [Parāśara-smṛti 1.58] iti ||31||

manunāpi -

samottamādhamai rājā tv āhūtaḥ pālayan prajāḥ |
na nivarteta saṃgrāmāt kṣātraṃ dharmam anusmaran ||
saṃgrāmeṣv anivartitvaṃ prajānāṃ caiva pālanam |
śuśrūṣā brāhmaṇānāṃ ca rājñāṃ śreyaskaraṃ param || [Manu 7.88-9] ity ādinā |

rāja-śabdaś ca kṣatriya-jāti-mātra-vācīti sthitam eveṣṭhy-adhikaraṇe | tena bhūmi-pālasyaivāyaṃ dharma iti na bhramitavyam | udāhṛta-vacane 'pi kṣatriyo hīti kṣāttraṃ dharmam iti ca spaṣṭaṃ liṅgam | tasmāt kṣatriyasya yuddhaṃ praśasto dharma iti sādhu bhagavato 'bhihitam | apaśavo 'nye go-aśvebhyaḥ paśavo go-aśvāḥ itivat praśaṃsā-lakṣaṇayā yuddhād anyac-chreyaḥ-sādhanaṃ na vidyata ity uktam iti na doṣaḥ | etena yuddhāt praśastataraṃ kiṃcid anuṣṭhātuṃ tato nivṛttir uciteti nirastam | na ca śreyo 'nupaśyāmi hatvā svajanam āhave ity etad api ||31||

viśvanāthaḥ : ātmano nāśābhāvād eva vadhād vikampituṃ bhetuṃ nārhasi | svadharmam api cāvekṣya na vikampitum arhasīti sambandhaḥ ||31||

baladevaḥ : evaṃ paramātma-jñānopayogitvād ādau jīvātma-jñānaṃ sarvān prati taulyenopadiśya sa-niṣṭhān prati niṣkāmatayānuṣṭhitāni karmāṇi hṛd-viśuddhi-sahakṛtām ātma-jñāna-niṣṭhāṃ niṣpādayantīti vadiṣyan tasyāṃ pratītim utpādayituṃ sakāmatayānuṣṭhitānāṃ karmaṇāṃ kāmya-phala-pradatvam āha dvābhyām svadharmam apīti |

yuddhaṃ khalu kṣatriyasya nityatam agnihotrādivad vihitam | tac ca śatru-prāṇa-vihaṃsana-rūpam agniṣṭomādi-paśu-hiṃsanavan na pratyavāya-nimittam | ubhayatra hiṃseyam upakṛti-rūpaiva | hīnayor deha-lokayos tyāgena divyayos tayor lobhāt | āha caivaṃ smṛtiḥ -

āhaveṣu mitho 'nyonyaṃ jighāṃsanto mahīkṣitaḥ |
yudhyamānāḥ paraṃ śaktyā svargaṃ yānty aparāṅmukhāḥ || [Manu 7.90]
yajñeṣu paśavo brahman hanyante satataṃ dvijaiḥ |
saṃskṛtāḥ kila mantraiś ca te 'pi svargam avāpnuvan || [?] ity ādyā |

evaṃ nija-dharmam avekṣya vikampituṃ dharmāt pracalituṃ nārhasi | yuktaṃ na ca śreyo 'nupaśyāmīty ādinā narake nityataṃ vāso bhavatīyt antyena yuddhasya pāpa-hetutvaṃ tvayoktam | tac cājñānād evety āha dharmyād iti | yuddham eva bhūmi-jaya-dvārā prajā-pālana-guru-vipra-saṃsevanādi-kṣātra-dharma-nirvāhīti | evam āha bhagavān parāśaraḥ -

kṣatriyo hi prajā rakṣan śastra-pāṇiḥ pradaṇḍayan |
nirjitya para-sainyādi kṣitiṃ dharmeṇa pālayet || [Parāśara-smṛti 1.58] iti ||31||

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BhG 2.32

yadṛcchayā copapannaṃ svarga-dvāram apāvṛtam |
sukhinaḥ kṣatriyāḥ pārtha labhante yuddham īdṛśam ||32||

śrīdharaḥ : kiṃ ca mahati śreyasi svayam evopāgate sati kuto vikampasa iti | ata āha yadṛcchayeti | yadṛcchayā aprārthitam eva upapannaṃ prāptam īdṛśaṃ yuddham labhante | yato nirāvaraṇaṃ svarga-dvāram evaitat | yad vā ya evaṃvidhaṃ yuddhaṃ labhante ta eva sukhina ity arthaḥ | etena svajanaṃ hi kathaṃ hatvā sukhinaḥ syāma mādhava iti yad uktaṃ tan nirastaṃ bhavati ||32||

madhusūdanaḥ : nanu yuddhasya kartavyatve 'pi na bhīṣma-droṇādibhir gurubhiḥ saha tat kartum ucitam atigarhitatvād ity āśaṅkyāha yadṛcchayeti | yadṛcchayā sva-prayatna-vyatirekeṇa | co 'vadhāraṇe | aprārthanayaivopasthitam īdṛśaṃ bhīṣma-droṇādi-vīra-puruṣa-pratiyogikaṃ kīrti-rājya-lābha-dṛṣṭa-phala-sādhanaṃ yuddhaṃ ye kṣatriyāḥ pratiyogitvena labhante te sukhinaḥ sukha-bhāja eva | jaye satyenāyāsenaiva yaśaso rājyasya ca lābhāt | parājaye cātiśīghram eva svargasya lābhād ity āha svarga-dvāram apāvṛtam iti | apratibaddhaṃ svarga-sādhanaṃ yuddham avyavadhānenaiva svarga-janakaṃ jyotiṣṭhomādikaṃ tu ciratareṇa deha-pātasya pratibandhābhāvasya
cāpekṣaṇād ity arthaḥ | svarga-dvāram ity anena śyenādivat pratyavāya-śaṅkā parihṛtā | śyenādayo hi vihitā api phala-doṣeṇa duṣṭāḥ | tat-phalasya śatru-vadhasya na hiṃsyāt sarvā bhūtāni, brāhmaṇaṃ na hanyāt ity ādi-śāstra-niṣiddhasya pratyavāya-janakatvāt phale vidhy-abhāvāc ca na vidhi-spṛṣṭe niṣedhānavakāśaḥ iti nyāyāvatāraḥ | yuddhasya hi phalaṃ svargaḥ sa ca na niṣiddhaḥ | tathā ca manuḥ --

āhaveṣu mitho 'nyonyaṃ jighāṃsanto mahīkṣitaḥ |
yudhyamānāḥ paraṃ śaktyā svargaṃ yānty aparāṅmukhāḥ || [Manu 7.90] iti |

yuddhaṃ tu agnīṣomīyādy-ālambha-vadha-vihitatvān na niṣedhena spraṣṭuṃ śakyate ṣoḍaśi-grahaṇādivat | grahaṇāgrahayos tulya-balatayā vikalpavat sāmānya-śāstrasya viśeṣa-śāstreṇa saṅkoca-sambhavāt | tathā ca vidhi-spṛṣṭe niṣedhānavakāśaḥ iti nyāyād yuddhaṃ na pratyavāya-janakaṃ nāpi bhīṣma-droṇādi-guru-brāhmaṇādi-vadha-nimitto doṣaḥ | teṣām ātatāyitvāt | tad uktaṃ manunā -

guruṃ vā bāla-vṛddhau vā brāhmaṇaṃ vā bahu-śrutam |
ātatāyinam āyāntaṃ hanyād evāvicārayan ||
ātatāyinam āyāntam api vedānta-pāragam |
jighāṃsantaṃ jighāṃsīyān na tena brahmahā bhavet ||
nātatāyi-vadho doṣo hantur bhavati kaścana || [Manu 8.350-351] ity ādi |

nanu -
smṛtyor virodhe nyāyas tu balavān vyavahārataḥ |
artha-śāstrāt tu balavad dharma-śāstram iti sthitiḥ || [Yājñavalkya 2.21]

iti yājñavalkya-vacanād ātatāyi-brāhmaṇa-vadhe 'pi pratyavāyo 'sty eva | brāhmaṇaṃ na hanyāt iti hi dṛṣṭa-prayojanānapekṣatvād dharma-śāstraṃ, jighāṃsantaṃ jighāṃsīyān na tena brahmahā bhavet iti ca sva-jīvanārthatvād artha-śāstram |

atrocyate brahmaṇe brāhmaṇam ālabheta itivad yuddha-vidhāyakam api dharma-śāstram eva sukha-duḥkhe same kṛtvā ity atra dṛṣṭa-prayojanānapekṣatvasya vakṣyamāṇatvāt | yājñavalkya-vacanaṃ tu dṛṣṭa-prayojanoddeśyaka-kūṭa-yuddhādi-kṛta-vadha-viṣayam ity adoṣaḥ | mitākṣarākāras tu dharmārtha-sannipāte 'rtha-grāhiṇa etad eveti dvādaśa-vārṣika-prāyaścittasyaitac-chabda-parāmṛṣṭasyāpastambena vidhānān mitra-labdhyādy-artha-śāstrānusāreṇa catuṣpād vyavahāre śatror api jaye dharma-śāstrātikramo na kartavya ity etat paraṃ vacanam etad ity āha | bhavatv evaṃ na no hāniḥ | tad evaṃ yuddha-karaṇe sukhokteḥ svajanaṃ hi kathaṃ
hatvā sukhinaḥ syāma mādhava ity arjunoktam apākṛtam ||32||

viśvanāthaḥ : kiṃ ca, jetṛbhyaḥ sakāśād api nyāya-yuddhe mṛtānām adhikaṃ sukham ato bhīṣmādīn hatvā tān pratyuta svato 'pi adhika-sukhinaḥ kuru ity āha yadṛcchayeti | svarga-sādhanaṃ karma-yogam akṛtvāpīty arthaḥ | apāvṛtam apagatāvaraṇam ||32||

baladevaḥ : kiṃ cāyatnād āgate 'smin mahati śreyasi na yuktas te kampa ity āha yadṛcchayeti | co 'vadhāraṇe | yatnaṃ vinaiva copapannam īdṛśaṃ bhīṣmādibhir mahā-vīraiḥ saha yuddhaṃ sukhinaḥ sabhāgyāḥ kṣatriyā labhante | vijaye satya-śrameṇa kīrti-rājyayor mṛtyau sati śīghram eva svargasya ca prāpter ity arthaḥ | etad vyañjayan viśinaṣṭi - svarga-dvāram upāvṛtam iti | apratiruddha-svarga-sādhanam ity arthaḥ | jyotiṣṭomādikaṃ ciratareṇa svargopalambhakam iti tato 'syātiśayaḥ ||32||

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BhG 2.33

atha cet tvam imaṃ dharmyaṃ saṃgrāmaṃ na kariṣyasi |
tataḥ sva-dharmaṃ kīrtiṃ ca hitvā pāpam avāpsyasi ||33||

śrīdharaḥ : viparyaye doṣam āha atha ced iti ||33||

madhusūdanaḥ : nanu nāhaṃ yuddha-phala-kāmaḥ | na kāṅkṣe vijayaṃ kṛṣṇa, api trailokya-rājyasya ity uktatvāt tat kathaṃ mayā kartavyam ity āśaṅkyākaraṇe doṣam āha atha ced iti | atheti pakṣāntare | imaṃ bhīṣma-droṇādi-vīra-puruṣa-pratiyogikaṃ dharmyaṃ hiṃsādi-doṣaṇāduṣṭaṃ satāṃ dharmād anapetām iti vā | sa ca manunā darśitaḥ -

na kūṭair āyudhair hanyād yudhyamāno raṇe ripūn |
na karṇibhir nāpi digdhair nāgni-jvalita-tejanaiḥ ||
na ca hanyāt sthalārūḍhaṃ na klībaṃ na kṛtāñjalim |
na mukta-keśaṃ nāsīnaṃ na tavāsmīti vādinam ||
na suptaṃ na visaṃnāhaṃ na nagnaṃ na nirāyudham |
nāyudhyamānaṃ paśyantaṃ na pareṇa samāgatam ||
nāyudha-vyasana-prāptaṃ nārtaṃ nātiparikṣataṃ |
na bhītaṃ na parāvṛttaṃ satāṃ dharmam anusmaran || [Manu 7.91-94] iti |

satāṃ dharmam ullaṅghya yudhyamāno hi pāpīyān syāt | tvaṃ tu parair āhūto 'pi sad-dharmopetam api saṅgrāmaṃ yuddhaṃ na kariṣyasi dharmato lokato vā bhītaḥ parāvṛtto bhaviṣyasi cet tato nirjitya para-sainyāni kṣitiṃ dharmeṇa pālayet [Parāśara-smṛti 1.58] ity ādi-śāstra-vihitasya yuddhasyākaraṇāt svadharmaṃ hitvānanuṣṭhāya kīrtiṃ ca mahādevādi-samāgama-nimittāṃ hitvā na nivarteta saṅgrāmāt ity ādi-śāstra-niṣiddha-saṅgrāma-nivṛttyā ca raṇa-janyaṃ pāpam eva kevalam avāpsyasi na tu dharmaṃ kīrtiṃ cety abhiprāyaḥ |

athavā 'neka-janmārjitaṃ dharmaṃ tyaktvā rāja-kṛtaṃ pāpam evāvāpsyasīty arthaḥ | yasmāt tvāṃ parāvṛttam ete duṣṭā avaśyaṃ haniṣyanti ataḥ parāvṛtta-hataḥ saṃś ciropārjita-nija-sukṛta-parityāgena paropārjita-duṣkṛta-mātra-bhāṅ mā bhūr ity abhiprāyaḥ | tathā ca manuḥ -

yas tu bhītaḥ parāvṛttaḥ saṅgrāme hanyate paraiḥ |
bhartur yad duṣkṛtaṃ kiṃcit tat sarvaṃ pratipadyate ||
yac cāsya sukṛtaṃ kiṃcid amutrārtham upārjitam |
bhartā tat sarvam ādatte parāvṛtta-hatasya tu || [Manu 7.95-96] iti |

yājñavalkyo 'pi rājā sukṛtam ādatte hatānāṃ vipalāyinām iti | tena yad uktam - pāpam evāśrayed asmān hatvaitān ātatāyinaḥ [Gītā 1.36], etān na hantum icchāmi ghanto 'pi madhusūdana [Gītā 1.35] iti tan nirākṛtaṃ bhavati ||33||

viśvanāthaḥ : vipakṣe doṣam āha atheti caturbhiḥ ||33||

baladevaḥ : vipakṣe doṣān darśayati athety ādibhiḥ | svasya tava dharmyaṃ yuddha-lakṣaṇaṃ kīrtiṃ ca rudra-santoṣaṇa-nivāta-kavacādi-vadha-labdhāṃ hitvā pāpaṃ na nivarteta saṅgrāmād ity ādi smṛti-pratiṣiddhaṃ sva-dharma-tyāga-lakṣaṇaṃ prāpsyasi ||33||

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BhG 2.34

akīrtiṃ cāpi bhūtāni kathayiṣyanti te 'vyayām |
saṃbhāvitasya cākīrtir maraṇād atiricyate ||34||

śrīdharaḥ : kiṃ ca akīrtim ity ādi | avyayām śāśvatīm | saṃbhāvitasya bahu-matasya | atiricyate adhikatarā bhavati ||34||

madhusūdanaḥ : evaṃ kīrti-dharmayor iṣṭayor aprāptir aniṣṭasya ca pāpasya prāptir yuddha-parityāge darśitā | tatra pāpākhyam aniṣṭaṃ vyavadhānena duḥkha-phaladam āmutrikatvāt | śiṣṭa-garhā-lakṣaṇaṃ tv aniṣṭam āsanna-phaladam atyasahyam ity āha akīrtim iti | bhūtāni devarṣi-manuṣyādīni te tavāvyayāṃ dīrgha-kālam akīrtiṃ na dharmātmāyaṃ na śūro 'yam ity evaṃ-rūpāṃ kathayiṣyanty anyonyaṃ kathā-prasaṅge | kīrti-dharma-nāśa-samuccayārthau nipātau | na kevalaṃ kīrti-dharmau hitvā pāpaṃ prāpsyasi api tu akīrtiṃ ca prāpsyasi | na kevalaṃ tvam eva tāṃ
prāpsyasi api tu bhūtāny api kathayiṣyantīti vā nipātayor arthaḥ |

nanu yuddhe sva-maraṇa-sandehāt tat-parihārārtham akīrtir api soḍhavyā ātma-rakṣaṇasyātyantāpekṣitatvāt | tathā coktaṃ śānti-parvaṇi[*ENDNOTE] --

sāmnā dānena bhedena samastair atha vā pṛthak |
vijetuṃ prayatetārīn na yuddhena kadā cana ||
anityo vijayo yasmād dṛśyate yudhyamānayoḥ |
parājayaś ca saṃgrāme tasmād yuddhaṃ vivarjayet ||
trayāṇām apy upāyānāṃ pūrvoktānām asaṃbhave |
tathā yudhyeta saṃpanno vijayeta ripūn yathā || [ManuS 7.198-200]

evam eva manunāpy uktam |

tathā ca maraṇa-bhītasya kim akīrti-duḥkham iti śaṅkām apanudati sambhāvitasya dharmātmā śūra ity evam ādibhir ananya-labhyair guṇair bahumatasya janasyākīrtir maraṇād apy atiricyate 'dhikā bhavati | co hetau | evaṃ yasmād ato 'kīrter maraṇam eva varaṃ nyūnatvāt | tvam apy atirsambhāvito 'si mahādevādi-samāgamena | ato nākīrti-duḥkhaṃ soḍhuṃ śakṣyasīty abhiprāyaḥ | udāhṛta-vacanaṃ tv artha-śāstratvāt na nivarteta saṅgrāmāt [Manu 7.88] ity ādi-dharma-śāstrād durbalam iti bhāvaḥ ||34||

viśvanāthaḥ : avyayām anaśvarām | saṃbhāvitasyātipratiṣṭhitasya ||34||

baladevaḥ : na kevalaṃ svadharmasya kīrteś ca kṣati-mātram | yuddhe samārabdhe 'rjunaḥ palāyata ity avyayāṃ śāśvatīm akīrtiṃ ca tava bhūtāni sarve lokāḥ kathayiṣyanti | nanu maraṇād bhītena mayā akīrtiḥ soḍhavyeti cet tatrāha sambhāvitasyātipratiṣṭhitasya | atiricyate adhikā bhavati | tathā ca tādṛśākīṛter maraṇam eva varam iti ||34||

bhayād raṇād uparataṃ maṃsyante tvāṃ mahārathāḥ |
yeṣāṃ ca tvaṃ bahumato bhūtvā yāsyasi lāghavam ||35||

śrīdharaḥ : kiṃ ca bhayād iti | yeṣāṃ bahu-guṇatvena tvaṃ pūrvaṃ sammato 'bhūs ta eva bhayāt saṃgrāmān nivṛttaṃ tvāṃ manyeran | tataś ca pūrvaṃ bahumato bhūtvā lāghavam laghutāṃ yāsyasi ||35||

madhusūdanaḥ :

viśvanāthaḥ : yeṣāṃ tvaṃ bahu-mato 'smac-chatrur arjunas tu mahāśūra iti bahu-saṃmāna-viṣayo bhūtvā samprati yuddhād uparame sati lāghavaṃ yāsyasi te duryodhanādayo mahārathās tvāṃ bhayād eva raṇād uparataṃ maṃsyanta ity anvayaḥ | kṣatriyāṇāṃ hi bhayaṃ vinā yuddhoparati-hetur bandhu-snehādiko nopapadyata iti matveti bhāvaḥ ||35||

baladevaḥ : nanu kula-kṣaya-doṣāt kāruṇyāc ca vinivṛttasya mama katham akīrtiḥ syād iti cet tatrāha bhayād iti | mahārathā duryodhanādayas tvāṃ karṇādi-bhayān na tu bandhu-kāruṇyād raṇād uparataṃ maṃsyante | na hi śūrasya śatru-bhayaṃ vinā bandhu-snehena yuddhād uparatir ity arthaḥ | itaḥ pūrvaṃ yeṣāṃ tvaṃ bahumataḥ śūro vairīti bahu-guṇavattayā saṃmato 'bhūr idānīṃ yuddhe samupasthite kātaro 'yaṃ vinivṛtta ity evaṃ tat-kṛtaṃ lāghavaṃ duḥsahaṃ yāsyasi ||35||

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BhG 2.36

avācya-vādāṃś ca bahūn vadiṣyanti tavāhitāḥ |
nindantas tava sāmarthyaṃ tato duḥkhataraṃ nu kim ||36||

śrīdharaḥ : kiṃ ca avācya-vādān iti | avācyān vādān vacanānarhān śabdān tava ahitāḥ tvac-chatravo vadiṣyanti ||36||

madhusūdanaḥ : nanu bhīṣmādayo mahārathā na bahu manyantāṃ duryodhanādayas tu śatravo bahu maṃsyante māṃ yuddha-nivṛttyā tad-upakāritvād ity ata āha avācyeti | tavāsādhāraṇaṃ yat sāmarthyaṃ loka-prasiddhaṃ tan nindantas tava śatravo duryodhanādayo 'vācyān vādān vacanān arhān ṣaṇḍha-tilādi-rūpān eva śabdān bahūn aneka-prakārān vadiṣyanti na tu bahu maṃsyanta ity abhiprāyaḥ | athavā tava sāmarthyaṃ stuti-yogyatvaṃ tava nindanto 'hitā avācya-vādān vadiṣyantīty anvayaḥ |

nanu bhīṣma-droṇādi-vadha-prayuktaṃ kaṣṭataraṃ duḥkham asahamāno yuddhān nivṛttaḥ śatru-kṛta-sāmarthya-nindanādi-duḥkhaṃ soḍhuṃ śakṣyāmīty ata āha tatas tasmān nindā-prāpti-duḥkhāt kiṃ tu duḥkhataraṃ tato 'dhikaṃ kim api duḥkhaṃ nāstīty arthaḥ ||36||

viśvanāthaḥ : avācya-vādān | klība ity ādi kaṭūktīḥ ||36||

baladevaḥ : kiṃ cāvācyeti | ahitāḥ śatravo dhārtarāṣṭrās tava sāmarthyaṃ pūrva-siddhaṃ parākramaṃ nindantaḥ bahūn avācya-vādān śaṇḍhatilādi-śabdān vadiṣyanti | tata evaṃvidhāvācya-vāda-śravaṇād atiśāyitaṃ kiṃ duḥkham asti | itthaṃ caite ṣaḍbhir yuddha-vairāgyasyāsvargatvam akīrti-karatvaṃ coktaṃ darśitam ||36||

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BhG 2.37

hato vā prāpsyasi svargaṃ jitvā vā bhokṣyase mahīm |
tasmād uttiṣṭha kaunteya yuddhāya kṛta-niścayaḥ ||37||

śrīdharaḥ : yad uktaṃ na caitad vidmaḥ [Gītā 2.6] iti tatrāha hato vety ādi | pakṣa-dvaye 'pi tava lābha evety arthaḥ ||37||

madhusūdanaḥ : nanu tarhi yuddhe gurv-ādi-vadha-vaśān madhyastha-kṛtā nindā tato nivṛttau tu śatru-kṛtā nindety ubhayataḥ pāśā rajjur ity āśaṅkya jaye parājaye ca lābha-dhrauvyād yuddhārtham evotthānam āvaśyakam ity āha hato veti | spaṣṭaṃ pūrvārdham | yasmād ubhayathāpi te lābhas tasmāj jeṣyāmi śatrūn mariṣyāmi veti kṛta-niścayaḥ san yuddhāyottiṣṭha | nayatara-phala-sandehe 'pi yuddha-kartavyatāyā niścitatvāt | etena na caitad vidmaḥ kataran no garīyaḥ [Gītā 2.6] ity ādi parihṛtam ||37||

viśvanāthaḥ : nanu yuddhe mama jaya eva bhāvīty api nāsti niścayaḥ | tataś ca kathaṃ yuddhe pravartitavyam ity ata āha hata iti ||37||

baladevaḥ : nanu yuddhe vijaya eva me syād iti niścayābhāvāt tato 'haṃ nivṛtto 'smīti cet tatrāha hato veti | pakṣa-dvaye 'pi te lābha eveti bhāvaḥ ||37||

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BhG 2.38

sukha-duḥkhe same kṛtvā lābhālābhau jayājayau |
tato yuddhāya yujyasva naivaṃ pāpam avāpsyasi ||38||

śrīdharaḥ : yad apy uktaṃ pāpam evāśrayed asmān [Gītā 1.36] iti tatrāha sukha-duḥkhe ity ādi | sukha-duḥkhe same kṛtvā | tathā tayoḥ kāraṇa-bhūtau lābhālābhāv api | tayor api kāraṇa-bhūtāu jayājayāv api samau kṛtvā | eteṣāṃ samatve kāraṇaṃ harṣa-viṣāda-rāhityam | yujyasva sannadho bhava | sukhādy-abhilāsaṃ hitvā svadharma-buddhyā yudhyamānaḥ pāpaṃ na prāpsyasīty arthaḥ ||38||

madhusūdanaḥ : nanv evaṃ svargam uddiśya yuddha-karaṇe tasya nityatva-vyāghātaḥ | rājyam uddiśya yuddha-karaṇe tv artha-śāstratvād dharma-śāstrāpekṣayā daurbalyaṃ syāt | tataś ca kāmyasyākaraṇe kutaḥ pāpaṃ dṛṣṭārthasya guru-brāhmaṇādi-vadhasya kuto dharmatvaṃ, tathā cātha ced iti ślokārtho vyāhata iti cet tatrāha sukha-duḥkhe iti |

samatā-karaṇaṃ rāga-dveṣa-rāhityam | sukhe tat-kāraṇe lābhe tat-kāraṇe lābhe tat-kāraṇe jaye ca rāgam akṛtvā, evaṃ duḥkhe tad-dhetāv alābhe tad-dhetāv ajaye ca dveṣam akṛtvā tato yuddhāya yujyasva sannadhau bhava | evaṃ sukha-kāmanāṃ duḥkha-nivṛtti-kāmanāṃ vā vihāya svadharma-buddhyā yudhyamāno guru-brāhmaṇādi-vadha-nimittaṃ nitya-karmākaraṇa-nimittaṃ ca pāpaṃ na prāpsyasi | yas tu phala-kāmanayā karoti sa guru-brāhmaṇādi-vadha-nimittaṃ pāpaṃ prāpnoti yo vā na karoti sa nitya-karmākaraṇa-nimittam | ataḥ phala-kāmanām antareṇa kurvann ubhaya-vidham api pāpaṃ na prāpnotīti prāg eva vyākhyāto 'bhiprāyaḥ | hato vā prāpsyasi svargaṃ
jitvā vā bhokṣyase mahīm [Gītā 2.37] iti svānuṣaṅgika-phala-kathanam iti na doṣaḥ | tathā ca āpastambaḥ smarati - tad yathāmre phalārthe nimitte chāyā-gandhāvanūtpadyete evaṃ dharmaṃ caryamāṇam arthā anūtpadyante no ced anūtpadyante na dharma-hānir bhavati iti | ato yuddha-śāstrasyārtha-śāstratvābhāvāt pāpam evāśrayed asmān [Gītā 1.36] ity ādi nirākṛtaṃ bhavati ||38||

viśvanāthaḥ : tasmāt tava sarvathā yuddham eva dharmas tad api yad imaṃ pāpa-kāraṇam āśaṅkase, tarhi mattaḥ pāpānutpatti-prakāraṃ śikṣitvā yudhyasvety āha sukha-duḥkhe same kṛtvā | tad-dhetur lābhālābhau rājya-lābha-rāja-cyūtī api | tad-dhetur jayājayāv api samau kṛtvā vivekena tulyau vibhāvety arthaḥ | tataś caivaṃ-bhūta-sāmya-lakṣaṇe jñānavatas tava pāpaṃ naiva bhavet | yad vakṣyate lipyate na sa pāpena padma-patram ivāmbhasā [Gītā 5.10] iti ||38||

baladevaḥ : nanu atha cet tvam ity ādi-padyārtho vyāhṛtaḥ | rājyādy-uddeśena kṛtasya yuddhasya guru-viprādi-vināśa-hetutvena pāpotpādakatvād iti cen mumukṣu-vartmanā yuddhamānasya tava tad-vināśa-hetukaṃ pāpaṃ na syād ity āha sukheti | sāmya-karaṇam iha tatra tatra nirvikāratvaṃ bodhyam | sukhe tad-dhetau jaye ca rāgam akṛtvā duḥkhe tad-dhetāv alābhe tad-dhetau parājaye ca dveṣam akṛtvā tatra tatra nirvikāra-cittaḥ san tato yuddhāya yujyasva | kevala-svadharma-dhiyā yoddhum udyukto bhavety arthaḥ | evaṃ mumukṣu-rītyā yoddhā tvaṃ pāpaṃ tad-vināśa-hetukaṃ nāvāpsyasi | phalecchuḥ san yo yudhyate sa tat-pāpaṃ vindati | vijñānārthī tu purātanam ananta-pāpam
apanudatīty arthaḥ |

nanu phala-rāgaṃ vinā duṣkare yuddha-dānādau kathaṃ pravṛttir iti ced anantātmānanda-rāgaṃ tatra pravartakaṃ gṛhāṇa rājyādy-anurāgam iva bhṛgu-pāte ||38||

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BhG 2.39

eṣā te 'bhihitā sāṃkhye buddhir yoge tv imāṃ śṛṇu |
buddhyā yukto yayā pārtha karmabandhaṃ prahāsyasi ||39||

śrīdharaḥ : upadiṣṭaṃ jñāna-yogam upasaṃharaṃs tat-sādhanaṃ karma-yogaṃ prastauti eṣety ādi | samyak khyāyate prakāśyate vastu-tattvam anayeti saṅkhyā samyak jñānam | tasyāṃ prakāśamānam ātma-tattvaṃ sāṅkhyam | tasmin karaṇīyā buddhir eṣā tavābhihitā | evam abhihitāyām api tava ced ātma-tattvam aparokṣaṃ na bhavati tarhy antaḥkaraṇa-śuddhi-dvārā ātma-tattvāparokṣārthaṃ karma-yoga tv imāṃ buddhiṃ śṛṇu | yayā buddhyā yuktaḥ parameśvarārpita-karma-yogena śuddhāntaḥkaraṇaḥ san tat-prasāda-labdhāparokṣa-jñānena karmātmakaṃ bandhaṃ prakarṣeṇa
hāsyasi tyakṣyasi ||39||

madhusūdanaḥ : nanu bhavatu svadharma-buddhyā yudhyamānasya pāpābhāvaḥ, tathāpi na māṃ prati yuddha-kartavyatopadeśas tavocitaḥ | ya enaṃ vetti hantāraṃ [Gītā 2.19] ity ādinā kathaṃ sa puruṣaḥ pārtha kaṃ ghātayati hanti kam [Gītā 2.21] ity antena viduṣaḥ sarva-karma-pratikṣepāt | na hy akartr-bhoktṛ-śuddha-svarūpo 'ham asmi yuddhaṃ kṛtvā tat-phalaṃ bhokṣya iti ca jñānaṃ sambhavati virodhāt | jñāna-karmaṇoḥ samuccayāsambhavāt prakāśa-tamasor iva | ayaṃ cārjunābhiprāyo jyāyasī ced ity atra vyakto bhaviṣyati | tasmād ekam eva māṃ prati jñānasya karmaṇaś copadeśo nopapadyata iti cet, na | vidvad-avidvad-avasthā-bhedena
jñāna-karmopadeśopapatter ity āha bhagavān eṣeti |

eṣā na tv evāham ity ādy-eka-viṃśati-ślokais te tubhyam abhihitā sāṅkhye samyak khyāyate sarvopādhi-śūnyatayā pratipādyate paramātma-tattvam anayeti saṅkhyopaniṣat tayaiva tāparya-parisamāptyā pratipādyate yaḥ sa sāṅkhya aupaniṣadaḥ puruṣa ity arthaḥ | tasmin buddhis tan-mātra-viṣayaṃ jñānaṃ sarvānartha-nivṛtti-kāraṇaṃ tvāṃ prati mayoktaṃ naitādṛśa-jñānavataḥ kvacid api karmocyate | tasya kāryaṃ na vidyata iti vakṣyamāṇatvāt |

yadi punar evaṃ mayokte 'pi tavaiṣā buddhir nodeti citta-doṣāt, tadā tad-apanayenātma-tattva-sākṣātkārāya karma-yoga eva tvayānuṣṭheyaḥ | tasmin yoge karma-yoge tu karaṇīyām imāṃ sukha-duḥkhe same kṛtvā ity atroktāṃ phalābhisandhi-tyāga-lakṣaṇāṃ buddhiṃ vistareṇa mayā vakṣyamāṇāṃ śṛṇu | tu-śabdaḥ pūrva-buddher yoga-viṣayatva-vyatireka-sūcanārthaḥ | tathā ca śuddhāntaḥ-karaṇaṃ prati jñānopadeśo 'śuddhāntaḥ-karaṇaṃ prati karmopadeśa iti kutaḥ samuccaya-śaṅkayā virodhāvakāśa ity abhiprāyaḥ |
yoga-viṣayāṃ buddhiṃ phala-kathanena stauti - yathā vyavasāyātmikayā buddhyā karmasu yuktas tvaṃ karma-nimittaṃ bandha-nāśāyāśuddhi-lakṣaṇaṃ jñāna-pratibandhaṃ prakarṣeṇa punaḥ pratibandhānutpatti-rūpeṇa hāsyasi tyakṣyasi | ayaṃ bhāvaḥ - karma-nimitto jñāna-pratibandhaḥ karmaṇaiva dharmākhyenāpanetuṃ śakyate dharmeṇa pāpam apanudati [Mahānā 13.6] iti śruteḥ | śravaṇādi-lakṣaṇo vicāras tu karmātmaka-pratibandha-rahitasyāsambhāvanādi-pratibandhaṃ dṛṣṭa-dvāreṇāpanayatīti na karma-bandha-nirākaraṇāyopadeṣṭuṃ śakyate | ato 'tyanta-malināntaḥ-karaṇatvād bahir aṅga-sādhanaṃ
karmaiva tvayānuṣṭheyaṃ, nādhunā śravaṇādi-yogyatāpi tava jātā | dūre tu jñāna-yogyateti | tathā ca vakṣyati - karmaṇy evādhikāras te [Gītā 2.47] iti | etena sāṅkhya-buddher antaraṅga-sādhanaṃ śravaṇādi vihāya bahiraṅga-sādhanaṃ karmaiva bhagavatā kim ity arjunāyopadiśyata iti nirastam | karma-bandhaṃ saṃsāram īśvara-prasāda-nimitta-jñāna-prāptyā prahāsyasīti prācāṃ vyākhyāne tv adhyāhāra-doṣaḥ karma-pada-vaiyarthyaṃ ca parihartavyam ||39||

viśvanāthaḥ : upadiṣṭaṃ jñāna-yogam upasaṃharati eṣeti | samyak khyāyate prakāśyate vastu-tattvam aneneti sāṅkhyaṃ samyak jñānam | tasmin karaṇīyā buddhir eṣa kathitā | adhunā yoge bhakti-yoge imāṃ vakṣyamāṇāṃ buddhiṃ karaṇīyāṃ śṛṇu, yayā bhakti-viṣayiṇyā buddhyā yuktaḥ sahitaḥ | karma-bandhaṃ saṃsāram ||39||

baladevaḥ : uktaṃ jñāna-yogam upasaṃharan tad-upāyaṃ niṣkāma-karma-yogaṃ vaktum ārabhate eṣeti | saṅkhyopaniṣat samyak khyāyate nirūpyate tattvam anayā iti nirukteḥ | tayā pratipādyam ātma-yāthātmyaṃ sāṅkhyam | śaiṣikān tasmin kartavyaiṣā buddhis tavābhihitā | ne tv evāhaṃ ity ādinā tasmāt sarvāṇi bhūtāni ity antena | sā cet tava citta-tad-doṣān nābhyudeti tarhi yoge tam etaṃ vedānuvacanena brāhmaṇā vividiṣanti yajñena dānena tapasā nāśakena ity ādi śruty-uktāntargata-jñāne niṣkāma-karma-yoge kartavyām imāṃ vakṣyamāṇāṃ buddhiṃ śṛṇu | phaloktyā tāṃ stauti yayeti | karmāṇi
kurvāṇas tvaṃ bhagavad-ājñayā mahā-prayāsāni karmāṇi kurvaṃs tat-tad-uddeśa-mahimnā tvad-antar-abhyuditayātma-jñāna-niṣṭhayā saṃsāraṃ tariṣyasīti | paśu-putra-rājyādi-phalakaṃ karma sa-kāmaṃ jñāna-phalakaṃ tu tan-niṣkāmam iti śāstre 'smin paribhāṣyate ||39||

__________________________________________________________

BhG 2.40

nehābhikrama-nāśo 'sti pratyavāyo na vidyate |
svalpam apy asya dharmasya trāyate mahato bhayāt ||40||

śrīdharaḥ : nanu kṛṣyādivat karmaṇāṃ kadācid vighna-bāhulyena phale vyabhicārāt mantrādy-aṅga-vaiguṇyena ca pratyavāya-sambhavaāt kutaḥ karma-yogena karma-bandha-prahāṇam | tatrāha nehety ādi | iha niṣkāma-karma-yoge abhikramasya prārambhasya nāśo niṣphalatvaṃ nāsti | pratyavāyaś ca na vidyate | īśvaroddeśenaiva vighna-vaiguṇyādy-asambhavāt | kiṃ cāsya dharmasya īśvarārādhanārtha-karma-yogasya svalpam apy upakrama-mātram api kṛtaṃ mahato bhayāt saṃsāra-lakṣaṇāt trāyate rakṣati | na tu kāmya-karmavat kiñcid aṅga-vaikguṇyādinā naiṣphalyam asyety arthaḥ ||40||

madhusūdanaḥ : nanu tam etaṃ vedānuvacanena brāhmaṇā vividiṣanti yajñena dānena tapasānāśakena [BAU 4.4.22] iti śrutyā vividiṣāṃ jñānaṃ coddiśya saṃyoga-pṛthaktva-nyāyena sarva-karmaṇāṃ viniyogāt tatra cāntaḥ-karaṇa-śuddher dvāratvān māṃ prati karmānuṣṭhānaṃ vidhīyate | tatra tad yatheha karma-jito lokaḥ kṣīyata evam evāmutra puṇya-jito lokaḥ kṣīyate [Chā 8.1.6] iti śruti-bodhitasya phala-nāśasya sambhāvāj jñānaṃ vividiṣāṃ coddiśya kriyamāṇasya yajñādeḥ kāmyatvāt sarvāṅgopasaṃhāreṇānuṣṭheyasya yat kiṃcid aṅgāsampattāv api vaiguṇyāpatter yajñenety ādi-vākya-vihitānāṃ
ca sarveṣāṃ karmaṇām ekena puruṣāyuṣa-paryavasāne 'pi kartum aśakyatvāt kutaḥ karma-bandhaṃ prahāsyasīti-phalaṃ pratyāśety ata āha bhagavān neheti |

abhikramyate karmaṇā prārabhyate yat phalaṃ so 'bhikramas tasya nāśas tad yathehety ādinā pratipādita iha niṣkāma-karma-yoge nāsti | etat-phalasya śuddheḥ pāpa-kṣaya-rūpatvena loka-śabda-vācya-bhogyatvābhāvena ca kṣayāsambhavāt | vedana-paryantāyā eva vividiṣāyāḥ karma-phalatvād vedanasya cāvyavadhānenājñāna-nivṛtti-phala-janakasya phalam ajanayitvā nāśāsambhavād iha phala-nāśo nāstīti sādhūktam | tad uktaṃ -

tad yatheheti yā nindā sā phale na tu karmaṇi |
phalecchāṃ tu parityajya kṛtaṃ karma viśuddhi-kṛt || iti |

tathā pratyavāyo 'ṅga-vaiguṇya-nibandhanaṃ vaiguṇyam iha na vidyate tam iti vākyena nityānām evopātta-durita-kṣaya-dvāreṇa vividiṣāyāṃ viniyogāt | tatra ca sarvāṅgopasaṃhāra-niyamābhāvāt | kāmyānām api saṃyoga-pṛthaktva-nyāyena viniyoga iti pakṣe 'pi phalābhisandhi-rahitatvena teṣāṃ nitya-tulyatvāt | nahi kāmya-nityāgnihotrayoḥ svataḥ kaścid viśeṣo 'sti | phalābhisandhi-tad-abhāṣābhyām eva tu kāmyatva-nityatva-vyapadeśaḥ | idaṃ ca pakṣa-dvayam uktaṃ vārtike -

vedānuvacanādīnām aikātmya-jñāna-janmane |
tam etam iti vākyena nityānāṃ vakṣyate vidhiḥ ||
yad vā vividiṣārthatvaṃ kāmyānām api karmaṇām |
tam etam iti vākyena saṃyogasya pṛthaktvataḥ || iti |

tathā ca phalābhisandhinā kriyamāṇa eva karmaṇi sarvāṅgopa-saṃhāra-niyamāt tad-vilakṣaṇe śuddhy-arthe karmaṇi pratinidhyādinā samāpti-sambhavān nāṅga-vaiguṇya-nimittaḥ pratyavāyo 'stīty arthaḥ | tathāsya śuddhy-arthasya dharmasya tam etam ity ādi-vākya-vihitasya madhye svalpam api saṅkhyayetikartavyatayā vā yathā-śakti-bhagavad-ārādhanārthaṃ kiṃcid apy anuṣṭhitaṃ san mahataḥ saṃsāra-bhayāt trāyate bhagavat-prasāda-sampādanenānuṣṭhātāraṃ rakṣati |

sarva-pāpa-prasakto 'pi dhyāyan nimiṣam acyutam |
bhūyas tapasvī bhavati paṅki-pāvana-pāvanaḥ || ity ādi smṛteḥ |

tam etam iti vākye samuccaya-vidhāyakābhāvāc cāśuddhi-tāratamyād evānuṣṭhāna-tāratamyopapatter yuktam uktaṃ karma-bandhaṃ prahāsyasi ||40||

viśvanāthaḥ : atra yogo dvividhaḥ śravaṇa-kīrtanādi-bhakti-rūpaḥ, śrī-bhagavad-arpita-niṣkāma-karma-rūpaś ca | tatra karmaṇy evādhikāraḥ ity ataḥ prāg bhakti-yoga eva nirūpyate | nistraiguṇyo bhavārjuna ity ukter bhakter eve triguṇātītatvāt tayaiva puruṣo nistraiguṇyo bhavatīty ekādaśa-skandhe[*ENDNOTE] prasiddheḥ | jñāna-karmaṇos tu sāttvikatva-rājasatvābhyāṃ nistraiguṇyatvānupapatter bhagavad-arpita-lakṣaṇā bhaktis tu karmaṇo vaiphalyābhāva-mātraṃ pratipādayati, na tu svasya bhakti-vyapadeśaṃ prādhānyābhāvād eva | yadi ca bhagavad-arpitaṃ karmāpi bhaktir eveti mataṃ, tadā karma kiṃ syāt ? yad-bhagavad-anarpita-karma, tad eva karmeti cen, na |

naiṣkarmyam apy acyuta-bhāva-varjitaṃ
na śobhate jñānam alaṃ nirañjanam |
kutaḥ punaḥ śaśvad abhadram īśvare
na cārpitaṃ karma yad apy akāraṇam || [BhP 1.5.12]

iti nāradoktyā tasya vaiyarthya-pratipādanāt | tasmād atra bhagvac-caraṇa-mādhurya-prāpti-sādhanībhūtā kevala-śravaṇa-kīrtanādi-lakṣaṇaiva bhaktir nirūpyate, yathā niṣkāma-karma-yoga 'pi nirūpayitavyaḥ | ubhāv apy etau buddhi-yoga-śabda-vācyau jñeyau - dadāmi buddhi-yogaṃ taṃ yena mām upayānti te [10.10], dūreṇa hy avaraṃ karma buddhi-yogād dhanañjaya [2.49] iti cokteḥ |

atha nirguṇa-śravaṇa-kīrtanādi-bhakti-yogasya māhātmyam āha neheti | iha bhakti-yoge 'bhikrame ārambha-mātre kṛte 'py asya bhaktiyogasya nāśo nāsti | tataḥ pratyavāyaś ca na syāt | yathā karma-yoge ārambhaṃ kṛtvā karmānuṣṭhitavataḥ karma-nāśa-pratyavāyau syātām iti bhāvaḥ |

nanu tarhi tasya bhakty-anuṣṭhātu-kāmasya samucita-bhakty-akaraṇāt bhakti-phalaṃ tu naiva syāt | tatrāha svalpam iti | asya dharmasya svalpam apy ārambha-samaye yā kiñcin-mātrī bhaktir abhūt | sāpīty arthaḥ | mahato bhayāt saṃsārāt trāyata eva | yan-nāma sakṛc-chravaṇāt pukkaśo 'pi vimucyate saṃsārād ity [BhP 6.16.44] ādi-śravaṇāt | ajāmilādau tathā darśanāc ca |

na hy aṅgopakrame dhvaṃso
mad-dharmasyoddhavāṇv api |
mayā vyavasitaḥ samyaṅ
nirguṇatvād anāśiṣaḥ || [BhP 11.29.20]

iti bhagavato vākyena sahāsya-vākyasyaikārtham eva dṛśyate | kintu tatra nirguṇatvān na hi guṇātītaṃ vastu kadācid dhvastaṃ bhavatīti hetur upanyastaḥ | sa cehāpi draṣṭavyaḥ | na ca niṣkāma-karmaṇo 'pi bhagavad-arpaṇa-mahimnā nirguṇatvam eveti vācyam - mad-arpaṇaṃ niṣphalaṃ vā sāttvikaṃ nija-karma tat [BhP 11.25.23] ||40||

baladevaḥ : vakṣyamāṇayā buddhyā yuktaṃ karma-yogaṃ stauti neheti | iha tam etam ity ādi vākyokteḥ niṣkāma-karma-yoge 'bhikramasyārambhasya phalotpādakatva-nāśo nāsti | ārambhasyāsamāptasya vaiphalyaṃ na bhavatīty arthaḥ | mantrādy-aṅga-vaikalye ca pratyavāyo na vidyate | ātmoddeśa-mahimnā oṃ tat sat iti bhagavan-nāmnā ca tasya vināśāt | iha bhagavad-arpitasya niṣāma-karma-lakṣaṇa-dharmasya kiñcid apy anuṣṭhitaṃ san mahato bhayāt saṃsārāt trāyate anuṣṭhātāraṃ rakṣati | vakṣyati caivaṃ pārtha naiveha nāmutra [Gītā 6.40] ity ādinā | kāmya-karmāṇi sarvāṅgopasaṃhāreṇānuṣṭhitāny ukta-phalāya
kalpante | mantrādy-aṅga-vaikalye tu pratyavāyaṃ janayantīti | niṣkāma-karmāṇi tu yathā-śakty-anuṣṭhitāni jñāna-niṣṭhā-lakṣaṇaṃ phalaṃ janayanty evokta-hetutaḥ pratyavāyaṃ noptādayantīti ||40||

__________________________________________________________

BhG 2.41

vyavasāyātmikā buddhir ekeha kuru-nandana |
bahu-śākhā hy anantāś ca buddhayo 'vyavasāyinām ||41||

śrīdharaḥ : kuta ity apekṣāyām ubhayor vaiṣamyam āha vyavasāyātmiketi | iha īśvarārādhana-lakṣaṇe karma-yoge vyavasāyātmikā parameśvara-bhaktyaiva dhruvaṃ tariṣyāmīti niścayātmikā ekaiva ekaniṣṭhaiva buddhir bhavati | avyavasāyināṃ tu īśvarārādhana-bahirmukhānāṃ kāmināṃ kāmānām ānantyāt anantāḥ | tatrāpi hi karma-phala-guṇa-phalatvādi-prakāra-bhedād bahu-śākhāś ca buddhayo bhavanti | īśvarārādhanārthaṃ hi nityaṃ naimittikaṃ ca karma kiñcid aṅga-vaiguṇye 'pi na naśyati | yathā śaknuyāt tathā kuryād iti hi tad vidhīyate | na ca vaiguṇyam api | īśvaroddeśenaiva vaiguṇyopaśamāt | na tu tathā kāmyaṃ karma | ato mahad vaiṣamyam iti bhāvaḥ
||41||

madhusūdanaḥ : etad-upapādanāya tam etam iti vākya-vihitānām ekārthatvam āha vyavasāyātmiketi | he kurunandaneha śreyo-mārge tam etam iti vākye vā vyavasāyātmikātma-tattva-niścayātmikā buddhir ekaiva caturṇām āśramāṇāṃ sādhyā vivakṣitā vedānuvacanena ity ādau tṛtīyā-vibhaktyā pratyekaṃ nirapekṣa-sādhanatva-bodhanāt | bhinnārthatve hi samuccayaḥ syāt | ekārthatve 'pi darśa-pūrṇamāsābhyām itivad dvandva-samāsena yad agnaye ca prajāpataye cetivac ca-śabdena na tathātra kiṃcit pramāṇam astīty arthaḥ | sāṅkhya-viṣayā yoga-viṣayā ca buddhir eka-phalatvād ekā vyavasāyātmikā sarva-viparīta-buddhīnāṃ bādhikā nirdoṣa-veda-vākya-samutthatvād itarās tv avyavasāyināṃ buddhayo bādhyā ity artha iti
bhāṣya-kṛtaḥ | anye tu parameśvarārādhanenaiva saṃsāraṃ tariṣyāmīti niścayātmikaika-niṣṭhaiva buddhir iha karma-yoge bhavatīty artham āhuḥ | sarvathāpi tu jñāna-kāṇḍānusāreṇa svalpam apy asya dharmasya trāyate mahato bhayāt ity upapannam | karma-kāṇḍe punar bahu-śākhā aneka-bhedāḥ kāmānām aneka-bhedatvāt | anantāś ca karma-phala-guṇa-phalādi-prakāropaśākhā-bhedāt, buddhayo bhavanty avyavasāyināṃ tat-tat-phala-kāmānām | buddhīnām ānantya-prasiddhi-dyotanārtho hi-śabdaḥ | ataḥ kāmya-karmāpekṣayā mahad-vailakṣaṇya-śuddhy-artha-karmaṇām ity abhiprāyaḥ ||41||

viśvanāthaḥ : kiṃ ca sarvābhyo 'pi buddhibhyo bhakti-yoga-viṣayiṇy eva buddhir uktṛṣṭety āha vyavasāyeti | iha bhakti-yoge vyavasāyātmikā buddhir ekaiva | mama śrīmad-gurūpadiṣṭaṃ bhagavat-kīrtana-smaraṇa-caraṇa-paricarṇādikam etad eva mama sādhanam etad eva mama sādhyam etad eva mama jīvātuḥ sādhana-sādhya-daśayos tyaktum aśakyam etad eva me kāmyam etad eva me kāryam etad anyan na me kāryaṃ nāpy abhilaṣaṇīyaṃ svapne 'pīty atra sukham astu duḥkhaṃ vāstu saṃsāro naśyatu vā na naśyatu | tatra mama kāpi na kṣatir ity evaṃ niścayātmikā buddhir akaitava-bhaktāv eva sambhavet | tad uktaṃ - tato bhajeta māṃ bhaktyā śraddhālur dṛḍha-niścayaḥ
[BhP 11.20.28] iti |

tato 'nyatra naiva buddhir ekety āha bahv iti | bahavaḥ śākhā yāsāṃ tāḥ | tathā hi karma-yoge kāmānām ānantyād buddhayo 'nantāḥ | tathaiva jñāna-yoge prathamam antaḥkaraṇa-śuddhy-arthaṃ niṣkāma-karmaṇi buddhis tatas tasmin śuddhe sati karma-saṃnyāse buddhiḥ | tadā jñāne buddhiḥ | jñāna-vaiphalyābhāvārthaṃ bhaktau buddhiḥ jñānaṃ ca mayi saṃnyaset iti bhagavad-ukter jñāna-saṃnyāse ca bhaktau buddhir iti buddhayo 'nantāḥ | karma-jñāna-bhaktīnām avaśyānuṣṭheyatvāt tat-tac-chākhā apy anantāḥ ||41||

baladevaḥ : kāmya-karma-viṣayaka-buddhito niṣkāma-karma-viṣayaka-buddher vaiśiṣṭyam āha vyavasāyeti | he kurunandana iha vaidikeṣu sarveṣu karmasu vyavasāyātmikā bhagavad-arcana-rūpair niṣkāma-karmabhir viśuddha-citto viṣorṇādivat tad-antargatena jñānenātma-yāthātmyam aham anubhaviṣyāmīti niścaya-rūpā buddhir ekā ekav-viṣayatvāt | ekasmai tad-anubhavāya teṣāṃ vihitatvād iti yāvat | avyavasāyinām kāmya-karmānuṣṭhātṝṇāṃ tu buddhayo hy anantāḥ | paśv-anna-putra-svargādy-ananta-kāma-viṣayatvāt | tatrāpi bahu-śākhāḥ | eka-phalake 'pi darśa-paurṇamāsādāv āyuḥ suprajastādy-avāntarāneka-phalāśaṃsā-śravaṇāt
| atra hi dehātiriktātma-jñāna-mātram apekṣate na tūktātma-yāthātmyaṃ tan niścaye kāmya-karmasu pravṛtter asambhavāt ||41||

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BhG 2.42-44

yām imāṃ puṣpitāṃ vācaṃ pravadanty avipaścitaḥ |
veda-vāda-ratāḥ pārtha nānyad astīti vādinaḥ ||42||
kāmātmānaḥ svarga-parā janma-karma-phala-pradām |
kriyā-viśeṣa-bahulāṃ bhogaiśvarya-gatiṃ prati ||43||
bhogaiśvarya-prasaktānāṃ tayāpahṛta-cetasām |
vyavasāyātmikā buddhiḥ samādhau na vidhīyate ||44||

śrīdharaḥ : nanu kāmino 'pi kaṣṭān kāmān vihāya vyavasāyātmikām eva buddhiṃ kim iti na kurvanti | tatrāha yām imām ity ādi | yām imāṃ puṣpitāṃ viṣa-latāvad āpāta-ramaṇīyāṃ prakṛṣṭāṃ paramārtha-phala-parām eva vadanti vācaṃ svargādi-phala-śrutim | teṣāṃ tayā vācā 'pahṛta-cetasāṃ vyavasāyātmikā buddhiḥ samādhau na vidhīyate iti tṛtīyenānvayaḥ | kim iti tathā vadanti | yato 'vipaścito mūḍhāḥ | tatra hetuḥ veda-vāda-ratā iti | vede ye vādā artha-vādāḥ | akṣayyaṃ ha vai cāturmāsya-yājinaḥ sukṛtaṃ bhavati | tathā, apāṃ somam amṛtā ambhūma ity ādyāḥ
| teṣv eva ratāḥ prītāḥ | ataevātaḥparam anyad īśvara-tattvaṃ prāpyaṃ nāstīti-vadana-śīlāḥ ||42||

ataeva kāmātmāna iti | kāmātmānaḥ kāmākulita-cittāḥ | ataḥ svarga eva paraḥ puruṣārtho yeṣāṃ te | janma ca tatra karmāṇi ca tat-phalāni ca pradadātīti tathā | tāṃ bhogaiśvaryayor gatiṃ prāptiṃ prati sādhana-bhūtā ye kriyā-viśeṣās te bahulā yasyāṃ tāṃ pravadantīty anuṣaṅgaḥ ||43||

tataś ca bhogaiśvarya-prasaktānām ity ādi | bhogaiśvaryayoḥ prasaktānām abhiniviṣṭānāṃ tayā puṣpitayā vācāpahṛtam ākṛṣṭaṃ ceto yeṣām teṣām | samādhiś cittaikāgryam | parameśvarābhimukhatvam iti yāvat | tasmin niścayātmikā buddhis tu na vidhīyate | karma-kartari prayogaḥ | sā notpadyata iti bhāvaḥ ||44||

madhusūdanaḥ : avyavasayinām api vyavasāyātmikā buddhiḥ kuto na bhavati pramāṇasya tulyatvād ity āśaṅkya pratibandhaka-sad-bhāvān na bhavatīty āha yām imām iti tribhiḥ | kuta evam ata āha bhogaiśvarya-gatiṃ prati kriyā-viśeṣa-bahulām amṛta-pānorvaśī-vihāra-pārijāta-parimalādi-nibandhano yo bhogas tat-kāraṇaṃ ca yad aiśvaryaṃ devādi-svāmitvaṃ tayor gatiṃ prāptiṃ prati sādhana-bhūtā ye kriyā-viśeṣā agnihotra-darśa-pūrṇamāsa-jyotiṣṭomādayas tair bahulāṃ vistṛtām atibāhulyena bhogaiśvarya-sādhana-kriyā-kalāpa-pratipādikām iti yāvat | karma-kāṇḍasya hi jñāna-kāṇḍāpekṣayā sarvatrātivistṛtatvaṃ prasiddham | etādṛśīṃ karma-kāṇḍa-lakṣaṇāṃ
vācaṃ pravadanti prakṛṣṭāṃ paramārtha-svargādi-phalām abhyupagacchanti |

ke ye 'vipaścito vicāra-janya-tātparya-parijñāna-śūnyāḥ | ataeva veda-vāda-ratā vede ye santi vādā artha-vādāḥ akṣayyaṃ ha vai cāturmāsya-yājinaḥ sukṛtaṃ bhavati ity evam ādayas teṣv eva ratā vedārtha-satyatvenaivam evaitad iti mithyā-viśvāsena santuṣṭāḥ | he pārtha ! ataeva nānyad astīti-vādinaḥ karma-kāṇḍāpekṣayā nāsty anyaj jñāna-kāṇḍaṃ sarvasyāpi vedasya kārya-paratvāt | karma-phalāpekṣayā ca nāsty anyan niratiśayaṃ jñāna-phalam iti vadana-śīlā mahatā prabandhena jñāna-kāṇḍa-viruddhārtha-bhāṣiṇa ity arthaḥ | kuto mokṣa-dveṣiṇyas te ? yataḥ kāmātmānaḥ kāmyamāna-viṣaya-śatākula-cittatvena
kāma-mayāḥ | evaṃ sati mokṣam api kuto na kāmayante ? yataḥ svarga-parāḥ svarga evorvaśy-ādy-apetatvena para utkṛṣṭo yeṣāṃ te tathā | svargātiriktaḥ puruṣārtho nāstīti bhrāmyanto viveka-vairāgyābhāvān mokṣa-kathām api soḍhum akṣamā iti yāvat |

teṣāṃ ca pūrvokta-bhogaiśvaryayoḥ prasaktānāṃ kṣayitvādi-doṣādarśanena niviṣṭāntaḥ-karaṇānāṃ tayā kriyā-viśeṣa-bhulayā vācāpahṛtam ācchāditaṃ ceto viveka-jñānaṃ yeṣāṃ tathā-bhūtānām artha-vādāḥ stuty-arthās tātparya-viṣaye pramāṇāntarābādhite vedasya prāmāṇyam iti suprasiddham api jñātum aśaktānāṃ samādhāv antaḥ-karaṇe vayavasāyātmikā buddhir na vidhīyate na bhavatīty arthaḥ | samādhi-viṣayā vyavasāyātmikā buddhis teṣāṃ na bhavatīti vā adhikaraṇe viṣaye vā sapatamyās tulyatvāt | vidhīyata iti karma-kartari la-kāraḥ | samādhīyate 'smin sarvam
iti vyutpattyā samādhir antaḥ-karaṇaṃ vā paramātmā veti nāprasiddhārtha-kalpanam | ahaṃ brahmety avasthānaṃ samādhis tan-nimittaṃ vyavasāyātmikā buddhir noptadyata iti vyākhyāne tu rūḍhir evādṛtā |

ayaṃ bhāvaḥ -- yadyapi kāmyāny agnihotrādīni śuddhy-arthebhyo na viśiṣyante tathāpi phalābhisandhi-doṣān nāśaya-śuddhiṃ sampādayanti | bhogānuguṇā tu śuddhir na jñānopayoginī | etad eva darśayituṃ bhogaiśvarya-prasaktānām iti punar upāttam | phalābhisandhim antareṇa tu kṛtāni jñānopayoginīṃ śuddhim ādadhatīti siddhaṃ vipaścid-avipaścitoḥ phala-vailakṣaṇyam | vistareṇa caitad agre pratipādayiṣyate ||42-44||

viśvanāthaḥ : tasmād avyavasāyinaḥ sakāma-karmiṇas tv atimandā ity āha yām imām iti | puṣpitāṃ vācaṃ puṣpitāṃ viphalatām ivāpātato ramaṇīyam | pravadanti prakarṣeṇa sarvataḥ prakṛṣṭā iyam eva veda-vāg iti ye vadanti, teṣāṃ tayā vācā apahṛta-cetasāṃ ca vyavasāyātmikā buddhir na vidhīyate iti tṛtīyenānvayaḥ | teṣu tasyā asambhavāt sā teṣu nopadiśyata ity arthaḥ | kim iti te tathā vadanti, yato 'vipaścito mūrkhāḥ | tatra hetuḥ vedeṣu ye 'rtha-vādāḥ - akṣayyaṃ vai cāturmāsya-yājinaḥ sukṛtaṃ bhavati, apāṃ somam amṛtā ambhūma ity ādyāḥ
| anyad īśvara-tattvaṃ nāstīti prajalpinas te kīdṛśīṃ vācaṃ pravadanti | janma-karma-phala-pradāyinīṃ bhogaiśvarya-gatiṃ prati ye kriyā-viśeṣās tān bahu yathā syāt tathā lāti dadāti pratipādayatīti tām ||42-43||

tataś ca bhogaiśvaryayoḥ prasaktānām tayā puṣpitayā vācā apahṛtam ākṛṣṭaṃ ceto yeṣām te | tathā teṣām samādhiś cittaikāgryam parameśvaraikonmukhatvaṃ tasmin niścayātmikā buddhir na vidhīyate | karma-kartari prayogaḥ | sā notpadyata iti bhāvaḥ iti svāmi-vacanaiḥ ||44||

baladevaḥ : nanv eṣāṃ vyavasāyātmikā buddhir bhavet śrutes taulyād iti cec citta-doṣān na bhaved ity āha yām iti tribhiḥ | avipaścito 'lpa-jñāḥ yām imāṃ jyotiṣṭomena svarga-kāmo yajetety ādikāṃ vācaṃ pravadanti iyam eva prakṛṣṭā vedavāg iti kalpayanti | tayā vācāpahṛta-cetasāṃ teṣāṃ samādhau manasi vyavasāyātmikā buddhir na vidhīyate nābhyudeti ity anuṣaṅgaḥ | kīdṛśīṃ vācam ity āha puṣpitām iti || kusumita-viṣa-latāvad āpāta-manojñāṃ niṣphalām ity arthaḥ | evaṃ kutas te vadanti tatrāha vedeti | vedeṣu ye vādāḥ apāṃ somam amṛtā
ambhūma, akṣayyaṃ ha vai cāturmāsya-yājinaḥ sukṛtaṃ bhavati ity ādayo 'rthavādās teṣv eva ratāḥ vedasya satya-bhāṣitvād evam evaitad iti pratītimantaḥ | ataeva nānyad iti karma-phalāt svargād anyat jīvāṃśi-paramārtha-jñānaṃ labhyaṃ mokṣa-lakṣaṇaṃ niratiśayaṃ nitya-sukhaṃ nāsti | tat-pratipādikānāṃ vedānta-vācāṃ karmāṅga-kartṛ-devatād ekatayā tac-cheṣatvād iti vadana-śīlā ity arthaḥ ||42||

citta-doṣam āha kāmātmānaḥ vaiṣayika-sukha-vāsanā-grasta-cittāḥ | evaṃ cet tādṛśaṃ mokṣaṃ kuto necchanti tatrāha svargeti | svarga eva sudhā devāṅganādy-upetatvena paraḥ śreṣṭho yeṣāṃ te | tādṛg-vāsanā-grastatvāt teṣāṃ nānyad bhāṣata ity arthaḥ | janma karmeti janma ca dehendriya-sambandha-laksaṇaṃ, tatra karma ca tat-tad-varṇāśrama-vihitaṃ, phalaṃ ca vināśi-paśv-anna-svargādi | tāni prakarṣeṇāvicchedena dadāti tāṃ bhogaiśvaryayor gatiṃ prāptiṃ prati ye kriyā-viśeṣā jyotiṣṭpmādayas te bahulāḥ pracurā yatra tāṃ vācaṃ
vadantīti pūrveṇānvayaḥ | bhogaḥ sudhā-pāna-devāṅganādiḥ, aiśvaryaṃ ca devādi-svāmitvaṃ tayor gatim ity arthaḥ ||43||

baladevaḥ : bhogeti teṣāṃ pūrvoktayor bhogaiśvaryayoḥ prasaktānāṃ kṣayitva-doṣāsphūrtyā tayor abhiniviṣṭānāṃ tayā puṣpitayā vācāpahṛtam viluptaṃ ceto viveka-jñānaṃ yeṣām tādṛśānāṃ samādhāv iti yo 'yam | samyag ādhīyate 'sminn ātma-tattva-yāthātmyam iti nirukteḥ samādhir manas tasminn ity arthaḥ ||44||

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BhG 2.45

traiguṇya-viṣayā vedā nistraiguṇyo bhavārjuna |
nirdvandvo nitya-sattva-stho niryoga-kṣema ātmavān ||45||

śrīdharaḥ : nanu svargādikaṃ paramaṃ phalaṃ yadi na bhavati, tarhi kim iti vedas tat-sādhanatayā karmāṇi vidhīyante | tatrāha traiguṇya-viṣayā iti | triguṇātmakāḥ sakāmā ye 'dhikāriṇas tad-viṣayās teṣāṃ karma-phala-sambandha-pratipādakā vedāḥ | tvaṃ tu nistraiguṇyo niṣkāmo bhava | tatropāyam āha - nirdvandvaḥ | sukha-duḥkha-śītoṣṇādi-yugalāni dvandvāni | tad-rahito bhava | tāni sahasvety arthaḥ | katham iti | ata āha nitya-sattva-sthaḥ san | dhryam avalambyety arthaḥ | tathā niryoga-kṣemaḥ | aprāpta-svīkāro yogaḥ, prāpta-pālanaṃ kṣemaḥ | tad-rahitaḥ
| ātmavān apramattaḥ | nahi dvandvākulasya yoga-kṣema-vyāpṛtasya ca pramādinas traiguṇyātikramaḥ sambhavatīti ||45||

madhusūdanaḥ : nanu sakāmānāṃ mā bhūd āśaya-doṣād vyavasāyātmikā buddhiḥ | niṣkāmānāṃ tu vyavasāyātmaka-buddhyā karma kurvatāṃ karma-svābhāvyāt svargādi-phala-prāptau jñāna-pratibandhaḥ samāna ity āśaṅkyāha traiguṇyeti | trayāṇāṃ guṇānāṃ karma traiguṇyaṃ kāma-mūlaḥ saṃsāraḥ | sa eva prakāśatvena viṣayo yeṣāṃ tādṛśā vedāḥ karma-kāṇḍātmakā yo yat-phala-kāmas tasyaiva tat-phalaṃ bodhayantīty arthaḥ | na hi saarvebhyaḥ kāmebhyo darśa-pūrṇamāsāv iti viniyoge 'pi sakṛd-anuṣṭhānāt sarva-phala-prāptir bhavati tat-tat-kāmanāvirahāt | yat-phala-kāmanayānutiṣṭhati
tad eva phalaṃ tasmin prayoga iti sthitaṃ yogasiddhy-adhikaraṇe | yasmād evaṃ kāmā-virahe phala-virahas tasmāt tvaṃ nistraiguṇyo niṣkāmo bhava | he arjuna ! etena karma-svābhāvyāt saṃsāro nirastaḥ |

nanu śītoṣṇādi-dvandva-pratīkārāya vastrādy-apekṣaṇāt kuto niṣkāmatvam ata āha nirdvandvaḥ | sarvatra bhaveti sambadhyate | mātrā-sparśās tv ity ukta-nyāyena śītoṣṇādi-dvandva-sahiṣṇur bhava | tasmiṃs tiṣṭhatīti tathā | rajas-tamobhyām abhibhūta-sattvo hi śītoṣṇādi-pīḍayā mariṣyāmīti manvāno dharmād vimukho bhavati | tvaṃ tu rajas tamasī abhibhūya sattva-mātrālambano bhava |

nanu śītoṣṇādi-sahane 'pi kṣut-pipāsādi-pratīkārārthaṃ kiṃcid anupāttam upādeyam upāttaṃ ca rakṣaṇīyam iti tad-arthaṃ yatne kriyamāṇe kutaḥ sattva-sthatvam ity ata āha niryoga-kṣemaḥ | alabdha-lābho yogaḥ, labdha-parirakṣaṇaṃ kṣemas, tad-rahito bhava | citta-vikṣepa-kāri-parigraha-rahito bhavety arthaḥ | na caivaṃ cintā kartavyā katham evaṃ sati jīviṣyāmīti | yataḥ sarvāntaryāmī parameśvara eva tava yoga-kṣemādi nirvāhayiṣyatīty āha ātmavān | ātmā paramātmā dhyeyatvena yoga-kṣemādi-nirvāhakatvena ca vartate yasya sa ātmavān | sarva-kāmanā-parityāgena parameśvaram
ārādhayato mama sa eva deha-yātrā-mātram apekṣitaṃ sampādayiṣyatīti niścitya niścinto bhavety arthaḥ | ātmavān apramatto bhaveti vā ||45||

viśvanāthaḥ : tvaṃ tu catur-varga-sādhanebhyo virajya kevalaṃ bhakti-yogam evāśrayasvety āha traiguṇyeti | traiguṇyās triguṇātmikāḥ karma-jñānādyāḥ prakāśyatvena viṣayā yeṣāṃ te traiguṇya-viṣayā vedāḥ svārthe ṣyañ, etac ca bhūmnā vyapadeśā bhavanti iti nyāyenoktam | kintu bhaktir evainaṃ nayati iti | yasya deve parā bhaktir yathā deve tathā gurau ity ādi śrutayaḥ | pañcarātrādi-smṛtayaś ca gītopaniṣad-gopāla-tāpanyādy-upaniṣadaś ca nirguṇāṃ bhaktim api viṣayīkurvanty eva vedoktatvābhāve bhakter aprāmāṇyam eva syāt | tataś ca vedoktā ye triguṇamayā jñāna-karma-vidhayas tebhya eva nirgato bhava tān na kuru | ye tu vedoktā bhakti-vidhayas tāṃs
tu sarvathaivānutiṣṭha | tad-anuṣṭhāne -

śruti-smṛti-purāṇādi-pāñcarātra-vidhiṃ vinā |
aikāntikī harer bhaktir utpātāyaiva kalpyate ||

iti doṣo durvāra eva | tena sa-guṇānāṃ guṇātītānām api, vedānā-viṣayās traiguṇyā nistraiguṇyāś ca | tatra tvaṃ tu nistraiguṇyo bhava | nirguṇayā mad-bhaktyaiva triguṇātmakebhyas tebhyo niṣkrānto bhava | tata eva nirdvandvo guṇamaya-mānāpamānādi-rahitaḥ | ataeva nityaiḥ sattvaiḥ prāṇibhir mad-bhaktair eva saha tiṣṭhatīti tathā saḥ | nityaṃ sattva-guṇastho bhaveti vyākhyāyāṃ nistraiguṇyo bhaeti vyākhyāyāṃ virodhaḥ syāt | alabdha-lābho yogaḥ, labdhasya rakṣaṇaṃ kṣemas tad-rahitaḥ | mad-bhakti-rasāsvāda-vaśād eva tayor ananusandhānāt | yoga-kṣemaṃ vahāmy aham it bhakta-vatsalena mayaiva tad-bhāra-vahanāt
| ātmavān mad-datta-buddhi-yuktaḥ | atra nistraiguṇya-traiguṇyayor vivecanam | yad uktam ekādaśe -

mad-arpaṇaṃ niṣphalaṃ vā sāttvikaṃ nija-karma yat |
rājasaṃ phala-saṅkalpaṃ hiṃsā-prāyādi tāmasam || [BhP 11.25.23]

niṣphalaṃ veti naimittikaṃ nija-karma-phalākāṅkṣyā-rahitam ity arthaḥ |

kaivalyaṃ sāttvikaṃ jñānaṃ rajo vaikalpikaṃ tu yat |
prākṛtaṃ tāmasaṃ jñānaṃ man-niṣṭhaṃ nirguṇaṃ smṛtam ||
vanaṃ tu sāttviko vāso grāmo rājasa ucyate |
tāmasaṃ dyuta-sadanaṃ man-niketaṃ tu nirguṇam ||
sāttvikaḥ kārako 'saṅgī rāgāndho rājasaḥ smṛtaḥ |
tāmasaḥ smṛti-vibhraṣṭo nirguṇo mad-apāśrayaḥ ||
sāttvikyādhyātmikī śraddhā karma-śraddhā tu rājasī |
tāmasy adharme yā śraddhā mat-sevāyāṃ tu nirguṇā ||
pathyaṃ pūtam anāyastam āhāryaṃ sāttvikaṃ smṛtam |
rājasaṃ cendriya-preṣṭhaṃ tāmasaṃ cārtidāśuci ||
sāttvikaṃ sukham ātmotthaṃ viṣayotthaṃ tu rājasam |
tāmasaṃ moha-dainyotthaṃ nirguṇaṃ mad-apāśrayam || [BhP 11.25.24-29] iti |

ity antena granthena traiguṇya-vastūny api bhaktyā svasmin kathañcit sthitasya traiguṇyasya nirjayo 'py uktas tad-anantaram eva | yathā -

dravyaṃ deśas tathā kālo jñānaṃ karma ca kārakaḥ |
śraddhāvasthā-kṛtir niṣṭhā traiguṇyaḥ sarva eva hi ||
sarve guṇamayā bhāvāḥ puruṣāvyakta-dhiṣṭhitāḥ |
dṛṣṭaṃ śrutam anudhyātaṃ buddhyā vā puruṣarṣabha ||
etāḥ saṃsṛtayaḥ puṃso guṇa-karma-nibandhanāḥ |
yeneme nirjitāḥ saumya guṇājīvena cittajāḥ |
bhakti-yogena man-niṣṭho mad-bhāvāya prapadyate || [BhP 11.25.30-32]

tasmād bhaktyaiva nirguṇayā traiguṇyajayo nānyathā | atrāpy agre kathaṃ caitāṃs trīn guṇān ativartate iti praśne vakṣyate --

māṃ ca yo 'vyabhicāreṇa bhakti-yogena sevate |
sa guṇān samatītyaitān brahma-bhūyāya kalpate || [Gītā 14.26]

śrī-svāmi-caraṇānāṃ vyākhyā ca - ca-kāro 'trāvadhāraṇārthaḥ | mām eva parameśvaram avyabhicāreṇa bhakti-yogena yaḥ sevate ity eṣā |
nistraiguṇyo bhavārjuna nirdvandvo nityasattvastho niryogakṣema ātmavān ||45||

baladevaḥ : nanu phalanairapekṣyeṇa karmāṇi kurvāṇān api tāni sva-phalair yojayeyus tat svābhāvyāt tataḥ kathaṃ tad-buddheḥ sambhava iti cet tatrāha traiguṇyeti | trayāṇāṃ guṇānāṃ karma traiguṇyam | guṇa-vacana-brāhmaṇādibhyaḥ karmaṇi ca iti sūtrāt [Pāṇ 5.1.124] ṣyañ-sakāmatvam ity arthaḥ | tad-viṣayā vedāḥ karma-kāṇḍāni tvaṃ tu tac-chiro-bhūta-vedānta-niṣṭho nistraiguṇyo niṣkāmo bhava |

ayam arthaḥ - pitṛ-koṭi-vatsalo hi vedo 'nādi-bhagavad-vimukhān māyā-guṇair nibaddhāṃs tad-guṇa-sṛṣṭa-sāttvikādi-sukha-saktān prati tat-kāmān anurudhya phalāni prakāśayan svasmiṃs tān viśrambhayati | tad-viśrambheṇa tat-pariśīlinas te tan-mūrdha-bhūtopanisat-pratīta-yāthātmya-niścayena tāṃ buddhiṃ yāntīti na cākāmitāny api tāny āpateyuḥ kāmitānām eva teṣāṃ phalatva-śravaṇāt | na ca sarveṣāṃ vedānāṃ traiguṇya-viṣayatvaṃ nistraiguṇyatāyā aprāmāṇikatvāpatteḥ |

nanu śītoṣṇādi-nivāraṇāya mātrāsparśās tu kaunteyety ādi vimarśena dvandva-saho bhava | tatra hetur nityeti | nityaṃ yat sattvam apariṇāmitvaṃ jīva-niṣṭhaṃ tat-sthas tad-vibhāvyety arthaḥ | tata eva niryogakṣemaḥ | alabdha-lābho yogaḥ labdhasya parirakṣaṇaṃ kṣemaṃ tad-rahito bhavety arthaḥ |

nanu kṣut-pipāse tathāpi vādhike iti cet tatrāha ātmavān iti | ātmā viśvambharaḥ paramātmā sa yasya dhyeyatayāsti tādṛśo bhavety arthaḥ | sa te deha-yātrāṃ sampādayed ity arthaḥ ||45||

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BhG 2.46

yāvān artha udapāne sarvataḥ saṃplutodake |
tāvān sarveṣu vedeṣu brāhmaṇasya vijānataḥ ||46||

śrīdharaḥ : nanu vedokta-nānā-phala-tyāgena niṣāmatayeśvarārādhana-viṣayā vyavasāyātmikā buddhiḥ kubuddhir evety āśaḍkyāha yāvān iti | udakaṃ pīyate yasmiṃs tad udapānaṃ vāpī-kūpa-taḍāg-ādi | tasmin svalpodaka ekatra kṛtsnārthasyāsambhavāt tatra tatra paribhramaṇena vibhāgaśo yāvān snāna-pānādir arthaḥ prayojanaṃ bhavati tāvān sarvo 'py arthaḥ sarvataḥ saṃplutodake mahā-hrade ekatraiva yathā bhavati | evaṃ yāvān sarveṣu vedeṣu tat-tat-karma-phala-rūpo 'rthas tāvān sarvo 'pi vijānato vyavasāyātmikā-buddhi-yuktasya brāhmaṇasya brahma-niṣṭhasya bhavaty eva | brahmānande kṣudānandānām antarbhāvāt | etasyaivānandasyānyāni bhūtāni mātrām
upajīvanti iti śruteḥ | tasmād iyam eva subuddhir ity arthaḥ ||46||

madhusūdanaḥ : na caivaṃ śaṅkanīyaṃ sarva-kāmanā-parityāgena karma kurvann ahaṃ tais taiḥ karma-janitair ānandair vañcitaḥ syām iti | yasmāt yāvān iti | udapāne kṣudra-jalāśaye | jātāv eka-vacanam | yāvān artho yāvat-snāna-pānādi-prayojanaṃ bhavati sarvataḥ saṃplutodake mahati jalāśaye tāvān artho bhavaty eva | yathā hi parvata-nirjharāḥ sarvataḥ sravantaḥ kvacid upatyakāyām ekatra milanti tatra pratyekaṃ jāyamānam udaka-prayojanaṃ samudite sutarāṃ bhavati sarveṣāṃ nirjharāṇām ekatraiva kāsāre 'ntarbhāvāt | evaṃ sarveṣu vedeṣu vedokteṣu kāmya-karmasu yāvān artho hairaṇyagarbhānanda-paryantas
tāvān vijānato brahma-tattvaṃ sākṣāt-kṛtavato brāhmaṇasya brahma-bubhūṣor bhavaty eva | kṣudānandānām brahmānandāṃśatvāt tatra kṣudrānandānām antarbhāvāt | etasyaivānandasyānyāni bhūtāni mātrām upajīvanti iti śruteḥ | ekasyāpy ānandasyāvidyā-kalpita-tat-tad-upādhi-paricchedam ādāyāṃśāṃśivad vyapadeśa ākāśasyeva ghaṭādy-avaccheda-kalpanayā |

tathā ca niṣkāma-karmabhiḥ śuddhāntaḥ-karaṇasya tavātma-jñānodaye para-brahmānanda-prāptiḥ syāt tathaiva ca sarvānanda-prāptau na kṣudrānanda-prāpti-nibandhana-vaiyagryāvakāśaḥ | ataḥ paramānanda-prāpakāya tattva-jñānāya niṣkāma-karmāṇi kurv ity abhiprāyaḥ | atra yathā tathā bhavatīti-pada-trayādhyāhāro yāvāṃs tāvān iti pada-dvayānuṣaṅgaś ca dārṣṭāntike draṣṭavyaḥ ||46||

viśvanāthaḥ : hanta kiṃ vaktavyaṃ niṣkāmasya nirguṇasya bhaktiyogasya māhātmyaṃ yasyaivārambhaṇa-mātre 'pi nāśa-pratyavāyau na staḥ | svalpa-mātreṇāpi kṛtārthatety ekādaśe 'py uddhavāyāpi vakṣyate -

na hy aṅgopakrame dhvaṃso
mad-dharmasyoddhavāṇv api |
mayā vyavasitaḥ samyaṅ
nirguṇatvād anāśiṣaḥ || iti | [BhP 11.29.20]

kintu sa-kāmo bhakti-yogo 'pi vyavasāyātmika-buddhi-śabdenocyate | iti dṛṣṭāntena sādhayati yāvān iti | udapāna iti jātyaika-vacanam udapāneṣu kūpeṣu | yāvān artha iti kaścit kūpaḥ śauca-karmārthakaḥ, kaścid dānta-dhāvanārthakaḥ, kaścid vastra-dhāvanādy-arthakaḥ, kaścit keśādi-mārjanārthakaḥ, kaścit snānārthakaḥ, kaścit pānārthaka ity evaṃ sarvataḥ sarveṣudapāneṣu yāvān artho yāvanti prayojanānīty arthaḥ tasmin ekasminn eva śaucādi-karma-siddheḥ | kiṃ ca, tat-tat-kūpeṣu pṛthak pṛthak paribhramaṇa-śrameṇa, sarovare tu taṃ vinaiva | tathā kūpeṣu virasa-jalena sarovare tu surama-jalenaivety api viśeṣo draṣṭavyaḥ
| evaṃ sarveṣu vedeṣu tat-tad-devatārādhanena yāvanto 'rthās tāvanta ekasya bhagavad-ārādhanena vijānato vijñasya brāhmaṇasyeti brahma vedaṃ bettīti brahmaṇas tasya vijānato vedajñatve 'pi veda-tātparyaṃ bhaktiṃ viśeṣato jānataḥ | yathā dvitīya-skandhe -

brahma-varcasa-kāmas tu yajeta brahmaṇaḥ patim |
indram indriya-kāmas tu prajā-kāmaḥ prajāpatim || [BhP 2.3.2]

daivīṃ māyāṃ tu śrī-kāmaḥ ity ādy-uktyā,

akāmaḥ sarva-kāmo vā mokṣa-kāma udāra-dhīḥ |
tīvreṇa bhakti-yogena yajeta puruṣaṃ param || [BhP 2.3.10]

iti meghādy-amiśrasya saura-kiraṇasya tīvratvam iva bhaktiyogasya jñāna-karmādy-amiśratvaṃ tīvratvaṃ jñeyam | atra bahubhyo bahu-kāma-siddhir iti sarvathā bahu-buddhitvam eva | ekasmād bhagavata eva sarva-kāma-siddhir ity aṃśenaika-buddhitvād eka-buddhitvam eva viṣaya-sādguṇyāj jñeyam ||46||
baladevaḥ : mami sarvān vedān adhīyānasya bahu-kāla-vyayād bahu-vikṣepa-sambhavāc ca kathaṃ tad-buddher abhudayas tatrāha yāvān iti | sarvataḥ samplutodaketi | vistīrṇe udapāne jalāśaye snānādy-arthino yāvān snāna-pānādir arthaḥ prayojanaṃ tāvān eva sa tena tasmāt sampadyate | evaṃ sarveṣu sopaniṣatsu vedeṣu brāhmaṇasya vedādhyāyino vijānata ātma-yāthātmya-jñānaṃ labdhu-kāmasya yāvān taj-jñāna-siddhi-lakṣaṇo 'rthaḥ syāt tāvān eva tena tebhyaḥ sampādyate ity arthaḥ | tathā ca sva-śākhayaiva sopaniṣadācireṇaiva tat siddhau tad buddhir abhudiyād eveti | iha dārṣṭāntike 'pi yāvāṃs tāvān iti pada-dvayam anuṣañjanīyam
||46||

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BhG 2.47

karmaṇy evādhikāras te mā phaleṣu kadācana |
mā karma-phala-hetur bhūr mā te saṅgo 'stv akarmaṇi ||47||

śrīdharaḥ : tarhi sarvāṇi karma-phalāni parameśvarārādhanād eva bhaviṣyantīty abhisandhāya pravarteta | kiṃ karmaṇā ity āśaṅkya tad vārayann āha karmaṇy eveti | te tava tattva-jñānārthinaḥ karmaṇy evādhikāraḥ | tat-phaleṣu adhikāraḥ kāmo māstu | nanu karmaṇi kṛti tat-phalaṃ syād eva bhojane kṛte tṛptivat | ity āśaṅkyāha meti | mā karma-phala-hetur bhūḥ | karma-phalaṃ pravṛtti-hetur yasya sa tathābhūto mā bhūḥ | kāmyamānasyaiva svargāder niyojya-viśeṣaṇatvena phalatvād akāmitaṃ phalaṃ na syād iti bhāvaḥ | ataeva phalaṃ bandhakaṃ bhaviṣyatīti bhayād akarmaṇi karmākaraṇe 'pi tava saṅgo niṣṭhā māstu ||47||

madhusūdanaḥ : nanu niṣkāma-karmabhir ātma-jñānaṃ sampādya parānanda-prāptiḥ kriyate ced ātma-jñānam eva tarhi sampādyaṃ kiṃ bahvāyāsaiḥ karmabhir bahiraṅga-sādhana-bhūtair ity āśaṅkyāha karmaṇy eveti | te tavāśuddhāntaḥkaraṇasya tāttvika-jñānotpatty-ayogyasya karmaṇy evāntaḥkaraṇa-śodhake 'dhikāro mayedaṃ kartavyam iti bodho 'stu na jñāna-niṣṭhā-rūpaṃ vedānta-vākya-vicārādau | karma ca kurvatas tava tat-phaleṣu svargādiṣu kadācana kasyāṃcid apy avasthāyāṃ karmānuṣṭhānāt prāg ūrdhvaṃ tat-kāle vādhikāro mayedaṃ bhoktavyam iti bodho māstu |

nanu mayedaṃ bhoktavyam iti buddhy-abhāve 'pi karma sva-sāmārthyād eva phalaṃ janayiṣyatīti cen nety āha mā karma-phala-hetur bhūḥ | phala-kāmanayā hi karma kurvan phalasya heteur utpādako bhavati | tvaṃ tu niṣkāmaḥ san karma-phala-hetur mā bhūḥ | na hi niṣkāmena bhagavad-arpaṇa-buddhyā kṛtaṃ karma phalāya kalpata ity uktam | phalābhāve kiṃ karmaṇety ata āha - mā te saṅgo 'stv akarmaṇi | yadi phalaṃ neṣyate kiṃ karmaṇā duḥkha-rūpeṇety akaraṇe tava prītir mā bhūt ||47||

viśvanāthaḥ : evam ekam evārjunaṃ sva-priya-sakhaṃ lakṣīkṛtya jñāna-bhakti-karma-yogān ācikhyāsur bhagavān jñāna-bhakti-yogau procya tayor arjunasyānadhikāraḥ vimṛśya niṣkāma-karma-yogam āha karmaṇīti | mā phaleṣv iti - phalākāṅkṣiṇo 'py atyanta-śuddha-cittā bhavanti | tvaṃ tu prāyaḥ śuddha-citta iti mayā jñātvaivocyasa iti bhāvaḥ |

nanu karmaṇi kṛte phalam avaśyaṃ bhaviṣyaty eveti | tatrāha mā karma-phala-hetur bhūḥ phala-kāmanayā hi karma kurvan phalasya hetur utpādako bhavati | tvaṃ tu tādṛśo mā bhūr ity āśīr mayā dīyata ity arthaḥ | akarmaṇi sva-dharmākaraṇe vikarmaṇi pāpe vā saṅgas tava māstu, kintu dveṣa evāstv iti punar apy āśīr dīyata iti | atrāgrimādhyāye vyāmiśreṇaiva vākyena buddhiṃ mohayasīva me ity arjunokti-darśanād atrādhyāye pūrvottara-vākyānām avatārikābhir nātīva saṅgatir vidhitsiteti jñeyam | kintu tva-ājñāyāṃ sārathy-ādau yathāhaṃ tiṣṭhāmi, tathā tvam api mad-ājñāyāṃ tiṣṭheti kṛṣṇārjunayor mano 'nulāpo 'yam atra draṣṭavyaḥ ||47||

baladevaḥ : nanu karmabhir jñāna-siddhir iṣyate cet tarhi tasya śamādīny evāntaraṅgatvād anuṣṭheyāni santu kiṃ bahu prayāsais tair iti cet tatrāha - karmaṇy eveti | jātāv eka-vacanam | te tava sva-dharme 'pi yuddhe 'dharma-buddher aśuddha-cittasya tāvat karmasv eva yuddhādiṣv adhikāro 'stu mayaitāni bhoktavyānīti tat phaleṣu bandhakeṣu tavādhikāro māstu mayaitāni bhoktavyānīti |

nanu phalecchā-virahe 'pi tāni sva-phaair yojayeyur iti cet tatrāha mā karmeti | karma-phalānāṃ hetur utpādakas tvaṃ mābhūḥ kāmanayā kṛtāni tāni sva-phalair yojayanti kāmitānām eva phalānāṃ niyojya-viśeṣaṇatvena phalatvāmnātāt | ataeva bandhakāni phalāni āpatiṣyantīti bhayād akarmaṇi karmākaraṇe tava saṅgaḥ prītir māstu kintu vidveṣa evāstv ity arthaḥ | niṣkāmatayānuṣṭhitāni karmāṇi yaṣṭidhānyavad antar eva jñāna-niṣṭhāṃ niṣpādayiṣyanti | śamādīni tu tat-pṛṣṭha-lagnāny eva syur iti bhāvaḥ ||47||

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BhG 2.48

yogasthaḥ kuru karmāṇi saṅgaṃ tyaktvā dhanaṃjaya |
siddhy-asiddhyoḥ samo bhūtvā samatvaṃ yoga ucyate ||48||

śrīdharaḥ : kiṃ tarhi ? yoga-stha iti | yogaḥ parameśvaraikaparatā | tatra sthitaḥ karmāṇi kuru | tathā saṅgaṃ kartṛtvābhiniveśaṃ tyaktvā kevalam īśvarāśrayeṇaiva kuru | tat-phalasya jñānasyāpi siddhy-asiddhyoḥ samo bhūtvā kevalam īśvarāśrayeṇaiva kuru | yata evaṃbhūtaṃ samatvam eva yoga ucyate sadbhiḥ citta-samādhāna-rūpatvāt ||48||

madhusūdanaḥ : pūrvoktam eva vivṛṇoti yoga-stha iti | he dhanañjaya tvaṃ yogasthaḥ san saṅgaṃ phalābhilāṣaṃ kartṛtvābhiniveśaṃ ca tyaktvā karmāṇi kuru | atra bahu-vacanāt karmaṇy evādhikāras ta ity atra jātāv eka-vacanam | saṅga-tyāgopāyam āha siddhy-asiddhyoḥ samo bhūtvā phala-siddhau harṣaṃ phalāsiddhau ca viṣādaṃ tyaktvā kevalam īśvarārādhana-buddhyā karmāṇi kurv iti |

nanu yoga-śabdena prāk-karmoktam | atra tu yoga-sthaḥ karmāṇi kurv ity ucyate | ataḥ katham etad boddhyṃ śakyam ity ata āha samatvaṃ yoga ucyate | yad etat siddhy-asiddhyoḥ samatvam idam eva yoga-stha ity atra yoga-śabdenocyate na tu karmeti na ko 'pi virodha ity arthaḥ | atra pūrvārdhasyottarārdhena vyākhyānaṃ kriyata ity apaunaruktyam iti bhāṣyakārīyaḥ panthāḥ | sukha-duḥkhe same kṛtvā ity atra jayājaya-sāmyena yuddha-mātra-kartavyatā prakṛtatvād uktā | iha tu dṛṣṭādṛṣṭa-sarva-phala-parityāgena sarva-karma-kartavyateti viśeṣaḥ ||48||

viśvanāthaḥ : niṣkāma-karmaṇaḥ prakāraṃ śikṣayati yoga-stha iti | tena jayājayayos tulya-buddhiḥ san saṅgrāmam eva sva-dharmaṃ kurv iti bhāvaḥ | ayaṃ niṣkāma-karma-yoga eva jñāna-yogatvena pariṇamatīti | jñāna-yogo 'py evaṃ pūrvottara-granthārtha-tātparyato jñeyaḥ ||48||

baladevaḥ : pūrvoktaṃ viśadayati yoga-stha iti | tvaṃ saṅgaṃ phalābhilāṣaṃ kartṛtvābhiniveśaṃ ca tyaktvā yogasthaḥ san karmāṇi kuru yuddhādīni | ādyena māyā-nimajjanam eva | dvitīyena tu svātantrya-lakṣaṇa-pareśa-dharma-cauryam | tena tan-māyā-vyākopaḥ | atas tayoḥ parityāga iti bhāvaḥ | yogastha-padaṃ vivṛṇoti -- siddhy-asiddhyor iti | tad-anuṣaṅga-phalānāṃ jayādīnāṃ siddhāv asiddhau ca samo bhūtvā rāga-dveṣa-rahitaḥ san kuru | idam eva samatvaṃ mayā yoga-stha ity atra yoga-śabdenoktaṃ citta-samādhi-rūpatvāt ||48||


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BhG 2.49

dūreṇa hy avaraṃ karma buddhi-yogād dhanaṃjaya |
buddhau śaraṇam anviccha kṛpaṇāḥ phala-hetavaḥ ||49||

śrīdharaḥ : kāmyaṃ tu karmātinikṛṣṭam ity āha dūreṇeti | buddhyā vyavasāyātmikayā kṛtaḥ karma-yogo buddhi-yogo buddhi-sādhana-bhūto vā, tasmāt sakāśād anyat sādhana-bhūtaṃ kāmyaṃ karma dūreṇa avaraṃ atyantam apakṛṣṭaṃ hi | yasmād evaṃ tasmād buddhau jñāne śaraṇam āśrayaṃ karma-yogam anviccha anutiṣṭha | yad vā buddhau śaraṇaṃ trātāram īśvaram āśrayety arthaḥ | phalahetur astu sakāmā narāḥ kṛpaṇā dīnāḥ yo vā etad akṣaram gārgy aviditvā asmāl lokāt praiti sa kṛpaṇa [BAU 3.8.10] iti śruteḥ ||49||

madhusūdanaḥ : nanu kiṃ karmānuṣṭhānam eva puruṣārtho yena niṣphalam eva sadā kartavyam ity ucyate prayojanam anuddiśya na mando 'pi pravartate iti nyāyāt | tad varaṃ phala-kāmanayaiva karmānuṣṭhānam iti cen nety āha dūreṇeti | buddhi-yogād ātma-buddhi-sādhana-bhūtān niṣkāma-karma-yogād dūreṇātiviprakarṣeṇāvaram adhamaṃ karma phalābhisandhinā kriyamāṇaṃ janma-maraṇa-hetu-bhūtam | athavā paramātma-buddhi-yogād dūreṇāvaraṃ sarvam api karma yasmād, he dhanañjaya, tasmād buddhau paramātma-buddhau sarvānartha-nivartikāyāṃ śaraṇaṃ pratibandhaka-pāpa-kṣayeṇa rakṣakaṃ niṣkāma-karma-yogam anviccha kartum iccha
| ye tu phala-hetavaḥ phala-kāmā avaraṃ karma kurvanti te kṛpaṇāḥ sarvadā janma-maraṇādi-ghaṭī-yantra-bhramaṇena para-vaśā atyanta-dīnā ity arthaḥ | yo vā etad akṣaram gārgy aviditvā asmāl lokāt praiti sa kṛpaṇa [BAU 3.8.10] iti śruteḥ | tathā ca tvam api kṛpaṇo mā bhūḥ kintu sarvānartha-nivartakātma-jñānotpādakaṃ niṣkāma-karma-yogam evānutiṣṭhety abhiprāyaḥ | yathā hi kṛpaṇā janā atiduḥkhena dhanam arjayanto yat kiṃcid dṛṣṭa-sukha-mātra-lobhena dānādi-janitaṃ mahat sukham anubhavituṃ na śaknuvantīty ātmānam eva vañcayanti tathā mahatā duḥkhena karmāṇi kurvāṇāḥ kṣudra-phala-mātra-lobhena paramānandā-nubhavena
vañcitā ity aho daurbhāgyaṃ mauḍhyaṃ ca teṣām iti kṛpaṇa-padena dhvanitam ||49||

viśvanāthaḥ : sakāma-karma nindati dūreṇeti | avaram atinikṛṣṭaṃ kāmyaṃ karma | buddhi-yogāt parameśvarārpita-niṣāma-karma-yogāt | buddhau niṣkāma-karmaṇy eva buddhi-yogo niṣkāma-karma-yogaḥ ||49||

baladevaḥ : atha kāmya-karmaṇo nikṛṣṭatvam āha dūreṇeti | buddhi-yogād avaraṃ karma dūreṇa, he dhanañjaya, ātma-yāthātmya-buddhi-sādhana-bhūtān niṣkāma-karma-yogāt dūreṇātiviprakarṣeṇāvaram atyapakṛṣṭaṃ janma-maraṇādy-anartha-nimittaṃ kāmyaṃ karmety arthaḥ | hi yasmād evam atas tvaṃ buddhau tad-yāthātmya-jñāne śaraṇam āśrayaṃ niṣkāma-karma-yogam anviccha kuru | ye tu phala-hetavaḥ phala-kāmā avara-karma-kāriṇas te kṛpaṇās tat-phala-janma-karmādi-pravāha-paravaśā dīnā ity arthaḥ | tathā ca tvaṃ kṛpaṇo mābhūr iti iha kṛpaṇāḥ khalu kaṣṭopārjita-vittādṛṣṭa-sukha-lava-lubdhā vittāni dātum asamarthā mahatā
dāna-sukhena vañcitās tathā kaṣṭānuṣṭhita-karmāṇas tuccha-tat-phala-lubdhā mahatātma-sukhena vañcitā bhavantīti vyajyate ||49||

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BhG 2.50

buddhi-yukto jahātīha ubhe sukṛta-duṣkṛte |
tasmād yogāya yujyasva yogaḥ karmasu kauśalam ||50||

śrīdharaḥ : buddhi-yoga-yuktas tu śreṣṭha ity āha buddhi-yukta iti | sukṛtaṃ svargādi-prāpakaṃ duṣkṛtaṃ nirayādi-prāpakam | te ubhe ihaiva janmani parameśvara-prasādena tyajati | tasmād yogāya tad-arthāya karma-yogāya yujyasva ghaṭasva | yogo hi karmasu kauśalam | sva-dharmākhyeṣu karmasu vartamānasya yā siddhy-asiddhyoḥ samatva-buddhir īśvarārpita-cetastayā tat kauśalaṃ kuśala-bhāvaḥ | tad dhi kauśalaṃ yad bandha-svabhāvāny api karmāṇi samatva-buddhyā svabhāvān nivartante | tasmāt samatva-buddhi-yukto bhava tvam ||50||

madhusūdanaḥ : evaṃ buddhi-yogābhāve doṣam uktvā tad-bhāve guṇam āha buddhīti | iha karmasu buddhi-yuktaḥ samatva-buddhyā yukto jahāti parityajati ubhe sukṛta-duṣkṛte puṇya-pāpe sattva-śuddhi-jñāna-prāpti-dvāreṇa | yasmād evaṃ tasmāt samatva-buddhi-yogāya tvaṃ yujyasva ghaṭasvodyukto bhava | yasmād īdṛśaḥ samatva-buddhi-yoga īśvarārpita-cetasaḥ karmasu pravartamānasya kauśalaṃ kuśala-bhāvo yad-bandha-hetūnām api karmaṇāṃ tad-abhāvo mokṣa-paryavasāyitvaṃ ca tan mahat kauśalam |

samatva-buddhi-yuktaḥ karma-yogaḥ karmātmāpi san duṣṭa-karma-kṣayaṃ karotīti mahā-kuśalaḥ | tvaṃ tu na kuśalo yataś cetano 'pi san sajātīya-duṣṭa-kṣayaṃ na karoṣīti vyatireko 'tra dhvanitaḥ | athavā iha samatva-buddhi-yukte karmaṇi kṛte sati sattva-śuddhi-dvāreṇa buddhi-yuktaḥ paramātma-sākṣātkāravān sañjahāty ubhe sukṛta-duṣkṛte | tasmāt samatva-buddhi-yuktāya karma-yogāya yujyasva | yasmāt karmasu madhye samatva-buddhi-yuktaḥ karma-yogaḥ kauśalaṃ kuśalo duṣṭa-karma-nivāraṇa-catura ity arthaḥ ||50||

viśvanāthaḥ : yogāyokta-lakṣaṇāya yujyasva ghaṭasva | yataḥ karmasu sakāma-niṣkāmeṣu madhye yoga evodāsīnatvena karma-karaṇam eva | kauśalaṃ naipuṇyam ity arthaḥ ||50||

baladevaḥ : uktasya buddhi-yogasya prabhāvam āha buddhīti | iha karmasu yo buddhi-yuktaḥ pradhāna-phala-tyāga-viṣayānuṣaṅga-phala-siddhy-asiddhi-samatva-viṣayayā ca buddhyā yuktas tāni karoti, sa ubhe anādi-kāla-sañcite jñāna-pratibandhake sukṛta-duṣkṛte jahāti vināśayatīty arthaḥ | tasmād uktāya buddhi-yogāya yujyasva ghaṭasva | yasmāt karma-yogas tādṛśa-buddhi-sambandhaḥ | kauśalam cāturyaṃ bandhakānām eva buddhi-samparkād viśodhita-viṣa-pārada-nyāyena mocakatvena pariṇāmāt ||50||

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BhG 2.51

karmajaṃ buddhi-yuktā hi phalaṃ tyaktvā manīṣiṇaḥ |
janma-bandha-vinirmuktāḥ padaṃ gacchanty anāmayam ||51||

śrīdharaḥ : karmaṇāṃ mokṣa-sādhanatva-prakāram āha karma-jam iti | karmajaṃ phalaṃ tyaktvā kevalam īśvarārādhanārthaṃ karma kurvāṇo manīṣiṇo jñānino bhūtvā janma-rūpeṇa bandhena vinirmuktāḥ santo 'nāmayaṃ sarvopadrava-rahitaṃ viṣṇoḥ padaṃ mokṣākhyaṃ gacchanti ||51||

madhusūdanaḥ : nanu duṣkṛta-hānam apekṣitaṃ na tu sukṛta-hānaṃ puruṣārtha-bhraṃśāpatter ity āśaṅkya tuccha-phala-tyāgena parama-puruṣārtha-prāptiṃ phalam āha karma-jam iti | samatva-buddhi-yuktā hi yasmāt karmajaṃ phalaṃ tyaktvā kevalam īśvarārādhanārthaṃ karmāṇi kurvāṇāḥ sattva-śuddhi-dvāreṇa manīṣiṇas tat tvam asi ity ādi-vākya-janyātma-manīṣāvanto bhavanti | tādṛśāś ca santo janmātmakena bandhena vinirmuktā viśeṣeṇātyantikatva-lakṣaṇena niravaśeṣaṃ muktāḥ padaṃ padanīyam ātma-tattvam ānanda-rūpaṃ brahmānāmayam avidyā-tat-kāryātmaka-roga-rahitābhayaṃ
mokṣākhyaṃ puruṣārthaṃ gacchanty abhedena prāpnuvantīty arthaḥ |

yasmād evaṃ phala-kāmanāṃ tyaktvā samatva-buddhyā karmāṇy anutiṣṭhantas taiḥ kṛtāntaḥkaraṇa-śuddhayas tat tvam asy ādi-pramāṇotpannātma-tattva-jñāna-tat-kāryāḥ santaḥ sakalānartha-nivṛtti-paramānanda-prāpti-rūpaṃ mokṣākhyaṃ viṣṇoḥ paramaṃ padaṃ gacchanti tasmāt tvam api yac chreyaḥ syān niścitaṃ brūhi tan me [Gītā 2.7] ity ukteḥ śreyo jijñāsur evaṃvidhaṃ karma-yogam anutiṣṭheti bhagavato 'bhiprāyaḥ ||51||

viśvanāthaḥ : Nothing.

baladevaḥ : karmajam iti | buddhi-yuktās tādṛśa-buddhimantaḥ karmajaṃ phalaṃ tyaktvā karmāṇy anutiṣṭhanto manīṣiṇaḥ karmāntargatātma-yāthātmya-prajñāvanto bhūtvā janma-bandhena vinirmuktāḥ santo 'nāmayaṃ kleśa-śūnyaṃ padaṃ vaikuṇṭhaṃ gacchantīti | tasmāt tvam api śreyo jijñāsur evaṃ vidhāni karmāṇi kurv iti bhāvaḥ | svātma-jñānasya paramātma-jñāna-hetutvāt tasyāpi tat-pada-gati-hetutvaṃ yuktam ||51||

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BhG 2.52

yadā te mohakalilaṃ buddhir vyatitariṣyati |
tadā gantāsi nirvedaṃ śrotavyasya śrutasya ca ||52||

śrīdharaḥ : kadāhaṃ tat padaṃ prāpsyāmi ity apekṣāyām āha yadeti dvābhyām | moho dehādiṣu ātma-buddhiḥ | tad eva kalilaṃ gahanam | kalilaṃ gahanaṃ vidur ity abhidhāna-koṣa-smṛteḥ | tataś cāyam arthaḥ | evaṃ parameśvarārādhane kriyamāṇe yadā tat-prasādena tava buddhir dehābhimāna-lakṣaṇaṃ moha-mayaṃ gahanaṃ durgaṃ viśeṣeṇātitariṣyati tadā śrotavyasya śrutasya cārthasya nirvedaṃ vairāgyaṃ gantāsi prāpsyasi | tayor anupādeyatvena jijñāsām na kariṣyasīty arthaḥ ||52||

madhusūdanaḥ : evaṃ karmāṇy anutiṣṭhataḥ kadā me sattva-śuddhiḥ syād ity ata āha yadeti | na hy etāvatā kālena sattva-śuddhir bhavatīti kāla-niyamo 'sti | kintu yadā yasmin kāle te tava buddhir antaḥkaraṇaṃ moha-kalilaṃ vyatitariṣyati avivekātmakaṃ kāluṣam aham idaṃ mamedaṃ ity ādy-ajñāna-vilasitam atigahanam vyatikramiṣyati rajas-tamo-malam apahāya śuddha-bhāvam āpatsyata iti yāvat | tadā tasmin kāle śrotavyasya śrutasya ca karma-phalasya nirvedaṃ vaitṛṣṇyaṃ gantāsi prāptāsi | parīkṣya lokān karma-citān brāhmaṇo nirvedam āyāt [MuṇḍU 1.2.12] iti śruteḥ | nirvedena phalenāntaḥkaraṇa-śuddhiṃ jñāsyasīty
abhiprāyaḥ ||52||

viśvanāthaḥ : evaṃ parameśvarārpita-niṣkāma-karmābhyāsāt tava yogo bhaviṣyatīty āha yadeti | tava buddhir antaḥkaraṇaṃ moha-kalilaṃ moha-rūpaṃ gahanaṃ viśeṣato 'tiśayena tariṣyati, tadā śrotavyasya śrotavyeṣv artheṣu śrutasya śruteṣv apy artheṣu nirvedaṃ prāpsyasi asambhāvanā-viparīta-bhāvanayor naṣṭatvāt kiṃ me śāstropadeśa-vākya-śravaṇena | sāmprataṃ me sādhaneṣv eva pratikṣaṇam abhyāsaḥ sarvathocita iti maṃsyasa iti bhāvaḥ ||52||

baladevaḥ : nanu niṣkāmāṇi karmāṇi kurvato me kadātma-viṣayā manīṣābhyudiyād iti cet tatrāha yadeti | yadā te buddhir antaḥkaraṇaṃ moha-kalilaṃ tuccha-phalābhilāṣa-hetum ajñāna-gahanaṃ vyatitariṣyati parityakṣyatīty arthaḥ, tadā pūrvaṃ śrutasyānantaraṃ śrotavyasya ca tasya tuccha-phalasya sambandhinaṃ nirvedaṃ gantāsi gamiṣyasi | parīkṣya lokān karma-citān brāhmaṇo nirvedaṃ āyāt iti śravaṇāt | nirvedena phalena tad-viṣayāṃ tāṃ pariceṣyati iti nāsty atra kāla-niyama ity arthaḥ ||52||


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BhG 2.53

śruti-vipratipannā te yadā sthāsyati niścalā |
samādhāv acalā buddhis tadā yogam avāpsyasyi ||53||

śrīdharaḥ : tataś ca śrutīti | śrutibhir nānā-laukika-vaidikārtha-śravaṇair vipratipannā | itaḥ pūrvaṃ vikṣiptā satī tava buddhir yadā samādhau sthāsyati | samādhīyate cittam asminn iti samādhiḥ parameśvaraḥ | tasmin niścalā viṣayair antarair anākṛṣṭā | ataevācalā | abhyāsa-pāṭavena tatraiva sthirā ca satī yogaṃ yoga-phalaṃ tattva-jñānam avāpsyasi ||53||

madhusūdanaḥ : antaḥkaraṇa-śuddhyaivaṃ jāta-nirvedasya kadā jñāna-prāptir ity apekṣāyām āha śrutīti | te tava buddhiḥ śrutibhir nānā-vidha-phala-śravaṇair avicārita-tātparyair vipratipannā 'neka-vidha-saṃśaya-viparyāsavattvena vikṣiptā prāk | yadā yasmin kāle śuddhija-viveka-janitena doṣa-darśanena taṃ vikṣepaṃ parityajya samādhau parmātmani niścalā jāgrat-svapna-darśana-lakṣaṇa-vikṣepa-rahitācalā suṣupti-mūrcchā-stabdhībhāvādi-rūpa-laya-lakṣaṇa-calana-rahitā satī sthāsyati laya-vikṣepa-lakṣaṇau doṣau parityajya samāhitā bhaviṣyatīti yāvat | athavā niścalāsambhāvanā-viparīta-bhāvanā-rahitācalā dīrgha-kālādara-nairantarya-satkāra-sevanair
vijātīya-pratyayādūṣitā satī nirvāta-pradīpavad ātmani sthāsyatīti yojanā | tadā tasmin kāle yogaṃ jīva-paramātmaikya-lakṣaṇaṃ tat-tvam-asīty ādi-vākya-janyam akhaṇḍa-sākṣātkāraṃ sarva-yoga-phalam avāpsyasi | tadā punaḥ sādhyāntarābhāvāt kṛta-kṛtyaḥ sthita-prajño bhaviṣyasīty abhiprāyaḥ ||53||

viśvanāthaḥ : tataś ca śrutiṣu nānā-laukika-vaidikārtha-śravaṇeṣu vipratipannā asammatā viraketit yāvat | tatra hetuḥ niścalā teṣu teṣv artheṣu calituṃ vimukhībhūtety arthaḥ | kintu samādhau ṣaṣṭhe 'dhyāye vakṣyamāṇa-lakṣaṇe 'calā sthairyavatī | tadā yogam aparokṣānubhava-prāptyā, jīvan-mukta ity arthaḥ ||53||

baladevaḥ : nanu karma-phala-nirviṇṇatayā karmānuṣṭhānena labdha-hṛd-viśuddher abhyuditātma-jñānasya me kadātma-sākṣāt-kṛtir iti cet tatrāha śrutīti | śrutyā karmaṇāṃ jñāna-garbhatāṃ prabodhayantyā tam etam ity ādikayā vipratipannā viśeṣeṇa saṃsiddhā te buddhir acalā asambhāvanā-viparīta-bhāvanābhyāṃ virahitā yadā samādhau manasi nirvāta-dīpa-śikheva niścalā sthāsyati tadā yogam ātmānubhava-lakṣaṇam avāpsyasi | ayam arthaḥ phalābhilāṣa-śūnyatayānuṣṭhitāni karmāṇi sthita-prajñatā-rūpāṃ jñāna-niṣṭhāṃ sādhayanti | jñāna-niṣṭhā-rūpā sthita-prajñatā tv ātmānubhavam iti ||53||

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BhG 2.54

arjuna uvāca
sthita-prajñasya kā bhāṣā samādhi-sthasya keśava |
sthita-dhīḥ kiṃ prabhāṣeta kim āsīta vrajeta kim ||54||

śrīdharaḥ : pūrva-ślokoktasyātma-tattva-jñasya lakṣaṇaṃ jijñāsur arjuna uvāca - sthita-prajñasyeti | svābhāvike samādhau sthitasya, ataeva sthitā niścalā prajñā buddhir yasya tasya bhāṣā kā ? bhāṣyate 'nayā iti bhāṣā lakṣaṇam iti yāvat | sa kena lakṣaṇena sthita-prajña ucyate ity arthaḥ | tathā sthita-dhīḥ kiṃ kathaṃ bhāṣaṇam āsanaṃ vrajanaṃ ca kuryād ity arthaḥ ||54||

madhusūdanaḥ : evam labdhāvasaraḥ sthita-prajña-lakṣaṇaṃ jñātum arjuna uvāca | yāny eva hi jīvan-muktānāṃ lakṣaṇāni tāny eva mumukṣūṇāṃ mokṣopāya-bhūtānīti manvānaḥ | sthitā niścalā ahaṃ-brahmāsmi iti prajñā yasya sa sthita-prajño 'vasthā-dvayavān samādhistho vyutthita-cittaś ceti | ato viśinaṣṭi samādhi-sthasya sthita-prajñasya kā bhāṣā ? karmaṇi ṣaṣṭhī | bhāṣyate 'nayeti bhāṣā lakṣaṇam | samādhi-sthaḥ sthita-prajñaḥ kena lakṣaṇenānyair vyavahriyata ity arthaḥ |

sa ca vyutthita-cittaḥ sthita-dhīḥ sthita-prajñaḥ svayaṃ kiṃ prabhāṣeta ? stuti-nindādāv abhinandana-dveṣādi-lakṣaṇaṃ kiṃ kathaṃ prabhāṣeta ? sarvatra sambhāvanāyāṃ liṅ | tathā kim āsīteti vyutthita-citta-nigrahāya kathaṃ bahir indriyāṇāṃ nigrahaṃ karoti ? tan-nigrāhābhāva-kāle kiṃ vrajeta kathaṃ viṣayān prāpnoti ? tat-kartṛka-bhāṣaṇāsana-vrajanāni mūḍha-jana-vilakṣaṇāni kīdṛśānīity arthaḥ |

tad evaṃ catvāraḥ praśnāḥ samādhi-sthe sthita-prajña ekaḥ | vyutthite sthita-prajñe traya iti | keśaveti sambodhayan sarvāntaryāmitayā tvam evaitādṛśaṃ rahasyaṃ vaktuṃ samartho 'sīti sūcayati ||54||

viśvanāthaḥ : samādhāv acalā buddhir iti śrutvā tattvato yogino lakṣaṇaṃ pṛcchati sthita-prajñasyeti | sthitā sthirācalā prajña buddhir yasyeti | kā bhāṣā ? bhāṣyate 'nayeti bhāṣā lakṣaṇaṃ kiṃ lakṣaṇam ity arthaḥ | kīdṛśasya samādhi-sthasyeti samādhau sthāsyatīti | asyārthaḥ - evaṃ ca sthita-prajña iti | samādhi-stha iti jīvan-muktasya saṃjñā-dvayam | kiṃ prabhāṣeteti sukha-duḥkhayor mānāpamānayoḥ stuti-nindayoḥ sneha-dveṣayor vā samupasthitayoḥ kiṃ prabhāṣeta ? spaṣṭaṃ svagataṃ vā kiṃ vaded ity arthaḥ | kim
āsīta ? tad indriyāṇāṃ bāhya-viṣayeṣu calanābhāvaḥ kīdṛśaḥ ? vrajeta kim ? teṣu calanaṃ vā kīdṛśam iti ||54||

baladevaḥ : evam ukto 'rjunaḥ pūrva-padyoktasya sthita-prajñasya lakṣaṇaṃ jñātuṃ pṛcchati sthiteti | sthita-prajñe 'tra catvāraḥ praśnāḥ - samādhisthe ekaḥ, vyutthite tu trayaḥ | tathā hi - sthitā sthirā prajña dhīr yasya tasya samādhi-sthasya kā bhāṣā kiṃ lakṣaṇam ? bhāṣyate 'nayeti vyutpatteḥ | kena lakṣaṇena sthita-prajño 'bhidhīyata ity arthaḥ | tathā vyutthitaḥ sthita-prajñaḥ kathaṃ bhāṣaṇādīni kuryāt ? tadīyāni tāni pṛthag-jana-vilakṣaṇāni kīdṛśānīty arthaḥ | tatra kiṃ prabhāṣeta ? svayoḥ stuti-nindayoḥ sneha-dveṣayoś ca prāptayor
mukhataḥ svagataṃ vā kiṃ brūyāt ? kim āsīta bāhya-viṣayeṣu katham indriyāṇāṃ nigrahaṃ kuryāt ? vrajeta kim ? kiṃ tan-nigrāhābhāve ca kathaṃ viṣayānavāpnuyād ity arthaḥ | triṣu sambhāvanāyām ||54||

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BhG 2.55

śrī-bhagavān uvāca
prajahāti yadā kāmān sarvān pārtha mano-gatān |
ātmany evātmanā tuṣṭaḥ sthita-prajñas tadocyate ||55||

śrīdharaḥ : atra ca yāni sādhakasya jñāna-sādhanāni tāny eva svābhāvikāni siddhasya lakṣaṇāni | ataḥ siddhasya lakṣaṇāni kathayann evāntaraṅgāni jñāna-sādhanāny āha yāvad adhyāya-samāpti | tatra prathama-praśnasyottaram āha prajahātīti dvābhyām | manasi sthitān kāmān yadā prakarṣeṇa jahāti | tyāge hetum āha ātmanīti | ātmany eva svasminn eva paramānanda-rūpe ātmanā svayam eva tuṣṭa ity ātmārāmaḥ san yadā kṣudra-viṣayābhilāṣāṃs tyajati tadā tena lakṣaṇena muniḥ sthita-prajña ucyate ||55||

madhusūdanaḥ : eteṣāṃ catūrṇāṃ praśnānāṃ krameṇottaraṃ bhagavān uvāca prajahātīti yāvad-adhyāya-samāpti | kāmān kāma-saṅkalpādīn mano-vṛtti-viśeṣān pramāṇa-viparyaya-vikalpa-nidrā-smṛti-bhedena tantrāntare pañcadhā prapañcitān sarvān niravaśeṣān prakarṣeṇa kāraṇa-bādhena yadā jahāti parityajati sarva-vṛtti-śūnya eva yadā bhavati sthita-prajñas tadocyate samādhistha iti śeṣaḥ | kāmānām anātma-dharmatvena parityāga-yogyatām āha manogatān iti | yadi hy ātma-dharmāḥ syus tadā na tyaktuṃ śakyeran vahny-auṣṇyavat svābhāvikatvāt | manasas tu dharmā ete | atas tat-parityāgena parityaktuaṃ śakyā evety arthaḥ |
nanu sthita-prajñasya mukha-prasāda-liṅga-gamyaḥ santoṣa-viśeṣaḥ pratīyate sa kathaṃ sarva-kāma-parityāge syād ity āha - ātmany eva paramānanda-rūpe na tv anātmani tuccha ātmnaā svaprakāśa-cid-rūpeṇa bhāsamānena na tu vṛttyā tuṣṭaḥ paritṛptaḥ parama-puruṣārtha-lābhāt | tathā ca śrutiḥ -

yadā sarve pramucyante kāmā ye 'sya hṛdi śritāḥ |
atha martyo 'mṛto bhavaty atra brahma samaśnute || [KaṭhU 2.3.14] iti |

tathā ca samādhi-sthaḥ sthita-prajña evaṃvidhair lakṣaṇa-vācibhiḥ śabdair bhāṣyata iti prathama-praśnasyottaram ||55||

viśvanāthaḥ : catūrṇāṃ praśnānāṃ krameṇottaram āha prajahātīti yāvad adhyāya-samāptiḥ | sarvān iti kasminn apy arthe yasya kiṃcin mātro 'pi nābhilāṣa ity arthaḥ | mano-gatān iti kāmānām ātma-dharmatvena parityāge yogyatā darśitā | yadi te hy ātma-dharmāḥ syus tadā tāṃs tyaktum aśakyeran vahner auṣṇyavad iti bhāvaḥ | tatra hetuḥ - ātmani pratyāhṛte manasi prāpto ya ātmānanda-rūpas tena tuṣṭaḥ | tathā ca śrutiḥ -

yadā sarve pramucyante kāmā ye 'sya hṛdi śritāḥ |
atha martyo 'mṛto bhavaty atra brahma samaśnute || [KaṭhU 2.3.14] iti ||55||

baladevaḥ : evaṃ pṛṣṭo bhagavān krameṇa catūrṇāṃ uttaram āha yāvad adhyāya-pūrtiḥ | tatra prathamasyāha prajahātīty ekena | he pārtha ! yadā mano-gatān manasi sthitān kāmān sarvān prajahāti saṃtyajati tadā sthita-prajña ucyate | kāmānām mano-dharmatvāt parityāgo yuktaḥ | ātma-dharmatve duḥśakyaḥ sa syād vahny-uṣṇatādīnām iveti bhāvaḥ |

nanu śuṣka-kāṣṭhavat kathaṃ tiṣṭhatīti cet tatrāha ātmany eveti | ātmani pratyāhṛte manasi bhāsamānena sva-prakāśānanda-rūpeṇātmanā svarūpeṇa tuṣṭaḥ paritṛptaḥ kṣudra-viṣayābhilāṣān saṃtyajyātmānandārāmaḥ samādhisthaḥ sthita-prajña ity arthaḥ |

ātmā puṃsi svabhāve 'pi prayanta-manasor api |
dhṛtāv api manīṣāyāṃ śarīra-brahmaṇor api || iti medinī-kāraḥ |

brahma cātra jīveśvarānyatarad-grāhyam ||55||

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BhG 2.56

duḥkheṣv anudvigna-manāḥ sukheṣu vigata-spṛhaḥ |
vīta-rāga-bhaya-krodhaḥ sthita-dhīr munir ucyate ||56||

śrīdharaḥ : kiṃ ca duḥkheṣv iti | duḥkheṣu prāpteṣv api anudvignam akṣubhitaṃ mano yasya saḥ | sukheṣu vigatā spṛhā yasya saḥ | tatra hetuḥ - vītā apagatā rāga-bhaya-krodhā yasmāt | tatra rāgaḥ prītiḥ | sa muniḥ sthita-dhīr ucyate ||56||

madhusūdanaḥ : idānīṃ vyutthitasya sthita-prajñasya bhāṣaṇopaveśana-gamanāni mūḍha-jana-vilakṣaṇāni vyākhyeyāni | tatra kiṃ prabhāṣetety asyottaram āha duḥkheṣv iti dvyābhyām | duḥkhāni trividhāni śoka-moha-jvara-śiro-rogādi-nimittāny ādhyātmikāni vyāghra-sarpādi-prayuktāny ādhibhautikāni ativātātivṛṣṭy-ādi-hetukāny ādhidaivikāni teṣu duḥkheṣu rajaḥ-pariṇāma-santāpātmaka-citta-vṛtti-viśeṣeṣu prārabdha-pāpa-karma-prāpiteṣu nodvignaṃ duḥkha-parihārākṣamatayā vyākulaṃ na bhavati mano yasya so 'nudvigna-manāḥ | avivekino hi duḥkha-prāptau satyām aho pāpo
'haṃ dhiṅ māṃ durātmānam etādṛśa-duḥkha-bhāginaṃ ko me duḥkham īdṛśaṃ nirākuryād ity anutāpātmako bhrānti-rūpas tāmasaś citta-vṛtti-viśeṣa udvegākhyo jāyate | yady ayaṃ pāpānuṣṭhāna-samaye syāt tadā tat-pravṛtti-pratibandhakatvena saphalaḥ syāt | bhoga-kāle tu bhavan kāraṇe sati kāryasyocchettum aśakyatvān niṣprayojano duḥkha-kāraṇe saty api kim iti mama duḥkhaṃ jāyate iti avivekaja-bhrama-rūpatvān na vivekinaḥ sthita-prajñasya sambhavati | duḥkha-mātraṃ hi prārabdha-karmaṇā prāpyate na tu tad-uttara-kālīno bhramo 'pi |

nanu duḥkhāntara-kāraṇatvāt so 'pi prārabdha-karmāntareṇa prāpyatām iti cet, na | sthita-prajñasya bhramopādānājñāna-nāśena bhramāsambhavaāt taj-janya-duḥkha-prāpaka-prārabdhābhāvāt | yathā-kathaṃcid deha-yātrā-mātra-nirvāhaka-prārabdha-karma-phalasya bhramābhāve 'pi bādhitānuvṛttyopapatter iti vistareṇāgre vakṣyate |

tathā sukheṣu sattva-pariṇāma-rūpa-prītyātmaka-citta-vṛtti-viśeṣeṣu trividheṣu prārabdha-puṇya-karma-prāpiteṣu vigata-spṛha āgāmi-taj-jātīya-sukha-spṛhā-rahitaḥ | spṛhā hi nāma sukhānubhava-kāle taj-jātīya-sukhasya kāraṇaṃ dharmam ananuṣṭhāya vṛthaiva tad-ākāṅkṣā-rūpā tāmasī citta-vṛttir bhrāntir eva | sā cāvivekina eva jāyate | na hi kāraṇābhāve kāryaṃ bhavitum arhati | ato yathā sati kāraṇe kāryaṃ mā bhūd iti vṛthākāṅkṣā-rūpa udvego vivekino na sambhavati tathaivāsati kāraṇe kāryaṃ bhūyād iti vṛthākāṅkṣā-rūpā tṛṣṇātmikā spṛhāpi nopapadyate prārabdha-karmaṇaḥ sukha-mātra-prāpakatvāt |

harṣātmikā vā citta-vṛttiḥ spṛhā-śabdenoktā | sāpi bhrāntir eva | aho dhanyo 'haṃ yasya mamedṛśaṃ sukham upasthitaṃ ko vā mayā tulas tribhuvane kena vopāyena mamedṛśaṃ sukhaṃ na vicchidyetety evam ātmikotphullatā-rūpā tāmasī citta-vṛttiḥ | ataevoktaṃ bhāṣye - nāgnir ivendhanādy-ādhāne yaḥ sukhāny anuvivardhate sa vigata-spṛhaḥ iti | vakṣyati ca -- na prahṛṣyet priyaṃ prāpya nodvijet prāpya cāpriyam [Gītā 5.20] iti | sāpi na vivekinaḥ sambhavati bhrāntitvāt |

tathā vīta-rāga-bhaya-krodhaḥ | rāgaḥ śobhanādhyāsa-nibandhano viṣayeṣu rañjanātmakaś citta-vṛtti-viśeṣo 'tyantābhiniveśa-rūpaḥ | rāga-viṣayasya nāśake samupasthite tan-nivāraṇāsāmarthyam ātmano manyamānasya dainyātmakaś citta-vṛtti-viśeṣo bhayam | evaṃ rāga-viṣaya-vināśake samupasthite tan-nivāraṇa-sāmarthyam ātmano manyamānasyābhijvalanātmakaś citta-vṛtti-viśeṣaḥ krodhaḥ | te sarve viparyaya-rūpatvād vigatā yasmāt sa tathā | etādṛśo munir manana-śīlaḥ saṃnyāsī sthita-prajña ucyate | evaṃ-lakṣaṇaḥ sthita-dhīḥ svānubhava-prakaṭanena śiṣya-śikṣārtham anudvega-nispṛhatvādi-vācaḥ
prabhāṣeta ity anvaya uktaḥ | evaṃ cānyo 'pi mumukṣur duḥkhe nodvijet sukhe na prahṛṣyet, rāga-bhaya-krodha-rahitaś ca bhaved ity abhiprāyaḥ ||56||

viśvanāthaḥ : kiṃ prabhāṣetety asya uttaram āha duḥkheṣu kṣut-pipāsa-jvara-śiro-rogādiṣv ādhyātmikeṣu sarpa-vyāghrādy-utthiteṣv anudvigna-manāḥ prārabdhaṃ duḥkham idaṃ mayāvaśyaṃ bhoktavyam iti svagataṃ kenacit pṛṣṭaḥ san spaṣṭaṃ ca bruvan | na duḥkheṣūdvijata ity arthaḥ | tasya tādṛśa-mukha-vikriyābhāva evānudvega-liṅgaṃ sudhiyā gamyam | kṛtrimānudvega-liṅgavāṃs tu kapaṭī | sudhiyā paricito bhraṣṭa evocyata iti bhāvaḥ | evaṃ sukheṣv apy upasthiteṣu vigata-spṛha iti prārabdham
idam avaśya-bhogyam iti svagataṃ spaṣṭaṃ ca bruvāṇasya tasya sukha-spṛhā-rāhitya-liṅgaṃ sudhiyā gamyam eveti bhāvaḥ | tat-tal-liṅgam eva spaṣṭīkṛtya darśayati vīto vigato rāgo 'nurāgaḥ sukheṣu bandhu-janeṣu yasya saḥ | yathaivādi-bharatasya devyāḥ pārśvaṃ prāpitasya svaccheda-cikīrṣor vṛṣala-rājān na bhayam | nāpi tatra krodho 'bhūd iti ||56||

baladevaḥ : atha vyutthitaḥ sthita-prajñaḥ kiṃ bhāṣetety asyottaram āha duḥkheṣv iti dvyābhyām | trividheṣv adhyātmikādiṣu duḥkheṣu samutthiteṣu satsv anudvigna-manāḥ prārabdha-phalāny amūni mayāvaśyaṃ bhoktavyānīti kenacit pṛṣṭaḥ svagataṃ vā bruvan tebhyo nodvijata ity arthaḥ | sukheṣu cottamāhāra-satkārādinā samupasthiteṣu vigata-spṛhas tṛṣṇā-śūnyaḥ prārabdhākṛṣṭāny amūni mayāvaśya-bhoktavyānīti kenacit pṛṣṭaṃ svagataṃ vā bruvan tair upasthitaḥ prahṛṣṭa-mukho na bhavatīty arthaḥ
| vīteti - vīta-rāgaḥ kamanīyeṣu prīti-śūnyaḥ | vīta-bhayaḥ viṣayāpahartṛṣu prāpteṣu durlabhasya mamaitāni dharmyair bhavadbhir hriyanta iti dainya-śūnyaḥ | vīta-krodhaḥ teṣv eva prabalasya mamaitāni tucchair bhavadbhiḥ katham apahartavyānīti krodha-śūnyaś ca | evaṃvidho munir ātma-manana-śīlaḥ sthita-prajña ity arthaḥ | itthaṃ svānubhavaṃ parān prati svagataṃ vā vadan naudvego nispṛhatādi-vacaḥ prabhāṣate ity uttaram ||56||

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BhG 2.57

yaḥ sarvatrānabhisnehas tat tat prāpya śubhāśubham |
nābhinandati na dveṣṭi tasya prajñā pratiṣṭhitā ||57||

śrīdharaḥ : kathaṃ bhāṣeta ity asyottaram āha ya iti | yaḥ sarvatra putra-mitrādiṣv apy anabhisnehaḥ sneha-varjitaḥ | ataeva bādhitānuvṛttyā tat tat śubham anukūlaṃ prāpya nābhinandati aśubhaṃ pratikūlaṃ prāpya na dveṣṭi na nindati | kintu kevalam udāsīna eva bhāṣate | tasya prajñā pratiṣṭhitety arthaḥ ||57||

madhusūdanaḥ : kiṃ ca | sarva-deheṣu jīvanādiṣv api yo munir anabhisnehaḥ, yasmin saty anyadīye hāni-vṛddhī svasminn āropyete sa tādṛśo 'nya-viṣayaḥ premāpara-paryāyas tāmaso vṛtti-viśeṣaḥ snehaḥ sarva-prakāreṇa tad-rahito 'nabhisnehaḥ | bhagavati paramātmani tu sarvathābhisnehavān bhaved eva | anātman-snehābhāvasya tad-arthatvād iti draṣṭavyam |

tat-tat-prārabdha-karma-pariprāpitaṃ śubhaṃ sukha-hetuṃ viṣayaṃ prāpya nābhinandati harṣa-viśeṣa-puraḥsaraṃ na praśaṃsati | aśubhaṃ duḥkha-hetuṃ viṣayaṃ prāpya na dveṣṭi antar-asūyā-pūrvakaṃ na nindati | ajñasya hi sukha-hetur yaḥ sva-kalatrādiḥ sa śubho viṣayas tad-guṇa-kathanādi-pravartikā dhī-vṛttir bhrānti-rūpābhinandaḥ | sa ca tāmasaḥ, tad-guṇa-kathanādeḥ para-prarocanārthatvābhāvena vyarthatvāt | evam asūyotpādanena duḥkha-hetuḥ parakīya-vidyā-prakarṣādir enaṃ pratyaśubho viṣayas tan-nindādi-pravartikā
bhrānti-rūpā dhī-vṛtti-viśeṣaḥ | so 'pi tāmasaḥ | tan-nindāyā nivāraṇārthatvābhāvena vyarthatvāt | tāv abhinanda-dveṣau bhrānti-rūpau tāmasau katham abhrānte śuddha-sattve sthita-prajñe sambhavatām | tasmād vicālakābhāvāt tasyānabhisnehasya harṣa-viṣāda-rahitasya muneḥ prajñā paramātma-tattva-viṣayā pratiṣṭhitā phala-paryavasāyinī sa sthita-prajña ity arthaḥ | evam anyo 'pi mumukṣuḥ sarvatrānabhisneho bhavet | śubhaṃ prāpya na praśaṃset, aśubhaṃ prāpya na ninded ity abhiprāyaḥ | atra ca nindā-praśaṃsādi-rūpā vāco na prabhāṣeteti vyatireka uktaḥ ||57||

viśvanāthaḥ : anabhisnehaḥ sopādhi-sneha-śūnyo dayālutvān nirupādhir īṣan-mātra-snehas tu tiṣṭhed eva | tat tat prasiddhaṃ sammāna-bhojanādibhyaḥ sva-paricaraṇaṃ śubhaṃ prāpyāśubham anādaraṇaṃ muṣṭi-prahārādikaṃ ca prāpya krameṇa nābhinandati | na praśaṃsati tvaṃ dhārmikaḥ paramahaṃsa-sevī sukhī bhaveti na brūte | na dveṣṭi tvaṃ pāpātmā narake pateti nābhiśapati | tasya prajñā pratiṣṭhitā samādhiṃ prati sthitā susthira-prajñā ucyata ity arthaḥ ||57||

baladevaḥ : ya iti sarveṣu prāṇiṣu anabhisneha aupādhika-sneha-śūnyaḥ | kāruṇikatvān nirupādhir īṣad-snehas tv asty eva | tat tat prasiddhaṃ śubham uttama-bhojana-srak-candanārpaṇa-rūpaṃ prāpya nābhinandati tad-arpakaṃ prati dharmiṣṭhas tvaṃ ciraṃ jīveti na vadati | aśubham apamānaṃ yaṣṭi-prahārādikaṃ ca prāpya na dveṣṭi, pāpiṣṭhas tvaṃ miryasveti nābhiśapati | tasya prajñeti sa sthita-prajña ity arthaḥ | atra stuti-nindā-rūpaṃ vaco na bhāṣata iti vyatirekeṇa tal lakṣaṇam ||57||

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BhG 2.58

yadā saṃharate cāyaṃ kūrmo 'ṅgānīva sarvaśaḥ |
indriyāṇīndriyārthebhyas tasya prajñā pratiṣṭhitā ||58||

śrīdharaḥ : kiṃ ca yadeti | yadā cāyaṃ yogī indriyārthebhyaḥ śabdādibhyaḥ sakāśād indriyāṇi saṃharate sarvata evaṃ jñāna-niṣṭha indriyāṇīnidryārthebhyaḥ sarva-viṣayebhyaḥ upasaṃharate | tasya prajñā pratiṣṭhitā | ity uktārthaṃ vākyam ||58||

madhusūdanaḥ : idānīṃ kim āsīteti praśnasyottaraṃ vaktum ārabhate bhagavān ṣaḍbhiḥ ślokaiḥ | tatra prārabdha-karma-vaśād vyutthānena vikṣiptānīndriyāṇi punar upasaṃhṛtya samādhy-artham eva sthita-prajñasyopaveśanam iti darśayitum āha yadeti | ayaṃ vyutthitaḥ sarvaśaḥ sarvāṇīndriyārthebhyaḥ śabdādibhyaḥ sarvebhyaḥ | caḥ punar-arthe | yadā saṃharate punar upasaṃharati saṅkocayati | tatra dṛṣṭāntaḥ kūrmo 'ṅgānīva | tadā tasya prajñāḥ pratiṣṭhiteti spaṣṭam | pūrva-ślokābhyāṃ vyutthāna-daśāyām api sakala-tāmasa-vṛtty-abhāva uktaḥ | adhunā tu punaḥ
samādhy-avasthāyāṃ sakala-vṛtty-abhāva iti viśeṣaḥ ||58||

viśvanāthaḥ : kim āsītety asyottaram āha yadeti | indriyārthebhyaḥ śabdādibhya indriyāṇi śrotrādīni saṃharate | svādhīnānām indriyāṇāṃ bāhya-viṣayeṣu calanaṃ niṣidhyāntareva niścalatayā sthāpanaṃ sthita-prajñasyāsanam ity arthaḥ | tatra dṛṣṭāntaḥ | kūrmo 'ṅgāni mukha-netrādīni yathā svāntar eva svecchayā sthāpayati ||58||

baladevaḥ : atha kim āsītety asyottaram āha yadety ādibhiḥ ṣaḍbhir | ayaṃ yogī yadā cendriyārthebhyaḥ śabdādibhyaḥ svādhīnānīndriyāṇi śrotrādīny anāyāsena saṃharati samākarṣati tadā tasya prajñā pratiṣṭhitety anvayaḥ | atra dṛṣṭāntaḥ kūrmo 'ṅgānīveti | mukha-kara-caraṇāni yathānāyasena kamaṭhaḥ saṃharati tadvat viṣayebhyaḥ samākṛṣṭendriyāṇām antaḥ-sthāpanaṃ sthita-prajñasyāsanam ||58||

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BhG 2.59

viṣayā vinivartante nirāhārasya dehinaḥ |
rasa-varjaṃ raso 'py asya paraṃ dṛṣṭvā nivartate ||59||

śrīdharaḥ : nanu nendriyāṇāṃ viṣayeṣv apravṛttir sthita-prajñasya lakṣaṇaṃ bhavitum arhati | jaḍānām āturāṇām upavāsa-parāṇāṃ ca viṣayeṣv pravṛtter aviśeṣāt | tatrāha viṣayā iti | indriyāir viṣayāṇām āharaṇaṃ grahaṇam āhāraḥ | nirāhārasya indriyāir viṣaya-grahaṇam akurvato dehino dehābhimānino 'jñasya rāgo 'bhilāṣas tad-varjaṃ | abhilāṣasya na nivartata ity arthaḥ | yad vā nirāhārasya upavāsa-parasya viṣayāḥ prāyaśo nivartante kṣudhā-santaptasya śabda-sparśādy-apekṣābhāvāt, kintu rasa-varjaṃ rasāpekṣā tu na nivartata ity arthaḥ
| śeṣaṃ samānam ||59||

madhusūdanaḥ : nanu mūḍhasyāpi rogādi-vaśād viṣayebhya indriyāṇām upasaṃharaṇaṃ bhavati tat kathaṃ tasya prajñā pratiṣṭhitety uktam ? ata āha viṣayā iti | nirāhārasya indriyāir indriyāir viṣayān anāharato dehino dehābhimānavato mūḍhasyāpi rogiṇaḥ kāṣṭha-tapasvino vā viṣayāḥ śabdādayo vinivartante kintu rasa-varjaṃ rasa-tṛṣṇā taṃ varjayitvā | ajñasya viṣayā nivartante tad-viṣayo rāgas tu na nivartata ity arthaḥ | asya tu sthita-prajñasya paraṃ puruṣārthaṃ dṛṣṭvā tad evāham asmīti sākṣātkṛtya sthitasya raso 'pi kṣudra-sukha-rāgo 'pi nivartate | api-śabdād viṣayāś
ca | tathā ca yāvān artha ity ādau vyākhyātam | evaṃ ca sa-rāga-viṣaya-nivṛttiḥ sthita-prajña-lakṣaṇam iti na mūḍhe vyabhicāra ity arthaḥ | yasmān nāsati paramātma-samyag-darśane sa-rāga-viṣayocchedas tasmāt sa-rāga-viṣayocchedikāyāḥ samyag-darśanātmikāyāḥ prajñāyāḥ sthairyaṃ mahatā yatnena sampādayed ity abhiprāyaḥ ||59||

viśvanāthaḥ : mūḍhasyāpi upavāsato rogādi-vaśād vendriyāṇāṃ viṣayeṣv acalanaṃ sambhavet tatrāha viṣayā iti | rasa-varjaṃ raso rāgo 'bhilāṣas taṃ varjayitvā | abhilāṣas tu viṣayeṣu na nivartanta ity arthaḥ | asya sthita-prajñasya tu paraṃ paramātmānaṃ dṛṣṭvā viṣayeṣv abhilāṣo nivartata iti na lakṣaṇa-vyabhicāraḥ | ātma-sākṣātkāra-samarthasya tu sādhakatvam eva, na tu siddhatvam iti bhāvaḥ ||59||

baladevaḥ : nanu mūḍhasyāmaya-grastasya viṣayeṣv indriyāpravṛtti-dṛṣṭā tat katham etat sthita-prajñasya lakṣaṇaṃ tatrāha viṣayā iti | nirāhārasya roga-bhayād bhojanādīny akurvato mūḍhasyāpi dehino janasya viṣayās tad-anubhavā vinivartante | kintu raso rāga-tṛṣṇā tad-varjaṃ viṣaya-tṛṣṇā tu na nivartata ity arthaḥ | asya sthita-prajñasya tu raso 'pi viṣaya-rāgo 'pi viṣayebhyaḥ paraṃ sva-prakāśānandam ātmānaṃ dṛṣṭvānubhūya nivartate vinaśyatīti sa-rāga-viṣaya-nivṛttis tasya lakṣaṇam iti na vyabhicāraḥ ||59||

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BhG 2.60

yatato hy api kaunteya puruṣasya vipaścitaḥ |
indriyāṇi pramāthīni haranti prasabhaṃ manaḥ ||60||

śrīdharaḥ : indriya-saṃyamaṃ vinā sthita-prajñatā na sambhavati | ataḥ sādhakāvasthāyāṃ tatra mahān prayatnaḥ kartavya ity āha yatato hy apīti dvābhyām | yatato mokṣārthaṃ prayatamānasya | vipaścito vivekino 'pi | mana indriyāṇi prasabhaṃ balād haranti | yataḥ pramāthīni pramathana-śīlāni kṣobhakānīty arthaḥ ||60||

madhusūdanaḥ : tatra prajñā-sthairye bāhyendriya-nigraho mano-nigrahaś cāsādhāraṇaṃ kāraṇaṃ tad-ubhayābhāve prajñā-nāśa-darśanād iti vaktuṃ bāhyendriya-nigrahābhāve prathamaṃ doṣam āha yatata iti | he kaunteya !

yatato bhūyo bhūyo viṣaya-doṣa-darśanātmakaṃ yatnaṃ kurvato 'pi, cakṣiṅo ṅitva-karaṇād anudātteto 'nāvaśyakam ātmanepadam iti jñāpanāt parasmaipadam aviruddham | vipaścito 'tyanta-vivekino 'pi puruṣasya manaḥ kṣaṇa-mātraṃ nirvikāraṃ kṛtam apīndriyāṇi haranti vikāraṃ prāpayanti |

nanu virodhinī viveke sati kuto vikāra-prāptis tatrāha pramāthīni pramathana-śīlāni atibalīyastvād vivekopamardana-kṣamāṇi | ataḥ prasabhaṃ prasahya balātkāreṇa paśyaty eva vipaściti svāmini viveke ca rakṣake sati sarva-pramāthītvād evendriyāṇi vivekaja-prajñāyāṃ praviṣṭaṃ manas tataḥ pracyāvya sva-viṣayāviṣṭatvena harantīty arthaḥ | hi-śabdaḥ prasiddhiṃ dyotayati | prasiddho hy ayam artho loke yathā pramāthino dasyavaḥ prasabham eva dhaninaṃ dhana-rakṣakaṃ cābhibhūya tayoḥ paśyator eva dhanaṃ haranti tathendriyāṇy api viṣaya-sannidhāne mano harantīti ||60||

viśvanāthaḥ : sādhakāvasthāyāṃ tu yatna eva mahān, na tv indriyāṇi parāvartayituṃ sarvathā śaktir ity āha yatata iti | pramāthīni pramathana-śīlāni kṣobhakānīty arthaḥ ||60||

baladevaḥ : athāsyā jñāna-niṣṭhayā daurlabhyam āha yatato hīti | vipaścito viṣayātma-svarūpa-vivekajñasya tata indriya-jaye prayatamānasyāpi puruṣasya indriyāṇi śrotrādīni kartṝṇi manaḥ parasabhaṃ balād iva haranti | hṛtvā viṣaya-pravaṇaṃ kurvantīty arthaḥ | nanu virodhini viveka-jñāne sthite kathaṃ haranti tatrāha pramāthīnīti ati-baliṣṭhatvāt taj-jñānopamardana-kṣamāṇīty arthaḥ | tasmāt caurebhyo mahā-nidher ivendriyebhyo jñāna-niṣṭhāyāḥ saṃrakṣaṇaṃ sthita-prajñasyāsanam iti ||60||

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BhG 2.61

tāni sarvāṇi saṃyamya yukta āsīta mat-paraḥ |
vaśe hi yasyendriyāṇi tasya prajñā pratiṣṭhitā ||61||

śrīdharaḥ : yasmād evaṃ tasmāt tānīti | yukto yogī tāni indriyāṇi saṃyamya mat-paraḥ sann āsīta | yasya vaśe vaśavartinīndriyāṇi | etena ca katham āsīteti praśnasya vaśīkṛtendriyaḥ sann āsīteti ||61||

madhusūdanaḥ : evaṃ tarhi tatra kaḥ pratīkāra ity ata āha tānīti | tānīndriyāṇi sarvāṇi jñāna-karma-sādhana-bhūtāni saṃyamya vaśīkṛtya yuktaḥ samāhito nigṛhīta-manāḥ sann āsīta nirvāpāras tiṣṭhet | pramāthināṃ kathaṃ sva-vaśīkaraṇam iti cet tatrāha mat-para iti | ahaṃ sarvātmā vāsudeva eva para utkṛṣṭa upādeyo yasya sa mat-para ekānta-mad-bhakta ity arthaḥ | tathā coktam na vāsudeva-bhaktānām aśubhaṃ vidyate kvacit iti | yathā hi loke balavantaṃ rājānam āśritya dasyavo nigṛhyante rājāśrito 'yam iti jñātvā ca svayam eva tad-vaśyā bhavanti tathaiva bhagavantaṃ sarvāntaryāminam āśritya tat-prabhāveṇaiva duṣṭānīndriyāṇi nigrāhyāṇi punaś ca bhagavad-āśrito 'yam iti matvā
tāni tad-vaśyāny eva bhavantīti bhāvaḥ | yathā ca bhagavad-bhakter mahā-prabhāvatvaṃ tathā vistareṇāgre vyākhyāsyāmaḥ | indriya-vaśīkāre phalam āha vaśe hīti | spaṣṭam | tad etad vaśīkṛtendriyaḥ sann āsīteti kim āsīteti praśnasyottaram uktaṃ bhavati ||61||

viśvanāthaḥ : mat-paro mad-bhakta iti | mad-bhaktiṃ vinā naivendriya-jaya ity agrima-granthe 'pi sarvatra draṣṭavyam | yad uktam uddhavena -

prāyaśaḥ puṇḍarīkākṣa yuñjanto yogino manaḥ |
viṣīdanty asamādhānān mano-nigraha-karśitāḥ |
athāta ānanda-dughaṃ padāmbujaṃ haṃsāḥ śrayeran || [BhP 11.29.1-2] iti |

vaśe hīti sthita-prajñasyendriyāṇi vaśībhūtāni bhavantīti sādhakād viśeṣa uktaḥ ||61||

baladevaḥ : nanu nirjitendriyāṇām apy ātmānubhavo na pratītas tatra ko 'bhyupāya iti cet tatrāha tānīti | tāni sarvāṇi saṃyamya mat-paro man-niṣṭhaḥ san yuktaḥ kṛtāma-samādhir āsīta tiṣṭheta | mad-bhakti-prabhāvena sarvendriya-vijaya-pūrvikā svātma-dṛṣṭiḥ sulabheti bhāvaḥ | evaṃ smaranti -

yathāgnir uddhata-śikhaḥ kakṣaṃ dahati sānilaḥ |
tathā citta-sthito viṣṇur yogināṃ sarva-kilbiṣam || [ViP 6.7.74] ity ādi |

vaśe hīti spaṣṭam | itthaṃ ca vaśīkṛtendriyatayāvasthitiḥ kim āsītety asyottaram uktam ||61||

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BhG 2.62-63

dhyāyato viṣayān puṃsaḥ saṅgas teṣūpajāyate |
saṅgāt saṃjāyate kāmaḥ kāmāt krodho 'bhijāyate ||62||
krodhād bhavati saṃmohaḥ saṃmohāt smṛti-vibhramaḥ |
smṛti-bhraṃśād buddhi-nāśo buddhi-nāśāt praṇaśyati ||63||

śrīdharaḥ : bāhyendriya-saṃyamābhāve doṣam uktvā manaḥ-saṃyamābhāve doṣam āha dhyāyata iti dvābhyām | guṇa-buddhyā viṣayān dhyāyataḥ puṃsaḥ teṣu saṅga āsaktir bhavati | āsaktyā ca teṣu adhikaḥ kāmo bhavati | kāmāc ca kenacit pratihatāt krodho bhavati | kiṃ ca, krodhād iti | krodhāt saṃmohaḥ kāryākārya-vivekābhāvaḥ | tataḥ śāstrācāryopadiṣṭa-smṛter vibhramo vicalanaṃ bhraṃśaḥ | tato buddheś cetanāyā nāśaḥ | vṛkṣādiṣv ivābhibhavaḥ | tataḥ praṇaśyati mṛta-tulyo bhavati ||62-63||

madhusūdanaḥ : nigṛhīta-bāhyendriyasyāpi śabdādīnviṣayān dhyāyato manasā punaḥ punaś cintayataḥ puṃsas teṣu viṣayeṣu saṅga āsaṅgo mamātyantaṃ sukha-hetava eta ity evaṃ śobhanādhyāsa-lakṣaṇaḥ prīti-viśeṣa upajāyate saṅgāt sukha-hetutva-jñāna-lakṣaṇāt saṃjāyate kāmo mamaite bhavantv iti tṛṣṇā-viśeṣaḥ | tasmāt kāmāt kutaścit pratihanyamānāt tat-pratighāta-viṣayaḥ krodho 'bhijvalanātmābhijāyate | krodhād bhavati saṃmohaḥ kāryākārya-vivekābhāva-rūpaḥ | saṃmohāt smṛti-vibhramaḥ smṛteḥ śāstrācāryopadiṣṭārthānusandhānasya
vibhramo vicalanaṃ vibhraṃśaḥ | tasmāc ca smṛti-bhraṃśād buddher aikātmyākāra-mano-vṛtter nāśo viparīta-bhāvanopacaya-doṣeṇa pratibandhād anutpattir utpannāyāś ca phalāyogyatvena vilayaḥ | buddhi-nāśāt praṇaśyati tasyāś ca phala-bhūtāyā buddher vilopāt praṇaśyati sarva-puruṣārthāyogyo bhavati | yo hi puruṣārthāyogyo jātaḥ sa mṛta eveti loke vyavahriyate | ataḥ praṇaśyatīty uktam | yasmād evaṃ manaso nigrahābhāve nigṛhīta-bāhyendriyasyāpi paramānartha-prāptis taramān mahatā prayatnena mano nigṛhṇīyād ity abhiprāyaḥ | ato yuktam uktaṃ tāni sarvāṇi saṃyamya yukta āsīteti ||62-63||

viśvanāthaḥ : sthita-prajñasya mano-vaśīkāra eva bāhyendriya-vaśīkāra-kāraṇaṃ sarvathā mano-vaśīkārābhāve tu yat syāt tat śṛṇv ity āha dhyāyata iti | saṅga āsaktiḥ | āsaktyā ca teṣv adhikaḥ kāmo 'bhilāṣaḥ | kāmāc ca kenacit pratihatāt krodhaḥ | krodhāt saṃmohaḥ kāryākārya-vivekābhāvaḥ | tasmāc ca śāstropadiṣṭa-svārthasya smṛti-nāśaḥ | tasmāc ca buddheḥ sad-vyavasāyasya nāśaḥ | tataḥ praṇaśyati saṃsāra-kūpe patati ||62-63||

baladevaḥ : vijitendriyasyāpi mayy aniveśita-manasaḥ punar anartho durvāra ity āha dhyāyata iti dvyābhyām | viṣayān śabdādīn sukha-hetutva-buddhyā dhyāyataḥ punaḥ punaś cintayato yoginas teṣu saṅga āsaktir bhavati | saṅgād dhetos teṣu kāma-tṛṣṇā jāyate | kāmāc ca kenacit pratihatāt krodhaś citta-jvālas tat-pratighātako bhavati | krodhāt saṃmohaḥ kāryākārya-viveka-vijñāna-vilopaḥ | saṃmohāt smṛter indriya-vijayādi-prayatnānusandher vibhramo vibhraṃśaḥ | smṛti-bhraṃśād buddher ātma-jñānārthakasyādhyavasāyasya nāśaḥ | buddhi-nāśāt praṇaśyati punar viṣaya-bhoga-nimagno bhavati saṃsaratīty arthaḥ | madanāśrayaṇād durbalaṃ
manas tāni sva-viṣayair yojayantīti bhāvaḥ | tathā ca mano-vijigīṣuṇā mad-upāsanaṃ vidheyam ||62-63||

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BhG 2.64

rāga-dveṣa-viyuktais tu viṣayān indriyaiś caran |
ātma-vaśyair vidheyātmā prasādam adhigacchati ||64||

śrīdharaḥ : nanv indriyāṇāṃ viṣaya-pravaṇa-svabhāvānāṃ niroddhum aśakyatvād ayaṃ doṣo duṣparihara iti sthita-prajñatvaṃ kathaṃ syāt ? ity āśaṅkyāha rāga-dveṣa iti dvābhyām | rāga-dveṣa-rahitaiḥ vigata-darpair indriyaiḥ viṣayāṃś carann upabhuñjāno 'pi prasādaṃ śāntiṃ prāpnoti | rāga-dveṣa-rāhityam evāha ātmeti | ātmano manasaḥ vaśyair indriyaiḥ vidheyo vaśavartī ātmā mano yasyeti | anenaiva kathaṃ vrajetety asya caturtha-praśnasya svādhīnair indriyair viṣayān gacchatīty uttaram uktaṃ bhavati ||64||

madhusūdanaḥ : manasi nigṛhīte tu bāhyendriya-nigrahābhāve 'pi na doṣa iti vadan kiṃ vrajetety asyottaram āhāṣṭabhiḥ | yo 'samāhita-cetāḥ sa bāhyendriyāṇi nigṛhyāpi rāga-dveṣa-duṣṭena manasā viṣayāṃś cintayan puruṣārthād bhraṣṭo bhavati | vidheyātmā tu tu-śabdhaḥ pūrvasmād vyatirekārthaḥ | vaśīkṛtāntaḥ-karaṇas tu ātma-vaśyair mano 'dhīnaiḥ svādhīnair iti vā rāga-dveṣābhyāṃ viyuktair virahitair indriyaiḥ śrotrādibhir viṣayān śabdādīn aniṣiddhāṃś carann upalabhamānaḥ prasādaṃ prasannātāṃ cittasya svacchatāṃ
paramātma-sākṣātkāra-yogyatām adhigacchati | rāga-dveṣa-prayuktānīndriyāṇi doṣa-hetutāṃ pratipadyante | manasi sva-vaśe tu na rāga-dveṣau | tayor abhāve ca na tad-adhīnendriya-pravṛttiḥ | avarjanīyatayā tu viṣayopalambho na doṣam āvahatīti na śuddhi-vyāghāta iti bhāvaḥ |

etena viṣayāṇāṃ smaraṇam api ced anartha-kāraṇaṃ sutarāṃ tarhi bhogas tena jīvanārthaṃ viṣayān bhuñjānaḥ katham anarthaṃ na pratipadyeteti śaṅkā nirastā | svādhīnair indriyair viṣayān prāpnotīti ca kiṃ vrajeteti praśnasyottaram uktaṃ bhavati ||64||

viśvanāthaḥ : mānasa-viṣaya-grahaṇābhāve sati sva-vaśyair indriyair viṣaya-grahaṇe 'pi na doṣa iti vadan sthita-prajño vrajeta kim ity asyottaram āha rāgeti | vidheyo vacane sthta ātmā mano yasya saḥ |

vidheyo vinaya-grāhī vacane sthita āśravaḥ |
vaśyaḥ praṇayo nibhṛta-vinīta-praśritāḥ || ity amaraḥ |

prasādam adhigacchatīty etādṛśasyādhikāriṇo viṣaya-grahaṇam api na doṣa iti kiṃ vaktavyam ? pratyuta guṇa eveti | sthita-prajñasya viṣaya-tyāga-svīkārāv eva āsana-vrajane te ubhe api tasya bhadre iti bhāvaḥ ||64||

baladevaḥ : manasi nirjite śrotrādi-nirjayābhāvo 'pi na doṣa iti bruvan vrajeta kim ity asottaram āha rāgeti ādibhir aṣṭabhiḥ | vijita-bahir-indriyo 'pi mad-anarpita-manāḥ paramārthād vicyuta ity uktam | yo vidheyātmā svādhīna-manā mad-arpita-manās tata eva nidagdha-rāgādi-mano-malaḥ sa tv ātma-vaśyair mano 'dhīnair ata eva rāga-dveṣābhyāṃ viyuktair indriyaiḥ śrotrādyair viṣayān niṣiddhān śabdādīṃś caran bhuñjāno 'pi prasādaṃ viṣayāsakty-ādi-malānāgamād vimala-manas tam adhigacchatīty prāpnotīty arthaḥ ||64||

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BhG 2.65

prasāde sarva-duḥkhānāṃ hānir asyopajāyate |
prasanna-cetaso hy āśu buddhiḥ paryavatiṣṭhate ||65||

śrīdharaḥ : prasāde sati kiṃ syād ity atrāha prasāda iti | prasāde sati sarva-duḥkha-nāśaḥ | tataś ca prasanna-cetaso buddhiḥ pratiṣṭhitā bhavatīty arthaḥ ||65||

madhusūdanaḥ : prasādam adhigacchatīty uktaṃ tatra prasāde sati kiṃ syād ity ucyate prasāda iti | cittasya prasāde svacchatva-rūpe sati sarva-duḥkhānām ādhyātmikādīnām ajñāna-vilasitānāṃ hānir vināśo 'sya yater upajāyate | hi yasmāt prasanna-cetaso yater āśu śīghram eva buddhir brahmātmaikyākārā paryavatiṣṭhate pari samantād avatiṣṭhate sthirā bhavati viparīta-bhāvanādi-pratibandhābhāvāt | tataś ca prasāde sati buddhi-paryavasthānaṃ tatas tad-virodhy-ajñāna-nivṛttiḥ | tatas tat-kārya-sakala-duḥkha-hānir iti krame 'pi prasāde yatrādhikyāya sarva-duḥkha-hāni-karatva-kathanam iti na virodhaḥ ||65||

viśvanāthaḥ : buddhiḥ paryavatiṣṭhate sarvato-bhāvena svābhīṣṭaṃprati sthirī-bhavatīti viṣaya-grahaṇābhāvād api samucita-viṣaya-grahaṇaṃ tasya sukham iti bhāvaḥ | prasanna-cetaso iti citta-prasādo bhaktyaiveti jñeyam | tayā vinā tu na citta-prasāda iti prathama-skandha eva prapañcitam | kṛta-vedānta-śāstrasyāpi vyāsasyāprasanna-cittasya śrī-nāradopadiṣṭayā bhaktyaiva citta-prasāda-dṛṣṭeḥ ||65||

baladevaḥ : prasāde sati kiṃ syād ity āha asya yogino manaḥ prasāde sati sarveṣāṃ prakṛti-saṃsarga-kṛtānāṃ duḥkhānāṃ hānir upajāyate | prasanna-cetasaḥ svātma-yāthātmya-viṣayā buddhiḥ paryavatiṣṭhate sthirā bhavati ||65||

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BhG 2.66

nāsti buddhir ayuktasya na cāyuktasya bhāvanā |
na cābhāvayataḥ śāntir aśāntasya kutaḥ sukham ||66||

śrīdharaḥ : indriya-nigrahasya sthita-prajñatā-sādhanatvaṃ vyatireka-mukhenopapādayati nāstīti | ayuktasya avaśī-kṛtendriyasya nāsti buddhiḥ | śāstrācāryopadeśābhyām ātma-viṣayā buddhiḥ prajñaiva notpadyate | kutas tasyāḥ pratiṣṭhā-vārtā | kuta ity atrāha na ceti | na cāyuktasya bhāvanā dhyānam | bhāvanayā hi buddher ātmani pratiṣṭhā bhavati, sā ca ayuktasya yato nāsti | na cābhāvayataḥ ātma-dhyānam akurvataḥ śāntiḥ ātmani cittoparamaḥ | aśāntasya kutaḥ sukham mokṣānanda ity arthaḥ ||66||

madhusūdanaḥ : imam evārthaṃ vyatireka-mukhena draḍhayati nāstīti | ayuktasyājita-cittasya buddhir ātma-viṣayā śravaṇa-mananākhya-vedānta-vicāra-janyā nāsti notpadyate | tad-buddhy-abhāve na cāyuktasya bhāvanā nididhyāsanātmikā vijātīya-pratyayānantaritasajātīya-pratyaya-pravāha-rūpā | sarvatra naño 'stīty anenānvayaḥ | na cābhāvayata ātmānaṃ śāntiḥ sakāryāvidyā-nivṛtti-rūpā vedānta-vākya-janyā brahmātmaikya-sākṣāt-kṛtiḥ | aśāntasyātma-sākṣātkāra-śūnyasya kutaḥ sukhaṃ mokṣānanda ity arthaḥ ||66||

viśvanāthaḥ : uktam arthaṃ vyatireka-mukhena draḍhayati nāstīti | ayuktasyāvaśīkṛta-manaso buddhir ātma-viṣayiṇī prajñā nāsti | ayuktasya tādṛśa-prajñā-rahitasya bhāvanā parameśvara-dhyānaṃ ca | abhāvayato 'kṛta-dhyānasya śāntir viṣayoparamo nāsti | aśāntasya sukham ātmānandaḥ ||66||

baladevaḥ : pūrvoktam arthaṃ vyatireka-mukhenāha ayuktasyāyogino mad-aniveśita-manaso buddhir ukta-lakṣaṇā nāsti na bhavati | ataeva tasya bhāvanā tādṛg-ātma-cintāpi nāsti | tādṛśam ātmānam abhāvayataḥ śāntir viṣaya-tṛṣṇā-nivṛttir nāsti | aśāntasya tat-tṛṣṇākulasya sukham sva-prakāśānandātmānubhava-lakṣaṇaṃ kutaḥ syāt ||66||

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BhG 2.67

indriyāṇāṃ hi caratāṃ yan mano 'nuvidhīyate |
tad asya harati prajñāṃ vāyur nāvam ivāmbhasi ||67||

śrīdharaḥ : nāsti buddhir ayuktasya [Gītā 2.66] ity atra hetum āha indriyāṇām iti | indriyāṇām avaśīkṛtānāṃ svairaṃ viṣayeṣu caratāṃ madhye yadaivaikam indriyaṃ mano 'nuvidhīyate |vaśīkṛtaṃ sad-indriyeṇa saha gacchati, tadaivaikam indriyasya manasaḥ puruṣasya vā prajñāṃ buddhiṃ harati viṣaya-vikṣiptāṃ karoti | kim uta vaktavyaṃ bahūni prajñāṃ harantīti | yathā pramattasya karṇadhārasya nāvaṃ vāyuḥ sarvataḥ paribhramayati tadvad iti ||67||

madhusūdanaḥ : ayuktasya kuto nāsti buddhir ity ata āha indriyāṇām iti | caratāṃ sva-viṣayeṣu sva-sva-viṣayeṣu pravartamānānām avaśīkṛtānām indriyāṇāṃ madhye yad ekam apīndriyam anulakṣyīkṛtya mano vidhīyate preryate pravartate iti yāvat | karma-kartari la-kāraḥ | tat indriyam ekam api manasānusṛtam asya sādhakasya manaso vā prajñām ātma-viṣayāṃ śāstrīyāṃ harati apanayati manasas tad-viṣayāviṣṭatvāt | yadaikam apīndriyaṃ prajñāṃ harati tadā sarvāṇi harantīti kim u vaktavyam ity arthaḥ |

dṛṣṭāntas tu spaṣṭaḥ | abhyasyeti vāyor naukā-haraṇa-sāmarthyaṃ na bhuvīti sūcayitum ambhasīty uktam | evaṃ dārṣṭāntike 'py ambhaḥ-sthānīye manaś cāñcalye saty eva prajñā-haraṇa-sāmarthyam indriyasya na tu bhū-sthānīye manaḥ-sthairya iti sūcitam ||67||

viśvanāthaḥ : ayuktasya buddhir nāstīty upapādayati indriyāṇāṃ sva-sva-viṣayeṣu caratāṃ madhye yan mama ekam indriyam anuvidhīyate | puṃsāṃ sarvendriyānuvartiḥ kriyate, tad eva mano 'sya prajñāṃ buddhiṃ harati | yathāmbhasi nīyamānāṃ nāvaṃ pratikūlo vāyuḥ ||67||

baladevaḥ : man-niveśita-manaskatayeindriya-niyamanābhāve doṣam āha indriyāṇām iti | viṣayeṣu caratām avijitānām indriyāṇāṃ madhye yad ekaṃ śrotraṃ vā cakṣur vānulakṣyīkṛtya mano vidhīyate pravartate, tad ekam evendriyaṃ manasānugatam asya pravartakasya prajñāṃ viviktātma-viṣayāṃ haraty apanayati manasasas tad-viṣayākṛṣṭatvāt | kiṃ punaḥ ? sarvāṇi tānīti | pratikūlo vāyur yathāmbhasi nīyamānāṃ nāvaṃ tadvat ||67||

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BhG 2.68

tasmād yasya mahābāho nigṛhītāni sarvaśaḥ |
indriyāṇīndriyārthebhyas tasya prajñā pratiṣṭhitā ||68||

śrīdharaḥ : indriya-saṃyamasya sthita-prajñatve sādhanatvaṃ coktam upasaṃharati tasmād iti | sādhanatvopasaṃhāre tasya prajñā pratiṣṭhitā jñātavyety arthaḥ | mahābāho ! iti sambodhayan vairi-nigrahe samarthasya tavātrāpi sāmarthyaṃ bhaved iti sūcayati ||68||

madhusūdanaḥ : hi yasmād evaṃ tasmād iti | sarvaśaḥ sarvāṇi samanaskāni | he mahābāho iti sambodhayan sarva-śatru-nivāraṇa-kṣamatvād indriya-śatru-nivāraṇe 'pi tvaṃ kṣamo 'sīti sūcayati | spaṣṭam anyat | tasyeti siddhasya sādhakasya ca parāmarśaḥ | indriya-saṃyamasya sthita-prajñaṃ prati lakṣaṇatvasya mumukṣuṃ prati prajñā-sādhanatvasya copasaṃharaṇīyatvāt ||68||

viśvanāthaḥ : yasya nigṛhīta-manasaḥ | he mahā-bāho ! iti yathā śatrūn nigṛhṇāsi, tathā mano 'pi nigṛhāṇeti bhāvaḥ ||68||

baladevaḥ : tasmād iti | yasya man-niṣṭha-manasaḥ pratiṣṭhitātma-niṣṭhā bhavati | he mahābāho iti yathā ripūn nigṛhṇāsi tathendriyāṇi nigṛhāṇety arthaḥ | ebhiḥ ślokair bhagavan-niviṣṭatayendriya-vijayaḥ sthita-prajñasya siddhasya svābhāvikaḥ | sādhakasya tu sādhana-bhūta iti bodhyam ||68||

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BhG 2.69

yā niśā sarva-bhūtānāṃ tasyāṃ jāgarti saṃyamī |
yasyāṃ jāgrati bhūtāni sā niśā paśyato muneḥ ||69||

śrīdharaḥ : nanu na kaścid api prasupta iva darśanādi-vyāpāra-śūnyaḥ sarvātmanā nigṛhītendriyo loke dṛśyate | ato 'saktāvitam idaṃ lakṣaṇam ity āśaṅkyāha yā niśeti | sarveṣāṃ bhūtānāṃ yā niśā | niśeva niśā ātma-niṣṭhā | ajñāna-dhvāntāvṛta-matīnāṃ tasyāṃ darśanādi-vyāpārābhāvāt | tasyāṃ ātma-niṣṭhāyāṃ saṃyamī nigṛhītendriyo jāgrati prabudhyante | sātma-tattvaṃ paśyato muner niśā | tasyāṃ darśanādi-vyāpāras tasya nāsti ity arthaḥ | etad uktaṃ bhavati - yathā divāndhānām ulukādīnāṃ rātrāv eva darśanaṃ na tu divase | evaṃ brahmajñasyonmīlitākṣasyāpi brahmaṇy eva dṛṣṭiḥ
| na tu viṣayeṣu | ato nāsambhāvitam idaṃ lakṣaṇam iti ||69||

madhusūdanaḥ : tad evaṃ mumukṣuṇā prajñā-sthairyāya prayatna-pūrvakam indriya-saṃyamaḥ kartavya ity uktaṃ sthita-prajñasya tu svataḥ siddha eva sarvendriya-saṃyama ity āha yā niśeti | yā vedānta-vākya-janita-sākṣātkāra-rūpāhaṃ brahmāsmīti prajñā sarva-bhūtānām ajñānāṃ niśeva niśā tān praty aprakāśa-rūpatvāt | tasyāṃ brahma-vidyā-lakṣaṇāyāṃ sarva-bhūta-niśāyāṃ jāgarti ajñāna-nidrāyāḥ prabuddhaḥ san sāvadhāno vartate saṃyamīndriya-saṃyamavān sthita-prajña ity arthaḥ | yasyāṃ tu dvaita-darśana-lakṣaṇāyām avidyā-nidrāyāṃ prasuptāny eva bhūtāni jāgrati svapnavad
vyavaharanti sā niśā na prakāśata ātma-tattvaṃ paśyato 'parokṣatayā muneḥ sthita-prajñasya | yāvad dhi na prabudhyate tāvad eva svapna-darśanaṃ bodhya-paryantatvād bhramasya tattva-jñāna-kāle tu na bhrama-nimittaḥ kaścid vyavahāraḥ | tad uktaṃ vārtika-kāraiḥ -

kāraka-vyavahāre hi śuddhaṃ vastu na vīkṣyante |
śuddhe vastuni siddhe ca kāraka-vyāpṛtis tathā ||
kākolūka-niśevāyaṃ saṃsāro 'jñātma-vedinoḥ |
yā niśā sarva-bhūtānām ity avocat svayaṃ hariḥ || iti |

tathā ca yasya viparīta-darśanaṃ tasya na vastu-darśanaṃ viparīta-darśanasya vastv-adarśana-janyatvāt | yasya ca vastu-darśanaṃ tasya na viparīta-darśanaṃ viparīta-darśana-kāraṇasya vastv-adarśanasya vastu-darśanena bādhitatvāt | tathā ca śrutiḥ - yatra vā anyad iva syāt tatrānyo 'nyat paśyet | yatra svasya sarvam ātmaivābhūt tat kena kaṃ paśyet || iti vidyāvidyayor vyavasthām āha | yathā kākasya rātry-andhasya dinam ulūkasya divāndhasya niśā rātrau paśyataś colūkasya yad dinaṃ rātrir eva sā kākasyeti mahad āścaryam etat | atas tattva-darśibhiḥ katham āvidyaka-kriyā-kārakādi-vyavahāraḥ syād iti svataḥ siddha eva tasyendriya-saṃyama ity arthaḥ ||69||

viśvanāthaḥ : sthita-prajñasya tu svataḥ-siddha eva sarvendriya-nigraha ity āha yeti | buddhir hi dvividhā bhavati ātma-pravaṇā viṣaya-pravaṇā ca | tatra yā ātma-pravaṇā buddhiḥ sā sarva-bhūtānāṃ niśā | niśāyāṃ kiṃ kiṃ syād iti tasyāṃ svapanto janā yathā na jānanti, tathaiva ātma-pravaṇa-buddhau prāpyamāṇaṃ vastu sarva-bhūtāni na jānanti | kintu tasyāṃ saṃyamī sthita-prajño jāgarti | na tu svapiti | ata ātma-buddhi-niṣṭham ānandaṃ sākṣād anubhavati | yasyāṃ viṣaya-pravaṇāyāṃ buddhau bhūtāni jāgrati, tan-niṣṭhaṃ viṣaya-sukha-śoka-mohādikaṃ sākṣād anubhavanti na tu tatra
svapanti | sā muneḥ sthita-prajñasya niśā tan-niṣṭhaṃ kim api nānubhavati ity arthaḥ | kintu paśyataḥ sāṃsārikānāṃ sukha-duḥkha-pradān viṣayān tatraudāsīnyenāvalokayataḥ svabhogyān viṣayān api yathocitaṃ nirlepam ādadānasyety arthaḥ ||69||

baladevaḥ : sādhakāvasthasya sthita-prajñasyendriya-saṃyamaḥ prayatna-sādhya ity uktam | siddhāvasthasya tu tasya tan-niyamaḥ svābhāvika ity āha yā niśeti | viviktātma-niṣṭhā viṣaya-niṣṭhā ceti buddhir dvividhā | yātma-niṣṭhā buddhiḥ sarva-bhūtānāṃ niśā-rūpakeṇopamātra vyajyate rātri-tulyā tadvad aprakāśikā | rātrāv ivātma-niṣṭhāyāṃ buddhau svapanto janās tal-labhyam ātmānaṃ sarve nānubhavantīty arthaḥ | saṃyamī jitendriyas tu tasyāṃ jāgarti na tu svapiti | tayā labhyam ātmānam anubhavatīty arthaḥ | yasyāṃ viṣya-niṣṭhāyāṃ buddhau bhūtānio jāgrati viṣaya-bhogān anubhavanti na tu
tatra svapanti sā muneḥ sthita-prajñasya niśā | tasya viṣaya-bhogāprakāśikety arthaḥ | kīdṛśasyety āha paśyata iti | ātmānaṃ sākṣād anubhavataḥ prārabdhaākṛṣṭān viṣayān apy audāsīnyena bhuñjānasya cety arthaḥ | nartakī-mūrdha-ghaṭāvadhāna-nyāyenātma-dṛṣṭer na tad-anya-rasa-graha iti bhāvaḥ |

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BhG 2.70

āpūryamāṇam acala-pratiṣṭhaṃ
samudram āpaḥ praviśanti yadvat |
tadvat kāmā yaṃ praviśanti sarve
sa śāntim āpnoti na kāma-kāmī ||70||

śrīdharaḥ : nanu viṣayeṣu dṛṣṭy-abhāve katham asau tān bhuṅkte ity apekṣāyām āha āpūryamāṇam iti | nānā-nada-nadīnbhir āpūryamāṇam api acala-pratiṣṭham anatikrānta-maryādam eva samudraṃ punar api anyā āpo yathā praviśanti tathā kāmā viṣayā yaṃ munim antar-dṛṣṭiṃ bhogair avikriyamāṇam eva prārabdha-karmabhir ākṣiptāḥ santaḥ praviśanti sa śāntim kaivalyaṃ prāpnoti | na tu kāma-kāmī bhoga-kāmanā-śīlaḥ ||70||

madhusūdanaḥ : etādṛśasya sthita-prajñasya sarva-vikṣepa-śāntir apy artha-siddheti sa-dṛṣṭāntam āha āpūryamāṇam iti | sarvābhir nadībhir āpūryamāṇaṃ santaṃ vṛṣṭy-ādi-prabhavā api sarvā āpaḥ samudraṃ praviśanti | kīdṛśam acala-pratiṣṭham anatikrānta-maryādam | acalānāṃ mainākādīnāṃ pratiṣṭhā yasminn iti vā gāmbhīryātiśaya uktaḥ | yadvad yena prakāreṇa nirvikāratvena tadvat tenaiva nirvikāratva-prakāreṇa yaṃ sthita-prajñaṃ nirvikāram eva santaṃ kāmā ajñair lokaiḥ kāmyamānāḥ śabdādyāḥ sarve viṣayā avarjanīyatayā prārabdha-karma-vaśāt praviśanti na tu vikartuṃ śaknuvanti sa mahā-samudra-sthānīyaḥ
sthita-prajñaḥ śāntiṃ sarva-laukikālaukika-karma-vikṣepa-nivṛttiṃ bādhitānuvṛttāvidyā-kārya-nivṛttiṃ cāpnoti jñāna-balena | na kāma-kāmī kāmān viṣayān kāmayituṃ śīlaṃ yasya sa kāma-kāmy ajñaḥ śāntiṃ samākhyātāṃ nāpnoti | api tu sarvadā laukikālaukika-karma-vikṣepeṇa mahati kleśārṇave magno bhavatīti vākyārthaḥ | etena jñānina eva phala-bhūto vidvat-saṃnyāsas tasyaiva ca sarva-vikṣepa-nivṛtti-rūpā jīvan-muktir daivāddhnīna-viṣaya-bhoge 'pi nirvikāratety-ādikam uktaṃ veditavyam ||70||

viśvanāthaḥ : viṣaya-grahaṇe kṣobha-rāhityam eva nirlepety āha āpūryamāṇam iti | yathā varṣāsu itas tataḥ nādeyā āpaḥ samudraṃ praviśanti kīdṛśam | ā īṣad api āpūryamāṇam tāvatībhir apy adbhiḥ pūrayituṃ na śakyam | acala-pratiṣṭham anatikrānta-maryādaṃ tadvad eva kāmā viṣayā yaṃ praviśanti bhogyatvenāyānti | yathā apāṃ praveśe apraveśe vā samudro na kam api viśeṣam āpadyate | evam eva yaḥ kāmānāṃ bhoge abhoge ca kṣobha-rahita eva syāt sa sthita-prajñaḥ | śāntiṃ jñānam ||70||

baladevaḥ : uktaṃ bhāvaṃ sphuṭayann āha āpūryeti | svarūpeṇaivāpūryamāṇaṃ tathāpy acala-pratiṣṭham anullaṅghita-velaṃ samudraṃ yathāpo 'nyā varṣodbhavā nadyaḥ praviśanti, na tu tatra kiñcid viśeṣaṃ śaknuvanti kartuṃ, tadvat sarve kāmāḥ prārabdhākṛṣṭā viṣayā yaṃ praviśanti na tu vikartuṃ prabhavanti sa śāntim āpnoti | śabdādiṣu tad indriya-gocareṣv api sat svātmānandānubhava-tṛptair vikāra-leśam apy avindan sthita-prajña ity arthaḥ | yaḥ kāma-kāmī viṣaya-lipsuḥ sa tūkta-lakṣaṇāṃ śāntiṃ nāpnoti ||70||

__________________________________________________________

BhG 2.71

vihāya kāmān yaḥ sarvān pumāṃś carati niḥspṛhaḥ |
nirmamo nirahaṃkāraḥ sa śāntim adhigacchati ||71||

śrīdharaḥ : yasmād evaṃ tasmāt vihāyeti | prāptān kāmān vihāya tyaktvopekṣya aprāpteṣu ca niḥspṛhaḥ yato nirahaṅkāro 'taeva tad-bhoga-sādhaneṣu nirmamaḥ sann antar-dṛṣṭir bhūtvā yaś carati prārabdha-vaśena bhogān bhuṅkte | yatra kutrāpi gacchati vā | sa śāntim prāpnoti ||71||

madhusūdanaḥ : yasmād evaṃ tasmāt vihāyeti | prāptān api sarvān bāhyān gṛha-kṣetrādīnāntarān manorājya-rūpān vāsanā-mātra-rūpāṃś ca pathi gacchaṃs tṛṇa-sparśa-rūpān kāmāṃs trividhān vihāyopekṣya śarīra-jīvana-mātre 'pi nispṛhaḥ san | yato nirahaṅkāra śarīrendriyādāv ayam aham ity abhimāna-śūnyaḥ | vidyāvattvādi-nimittātma-sambhāvanā-rahita iti vā | ato nirmamaḥ śarīra-yātrā-mātrārthe 'pi prārabdha-karmākṣipte kaupīnācchādanādau mamedam ity abhimāna-varjitaḥ san yaḥ pumāṃś carati prārabdha-karma-vaśena bhogān bhuṅkte yādṛcchikatayā yatra kvāpi gacchatīti vā | sa evaṃbhūtaḥ sthita-prajñaḥ śāntiṃ
sarva-saṃsāra-duḥkhoparama-lakṣaṇām avidyā-tat-kārya-nivṛttim adhigacchati jñāna-balena prāpnoti | tad etad īdṛśaṃ vrajanaṃ sthita-prajñasyeti caturtha-praśnasyottaraṃ parisamāptam ||71||

viśvanāthaḥ : kaścit tu kāmeṣu aviśvasan naiva tān bhuṅkte ity āha | vihāyeti nirahaṅkāro nirmama iti deha-daihikeṣu ahaṃtā-mamatā-śūnyaḥ ||71||

baladevaḥ : vihāyeti | prāptān kāmān viṣayān sarvān vihāya śarīropajīvana-mātre 'pi nirmamo mamtā-śūnyaḥ nirahaṅkāro 'nātmani śarīre ātmābhimāna-śūnyaś carati tad-upajīvana-mātraṃ bhakṣayati yatra kvāpi gacchati vā sa śāntiṃ labhate iti vrajeta kim ity asyottaram ||71||

__________________________________________________________

BhG 2.72

eṣā brāhmī sthitiḥ pārtha naināṃ prāpya vimuhyati |
sthitvāsyām anta-kāle 'pi brahma-nirvāṇam ṛcchati ||72||

śrīdharaḥ : uktāṃ jñāna-niṣṭhāṃ stuvann upasaṃharati eṣeti | brāhmī sthitir brahma-jñāna-niṣṭhā | eṣaivaṃvidhā | enāṃ parameśvarārādhanena viśuddhāntaḥkaraṇaḥ pumān prāpya na vimuhyati | punaḥ saṃsāra-mohaṃ na prāpnoti | yato 'nta-kāle mṛtyu-samaye 'py asyāṃ lakṣa-mātram api sthitvā brahma-nirvāṇam brahmaṇi nirvāṇaṃ layam ṛcchati prāpnoti | kiṃ punar vaktavyaṃ bālyam ārabhya sthitvā prāpnotīti ||72||

śoka-paṅka-nimagnaṃ yaḥ sāṅkhya-yogopadeśataḥ |
ujjahārārjunaṃ bhaktaṃ sa kṛṣṇa-śaraṇaṃ mama ||

iti śrī-śrīdhara-svāmikṛtāyāṃ bhagavad-gītā-ṭīkāyāṃ subodhinyāṃ
dvitīyo 'dhyāyaḥ
||2||

madhusūdanaḥ : tad evaṃ caturṇāṃ praśnānām uttara-vyājena sarvāṇi sthita-prajña-lakṣaṇāni mumukṣu-kartavyatayā kathitāni | samprati karma-yoga-phala-bhūtāṃ sāṅkhya-niṣṭhāṃ stuvann upasaṃharati eṣeti | eṣā sthita-prajña-lakṣaṇa-vyājena kathitā | eṣā te 'bhihitā sāṅkhye buddhir iti ca prāg uktā sthitir niṣṭhā sarva-karma-saṃnyāsa-pūrvaka-paramātma-jñāna-lakṣaṇā brāhmī brahma-viṣayā | he pārtha ! enāṃ sthitiṃ prāpya yaḥ kaścid api pnar na vimuhyati | na hi jñāna-bādhitasyājñānasya punaḥ sambhavo 'sti anāditvenotpatty-asambhavāt | asyāṃ sthitāv anta-kāle 'pi antye 'pi vaayasi sthitvā brahma-nirvāṇaṃ
brahmaṇi nirvāṇaṃ nirvṛttiṃ brahma-rūpaṃ nirvāṇam iti vā | ṛcchati gacchaty abhedena | kim u vaktavyaṃ yo bramacaryād eva saṃnyasya yāvaj-jīvam asyāṃ brāhmyāṃ sthitāv avatiṣṭhate sa brahma-nirvāṇam ṛcchatīty api-śabdārthaḥ ||72||

iti śrīmat-paramahaṃsa-parivrājakācārya-śrī-viśveśvara-sarasvatī-pāda-śiṣya-śrī-madhusūdana-sarasvatī-viracitāyāṃ śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā-gūḍhārtha-dīpikāyām sarva-gītārtha-sūtraṇaṃ nāma
dvitīyo 'dhyāyaḥ ||2||

viśvanāthaḥ : upasaṃharati eṣeti | brāhmī brahma-prāpikā | anta-kāle mṛtyu-samaye 'pi | kiṃ punar ābālyam ||72||

jñānaṃ karma ca vispaṣṭam aspaṣṭaṃ bhaktim uktavān |
ataevāyam adhyāyaḥ śrī-gītā-sūtram ucyate ||
iti sārārtha-varṣiṇyāṃ harṣiṇyāṃ bhakta-cetasām |
śrī-gītāsu dvitīyo 'yaṃ saṅgataḥ saṅgataḥ satām ||2||

baladevaḥ : sthita-prajñatāṃ stauti eṣeti | brāhmī brahma-prāpikā | anta-kāle carame vayasi | kiṃ punar ākaumāraṃ brahma ṛcchati labhate | nirvāṇam amṛta-rūpaṃ tat pradam ity arthaḥ | nanu tasyāṃ sthitaḥ kathaṃ brahma prāpnoti | tat-prāptes tad-bhakti-hetukatvād iti ced ucyate | tasyās tad-bhakti-hetukatvāt tad-bhakti-hetutvāc ca tat-prāpakateti ||72||
niṣkāma-karmabhir jñānī harim eva smaran bhavet |
anyathā vighna eveti dvitīyo 'dhyāya-nirṇayaḥ ||

iti śrīmad-bhagavad-gītopaniṣad-bhāṣye dvitīyo 'dhyāyaḥ |
||2||




[*ENDNOTE] Only found in Manu.
[*ENDNOTE] This is a reference to chapter 11.25. See VCT to 18.28.



**********************************************************


Bhagavadgita 3


BhG 3.1

arjuna uvāca
jyāyasī cet karmaṇas te matā buddhir janārdana |
tat kiṃ karmaṇi ghore māṃ niyojayasi keśava || 1 ||

śrīdharaḥ :

sāṅkhye yoge ca vaiṣamyaṃ matvā mugdhāya jiṣṇave |
tayor bheda-nirāsāya karma-yoge udīryate ||

evaṃ tāvad aśocyān anvaśocas tvam [Gītā 2.11] ity ādinā prathamaṃ mokṣa-sādhanatvena dehātma-viveka-buddhir uktā | tad-anantaram eṣā te 'bhihitā sāṅkhye buddhir yoge tv imāṃ śṛṇu [Gītā 2.39] ity ādinā karma coktam | na ca tayor guṇa-pradhāna-bhāvaḥ spaṣṭaṃ darśitaḥ | tatra buddhi-yuktasya sthita-prajñasya niṣkāmatva-niyatendriyatva-nirahaṅkāratvādy-abhidhānād eṣā brāhmī sthitiḥ pārtha [Gītā 2.72] iti sapraśaṃsam upasaṃhārāc ca buddhi-karmaṇor madhye buddheḥ śreṣṭhatvaṃ bhagavato 'bhipretaṃ manvāno 'rjuna uvāca jyāyasī ced iti | karmaṇaḥ sakāśāt mokṣāntaraṅgatvena buddhir jyāyasī adhikatarā śreṣṭhā
cet tava saṃmatā tarhi kim arthaṃ tasmād yudhyasveti tasmād uttiṣṭeti ca vāraṃ vāraṃ vadan ghore hiṃsātmake karmaṇi māṃ niyojayasi pravartayasi ||1||

madhusūdanaḥ : evaṃ tāvat prathamenādhyāyenopodghātito dvitīyenādhyāyena kṛtsnaḥ śāstrārthaḥ sūtritaḥ | tathā hi-ādau niṣkāma-karma-niṣṭhā | tato 'ntaḥkaraṇa-śuddhiḥ | tataḥ śama-damādi-sādhana-puraḥsaraḥ sarva-karma-saṃnyāsaḥ | tato vedānta-vākya-vicāra-sahitā bhagavad-bhakti-niṣṭhā | tatas tattva-jñāna-niṣṭhā tasyāḥ phalaṃ ca triguṇātmakāvidyā-nivṛttyā jīvan-muktiḥ prārabdha-karma-phala-bhoga-paryantaṃ tad-ante ca videha-muktiḥ | jīvan-mukti-daśāyāṃ ca parama-puruṣārthālambanena para-vairāgya-prāptir daiva-sampad-ākhyā ca śubha-vāsanā tad-upakāriṇy-ādeyā
| āsura-sampadas tu rājasī tāmasī ceti heyopādeya-vibhāgena kṛtsna-śāstrārtha-parisamāptiḥ |

tatra yogasthaḥ kuru karmāṇi [Gītā 2.48] ityādinā sūtritā sattva-śuddhi-sādhana-bhūtā niṣkāma-karma-niṣṭhā sāmānya-viśeṣa-rūpeṇa tṛtīya-caturthābhyāṃ prapañcyate | tataḥ śuddhāntaḥkaraṇasya śama-damādi-sādhana-sampatti-puraḥsarā vihāya kāmān yaḥ sarvān [Gītā 2.71] ity ādinā sūtritā sarva-karma-saṃnyāsa-niṣṭhā saṅkṣepa-vistara-rūpeṇa pañcama-ṣaṣṭhābhyām | etāvatā ca tvaṃ-padārtho 'pi nirūpitaḥ | tato vedānta-vākya-vicāra-sahitā yukta āsīta mat-paraḥ [Gītā 2.61] ity ādinā sūtritāneka-prakārā bhagavad-bhakti-niṣṭhādhyāya-ṣaṭkena pratipādyate | tāvatā ca tat-padārtho 'pi nirūpitaḥ | praty adhyāyaṃ
cāvāntara-saṅgatim avāntara-prayojana-bhedaṃ ca tatra tatra pradarśayiṣyāmaḥ | tatas tattvaṃ-padārthaikya-jñāna-rūpā vedāvināśinaṃ nityaṃ [Gītā 2.21] ity ādinā sūtritā tattva-jñāna-niṣṭhā trayodaśe prakṛti-puruṣa-viveka-dvārā prapañcitā | jñāna-niṣṭhāyāṃ ca phalaṃ traiguṇya-viṣayā vedā nistraiguṇyo bhavārjuna [Gītā 2.45] ity ādinā sūtritā traiguṇya-nivṛttiś caturdaśe saiva jīvan-muktir iti guṇātīta-lakṣaṇa-kathanena prapañcitā | tadā gantāsi nirvedaṃ [Gītā 2.52] ity ādinā sūtritā para-vairāgya-niṣṭhā saṃsāra-vṛkṣa-ccheda-dvāreṇa pañca-daśe | duḥkheṣv anudvigna-manāḥ [Gītā 2.56] ity ādinā sthita-prajña-lakṣaṇena
sūtritā para-vairāgyopakāriṇī daivī sampad ādeyā yām imāṃ puṣpitāṃ vācaṃ [Gītā 2.42] ity ādinā sūtritā tad-virodhiny āsurī sampac ca heyā ṣoḍaśe | daiva-sampado 'sādhāraṇaṃ kāraṇaṃ ca sāttvikī śraddhā nirdvandvo nitya-sattva-stho [Gītā 2.45] ity ādinā sūtritā tad-virodhi-parihāreṇa saptadaśe | evaṃ saphalā jñāna-niṣṭhādhyāya-pañcakena pratipāditā | aṣṭādaśena ca pūrvokta-sarvopasaṃhāra iti kṛtsna-gītārtha-saṅgatiḥ |

tatra pūrvādhyāye sāṅkhya-buddhim āśritya jñāna-niṣṭhā bhagavatoktā eṣā te 'bhihitā sāṅkhye buddhiḥ [Gītā 2.39] iti | tathā yoga-buddhim āśritya karma-niṣṭhoktā yoge tv imāṃ śṛṇu ity ārabhya karmaṇy evādhikāras te ... mā te saṅgo 'stv akarmaṇi [Gītā 2.47] ity antena | na cānayor niṣṭhayor adhikāri-bhedaḥ spaṣṭam upadiṣṭo bhagavatā | na caikādhikārikatvam evobhayoḥ samuccayasya vivakṣitatvād iti vācyam | dūreṇa hy avaraṃ karam buddhi-yogād dhanañjaya [Gītā 2.49] iti karma-niṣṭhāyā buddhi-niṣṭhāpekṣayā nikṛṣṭatvābhidhānāt | yāvān artha udapāne [Gītā 2.46] ity atra ca jñāna-phale sarva-karma-phalāntarbhāvasya darśitatvāt | sthita-prajña-lakṣaṇam
uktvā ca eṣā brāhmī sthitiḥ pārtha [Gītā 2.72] iti sapraśaṃsam jñāna-phalopasaṃhārāt | yā niśā sarva-bhūtānāṃ [Gītā 2.69] ity ādau jñānino dvaita-darśanābhāvena karmānuṣṭhānāsambhavasya coktatvāt | avidyā-nivṛtti-lakṣaṇe mokṣa-phale jñāna-mātrasyaiva lokānusāreṇa sādhanatva-kalpanāt | tam eva viditvātimṛtyum eti nānyaḥ panthā vidyate 'nayanāya [ŚvetU 3.8] iti śruteś ca |

nanu tarhi tejas-timirayor iva virodhinor jñāna-karmaṇoḥ samuccayāsambhavād bhinnādhikārikatvam evāstu | satyam | naivaṃ sambhavati ekam arjunaṃ prati tūbhayopadeśo na yuktaḥ | nahi karmādhikāriṇaṃ prati jñāna-niṣṭhopadeṣṭum ucitā na vā jñānādhikāriṇaṃ prati karma-niṣṭhā | ekam eva prati vikalpenobhayopadeśa iti cet, na | utkṛṣṭa-nikṛṣṭayor vikalpānupapatteḥ | avidyā-nivṛtty-upalakṣitātma-svarūpe mokṣe tāratamyāsambhavāc ca | tasmāj jñāna-karma-niṣṭhayor bhinnādhikārikatve ekaṃ pratyupadeśāyogād ekādhikārikatve ca viruddhayoḥ samuccayāsambhavāt karmāpekṣayā jñāna-praśastyānupapatteś ca vikalpābhyupagame cotkṛṣṭam
anāyāsa-sādhyaṃ jñānaṃ vihāya nikṛṣṭam anekāyāsa-bahulaṃ karmānuṣṭhātum ayogyam iti matvā paryākulībhūta-buddhir arjuna uvāca jyāyasī ced iti |

he janārdana ! sarvair janair ardyate yācyate svābhilaṣita-siddhaya iti tvaṃ tathābhūto mayāpi śreyo 'niścayārthaṃ yācyasa iti naivānucitam iti sambodhanābhiprāyaḥ | karmaṇo niṣkāmād api buddhir ātma-tattva-viṣayā jyāyasī praśastatarā ced yadi te tava matā tat tadā kiṃ karmaṇi ghore hiṃsādy-anekāyāsa-bahule mām atibhaktaṃ niyojayasi karmaṇy evādhikāras ta ity ādinā viśeṣeṇa prerayasi | he keśava sarveśvara | sarveśvarasya sarveṣṭa-dāyinas tava māṃ bhaktaṃ śiṣyas te 'haṃ śādhi mām ity ādinā tvad-eka-śaraṇatayopasannaṃ prati pratāraṇā noicitety abhiprāyaḥ ||1||

viśvanāthaḥ :

niṣkāmam arpitaṃ karma tṛtīye tu prapañcyate |
kāma-krodha-jigīṣāyāṃ viveko 'pi pradarśyate ||

pūrva-vākyeṣu jñāna-yogān niṣkāma-karma-yogāc ca nistraiguṇya-prāpakasya guṇātīta-bhakti-yogasya utkarṣam ākalayya tatraiva svautsukyam abhivyañjan sva-dharme saṃgrāme pravartakaṃ bhagavantaṃ sakhya-bhāvenopālabhate | jyāyasī śreṣṭhā buddhir vyavasāyātmikā guṇātītā bhaktir ity arthaḥ | ghore yuddha-rūpe karmaṇi kiṃ niyojayasi pravartayasi | he janārdana janān svajanān svājñayā pīḍayasīty arthaḥ | na ca tavājñā kenāpi anyathā kartuṃ śakyata ity āha | he keśava ko brahmā īśo mahādevaḥ | tāv api vayase vaśīkaroṣi ||1||
baladevaḥ :

tṛtīye karma-niṣkāmaṃ vistareṇopavarṇitam |
kāmāder vijayopāyo durjayasyāpi darśitaḥ ||

pūrvatra kṛpāluḥ pārthasārathir ajñāna-kardama-nimagnaṃ jagat svātma-jñānopāsanopadeśena samuddidhīrṣus tad-aṅga-bhūtāṃ jīvātma-yāthātmya-buddhim upadiśya tad-upāyatayā niṣkāmakam abuddhim upadiṣṭavān | ayam evārtho viniścayāya caturbhir adhyāyair vidhāntarair varṇyate | tatra karma-buddhi-niṣpādyatvāj jīvātma-buddheḥ śreṣṭhaṃ sthitam | tatrārjunaḥ pṛcchati jyāyasīti | karmaṇā niṣkāmād api cet tava tat-sādhyatvāt jīvātma-buddhir jyāyasī śreṣṭhā matā | tarhi tat-siddhaye māṃ ghore hiṃsādy-anekāyāse karmaṇi kiṃ niyojayasi tasmād yuddhasvety ādinā kathaṃ prerayasi | ātmānubhava-hetu-bhūtā khalu sā buddhir nikhilendriya-vyāpāra-virati-sādhyā
tad-arthaṃ tat-svajātīyāḥ śamādaya eva yujyeran na tu sarvendriya-vyāpāra-rūpāṇi tad-vijātīyāni karmāṇīti bhāvaḥ | he janārdana śreyo 'rthi-jana-yācanīya, he keśava vidhi-rudra-vaśa-kārin |

ka iti brahmaṇo nāma īśo 'haṃ sarva-dehinām |
āvāṃ tavāṅga-sambhūtau tasmāt keśava-nāma-bhāg ||

iti hari-vaṃśe kṛṣṇaṃ prati rudroktiḥ | durlaṅghyājñas tvaṃ śreyo 'rthinā mayābhyarthito mama śreyo niścitya brūhīti bhāvaḥ ||1||

__________________________________________________________

BhG 3.2

vyāmiśreṇaiva vākyena buddhiṃ mohayasīva me |
tad ekaṃ vada niścitya yena śreyo 'ham āpnuyām ||2||

śrīdharaḥ : nanu dharmyād dhi yuddhāc chreyo 'nyat kṣatriyasya na vidyata ity ādinā karmaṇo 'pi śreṣṭhatvm uktam eva ity āśaṅkyāha vyāmiśreṇeti | kvacit karma-praśaṃsā kvacit jñāna-praśaṃsā ity evaṃ vyāmiśraṃ sandeho 'pādakam iva yad vākyaṃ tena me mama buddhiṃ matim ubhayatra dolāyitāṃ kurvan mohayasīva | ata ubhayor madhye yad bhadraṃ tad ekaṃ niścitya vadeti | yad vā, idam eva śreyaḥ-sādhanam iti niścitya yenānuṣṭhitena śreyo mokṣam aham āpnuyāṃ prāpsyāmi tad evaikaṃ niścitya vadety arthaḥ ||2||

madhusūdanaḥ : nanu nāhaṃ kaṃcid api pratārayāmi kiṃ punas tvām atipriyam | tvaṃ tu kiṃ me pratāraṇā-cihnaṃ paśyasīti cet tatrāha vyāmiśreṇeti | tava vacanaṃ vyāmiśraṃ na bhavaty eva mama tv ekādhikārikatva-bhinnādhikārikatva-sandehād vyāmiśraṃ saṅkīrṇārtham iva te yad vākyaṃ māṃ prati jñāna-karma-niṣṭhā-dvaya-pratipādakaṃ tvaṃ me mama manda-buddher vākya-tātparyāparijñānād buddhim antaḥkaraṇaṃ mohayasīva bhrāntyā yojayasīva | parama-kāruṇikatvāt tvaṃ na mohayasy eva mama tu svāśaya-doṣān moho bhavatītīvaśa-śabdārthaḥ | ekādhikāritve viruddhayoḥ samuccayānupapatter ekārthatvābhāvena
ca vikalpānupapatteḥ prāg-ukter yady adhikāri-bhedaṃ manyase tadaikaṃ māṃ prati viruddhayor niṣṭhayor upadeśaāyogāt taj jñānaṃ vā karma vaikam evādhikāraṃ me niścitya vada | yenādhikāra-niścaya-puraḥsaram uktena tvayā mayā cānuṣṭhitena jñānena karmaṇā vaikena śreyo mokṣam aham āpnuyāṃ prāptuṃ yogyaḥ syām |

evaṃ jñāna-karma-niṣṭhayor ekādhikāritve vikalpa-samuccayayor asambhavād adhikāri-bheda-jñānāyārjunasya praśna iti sthitam |

ihetareṣāṃ kumataṃ samastaṃ
śruti-smṛti-nyāya-balān nirastam |
punaḥ punar bhāṣya-kṛtātiyatnād
ato na tat kartum ahaṃ pravṛttaḥ ||

bhāṣya-kāra-mata-sāra-darśinā
grantha-mātram iha yojyate mayā |
āśayo bhagavataḥ prakāśyate
kevalaṃ sva-vacaso viśuddhaye ||2||

viśvanāthaḥ : bho vayasya arjuna ! satyaṃ guṇātītā bhaktiḥ sarvotkṛṣṭaiva | kintu sā yādṛcchika-mad-aikāntaika-mahā-bhakta-kṛpaika-labhyatvāt purusodyama-sādhyā na bhavati | ataeva nistraiguṇyo bhava guṇātītayā mad-bhaktyā tvaṃ nistraiguṇyo bhūyā ity āśīrvāda eva dattaḥ | sa ca yadā phaliṣyati tadā tādṛśa-yādṛcchikaikāntika-bhakta-kṛpayā prāptām api lapsyase | sāmprataṃ tu karmaṇy evādhikāras te iti mayoktaṃ cet, satyam | tarhi karmaiva niścitya kathaṃ na brūṣe | kim iti sandeha-sindhau māṃ kṣipasīty āha vyāmiśreṇeti | viśeṣataḥ ā samyaktayā miśraṇaṃ nānā-vidhārtha-milanaṃ yatra tena vākyena me buddhiṃ mohayasi | tathā hi karmaṇy evādhikāras
te [Gītā 2.47], siddhyasiddhyoḥ samo bhūtvā samatvaṃ yoga ucyate [Gītā 2.48],

buddhi-yukto jahātīha ubhe sukṛta-duṣkṛte |
tasmād yogāya yujyasva yogaḥ karmasu kauśalam || [Gītā 2.50]

iti yoga-śabda-vācyaṃ jñānam api bravīṣi | yadā te moha-kalilaṃ [Gītā 2.52] ity anena jñānaṃ kevalam api bravīṣi | kiṃ cātra iva-śabdena tvad-vākyasya vastuto nāsti nānārtha-miśritatvam | nāpi kṛpālos tava man-mohanecchā | nāpi mama tat-tad-arthānabhijñatvam iti bhāvaḥ | ayaṃ gūḍho 'bhiprāyaḥ rājasāt karmaṇaḥ sakāśāt sāttvikaṃ karma śreṣṭhaṃ, tac ca sāttvikam eva | nirguṇa-bhaktiś ca tasmādn atiśreṣṭhaiva | tatra sā yadi mayi na sambhaved iti brūṣe, tadā sāttvikaṃ jñānam evaikaṃ mām upadiśa | tata eva duḥkha-mayāt saṃsāra-bandhanān mukto bhaveyam iti ||2||

baladevaḥ : vyāmiśreṇeti | sāṅkhya-buddhi-yoga-buddhyor indriya-nivṛtti-rūpayoḥ sādhya-sādhakatvāvarodhi yad vākyaṃ tad vyāmiśram ucyate | tena me buddhiṃ mohayasīva | vastutas tu sarveśvarasya mat-sakhasya ca me man-mohakatā nāsty eva | mad-buddhi-doṣād evaṃ prayemy aham atīvaśabdārthaḥ | tat tasmād ekam avyāmiśraṃ vākyaṃ vada | na karmaṇā na prajayā dhanena tyāgenaikenāmṛtatvam ānaśur nāsty akṛtaḥ kṛtena iti śrutivat | yenāham anuṣṭheyaṃ niścityātmanaḥ śreyaḥ prāpnuyām ||2||

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BhG 3.3

śrī-bhagavān uvāca
loke 'smin dvividhā niṣṭhā purā proktā mayānagha |
jñāna-yogena sāṃkhyānāṃ karma-yogena yoginām ||3||

śrīdharaḥ : atrottaraṃ śrī-bhagavān uvāca loke 'sminn iti | ayam arthaḥ | yadi mayā paraspara-nirapekṣaṃ mokṣa-sādhanatvena karma-jñāna-yoga-rūpaṃ niṣṭhā-dvayam uktaṃ syāt tarhi dvayor madhye yad bhadraṃ syāt tad ekaṃ vada iti tvadīya-praśnaḥ saṃgacchate | na tu mayā tathoktam | dvābhyām ekaiva brahma-niṣṭhā uktā | guṇa-pradhāna-bhūtayos tayoḥ svātantryānupapatteḥ ekasyā eva tu prakāra-bheda-mātram adhikāri-bhedenoktam iti | asmin śuddhāśuddhāntaḥ karaṇatayā dvividhe loke adhikāri-jane dve vidhe prakārau yasyāḥ sā | dvi-vidhā niṣṭhā mokṣa-paratā pūrvādhyāye mayā sārvajñena proktā spaṣṭam
evoktā | prakāra-dvayam eva nirdiśati jñāna-yogenety ādi | sāṅkhyānāṃ śuddhāntaḥkaraṇānāṃ jñāna-bhūmikām ārūḍhānāṃ jñāna-paripākārthaṃ jñāna-yogena dhyānādinā niṣṭhā brahma-paratoktā | tāni sarvāṇi saṃyamya yukta āsīta mat-para ity ādinā | sāṅkhya-bhūmikām ārurukṣūṇāṃ tv antaḥkaraṇa-śuddhi-dvārā tad-ārohaṇārthaṃ tad-upāya-bhūta-karma-yogādhikāriṇāṃ yogināṃ karma-yogena niṣṭhoktā dharmyād dhi yuddhāc chreyo 'nyat kṣatriyasya na vidyata ity ādinā | ataeva tava citta-śuddhi-rūpāvasthā-bhedena dvi-vidhāpi niṣṭhoktā | eṣā te 'bhihitā sāṅkhye buddhir yoge tv imāṃ śṛṇv iti ||3||

madhusūdanaḥ : evam adhikāri-bhede 'rjunena pṛṣṭe tad-anurūpaṃ prativacanaṃ śrī-bhagavān uvāca loke 'sminn iti | asminn adhikāritvābhimate loke śuddhāśuddhāntaḥkaraṇa-bhedena dvividhe jane dvividhā dviprakārā niṣṭhā sthitar jñāna-paratā karma-paratā ca purā pūrvādhyāye mayā tavātyanta-hita-kāriṇā proktā prakarṣeṇa spaṣṭatva-lakṣaṇenoktā | tathā cādhikāry-aikya-śaṅkayā mā glāsīr iti bhāvaḥ | he 'naghāpāpeti sambodhayann upadeśayogyatām arjunasya sūcayati | ekaiva niṣṭhā sādhya-sādhanāvasthā-bhedena dvi-prakārā na tu dve eva svatantre niṣṭhe iti kathayituṃ niṣṭhety eka-vacanam | tathā ca vakṣyati - ekaṃ sāṃkhyaṃ ca yogaṃ
ca yaḥ paśyati sa paśyati [Gītā 5.5] iti |

tām eva niṣṭhāṃ dvaividhyena darśayati sāṅkhyeti | saṅkhyā samyag-ātma-buddhis tāṃ prāptavatāṃ brahmacaryād eva kṛta-saṃnyāsānāṃ vedānta-vijñāna-suniścitārthānāṃ jñāna-bhūmim ārūḍhānāṃ śuddhāntaḥkaraṇānāṃ sāṅkhyānāṃ jñāna-yogena jñānam eva yujyate brahmaṇāneneti vyutpattyā yogas tena niṣṭhoktā tāni sarvāṇi saṃyamya yukta āsīta mat-paraḥ [Gītā 2.61] ity ādinā | aśuddhāntaḥ-karaṇānāṃ tu jñāna-bhūmim anārūḍhānāṃ yogināṃ karmādhikāra-yogināṃ karma-yogena karmaiva yujyate 'ntaḥ-karaṇa-śuddhyāneneti vyutpattyā yogas tena niṣṭhoktāntaḥ-karaṇa-śuddhi-dvārā
jñāna-bhūmikārohaṇārthaṃ dharmyād dhi yuddhāc chreyo 'nyat kṣatriyasya na vidyate [Gītā 2.31] ity ādinā |

ataeva na jñāna-karmaṇoḥ samuccayo vikalpo vā | kintu niṣkāma-karmaṇā śuddhāntaḥ-karaṇānāṃ sarva-karma-saṃnyāsenaiva jñānam iti citta-śuddhy-aśuddhi-rūpāvasthā-bhedenaikam eva tvāṃ prati dvividhā niṣṭhoktā | eṣā te 'bhihitā sāṃkhye buddhir yoge tv imāṃ śṛṇu [Gītā 2.39] iti | ato bhūmikā-bhedenaikam eva praty ubhayopayogān nādhikāra-bhede 'py upadeśa-vaiyarthyam ity abhiprāyaḥ | etad eva darśayitum aśuddha-cittasya citta-śuddhi-paryantaṃ karmānuṣṭhānaṃ na karmaṇām anārambhāt [Gītā 3.4] ity ādibhir moghaṃ prātha sa jīvati [Gītā 3.16] ity antais trayodaśabhir darśayati | śuddha-cittasya tu jñānino na kiṃcid api karmāpekṣitam iti darśayati yas tv
ātma-ratir [Gītā 3.17] iti dvābhyām | tasmād asaktaḥ ity ārabhya tu bandha-hetor api karmaeo mokṣa-hetutvaṃ sattva-śuddhi-jñānotpatti-dvāreṇa sambhavati phalābhisandhi-rāhitya-rūpa-kauśaleneti darśayiṣyati | tataḥ paraṃ tv atha keneti praśnam utthāpya kāma-doṣeṇaiva kārya-karmaṇaḥ śuddhi-hetutvaṃ nāsti | ataḥ kāma-rāhityenaiva karmāṇi kurvann antaḥ-karaṇa-śuddhyā jñānādhikārī bhaviṣyasīti yāvad-adhyāya-samāpti vadiṣyati bhagavān ||3||

viśvanāthaḥ : atrottaram | yadi mayā paraspara-nirapekṣāv eva mokṣa-sādhanatvena karma-yoga-jñāna-yogāv uktau syātām | tadā tad ekaṃ vada niścityeti tvat-praśno ghaṭate | mayā tu karmānuṣṭhā-jñāna-niṣṭhāvattvena yad dvaividhyam uktam, tat khalu pūrvottara-daśā-bhedād eva, na tu vastuto mokṣaṃ praty adhikāri-dvaidham ity āha loke iti dvābhyām | dvividhā dvi-prakārā niṣṭhā nitarāṃ sthiti-maryādety arthaḥ | purā proktā pūrvādhyāye kathitā | tām evāha sāṅkhyānāṃ sāṅkhaṃ jñānaṃ tad-vatām | teṣāṃ śuddhāntaḥ-karaṇatvena jñāna-bhūmikām adhirūḍhānāṃ jñāna-yogenaiva niṣṭhā tenaiva maryādā sthāpitā | atra loke tu jñānitvenaiva
khyāpitā ity arthaḥ - tāni sarvāṇi saṃyamya yukta āsīta mat-paraḥ [Gītā 2.61] ity ādinā | tathā śuddhāntaḥkaraṇatvābhāvena jñāna-bhūmikām adhiroḍhum asamarthānāṃ yogināṃ tad-ārohaṇārtham upāyavatāṃ karma-yogena mad-arpita-niṣkāma-karmaṇā niṣṭhā maryādā sthāpitā | te khalu karmitvenaiva khyāpitety arthaḥ - dharmyād dhi yuddhāc chreyo 'nyat kṣatriyasya na vidyate [Gītā 2.31] ity ādinā | tena karmiṇaḥ jñāninaḥ iti nāma-mātreṇaiva dvaividhyam | vastgutas tu karmiṇa eva karmibhiḥ śuddha-cittā jñānino bhavanti | jñānina eva bhaktyā mucyanta iti mad-vākya-samudāyārtha iti bhāvaḥ ||3||

viśvanāthaḥ : atrottaram | yadi mayā paraspara-nirapekṣāv eva mokṣa-sādhanatvena karma-yoga-jñāna-yogāv uktau syātām | tadā tad ekaṃ vada niścityeti tvat-praśno ghaṭate | mayā tu karmānuṣṭhā-jñāna-niṣṭhāvattvena yad dvaividhyam uktam, tat khalu pūrvottara-daśā-bhedād eva, na tu vastuto mokṣaṃ praty adhikāri-dvaidham ity āha loke iti dvābhyām | dvividhā dvi-prakārā niṣṭhā nitarāṃ sthiti-maryādety arthaḥ | purā proktā pūrvādhyāye kathitā | tām evāha sāṅkhyānāṃ sāṅkhaṃ jñānaṃ tad-vatām | teṣāṃ śuddhāntaḥ-karaṇatvena jñāna-bhūmikām adhirūḍhānāṃ jñāna-yogenaiva niṣṭhā tenaiva maryādā sthāpitā | atra loke tu jñānitvenaiva
khyāpitā ity arthaḥ - tāni sarvāṇi saṃyamya yukta āsīta mat-paraḥ [Gītā 2.61] ity ādinā | tathā śuddhāntaḥkaraṇatvābhāvena jñāna-bhūmikām adhiroḍhum asamarthānāṃ yogināṃ tad-ārohaṇārtham upāyavatāṃ karma-yogena mad-arpita-niṣkāma-karmaṇā niṣṭhā maryādā sthāpitā | te khalu karmitvenaiva khyāpitety arthaḥ - dharmyād dhi yuddhāc chreyo 'nyat kṣatriyasya na vidyate [Gītā 2.31] ity ādinā | tena karmiṇaḥ jñāninaḥ iti nāma-mātreṇaiva dvaividhyam | vastgutas tu karmiṇa eva karmibhiḥ śuddha-cittā jñānino bhavanti | jñānina eva bhaktyā mucyanta iti mad-vākya-samudāyārtha iti bhāvaḥ ||3||

baladevaḥ : evaṃ pṛṣṭo bhagavān uvāca loke 'sminn iti | he anagha nirmala-buddhe pārtha jyāyasī ced iti karma-buddhi-sāṅkhya-buddhyor guṇa-pradhāna-bhāvaṃ jānann api tamas-tejasor iva viruddhayos tayoḥ katham ekādhikāritvam iti śaṅkayā preritaḥ pṛcchasīti bhāvaḥ | asmin mumukṣutayābhimate śuddhāśuddha-cittatayā dvividhe loke jane dvividhā niṣṭhā sthitir mayā sarveśvareṇa purā pūrvādhyāye proktā | niṣṭhety eka-vacanena ekātmoddeśyatvād ekaiva niṣṭhā sādhya-sādhana-daśā-dvaya-bhedena dvi-prakārā na tu dve niṣṭhe iti sūcyate | evam evāgre vakṣyati ekaṃ sāṅkhyaṃ ca yogaṃ ca [Gītā 5.5] iti | tāṃ niṣṭhāṃ dvaividhyena
darśayati jñāneti | sāṅkhya-jñāna arha ādyac | tad-vatāṃ jñānināṃ jñāna-yogena niṣṭhā-sthitir uktā prajahāti yadā kāmān [Gītā 2.55] ity ādinā | jñānam eva yogo yujyate ātmanāneneti-vyutpatteḥ | yogināṃ niṣkāma-karmavatāṃ karma-yogena niṣṭhā sthitir uktā karmaṇy evādhikāras te [Gītā 2.47] ity ādinā | karmaiva yogo yujyate jñāna-garbhayā citta-śuddhayāneneti vyutpatteḥ | etad uktaṃ bhavati - na khalu mumukṣur janas tadaiva śamādy-aṅgikāṃ jñāna-niṣṭhāṃ labhate | kintu sācāreṇa karma-yogena citta-mālinyaṃ nirdhūyaivety etad eva mayā prāg abhāṇi eṣā te 'bhihitā sāṅkhye [Gītā 2.39] ity ādinā |

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BhG 3.4

na karmaṇām anārambhān naiṣkarmyaṃ puruṣo 'śnute |
na ca saṃnyasanād eva siddhiṃ samadhigacchati || 4 ||

śrīdharaḥ : ataḥ samyak-citta-śuddhyā jñānotpatti-paryantaṃ varṇāśramocitāni karmāṇi kartavyāni | anyathā citta-śuddhy-abhāvena jñānānutpatter ity āha na karmaṇām iti | karmaṇām anārambhād ananuṣṭhānān naiṣkarmyaṃ jñānaṃ nāśnute na prāpnoti | nanu caitam eva pravrājino lokam icchantaḥ pravrajantīti śrutyā saṃnyāsasya mokṣād aṅgatva-śruteḥ saṃnyasanād eva mokṣo bhaviṣyati | kiṃ karmabhiḥ ? ity āśaṅkyoktaṃ na ceti | citta-śuddhiṃ vinā kṛtāt saṃnyasanād eva jñāna-śūnyāt siddhiṃ mokṣaṃ na samadhigacchati na prāpnoti ||4||

madhusūdanaḥ : tatra kāraṇābhāve kāryānupapatter āha na karmaṇām iti | karmaṇā tam etaṃ vedānuvacanena brāhmaṇā vividiṣanti yajñena dānena tapasānāśakena iti śrutyātma-jñāne viniyuktānām anārambhād ananuṣṭhānāc citta-śuddhy-abhāvena jñānāyogyo bahirmukhaḥ puruṣo naiṣkarmyaṃ sarva-karma-śūnyatvaṃ jñāna-yogena niṣṭhām iti yāvat nāśnute na prāpnoti |

nanu etam eva pravrājino lokam icchantaḥ pravrajanti iti śruteḥ sarva-karma-saṃnyāsād eva jñāna-niṣṭhopapatteḥ kṛtaṃ karmabhir ity ata āha na ca saṃnyasanād eva citta-śuddhiṃ vinā kṛtāt siddhiṃ jñāna-niṣṭhā-lakṣaṇāṃ samyak-phala-paryavasāyitvenādhigacchati naiva prāpnotīty arthaḥ | karma-janyāṃ citta-śuddhim antareṇa saṃnyāsa eva na sambhavati | yathā-kathaṃcid autsukya-mātreṇa kṛto 'pi na phala-paryavasāyīti bhāvaḥ ||4||

viśvanāthaḥ : citta-śuddhy-abhāve jñānānutpattim āha neti | śāstrīya-karmaṇām anārambhād ananuṣṭhānān naiṣkarmyaṃ jñānaṃ na prāpnoti na cāśuddha-cittaḥ | saṃnyasanāc chāstrīya-karma-tyāgāt ||4||

baladevaḥ : ato 'śuddha-cittena citta-śuddheḥ sva-vihitāni karmāṇy evānuṣṭheyānīty āha na karmaṇām ity ādibhis trayodaśabhiḥ | karmaṇāṃ tam etam iti vākyena jñānāṅgatayā vihitānām anārambhād ananuṣṭhānād aviśuddha-cittaḥ puruṣo naiṣkarmyaṃ nikhilendriya-vyāpāra-rūpa-karma-viratiṃ jñāna-niṣṭhām iti yāvat nāśnute na labhate | na ca sa teṣāṃ karmaṇāṃ saṃnyāsāt parityāgāt siddhiṃ muktiṃ samadhigacchati ||4||

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BhG 3.5

na hi kaścit kṣaṇam api jātu tiṣṭhaty akarma-kṛt |
kāryate hy avaśaḥ karma sarvaḥ prakṛtijair guṇaiḥ || 5 ||

śrīdharaḥ : karmaṇāṃ ca saṃnyāsas teṣv anāsakti-mātram | na tu svarūpeṇa | aśakyatvād iti | āha na hi kaścid iti | jātu kasyāṃcid apy avasthāyāṃ kṣaṇa-mātram api kaścid api jñāny-ajñāno vā akarma-kṛt karmāṇy akurvāṇo na tiṣṭhati | atra hetuḥ -- prakṛtijair svabhāva-prabhavai rāga-dveṣādibhir guṇaiḥ sarvo 'pi janaḥ karma kāryate | karmaṇi pravartyate | avaśo 'svatantraḥ san ||5||

madhusūdanaḥ : tatra karma-janya-śuddhy-abhāve bahirmukhaḥ | hi yasmāt kṣaṇam api kālaṃ jātu kadācit kaścid apy ajitendriyo 'karma-kṛt san na tiṣṭhati | api tu laukika-vaidikakarmānuṣṭhāna-vyagra eva tiṣṭhati tasmād aśuddha-cittasya saṃnyāso na sambhavatīty arthaḥ |

kasmāt punar avidvān karmāṇy akurvāṇo na tiṣṭhati | hi yasmāt | sarvaḥ prāṇī citta-śuddhi-rahito 'vaśo 'svatantra eva san prakṛtijaiḥ prakṛtito jātair abhivyaktaiḥ kāryākāreṇa sattva-rajas-tamobhiḥ svabhāva-prabhavair vā rāga-dveṣādibhir guṇaiḥ karma laukikaṃ vaidikaṃ vā kāryate | ataḥ karmāṇy akurvāṇo na kaścid api tiṣṭhatīty arthaḥ | yataḥ svābhāvikā guṇāś cālakā ataḥ para-vaśatayā sarvadā karmāṇi kurvato 'śuddha-buddheḥ sarva-karma-saṃnyāso na sambhavatīti na saṃnyāsa-nibandhanā jñāna-niṣṭhā sambhavatīty arthaḥ ||5||

viśvanāthaḥ : kintv aśuddha-cittaḥ kṛta-saṃnyāsaḥ śāstrīyaṃ karma parityajya vyavahārike karmaṇi nimajjatīty āha na hīti | nanu saṃnyāsa eva tasya vaidika-laukika-karma-pravṛttir-virodhī ? tatrāha kāryata iti | avaśo 'svatantraḥ ||5||

baladevaḥ : aviśuddha-cittaḥ kṛta-vaidika-karma-saṃnyāso laukike 'pi karmaṇi nimajjatīty āha nahīti | nanu saṃnyāsa eva tasya sarva-karma-virodhīti cet tatrāha kāryata iti | prakṛtijaiḥ svabhāvodbhavair guṇai rāga-dveṣādibhiḥ, kāryate pravartyate avaśaḥ parādhīnaḥ syāt ||5||

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BhG 3.6

karmendriyāṇi saṃyamya ya āste manasā smaran |
indriyārthān vimūḍhātmā mithyācāraḥ sa ucyate ||6||

śrīdharaḥ : ato 'jñaṃ karma-tyāginaṃ nindati karmendriyāṇīti | vāk-pāṇy-ādīni karmendriyāṇi | saṃyamya bhagavad-dhyāna-cchalena indriyārthān viṣayān smarann āste aviśuddhatayā manasā ātmani sthairyābhāvāt, sa mithyācāraḥ kapaṭācāro dāmbhika ucyata ity arthaḥ ||6||

madhusūdanaḥ : yathā-kathaṃcid autsukya-mātreṇa kṛta-saṃnyāsas tv aśuddha-cittas tat-phala-bhāṅ na bhavati yataḥ | yo vimūḍhātmā rāga-dveṣādi-dūṣitāntaḥ-karaṇa autsukya-mātreṇa karmendriyāṇi vāk-pāṇy-ādīni saṃyamya nigṛhya bahir-indriyaiḥ karmāṇy akurvann iti yāvat | manasā rāgādi-preritendriyārthān śabdādīn na tv ātma-tattvaṃ smarann āste kṛta-saṃnyāso 'ham ity abhimānena karma-śūnyas tiṣṭhati sa mithyācāraḥ sattva-śuddhy-abhāvena phalāyogyatvāt pāpācāra ucyate |

tvaṃ-padārtha-vivekāya saṃnyāsaḥ sarva-karmaṇām |
śrutyeha vihito yasmāt tat-tyāgī patito bhavet ||

ity ādi-dharma-śāstreṇa | ata upapannaṃ na ca saṃnyasanād evāśuddhāntaḥ-karaṇaḥ siddhiṃ samadhigacchatīti ||6||

viśvanāthaḥ : nanu tādṛśo 'pi sannyāsī kaścit | kaścid indriya-vyāpāra-śūnyo mudritākṣo dṛśyate ? tatrāha karmendriyāṇi, vāk-pāṇy-ādīni nigṛhya yo manasā dhyāna-cchalena viṣayān smarann āste, sa mithyācāro dāmbhikaḥ ||6||

baladevaḥ : nanu rāga-divyāpāra-śūnyo mudrita-śrotrādiḥ kaścit kaścid yadi dṛśyate tatrāha karmendriyāṇīti | yo yatiḥ karmendriyāṇi vāg-ādīni saṃyamya manasā dhyāna-chadmanā indriyārthān śabda-sparśādīn smarann āste sa vimūḍhātmā mūrkho mithyācāraḥ kathyate | sa ca niruddha-rāgāder ajñasya niṣkāma-karmānuṣṭhānena manaḥ-śuddher anudayāt śrotrādy-aprasāre 'py aśuddhatvān manasā tad-viṣayāṇāṃ sma raṇāj jñānāyodyatasyāpi tasya jñāna-lābhāt mithyācāro vyartha-vāg-ādi-niyama-kriyo dāmbhika ity arthaḥ ||6||

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BhG 3.7

yas tv indriyāṇi manasā niyamyārabhate 'rjuna
karmendriyaiḥ karma-yogam asaktaḥ sa viśiṣyate ||7||

śrīdharaḥ : etad-viparītaḥ karma-kartā tu śreṣṭha ity āha yas tv indriyāṇīti | yas tv indriyāṇi manasā niyamya īśvara-parāṇi kṛtvā karmendriyaiḥ karma-rūpaṃ yogam upāyam ārabhate 'nutiṣṭhati | asaktaḥ phalābhilāṣa-rahitaḥ san | sa viśiṣyate viśiṣṭo bhavati citta-śuddhyā jñānavān bhavatīty arthaḥ ||7||

madhusūdanaḥ : autsukya-mātreṇa sarva-karmāṇy asaṃnyasya citta-śuddhaye niṣkāma-karmāṇy eva yathā-śāstraṃ kuryāt | tasmāt yas tv iti | tu-śabdo 'śuddhāntaḥ-karaṇa-saṃnyāsi-vyatirekārthaḥ | indriyāṇi jñānendriyāei śrotrādīni manasā saha niyamya pāpa-hetu-śabdādi-viṣayāsakter nivartya manasā viveka-yuktena niyamyeti vā | karmendriyair vāk-pāṇy-ādibhiḥ karma-yogaṃ śuddhi-hetutayā vihitaṃ karmārabhate karoty asaktaḥ phalābhilāṣa-śūnyaḥ san yo vivekī sa itarasmān mithyācārād viśiṣyate | pariśrama-sāmye 'pi phalātiśaya-bhāktvena śreṣṭho bhavati | he 'rjunāścaryam idaṃ paśya yad ekaḥ karmendriyāṇi nigṛhṇan jñānendriyāṇi vyāpārayan puruṣārtha-śūnyo
'paras tu jñānendriyāṇi nigṛhya karmendriyāṇi vyāpārayan parama-puruṣārtha-bhāg bhavatīti ||7||

viśvanāthaḥ : etad-viparītaḥ śāstrīya-karma-kartā gṛhasthas tu śreṣṭha ity āha yas tv iti | karma-yogaṃ śāstra-vihitam | asakto 'phalākāṅkṣī viśiṣyate | asambhāvita-prasāditvena jñāna-niṣṭhād api puruṣād viśiṣṭaḥ iti śrī-rāmānujācārya-caraṇāḥ ||7||

baladevaḥ : etad-vaiparītyena sva-vihita-karma-kartā gṛhastho 'pi śreṣṭha ity āha yas tv iti | ātmānubhava-pravṛttena manasendriyāṇi śrotrādīni niyamyāsaktaḥ phalābhilāṣa-śūnyaḥ san yaḥ karmendriyaiḥ karma-rūpaṃ yogam upāyam ārabhate 'nutiṣṭhati sa viśiṣyate | sambhāvyamāna-jñānatvāt pūrvataḥ śreṣṭho bhavatīty arthaḥ ||7||

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BhG 3.8

niyataṃ kuru karma tvaṃ karma jyāyo hy akarmaṇaḥ |
śarīrayātrāpi ca te na prasidhyed akarmaṇaḥ ||8||

śrīdharaḥ : niyatam iti | yasmād evaṃ tasmān niyataṃ nityaṃ karma sandhyopāsanādi kuru | hi yasmāt | sarva-karmaṇo 'karaṇāt sakāśāt karma-karaṇaṃ jyāyo 'dhikataram | anyathākarmaṇaḥ sarva-karma-śūnyasya tava śarīra-yātrā śarīra-nirvāho 'pi na prasidhyen na bhavet ||8||

madhusūdanaḥ : yasmād evaṃ tasmān manasā jñānendriyāṇi nigṛhya karmendriyais tvaṃ prāg ananuṣṭhita-śuddhi-hetu-karmā niyataṃ vidhy-uddeśe phala-sambandha-śūnyatayā niyata-nimittena vihitaṃ karma śrautaṃ smārtaṃ ca nityam iti prasiddhaṃ kuru | kurv iti madhyama-puruṣa-prayogeṇaiva tvam iti labdhe tvam iti padam arthāntare saṃkramitam |

kasmād aśuddhāntaḥ-karaṇena karmaiva kartavyaṃ hi yasmād akarmaṇo 'karaṇāt karmaiva jyāyaḥ praśasyataram | na kevalaṃ karmābhāve tavāntaḥ-karaṇa-śuddhir eva na sidhyet | kintu akarmaṇo yuddhādi-karma-rahitasya te tava śarīra-yātrā śarīra-sthitir api na prakarṣeṇa kṣātra-vṛtti-kṛtatva-lakṣaṇena sidhyet | tathā ca prāg uktam | api cety antaḥ-karaṇa-śuddhi-samuccayārthaḥ ||8||

viśvanāthaḥ : tasmāt tvaṃ niyataṃ nityaṃ sandhyopāsanādi# akarmaṇaḥ karma-sannyāsāt sakāśāj jyāyaḥ śreṣṭham | sannyāsa-sarva-karmaṇas tava śarīra-nirvāho 'pi na sidhyet ||8||

baladevaḥ : niyatam iti tasmāt tvam aviśuddha-citto niyatam āvaśyaka-karam kuru citta-viśuddhaye niṣkāmatayā sva-vihitaṃ karmācarety arthaḥ | akarmaṇam autsukya-mātreṇa sarva-karma-saṃnyāsa-sakāśāt karmaiva jyāyaḥ praśastataraṃ krama-sopāna-nyāyena jñānotpādakatvāt | autsukya-mātreṇa karma tyajator maline hṛdi jñāna-prakāśāt | kiṃ cākarmaṇaḥ saṃnyasta-sarva-karmaṇas tava śarīra-yātrā deha-nirvāho 'pi na sidhyet | yāvat sādhana-pūrti-deha-dhāraṇasyāvaśyakatvāt tad-arthaṃ jñānī bhikṣāṭanādi-karmānutiṣṭhati | tac ca kṣatriyasya tavānucitam | tasmāt sva-vihitena yuddha-prajā-pālanādi-karmaṇā śulkāni vittāny upārjya tair nirvyūha-deha-yātraḥ svātmānam anusandhehīti ||8||

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BhG 3.9

yajñārthāt karmaṇo 'nyatra loko 'yaṃ karma-bandhanaḥ |
tad-arthaṃ karma kaunteya mukta-saṅgaḥ samācara ||9||

śrīdharaḥ : sāṅkhyās tu sarvam api karma-bandhaktavān na kāryam ity āhuḥ | tannirākurvann āha yajñārthād iti | yajño 'tra viṣṇuḥ | yajño vai viṣṇur iti śruteḥ | tad-ārādhanārthāt karmaṇo |nyatra tad ekaṃ loko 'yaṃ karma-bandhanaḥ karmabhir vadhyate | na tu īśvarārādhanārthena karmaṇā | atas tad-arthaṃ viṣṇu-prīty-arthaṃ mukta-saṅgo niṣkāmaḥ san karma samyag ācara ||9||

madhusūdanaḥ : karmaṇā badhyate jantuḥ [Mbh 12.241.7] iti smṛteḥ sarvaṃ karma bandhātmakatvān mumukṣuṇā na kartavyam iti matvā tasyottaram āha
yajñārthād iti | yajñaḥ parameśvaraḥ yajño vai viṣṇur [TaittS 1.7.4] iti śruteḥ | tad-ārādhanārthaṃ yat kriyate karma tad-yajñārthaṃ tasmāt karmaṇo 'nyatra karmaṇi pravṛtto 'yaṃ lokaḥ karmādhikārī karma-bandhanaḥ karmaṇā badhyate na tv īśvarārādhnārthena | atas tad-arthaṃ yajñārthaṃ karma he kaunteya ! tvaṃ karmaṇy adhikṛto mukta-saṅgaḥ san samācara samyak-śraddhādi-puraḥsaram ācara ||9||

viśvanāthaḥ : nanu tarhi karmaṇā badhyate jantuḥ iti smṛteḥ | karmaṇi kṛte bandhaḥ syād iti cen na | parameśvarārpitaṃ karma na bandhakam ity āha yajñārthād iti | viṣṇv-arpito niṣkāmo dharma eva yajña ucyate | yad-arthaṃ yat karma tato 'nyatraivāyaṃ lokaḥ karma-bandhanaḥ karmaṇā badhyamāno bhavati | tasmāt tvaṃ tad-arthaṃ tādṛśa-dharma-siddhy-arthaṃ karma samācara |

nanu viṣṇv-arpito 'pi dharmaḥ kāmanām uddiśya kṛtaś ced bandhako bhavaty evety āha mukta-saṅgaḥ phalākāṅkṣā-rahitaḥ | evam evoddhavaṃ praty api śrī-bhagavatoktam -

sva-dharma-stho yajan yajñair
anāśīḥ-kāma uddhava |
na yāti svarga-narakau
yady anyan na samācaret ||

asmin loke vartamānaḥ
sva-dharma-stho 'naghaḥ śuciḥ |
jñānaṃ viśuddham āpnoti
mad-bhaktiṃ vā yadṛcchayā || [BhP 11.20.10-1] iti ||9||

baladevaḥ : nanu karmaṇi kṛte bandho bhavet | karmaṇā badhyate jantur ity ādi-smaraṇāc ceti tatrāha yajñārthād iti | yajñaḥ parameśvaraḥ yajño vai viṣṇur iti śruteḥ | tad-arthāt tat-toṣa-phalāt karmaṇo 'nyatra svasukha-phalaka-karmaṇi kriyamāṇe 'yaṃ lokaḥ prāṇī karma-bandhanaḥ karmaṇā badhyate | tasmāt tad-arthaṃ viṣṇu-toṣārthaṃ karma samācara | he kaunteya mukta-saṅgas tyakta-sukhābhilāṣaḥ san nyāyopārjita-dravya-siddhena yajñādinā viṣṇur ārādhya tac-cheṣeṇa deha-yātrāṃ kurvan na badhyata ity arthaḥ ||9||

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BhG 3.10

saha-yajñāḥ prajāḥ sṛṣṭvā purovāca prajāpatiḥ |
anena prasaviṣyadhvam eṣa vo 'stv iṣṭa-kāma-dhuk ||10||
śrīdharaḥ : prajāpati-vacanād api karma-kartaiva śreṣṭha ity āha sahayajñā iti | yañena saha vartanta iti sahayajñāḥ yajñādhikṛtā brāhmaṇādi-prajāḥ purā sargādau sṛṣṭvā idam uvāca brahmā anena yajñena prasaviṣyadhvam | prasavo hi vṛddhiḥ | uttarottarābhivṛddhiṃ labhadhvam ity arthaḥ | tatra hetuḥ | eṣa yajño vo yuṣmākam iṣṭa-kāma-dhuk | iṣṭān dogdhīti tathā | abhīṣṭa-bhoga-prado 'stu ity arthaḥ | atra ca yajña-grahaṇam āvaśyaka-karmopalakṣaṇārtham | kāmya-karma-praśaṃsā tu prakaraṇe 'saṅgatāpi sāmānyato 'karmaṇaḥ karma śreṣṭham ity etad artham ity adoṣaḥ ||10||

madhusūdanaḥ : prajāpati-vacanād apy adhikṛtena karma kartavyam ity āha sahayajñā ity-ādi-caturbhiḥ | saha yajñena vihita-karma-kalāpena vartanta iti sahayajñā samādhikṛtā iti yāvat | vopasarjanasya [Pāṇ 6.3.82] iti pakṣe sādeśābhāvaḥ | prajās trīn varṇān purā kalpādau sṛṣṭvovāca prajānāṃ patiḥ sraṣṭā | kim uvācety āha -- anena yajñena svāśramocita-dharmeṇa prasaviṣyadhvam prasūyadhvam | prasavo vṛddhiḥ | uttarottarām abhivṛddhiṃ labhadhvam ity arthaḥ | katham anena vṛddhiḥ syād ity āha eṣa yajñākhyo dharmo vo yuṣmākam iṣṭa-kāma-dhuk | iṣṭān abhimatān kāmān kāmyāni phalāni dogdhi prāpayatīti tathā | abhīṣṭa-bhoga-prado 'stv ity
arthaḥ |

atra yadyapi yajña-grahaṇam āvaśyaka-karmopalakṣaṇārtham akaraṇe pratyavāyasyāgre kathanāt | kāmya-karmaṇāṃ ca prakṛte prastāvo nāsty eva mā karma-phala-hetur bhūr ity anena nirākṛtatvāt | tathāi nitya-karmaṇām ānuṣaṅgika-phala-sadbhāvāt | eṣa vo 'stv iṣṭa-kāma-dhuk ity upapadyate | tathā ca āpastambaḥ smarati tad yathāmre phalārthe nimitte chāyā-gandhāv anūtpadyete evaṃ dharmaṃ caryamāṇam arthā anūtpadyante no ced anūtpadyante na dharma-hānir bhavati iti | phala-sad-bhāve 'pi tad-abhisandhy-anabhisandhibhyāṃ kāmya-nityayor viśeṣaḥ | anabhisaṃhitasyāpi vastu-svabhāvād utpattau na viśeṣaḥ | vistareṇa cāgre pratipādayiṣyate ||10||

viśvanāthaḥ : tad evāśuddha-cittau niṣkāmaṃ karmaiva kuryān na tu sannyāsam ity uktam | idānīṃ yadi ca niṣkāmo 'pi bhavituṃ na śaknuyāt tadā sakāmam api dharmaṃ viṣṇv-arpitaṃ kuryān na tu karma-tyāgam ity āha saheti saptabhiḥ | yajñena sahitāḥ saha-yajñāḥ vopasarjanasya iti sahasyādeśābhāvaḥ | purā viṣṇv-arpita-dharma-kāriṇīḥ prajāḥ sṛṣṭvā brahmovāca anena dharmeṇa prasaviṣyadhvaṃ prasavo vṛddhir uttarottaram ativṛddhiṃ labhadhvam ity arthaḥ | tāsāṃ sa-kāmatvam abhilakṣyāha eṣa yajño va iṣṭa-kāma-dhug-abhīṣṭa-bhoga-prado
'stv ity arthaḥ ||10||

baladevaḥ : ayajñeśeṣeṇa deha-yātrāṃ kurvato doṣam āha saheti | prajāpatiḥ sarveśvaro viṣṇuḥ patiṃ viśvasyātmeśvaram ity ādi-śruteḥ | brahma prajānāṃ patir acyuto 'sāv ity ādi-smaraṇāc ca | purā ādi-sarge saha-yajñā yajñaiḥ sahitā deva-mānavādi-rūpāḥ prajāḥ sṛṣṭvā nāma-rūpa-vibhāga-śūnyāḥ prakṛti-śaktike svasmin vilīnāḥ puruṣārthāyogyās tās tat-sampādaka-nāma-rūpa-bhājo vidhāya yajñaṃ tan-nirūpakaṃ vedaṃ ca prakāśyety arthaḥ | tāḥ pratīdam uvāca kāruṇikaḥ | anena vedoktena mad-arpitena yajñena yūyaṃ prasaviṣyadhvam | prasavo vṛddhiḥ
sva-vṛddhiṃ bhajadhvam ity arthaḥ | eṣa mad-arpito yajño vo yuṣmākam iṣṭa-kāma-dhuk hṛd-viśuddhy-ātma-jñāna-deha-yātrā-sampādana-dvārā vāñchita-mokṣa-prado 'stu ||10||

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BhG 3.11

devān bhāvayatānena te devā bhāvayantu vaḥ |
parasparaṃ bhāvayantaḥ śreyaḥ param avāpsyatha ||11||

śrīdharaḥ : katham iṣṭa-kāma-dogdhā yajño bhaved iti ? tatrāha devān iti | anena yajñena devān bhāvayata | havir bhāgaiḥ saṃvardhayata te ca devā vo yuṣmān saṃvardhayantu vṛṣṭy-ādinā annotpatti-dvāreṇa | evam anyonyaṃ saṃvardhayanto devāś ca yūyaṃ ca parasparaṃ śreyo 'bhīṣṇam artham avāpsyatha prāpsyatha ||11||

madhusūdanaḥ : katham iṣṭa-kāma-dogdhṛtvaṃ yajñasyeti tad āha devān iti | anena yajñena yūyaṃ yajamānā devān indrādīn bhāvayata havir-bhogaiḥ saṃvardhayata tarpayatety arthaḥ | te devā yuṣmābhir bhāvitāḥ santo vo yuṣmān bhāvayantu vṛṣṭy-ādinānnotpatti-dvāreṇa saṃvardhayantu | evam anyonyaṃ saṃvardhayanto devāś ca yūyaṃ ca varaṃ śreyo 'bhimatam arthaṃ prāpsyatha devās tṛptiṃ prāpsyanti yūyaṃ ca svargākhyaṃ paraṃ śreyaḥ prāpsyathety arthaḥ ||11||

viśvanāthaḥ : katham iṣṭa-kāma-prado yajño bhavet tatrāha devān iti | anena yajñena devān bhāvayata | bhāvavataḥ kuruta | bhāvaḥ prītis tad-yuktān kuruta prīṇayan ity arthaḥ | te devā api vaḥ prīṇayatu ||11||

baladevaḥ : idaṃ ca prajāḥ prayuktāḥ anena yajñena mad-aṅga-bhūtā-nindādīn bhāvayata tat-tad-dhavir-dānena prītān yūyaṃ kuruta | te devā vo yuṣmāṃs tad-vara-dānena bhāvayantu prītān kurvantu | itthaṃ śuddhāhāreṇa mitho bhāvatās te yūyaṃ paraṃ mokṣa-lakṣaṇaṃ śreyaḥ prāpsyathaḥ tatrāhāra-śuddhir hi jñāna-nisṭhāṅgaṃ, tatrāhāra-śuddhau sattva-śuddhiḥ sattva-śuddhau dhruvā smṛtiḥ smṛti-labdhe sarva-granthīnāṃ vipramokṣaḥ iti śruteḥ ||11||

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BhG 3.12

iṣṭān bhogān hi vo devā dāsyante yajña-bhāvitāḥ |
tair dattān apradāyaibhyo yo bhuṅkte stena eva saḥ ||12||

śrīdharaḥ : etad eva spaṣṭīkurvan karmākaraṇe doṣam āha iṣṭān iti | yajñair bhāvitāḥ santo devā vṛṣṭy-ādi-dvāreṇa vo yuṣmabhyaṃ bhogān dāsyante hi | ato devair dattān annādīn ebhyo devebhyaḥ pañca-yajñādibhir adattvā yo bhuṅkte, sa stenaś caura eva jñeyaḥ ||12||

madhusūdanaḥ : na kevalaṃ pāratrikam eva phalaṃ yajñāt, kintv aihikam apīty āha iṣṭān iti | abhilaṣitān bhogān paśv-anna-hiraṇyādīn vo yuṣmabhyaṃ devā dāsyante vitariṣyanti | hi yasmād yajñair bhāvitās toṣitās te | yasmāt tair ṛṇavad bhavadbhyo dattā bhogās tasmāt tair devair dattān bhogān ebhyo devebhyo 'pradāya yajñeṣu devodeśenāhutīrasampādya yo bhuṅkte dehendriyāṇy eva tarpayati stena eva taskara eva sa deva-svāpahārī devārṇapākaraṇāt ||12||

viśvanāthaḥ : etad eva spaṣṭīkurvan karmākaraṇe doṣam āha iṣṭān iti | tair dattān vṛṣṭy-ādi-dvāreṇānnādīn nādīn utpādety arthaḥ | ebhyo devebhyaḥ pañca-mahā-yajñādibhir adattvā yo bhuṅkte, sa tu caura eva ||12||

baladevaḥ : etad eva viśadayan karmānuṣṭhānena doṣam āha iṣṭān iti | pūrva-bhāvita-mad-aṅga-bhūtā devā vo yuṣmabhyam iṣṭān mumukṣu-kāmyān uttarottara-yajñāpekṣān bhogān dāsyanti vṛṣṭy-ādi-dvārā vrīhy-ādīn utpādyety arthaḥ | svārcanārthaṃ tair devair dattāṃs tān bhogān ebhyaḥ pañca-yajñādibhir apradāya kevalātma-tṛpti-karo yo bhuṅkte sa stenaś caura eva | devas tāny apahṛtya tair ātmanaḥ poṣāt | cauro bhūpād iva sa yamād daṇḍam arhati pumarthānarhaḥ ||12||

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BhG 3.13

yajña-śiṣṭāśinaḥ santo mucyante sarva-kilbiṣaiḥ |
bhuñjate te tv aghaṃ pāpā ye pacanty ātma-kāraṇāt ||13||

śrīdharaḥ : ataś ca yajanta eva śreṣṭhāḥ | netara ity āha yajña-śiṣṭāśina iti | vaiśva-devādi-yajñāvaśiṣṭaṃ ye 'śnanti te pañcasūnākṛtaiḥ sarvaiḥ kilbiṣair mucyante | pañca-sūnāś ca smṛtāv uktāḥ -

kaṇḍanī peṣaṇī cullī udakumbhī ca mārjanī |
pañca-sūnā gṛhasthasya tābhiḥ svargaṃ na vindati || iti ||

ye ātmano bhojanārtham eva pacanti, na tu vaiśvadevādy-arthaṃ te pāpā durācārā agham eva bhuñjate ||13||

madhusūdanaḥ : ye tu vaiśvadevādi-yajñāvaśiṣṭam amṛtaṃ ye 'śnanti te santaḥ śiṣṭā vedokta-kāritvena devādy-ṛṇāpākaraṇāt atas te mucyante sarvair vihitākaraṇa-nimittaiḥ pūrva-kṛtaiś ca pañca-sūnā-nimittaiḥ kilbiṣaiḥ | bhūta-bhāvi-pātakā-saṃsargiṇas te bhavantīty arthaḥ |

evam anvaye bhūta-bhāvi-pāpābhāvām uktvā vyatireke doṣam āha bhuñjate te vaiśvadevādy-akāriṇo 'ghaṃ pāpam eva | tu-śabdo 'vadhāraṇe | ye pāpāḥ pañca-sūnā-nimittaṃ pramāda-kṛta-hiṃsā-nimittaṃ ca kṛta-pāpāḥ santa ātma-kāraṇād eva pacanti na tu vaiśvadevādy-artham | tathā ca pāñca-sūnādi-kṛta-pāpe vidyamāna eva vaiśvadevādi-nitya-karmākaraṇa-nimittam aparaṃ pāpam āpnuvantīti bhuñjate te tv aghaṃ pāpā ity uktam | tathā ca smṛtiḥ -

kaṇḍanī peṣaṇī cullī udakumbhī ca mārjanī |
pañca-sūnā gṛhasthasya tābhiḥ svargaṃ na vindati ||iti |

pañca-sūnākṛtaṃ pāpaṃ pañca-yajñair vyapohati iti ca | śrutiś ca idam evāsya tat-sādhāraṇam annaṃ yad idam adyate | sa ya etad upāste na sa pāpnamo vyāvartate miśraṃ hy etat iti | mantra-varṇo 'pi -

mogham annaṃ vindate agra-cetāḥ
satyaṃ bravīmi vadha itsa tasya |
nāryamāṇaṃ puṣyati no sakhāyaṃ
kevalādho bhavati kevalādī ||iti |

idaṃ copalakṣaṇaṃ pañca-mahā-yajñānāṃ smārtānāṃ śrautānāṃ ca nitya-karmaṇām | adhikṛtena nityāni karmāṇy avaśyam anuṣṭheyānīti prajāpati-vacanārthaḥ ||13||

viśvanāthaḥ : vaiśvadevādi-yajñāvaśiṣṭam annaṃ ye 'śnanti te pañca-sūnākṛtaiḥ sarvaiḥ pāpair mucyante | pañca-sūnāś ca smṛty-uktāḥ -

kaṇḍanī peṣaṇī cullī udakumbhī ca mārjanī |
pañca-sūnā gṛhasthasya tābhiḥ svargaṃ na vindati || iti ||13||

baladevaḥ : ye indrādy-aṅgatayāvasthitaṃ yajñaṃ sarveśvaraṃ viṣṇum abhyarcya tac-cheṣam aśnanti tena tad-deha-yātrāṃ sampādayanti te santaḥ sarveśvarasya yajña-puruṣasya bhaktāḥ sarva-kilbiṣair anādi-kāla-vivṛddhair ātmānubhava-pratibandhakair nikhilaiḥ pāpair vimucyante | te tu pāpāḥ pāpa-grastāḥ agham eva bhuñjate | ye tat-tad-devatāṅgatayāvasthitena yajña-puruṣeṇa svārcanāya dattaṃ vrīhy-ādy-ātma-kāraṇāt pacanti tad vipacyātma-poṣaṇaṃ kurvantīty arthaḥ | pakvasya vrīhy-āder agha-rūpeṇa pariṇāmād aghatvam uktam ||13||


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BhG 3.14

annād bhavanti bhūtāni parjanyād anna-saṃbhavaḥ |
yajñād bhavati parjanyo yajñaḥ karma-samudbhavaḥ ||14||

śrīdharaḥ : jagac-cakra-pravṛtti-hetutvād api karma kartavyam ity āha annād iti tribhiḥ | annāt śukra-śoṇita-rūpeṇa pariṇatād bhūtāny utpadyante | annasya ca sambhavaḥ parjanyād vṛṣṭeḥ | sa ca parjanyo yajñād bhavati | sa ca yajñaḥ karma-samudbhavaḥ | karmaṇā yajamānādi-vyāpāreṇa samyak sampadyata ity arthaḥ |

agnau prāstāhutiḥ samyag ādityam upatiṣṭhate |
ādityāj jāyate vṛṣṭir vṛṣṭer annaṃ tataḥ prajāḥ ||14||

madhusūdanaḥ : na kevalaṃ prajāpati-vacanād eva karma kartavyam api tu jagac-cakra-pravṛtti-hetutvād apīty āha annād iti tribhiḥ | annād bhuktād reto-lohita-rūpeṇa pariṇatād bhūtāni prāṇi-śarīrāṇi bhavanti jāyante | annasya sambhavo janmānna-sambhavaḥ parjanyād vṛṣṭeḥ | pratyakṣa-siddham evaitat | atra karmopayogam āha yajñāt kārīr yāder agnihotrādeś cāpūrvākhyād dharmād bhavati parjanyaḥ | yathā cāgnihotrāhuter vṛṣṭi-janakatvaṃ tathā vyākhyātam aṣṭādhyāyī-kāṇḍe janaka-yājñavalkya-saṃvāda-rūpāyāṃ ṣaṭ-praśnyām | manunā coktam -

agnau prāstāhutiḥ samyag ādityam upatiṣṭhate |
ādityāj jāyate vṛṣtir vṛṣter annaṃ tataḥ prajāḥ ||[Manu 3.76] iti |

sa ca yajño dharmākhyaḥ sūkṣmaḥ karma-samudbhava ṛtvig-yajamāna-vyāpāra-sādhyaḥ | yajñasya hi apūrvasya vihitaṃ karma kāraṇam ||14||

viśvanāthaḥ : jagac-cakra-pravṛtti-hetutvād api yajñaṃ kuryād evety āha annād bhūtāni prāṇino bhavantīti bhūtānāṃ hetur annam | annād eva śukra-śoṇita-rūpeṇa pariṇatāt prāṇi-śarīra-siddhes tasyānnasya hetuḥ parjanyaḥ | vṛṣṭibhir evānna-siddhes tasya parjanyasya hetur yajñaḥ | lokaiḥ kṛtena yajñenaiva samucita-vṛṣṭi-prada-megha-siddhes tasya yajñasya hetuḥ karma-ṛtvig-yajamāna-vyāpārātmakatvāt karmaṇa eva yajña-siddheḥ ||14||

baladevaḥ : prajāpatinā pareśena prajāḥ sṛṣṭvā tad-upajīvanāya tadaiva yajñaḥ sṛṣṭas tataḥ pareśānubartināvaśyaṃ sakārya ity āha annād iti dvābhyām | bhūtāni prāṇino 'nnād vrīhy-āder bhavanti | śukra-śoṇita-rūpeṇa pariṇatās tasmāt tad-dehānāṃ siddheḥ | tasyānnasya sambhavaḥ parjanyād vṛṣṭer bhavati | parjanyaś ca yajñād bhavati sidhyatīty arthaḥ |

agnau prāstāhutiḥ samyag ādityam upatiṣṭhate |
ādityāj jāyate vṛṣṭir vṛṣṭer annaṃ tataḥ prajāḥ || iti manu-smṛteḥ ||14||

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BhG 3.15

karma brahmodbhavaṃ viddhi brahmākṣara-samudbhavam
tasmāt sarva-gataṃ brahma nityaṃ yajñe pratiṣṭhitam ||15||

śrīdharaḥ : tathā karmeti | tac ca yajamānādi-vyāpāra-rūpaṃ karma brahmodbhavaṃ viddhi | brahma vedaḥ | tasmāt pravṛttaṃ jānīhi | asya mahato bhūtasya niḥśvasitam etad ṛg-vedo yajur-veaḥ sāma-vedo |thāṅgīrasaḥ iti śruteḥ | yata evam akṣarād eva yajña-pravṛtter atyantam abhipreto yajñaḥ, tasmāt sarva-gatam apy akṣaraṃ brahma nityaṃ sarvadā yajñe pratiṣṭhitam | yajñenopāya-bhūtena prāpyata iti yajñe pratiṣṭhitam ucyata iti | udyama-sthā sadā lakṣmīr itivat | yad vā, jagac-cakrasya mūlaṃ karma tasmāt sarva-gataṃ mantrārtha-vādaiḥ sarveṣu siddhārtha-pratipādakeṣu bhūtārthākhyānādiṣu
gataṃ sthitam api vedākhyaṃ brahma sarvadā yajñe tātparya-rūpeṇa pratiṣṭhitam | ato yajñādi karma kartavyam ity arthaḥ ||15||

madhusūdanaḥ : tac cāpūrvotpādakam | brahmodbhavaṃ brahma vedaḥ sa evodbhavaḥ pramāṇaṃ yasya tat tathā | veda-vihitam eva karmāpūrva-sādhanaṃ jānīhi | na tv anyat-pāṣaṇḍa-pratipāditam ity arthaḥ | nanu pāṣaṇḍa-śāstrāpekṣayā vedasya kiṃ vailakṣaṇyaṃ yato veda-pratipādita eva dharmo nānya ity ata āha brahma vedākhyam akṣara-samudbhavam akṣarāt paramātmano nirdoṣāt puruṣa-niḥśvāsa-nyāyenābuddhi-pūrvaṃ samudbhava āvirbhāvo yasya tad-akṣara-samudbhavam | tathā cāpauruṣeyatvena nirasta-samasta-doṣāśaṅkaṃ veda-vākyaṃ pramiti-janakam iti bhāvaḥ
| tathā ca śrutiḥ -- asya mahato bhūtasya niḥśvasitam etad ṛg-vedo yajur-veaḥ sāma-vedo 'thāṅgīrasa itihāsaḥ purāṇaṃ vidyā upaniṣadaḥ ślokāḥ sūtrāṇy anuvyākhānāni vyākhyānāny asyaivaitāni niḥśvasitāni [BAU 2.4.10] iti |

tasmāt sākṣāt paramātma-samudbhavatayā sarva-gataṃ sarva-prakāśakaṃ nityam avināśi ca brahma vedākhyaṃ yajñe dharmākhye 'tīndriye pratiṣṭhitaṃ tātparyeṇa | ataḥ pāṣaṇḍa-pratipāditopadharma-parityāgena veda-bodhita eva dharmo 'nuṣṭheya ity arthaḥ ||15||

viśvanāthaḥ : tasya karmaṇo hetur brahma vedaḥ | vedokta-vidhi-vākya-śravaṇād eva yajñaṃ prati vyāpārotpattes tasya vedasya hetur akṣaraṃ brahma | brahmata eva vedotpatteḥ | tathā ca śrutiḥ - asya mahato bhūtasya niḥśvasitam etad ṛg-vedo yajur-veaḥ sāma-vedo |thāṅgīrasaḥ iti | tasmāt sarva-gataṃ brahma yajñe pratiṣṭhitam iti yajñena brahmāpi prāpyata iti bhāvaḥ | atra yadyapi kārya-kāraṇa-bhāvenānnādyā brahma-paryantāḥ padārtho uktās tad api teṣu madhye yajña eta vidheyatvena śāstreṇocyata iti | sa eva prastutaḥ -

agnau prāstāhutiḥ samyag ādityam upatiṣṭhate |
ādityāj jāyate vṛṣṭir vṛṣṭer annaṃ tataḥ prajāḥ || iti smṛteḥ ||15||

baladevaḥ : tac ca ṛtvig-ādi-vyāpāra-rūpa-karma-brahmodbhavaṃ viddhi | brahma-vedas tasmāt tat pravṛttiṃ jānīhīty arthaḥ | tac ca veda-rūpaṃ brahma akṣarāt pareśāt samudbhavaṃ prakaṭaṃ viddhi | asya mahato bhūtasya niḥśvasitam etad ṛg-vedo yajur-veaḥ sāma-vedo |thāṅgīrasaḥ ity ādi-śravaṇāt | yasmāt sva-sṛṣṭa-prajopajīvanāti-priyo yajñas tasmāt sarva-gataṃ nikhila-vyāpakam api brahma nityaṃ sarvadā yajñe pratiṣṭhitaṃ tenaiva tat prāpyata ity arthaḥ ||15||

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BhG 3.16

evaṃ pravartitaṃ cakraṃ nānuvartayatīha yaḥ |
aghāyur indriyārāmo moghaṃ pārtha sa jīvati ||16||

śrīdharaḥ : yasmād evaṃ parameśvareṇaiva bhūtānāṃ puruṣārtha-siddhaye karmādi-cakraṃ pravartitaṃ tasmāt tad akurvato vṛthaiva jīvitam ity āha evam iti | parameśvara-vākya-bhūtād vedākhyād brahmaṇaḥ puruṣāṇāṃ karmaṇi pravṛttiḥ | tataḥ karma-niṣpattiḥ | tataḥ parjanyaḥ | tato 'nnam | tato bhūtāni | bhūtānāṃ punas tathaiva karma-pravṛttir iti | evaṃ pravartitaṃ cakraṃ yo nānuvartayati nānutiṣṭhati so 'ghāyuḥ | aghaṃ pāpa-rūpam āyur yasya saḥ | yata indriyair viṣayeṣv evāramati, na tu īśvarārādhanārthe karmaṇi | ato moghaṃ vyarthaṃ
sa jīvati ||16||

madhusūdanaḥ : bhavaty evaṃ tataḥ kiṃ phalitam ity āha evam iti | parameśvarāt sarvāvabhāsaka-nitya-nirdoṣa-vedāvirbhāvaḥ | tataḥ karma-parijñānaṃ tato 'nuṣṭhānād dharmotpādaḥ | tataḥ parjanyas tato 'nnaṃ tato bhūtāni punas tathaiva bhūtānāṃ karma-pravṛttir ity evaṃ parameśvareṇa pravartitaṃ cakraṃ sarva-jagan-nirvāhakaṃ yo nānuvartayati nānutiṣṭhati so 'ghāyuḥ pāpa-jīvano moghaṃ vyartham eva jīvati he pārtha tasya jīvanān maraṇam eva varaṃ janmāntare dharmānuṣṭhāna-sambhavād ity arthaḥ | tathā ca śrutiḥ - atho ayaṃ vā ātmā sarveṣāṃ
bhūtānāṃ lokaḥ sa yaj juhoti yad yajate tena devānāṃ loko 'tha yad anubrūte tena ṛṣīṇām atha yat-pitṛbhyo nipṛṇāti yat prajām icchate tena pitṝṇām atha yan manuṣyān vāsayate yad ebhyo 'śanaṃ dadāti tena manuṣyāṇām atha yat paśubhyas tṛṇodakaṃ vindati tena paśūnāṃ yad asya gṛheṣu śvāpadā vayāṃsyāpipīlikābhya upajīvanti tena teṣāṃ lokaḥ [BAU 1.4.16] iti |

brahma-vidaṃ vyāvartayati indriyārāma iti | yata indriyair viṣayeṣv āramati ataḥ karmādhikārī saṃs tad-akaraṇāt pāpam evācinvan vyartham eva jīvatīty abhiprāyaḥ ||16||

viśvanāthaḥ : etad-anuṣṭhāne pratyavāyam āha evam iti | cakraṃ pūrva-paścād-bhāgena pravartitam | yajñān parjanyaḥ | parjanyād annam | annāt puruṣaḥ | puruṣāt punar yajñaḥ | yajñāt parjanya ity evaṃ cakraṃ yo nānuvartayati yajñānuṣṭhānena na parivartayati, sa aghāyuḥ pāpa-vyāptāyuḥ | ko narake na maṅkṣyatīti bhāvaḥ ||16||

baladevaḥ : yajñākaraṇe doṣam āhaivam iti | parasmād brahmaṇo vedāvirbhāvas tasmād brahma-pratibodhakāt yajñas tataḥ parjanyas tato 'nnaṃ tato bhūtāni punas tathaiva bhūtānāṃ karma-pravṛttir ity evaṃ nikhila-jagan-nirvāhakaṃ pareśena prajāpatinā pravartitaṃ cakraṃ yo nānuvartayati sa janaḥ pareśa-vimukho 'ghāyuḥ pāpa-jīvano moghaṃ vyartham eva jīvati | he pārtha yad asāv indriyair viṣayeṣv eva ramate na tu para-brahmābhimate yajñe tac-cheṣāśane ca ||16||

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BhG 3.17

yas tv ātma-ratir eva syād ātma-tṛptaś ca mānavaḥ
ātmany eva ca saṃtuṣṭas tasya kāryaṃ na vidyate || 17 ||

śrīdharaḥ : tad evaṃ na karmaṇām ārambhād ity-ādinā ajñasya antaḥ-karaṇa-śuddhy-arthaṃ karma-yogam uktvā jñāninaḥ karmānupayogam āha yas tv iti dvābhyām | ātmany eva ratiḥ prītir yasya saḥ | tataś cātmany eva tṛptaḥ svānandānubhavena nirvṛtaḥ | ataeva ātmany eva santuṣṭo bhogāpekṣā-rahito yas tasya kartavyaṃ karma nāstīti ||17||

ṃadhusūdanaḥ: yas tv indriyārāmo na bhavati paramārtha-darśī sa evaṃ jagac-cakra-prabhṛti-hetu-bhūtaṃ karmānanutiṣṭhann api na pratyavaiti kṛtakṛtyatvād ity āha dvābhyām yas tv iti | indriyārāmo hi srak-candana-vanitādiṣu ratim anubhavati manojñānna-pānādiṣu tṛptiṃ paśu-putra-hiraṇyādi-lābhena rogādy-abhāvena ca tuṣṭim | ukta-viṣayābhāve rāgiṇām araty-atṛpty-atuṣṭi-darśanād rati-tṛpti-tuṣṭyau mano-vṛtti-viśeṣāḥ sākṣi-siddhāḥ | labdha-paramātmānanas tu dvaita-darśanābhāvād atiphalgutvāc ca viṣaya-sukhaṃ na kāmayata ity uktaṃ yāvān artha udapāne ity atra | ato 'nātma-viṣayaka-rati-tṛpti-tuṣṭy-abhāvād
ātmānaṃ paramānandam advayaṃ sākṣātkurvann upacārād evam ucyate - ātma-ratir ātma-tṛpta ātma-santuṣṭa iti | tathā ca śrutiḥ - ātma-krīḍa ātma-ratiḥ kriyāvān eva brahma-vidāṃ variṣṭhaḥ iti | ātma-tṛptaś ceti cakāra eva-kārānukarṣaṇārthaḥ | mānava iti yaḥ kaścid api manuṣya evambhūtaḥ sa eva kṛtakṛtyo na tu brāhmaṇatvādi-prakarṣeṇeti kathayitum | ātmany eva ca santuṣṭa ity atra ca-kāraḥ samuccayārthaḥ | ya evambhūtasyādhikāra-hetv-abhāvāt kim api kāryaṃ vaidikaṃ laukikaṃ vā na vidyate ||17||

viśvanāthaḥ : tad evaṃ niṣkāmatvāsāmarthye sa-kāmo 'pi karma kuryād evety uktam | yas tu śuddhāntaḥ-karaṇatvāt jñāna-bhūmikām ārūḍhaḥ sa tu nityaṃ kāmyaṃ ca na karotīty āha yas tv iti dvābhyām | ātma-ratir ātmārāmo yata ātma-tṛptaḥ ātmānandānubhavena nirvṛtaḥ | na svātmani nirvṛto bahir-viṣaya-bhoge 'pi kiñcin nirvṛto bhavatu | atra naivety āhaātmany eva na tu bahir-viṣaya-bhoge tasya kāryaṃ kartavyatvena karma nāsti ||17||

baladevaḥ : yas tu mad-uktena niṣkāma-karmaṇā mad-upāsanena ca vimṛṣṭe citta-darpaṇe sañjātena dharma-bhūta-jñānenātmānam adarśat tasya na kiñcit karma kartavyam ity āha yas tv iti dvābhyām | ātmany apahata-pāpmatvādi-guṇāṣṭaka-viśiṣṭe sva-svarūpe avalokite ratir yasya saḥ | ātmanā sva-prakāśānandenāvalokitena tṛpto na tv anna-pānādinā | ātmany eva ca tādṛśe santuṣṭo na tu nṛtya-gītādau | tasyaivambhūtasya tad-avalokānāya kiñcit karma kartavyaṃ na vidyate sarvadāvalokitātma-svarūpatvāt ||17||

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BhG 3.18

naiva tasya kṛtenārtho nākṛteneha kaścana |
na cāsya sarvabhūteṣu kaś cid arthavyapāśrayaḥ || 18 ||

śrīdharaḥ : tatra hetum āha naiveti | kṛtena karmaṇā tasya arthaḥ puṇyaṃ naivāsti | na cākṛtena kaścana ko 'pi pratyavāyo 'sti | nirahaṅkāratvena vidhi-niṣedhātītatvāt | tathāpi tasmāt tad eṣāṃ devānāṃ na priyaṃ yad etan manuṣā vidur iti śrtuer mokṣe deva-kṛta-vighna-sambhavāt tat-parihārārthaṃ karmabhir devāḥ sevyā ity āśaṅkyoktaṃ sarva-bhūteṣu brahmādi-sthāvarānteṣu kaścid artha-vyapāśrayaḥ āśraya eva vyapāśrayaḥ | artho mokṣa āśrayaṇīyo 'sya nāstīty arthaḥ | vighnābhāvasya śrutyaivoktatvāt | tathā ca śrutiḥ -- tasya ha na devāś ca nābhūtyā īśate ātmā hy eṣāṃ sa bhavati iti śravaṇāt
| hanety avyayam apy-arthe | devā api tasyātma-tattva-jñasya abhūtyai brahma-bhāva-pratibandhāya neśate na śaknuvantīti śruter arthaḥ | deva-kṛtās tu vighnāḥ samyag-jñānotpatteḥ prāg eva | yad etad brahma manuṣyā vidus tad eṣāṃ devānāṃ na priyam iti brahma-jñānasyaiva apriyatvoktyā tatraiva vighna-kartṛtvasya sūcitatvāt ||18||

madhusūdanaḥ : nanv ātmavido 'pi abhyudayārthaṃ niḥśreyasārthaṃ pratyavāya-parihārārthaṃ vā karma syād ity ata āha naiveti | tasyātma-rateḥ kṛtena karmaṇābhyudaya-lakṣaṇo niḥśreyasa-lakṣaṇo vārthaṃ prayojanaṃ naivāsti tasya svargādy-abhyudayānarthitvāt | niḥśreyasasya ca karmāsādhyatvāt | tathā ca śrutiḥ - parīkṣya lokān karma-cittān brāhmaṇo nirvedam āyān nāsty akṛtaḥ kṛtena iti | akṛto nityo mokṣaḥ kṛtena karmaṇā nāstīty arthaḥ | jñāna-sādhyasyāpi vyāvṛttir eva-kāreṇa sūcitā | ātma-rūpasya hi niḥśreyasya nitya-prāptasyājñāna-mātram aprāptiḥ | tac ca tattva-jñāna-mātrāpanodyam | tasmiṃs tattva-jñānenāpanunne
tasyātma-vido na kiṃcit karma-sādhyaṃ jñāna-sādhyaṃ vā prayojanam astīty arthaḥ |

evaṃbhūtenāpi pratyavāya-parihārārthaṃ karmāṇy anuṣṭheyāny evety ata āha nākṛteneti | bhāve niṣṭhā | nitya-karmākaraṇeneha loke garhitatva-rūpaḥ pratyavāya-prāpti-rūpo vā kaścanārtho nāsti | sarvatropapattim āhottarārdhena | co hetau | yasmād asyātma-vidaḥ sarva-bhūteṣu brahmādi-sthāvarānteṣu ko 'pi artha-vyapāśrayaḥ prayojana-sambandho nāsti | kaṃcid bhūta-viśeṣam āśritya ko 'pi kriyā-sādhyo 'rtho nāstīti vākyārthaḥ | ato 'sya kṛtākṛte niṣprayojanaṃ naiva kṛtākṛte tapataḥ iti śruteḥ | tasya ha na devāś canābhūtyā īśata ātmā hy eṣāṃ na bhavati iti śruter devā api tasya mokṣābhavanāya na samarthā ity ukter na vighnābhāvārtham
api devārādhana-rūpa-karmānuṣṭhānam ity abhiprāyaḥ |

etādṛśo brahma-vid-bhūmikā-saptaka-bhedena nirūpito vasiṣṭhena -

jñāna-bhūmiḥ śubhecchākhyā prathamā parikīrtitā |
vicāraṇā dvitīyā syāt tṛtīyā tanu-mānasā ||
sattvāpattiś caturthī syāt tato 'saṃsakti-nāsikā |
padārthābhāvanī ṣaṣṭhī saptamī turyagā smṛtā || iti |

tatra nityānitya-vastu-vivekādi-puraḥsarā phala-paryavasāyinī mokṣecchā prathamā | tato gurum upasṛtya vedānta-vākya-vicāraḥ śravaṇa-mananātmako dvitīyā | tato nididhyāsanābhyāsena manasa ekāgratayā sūkṣma-vastu-grahaṇa-yogyatvaṃ tṛtīyā | etad bhūmikā-trayaṃ sādhana-rūpaṃ jāgrad-avasthocyate yogibhiḥ | bhedena jagato bhānāt | tad uktam -

bhūmikā-tritayaḥ tv etad rāma jāgrad iti sthitam |
yathāvad bheda-buddhyedaṃ jagaj jāgrati dṛśyate || iti |

tato vedānta-vākyān nirvikalpako brahmātmaikya-sākṣātkāraś caturthī bhūmikā phala-rūpā sattvāpattiḥ svapnāvasthocyate | sarvasyāpi jagato mithyātvena sphuraṇāt | tad uktam -

advaite sthairyam āyāte dvaite praśamam āgate |
paśyanti svapnaval lokaṃ caturthīṃ bhūmikām itāḥ || iti |

so 'yaṃ caturtha-bhūmiṃ prāpto yogī brahmavid ity ucyate | pañcamī-ṣaṣṭhī-saptamyas tu bhūmikā jīvanmukter evāvāntara-bhedāḥ | tatra savikalpaka-samādhy-abhyāsena niruddhe manasi yā nirvikalpaka-samādhy-avasthā sāsaṃsaktir iti suṣuptir iti cocyate | tataḥ svayam eva vyutthānāt | so 'yaṃ yogī brahma-vid-varaḥ | tatas tad-abhyāsa-paripākeṇa cira-kālāvasthāyinī sā padārthābhāvanīti gāḍha-suṣuptir iti cocyate | tataḥ svayam anusthitasya yoginaḥ para-prayatnenaiva vyutthānāt | so 'yaṃ brahmavid varīyān | uktaṃ hi -

pañcamīṃ bhūmikām etya suṣupti-padanāmikām |
ṣaṣṭhīṃ gāḍha-suṣupty-ākhyāṃ kramāt patati bhūmikām || iti |

yasyās tu samādhy-avasthāyā na svato na vā parato vyutthito bhavati sarvathā bheda-darśanābhāvāt | kintu sarvadā tanmaya eva sva-prayatnam antareṇaiva parameśvara-prerita-prāṇa-vāyu-vaśād anyair nirvāhyamāṇa-daihika-vyavahāraḥ paripūrṇa-paramānanda-ghana eva sarvatas tiṣṭhati | sā saptamī turīyāvasthā | tāṃ prāpto brahmavid variṣṭha ity ucyate | uktaṃ hi -

ṣaṣṭhyāṃ bhūmām asau sthitvā saptamīṃ bhūmikām āpnuyāt |
kiṃcid evaiṣa sampannas tv athavaiṣa na kiṃcana ||
videha-muktatā tūktā saptamī yoga-bhūmikā |
agamyā vacasāṃ śāntā sā sīmā yoga-bhūmiṣu || iti |

yām adhikṛtya śrīmad-bhāgavate smaryate -

dehaṃ ca naśvaram avasthitam utthitaṃ vā
siddho na paśyati yato 'dhyagamat svarūpam |
daivād apetam atha daiva-vaśād upetaṃ
vāso yathā parikṛtaṃ madirā-madāndhaḥ ||

deho 'pi daiva-vaśa-gaḥ khalu karma yāvat
svārambhakaṃ pratisamīkṣata eva sāsuḥ |
taṃ sa-prapañcam adhirūṭha-samādhi-yogaḥ
svāpnaṃ punar na bhajate pratibuddha-vastuḥ ||[BhP 11.13.36-37]

śrutiś ca - tad yathā 'hinirlvyayanī valmīke mṛtā pratyastā śayītaivam evedaṃ śarīraṃ śete 'thāyam aśarīro 'mṛtaḥ prāṇo brahmaiva teja eva iti |

tatrāyaṃ saṅgrahaḥ -

caturthī bhūmikā jñānaṃ tisraḥ syuḥ sādhanaṃ purā |
jīvan-mukter avasthāstu parās tisraḥ prakīrtitāḥ ||
atra prathama-bhūmi-trayam ārūḍho 'jño 'pi na karmādhikārī kiṃ punas tattva-jñānī tad-viśiṣṭo jīvan-mukto vety abhiprāyaḥ ||18||

viśvanātha: kṛtenānuṣṭhitena karmaṇā nārtho na phalam | akṛtena kañcana pratavāyo 'pi na, yasmād asya sarva-bhūteṣu brahmāṇḍa-sthāvarādiṣu madhye kaścid apy arthāya sva-prayojanārthaṃ vyapāśraya āśrayaṇīyo na bhavati | purāṇādiṣu vyapāśraya-śabdena tathaivocyate, yathā -

vāsudeve bhagavati bhaktim udvahatāṃ nṛṇām |
jñāna-vairāgya-vīryāṇāṃ neha kaścid vyapāśrayaḥ || [BhP 6.17.31] iti |

tathā-yad-upāśrayāśrayāḥ śuddhyanti [BhP 2.7.46] iti | saṃsthā-hetur upāśrayaḥ ity ādāv apy apety upasargasyānadhikārthaṃ dṛṣṭam ||18||

baladevaḥ : kṛtena tad-avalokanāyānuṣṭhitena karmaṇārthaḥ phalaṃ naivāsti | akṛtena tad-avalokanāsādhanena karmaṇā kaścanānarthaś ca tad-avalokana-kṣati-lakṣaṇa iha na bhavati | svābhāvikātmāvalokanāt | na tv īdṛśo 'pi deva-kṛtād vighnād bibhyat tat-toṣāya tat-pūjātmakaṃ karma kuryāt | śrutiś ca devān jñāna-dviṣaḥ prāha-tasmāt tad eṣāṃ devānāṃ na priyaṃ yad etan manuṣā vidur iti | tatrāha na ceti | asya labdhātmāvalokasya viduṣaḥ sarva-bhūteṣu deveṣu mānaveṣu ca madhye kaścid apy arthāyātma-ratir nairvighnāya vyapāśrayaḥ karmabhiḥ sevyo na bhavati | jñānodayāt pūrvam eva deva-kṛtā
vighnāḥ tenātma-ratau satyāṃ tu na tat-kṛtās te tat-prabhāveṇa sambhavanti | tasya ha na devāś ca nābhūtyā īśate ātmā hy eṣāṃ sambhavati iti śravaṇāt | hanety apy-arthe nipātaḥ | devā api tasyātmānubhavino |bhūtyai ātma-rati-kṣataye neśate | hi yasmād eṣāṃ sa ātmā tadvat preṣṭho bhavatīty arthaḥ ||18||

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BhG 3.19

tasmād asaktaḥ satataṃ kāryaṃ karma samācara
asakto hy ācaran karma param āpnoti pūruṣaḥ ||19||

śrīdharaḥ :yasmād evambhūtasya jñānina eva karmānupayogo nānyasya tasmāt tvaṃ karma kurv ity āha tasmād iti | asaktaḥ phala-saṅga-rahitaḥ san kāryam avaśya-kartavyatayā vihitaṃ nityaṃ naimittikaṃ karma samyag ācara | hi yasmād asaktaḥ karmācaran puruṣaḥ paraṃ mokṣaṃ citta-śuddhi-jñāna-dvārā prāpnoti ||19||

madhusūdanaḥ : yasmān na tvam evaṃbhūto jñānī kintu karmādhikṛta eva mumukṣuḥ | asaktaḥ phala-kāmanā-rahitaḥ satataṃ sarvadā na tu kadācit kāryam avaśya-kartavyaṃ yāvaj-jīvādi-śruti-coditaṃ tam etaṃ vedānuvacanena brāhmaṇā vividiṣanti yajñena dānena tapasānāśakena iti śrutyā jñāne viniyuktaṃ karma nitya-naimittika-lakṣaṇaṃ samyag ācara yathā-śāstraṃ nirvartaya | asakto hi yasmād ācarann īśvarārthaṃ karma kurvan sattva-śuddhi-jñāna-prāpti-dvāreṇa paraṃ mokṣam āpnoti pūruṣaḥ puruṣaḥ sa eva sat-puruṣo nānya ity abhiprāyaḥ ||19||

viśvanāthaḥ : tasmāt tava jñāna-bhūmikārohaṇe nāsti yogyatā | kāmya-karmaṇi tu sad-vivekavatas tava naivādhikāraḥ | tasmāt niṣkāma-karmaiva kurv ity āha tasmād iti | kāryam avaśya-kartavyatvena vihitaṃ paraṃ mokṣam ||19||
baladevaḥ : yasmāl labdhātmāvalokanasyaiva karmānupayogas tasmād etādṛktvaṃ kāryaṃ kartavyatvena vihitaṃ karma samācara | asaktaḥ phalecchā-śūnyaḥ san | paraṃ dehādi-bhinnam ātmānam āpnoty avalokate yāthātmyena ||19||

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BhG 3.20

karmaṇaiva hi saṃsiddhim āsthitā janakādayaḥ
loka-saṃgraham evāpi saṃpaśyan kartum arhasi ||20||

śrīdharaḥ : atra sadācāraṃ pramāṇayati karmaṇaiveti | karmaṇaiva śuddha-sattvāḥ santaḥ saṃsiddhiṃ samyag-jñānaṃ prāptā ity arthaḥ | yadyapi tvaṃ samyag-jñāninam evātmānaṃ manyase, tathāpi karmācaraṇaṃ bhadram evety āha loka-saṅgraham ity ādi | lokasya saṅgrahaṃ sva-dharme pravartanam | mayā karmaṇi kṛte janaḥ sarvo 'pi kariṣyati | anyathā jñāni-dṛṣṭāntenājño nija-dharmaṃ nityaṃ karma tyajan patet | ity evaṃ loka-rakṣaṇam api tāvat prayojanaṃ saṃpaśyan kathaṃ kartum evārhasi | na tyaktum ity arthaḥ ||20||

madhusūdanaḥ : nanu vividiṣor api jñāna-niṣṭhā-prāpty-arthaṃ śravaṇa-manana-nididhyāsanānuṣṭhānāya sarva-karma-tyāga-lakṣaṇaḥ saṃnyāso vihitaḥ | tathā ca na kevalaṃ jñānina eva karmānadhikāraḥ kintu jñānārthino 'pi viraktasya | tathā ca mayāpi viraktena jñānārthinā karmāṇi heyāny evety arjunāśaṅkāṃ kṣatriyasya saṃnyāsānadhikāra-pratipādanenāpanudati bhagavān karmaṇaiveti |

janakādayo janakā-jāta-śatru-prabhṛtayaḥ śruti-smṛti-prasiddhāḥ kṣatriyā vidvāṃso 'pi karmaṇaiva saha na tu karma-tyāgena sa saṃsiddhiṃ śravaṇādi-sādhyāṃ jñāna-niṣṭhām āsthitāḥ prāptāḥ | hi yasmād evaṃ tasmāt tvam api kṣatriyo vividiṣur vidvān vā karma kartum arhasīty anuṣaṅgaḥ | brāhmaṇaḥ putraiṣaṇāyāś ca vittaṣaṇāyāś ca lokaiṣaṇāyāś ca vyutthāyātha bhikṣācaryaṃ caranti iti saṃnyāsa-vidhāyake vākye brāhmaṇatvasya vivakṣitatvāt | svārājya-kāmo rājā rāja-sūyena yajeta ity atra kṣatriyatvāvat | catvāra āśramā brāhmaṇasya trayo rājan yasya dvau vaiśyasya
iti ca smṛteḥ | purāṇe 'pi -

mukhajānāmayaṃ dharmo yad viṣṇor liṅga-dhāraṇam |
bāhu-jātoru-jātānām nāyaṃ dharmaḥ praśasyate ||

iti kṣatriya-vaiśyayoḥ saṃnyāsābhāva uktaḥ | tasmād yuktam evoktaṃ bhagavatā karmaṇaiva hi saṃsiddhim āsthitā janakādayaḥ |

sarve rājāśritā dharmā rājā dharmasya dhārakaḥ ity ādi smṛter varṇāśrama-pravartakatvenāpi kṣatriyo 'vaśyaṃ karma kuryād ity āha loketi | lokānāṃ sve sve dharme pravartanam unmārgān nivartanaṃ ca loka-saṅgrahas taṃ paśyann api-śabdāj janakādi-śiṣṭācāram api paśyan karma kartum arhasy evety anvayaḥ | kṣatriya-janma-prāpakeṇa karmaṇārabdha-śarīras tvaṃ vidvān api janakādivat prārabdha-karma-phalena loka-saṅgrahārthaṃ karma kartuṃ yogyo bhavasi na tu tyaktuṃ brāhmaṇa-janmālābhād ity abhiprāyaḥ | etādṛśa-bhagavad-abhiprāya-vidā bhagavatā bhāṣya-kṛtā brāhmaṇasyaiva saṃnyāso nānyasyeti nirṇītam | vārtika-kṛtā tu prauḍhi-vāda-mātreṇa kṣatriya-vaiśyayor
api saṃnyāso 'stīty uktam iti draṣṭavyam ||20||

viśvanāthaḥ : atra sadācāraṃ pramāṇayati karmaṇeti | yadi vā tvam ātmānaṃ jñānā̆dhikāriṇaṃ manyase, tad api loke śikṣā grahaṇārthaṃ karmaiva kurv ity āha loketi ||20||

baladevaḥ : sadācāram atra pramāṇayati karmaṇaiveti | karmaṇaivopāyena viśuddha-cittāḥ santaḥ saṃsiddhiṃ svātmāvalokana-lakṣaṇām āsthitāḥ prāpuḥ | karmaṇaiveti viśeṣaṇa-sambandha eva-kāras tasyāyogaṃ vyavacchinnatti śaṅkha-pāṇḍura evetivat | tena śravaṇāder na vyudāsaḥ | karmaṇā yajñādinā sahaiva śravaṇādineti kecit |

nanu saniṣṭhasyātmāvalokane karmānuṣṭhānaṃ nāstīty uktam | mama pariniṣṭhitasyāvalokita-sva-parātmanaḥ karmopadeśaḥ kuta iti cet tatrāha loketi | satyaṃ tvam īdṛśa eva tathāpi loka-saṅgrahāya karma kurv iti arjune mayi karma kurvāṇe sarva-lokaḥ karma kariṣyati | itarathā mad-dṛṣṭāntenājño 'pi lokaḥ karma tyajan patiṣyatīti loka-saṃrakṣaṇaṃ tat phalam ||20||

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BhG 3.21

yad yad ācarati śreṣṭhas tat tad evetaro janaḥ |
sa yat pramāṇaṃ kurute lokas tad anuvartate ||21||
śrīdharaḥ : karma-karaṇe loka-saṅgraho yathā syāt tad āha yad iti | itaraḥ prākṛto 'pi janas tat tad evācarati | sa śreṣṭho janaḥ karma-śāstraṃ tan-nivṛtti-śāstraṃ vā yat pramāṇaṃ manyate, tad eva loko 'py anusarati ||21||

madhusūdanaḥ : nanu mayā karmaṇi kriyamāṇe 'pi lokaḥ kim iti tat-saṅgṛhṇīyād ity āśaṅkya śreṣṭhācārānuvidhāyitvād ity āha yad yad iti | śreṣṭhaḥ pradhāna-bhūto rājādir yad yat karmācarati śubham aśubhaṃ vā tat tad evācaratītaraḥ prākṛtas tad-anugato janaḥ | na tv anyat svātantryeṇety arthaḥ |

nanu śāstram avalokyāśāstrīyaṃ śreṣṭhācāraṃ parityajya śāstrīyam eva kuto nācarati loka ity āśaṅkyācāravat pratipattāv api śreṣṭhānusāritām itarasya darśayati sa yad iti | sa śreṣṭho yal laukikaṃ vaidikaṃ vā pramāṇaṃ kurute pramāṇatvena manyate tad eva loko 'py anuvartate pramāṇaṃ kurute na tu svātantryeṇa kiṃcid ity arthaḥ | tathā ca pradhāna-bhūtena tvayā rājñā loka-saṃrakṣaṇārthaṃ karma kartavyam eva pradhānānuyāyino jana-vyavahārā bhavantīti nyāyād ity abhiprāyaḥ ||21||

viśvanāthaḥ : loka-saṅgraha-prakāram evāha yad yad iti ||21||

baladevaḥ : loka-saṅgraha-prakāram evāha yad yad iti | śreṣṭho mahattamo yat karma yathācarati tat karma tathaivetaraḥ kaniṣṭho 'py ācarati | sa śresṭhas tasmin karmaṇi yac chāstraṃ pramāṇaṃ kurute manyate lokaḥ kaniṣṭho 'pi tad-anuyāyī tad evānuvartate 'nasarati | śāstropetaṃ śreṣṭhācaraṇaṃ kalyāṇa-lipsunā kaniṣṭhenānuṣṭheyam ity arthaḥ | itthaṃ ca tejasvinaḥ śreṣṭhasya ca yat kvacit svairācaraṇaṃ tad-vyāvṛtam | tasya śreṣṭha-kṛtatve 'pi śāstropetatvābhāvāt ||21||

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BhG 3.22

na me pārthāsti kartavyaṃ triṣu lokeṣu kiṃcana |
nānavāptam avāptavyaṃ varta eva ca karmaṇi ||22||

śrīdharaḥ : atra cāhameva dṛṣṭānta ity āha na ma iti tribhiḥ | he pārtha ! me kartavyaṃ nāsti | yatas triṣv api lokeṣu anavāptam aprāptaṃ sadāvaptavyaṃ prāpyaṃ nāsti | tathāpi karmaṇy ahaṃ varta eva karma karomy evety arthaḥ ||22||

madhusūdanaḥ : atra cāham eva dṛṣṭānta ity āha na ma iti tribhiḥ | he pārtha na me mama triṣv api lokeṣu kim api kartavyaṃ nāsti | yato 'navāptaṃ phalaṃ kiṃcin mamāvāptavyaṃ nāsti | tathāpi varta eva karmaṇy ahaṃ karma karomy evety arthaḥ | pārtheti sambodhayan viśuddha-kṣatriya-vaṃśodbhavas tvaṃ śūrāpatyāpatyatvena cātyantaṃ mat-samo 'ham iva vartitum arhasīti darśayati ||22||

viśvanāthaḥ : atrāham eva dṛṣṭānta ity āha tribhiḥ ||22||

baladevaḥ : śreṣṭhaḥ karma-phala-nirapekṣo 'pi loka-saṅgrahāya śāstroditāni karmāṇy ācared ity arthe svaṃ dṛṣṭāntam āha na me pārtheti tribhiḥ | sarveśasya satya-saṅkalpasya satya-kāmasya me kartavyaṃ nāsti | phalārthinā khalu karmānuṣṭheyam | na ca nikhila-phalāśrayasya svayaṃ parama-phalātmano me karmāpekṣyam ity arthaḥ | etad darśayati triṣv iti | yataḥ sarveṣu lokeṣu karmaṇā yat phalam avāptavyaṃ tad-anavāptam alabdhaṃ mama nāsti sarvaṃ tan madīyam evety arthaḥ | tathāpi śāstroktaṃ karmāhaṃ karomy evety āha varta iti ||22||

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BhG 3.23

yadi hy ahaṃ na varteyaṃ jātu karmaṇy atandritaḥ |
mama vartmānuvartante manuṣyāḥ pārtha sarvaśaḥ ||23||

śrīdharaḥ : akaraṇe lokasya nāśaṃ darśayati yadi hy aham iti | jātu kadācit | atandrito 'nalasaḥ san yadi karmaṇi na varteya karma nānutiṣṭheyam, tarhi mamaiva vartma mārgaṃ manuṣyā anuvartante anuverterann ity arthaḥ ||23||

madhusūdanaḥ : loka-saṅgraho 'pi na te kartavyo viphalatvād ity āśaṅkyāha yadi hy aham iti | yadi punar aham atandrito 'nalasaḥ san karmaṇi jātu kadācin na varteya nānutiṣṭheyaṃ karmāṇi tadā mama śreṣṭhasya sato vartma mārgaṃ he pārtha manuṣyāḥ karmādhikāriṇaḥ santo 'nuvartante 'nuvarteran sarvaśaḥ sarva-prakāraiḥ ||23||

viśvanāthaḥ : anuvartate 'nuvarterann ity arthaḥ ||23||

baladevaḥ : yadīti | ahaṃ sarveśvaraḥ siddha-sarvārtho 'pi yadu-kulāvatīrṇo jātu kadācit tat-kulocite śāstrokte karmaṇi na varteya tan na kuryām atandritaḥ sāvadhānaḥ san tarhi māṃ dṛṣṭāntaṃ kṛtvā manuṣyāḥ śreṣṭhasya mama vartma kula-vihitācāra-tyāga-rūpam anuvarteran tato bhraṃśerann ity arthaḥ ||23||

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BhG 3.24

utsīdeyur ime lokā na kuryāṃ karma ced aham |
saṃkarasya ca kartā syām upahanyām imāḥ prajāḥ ||24||

śrīdharaḥ : tataḥ kiṃ ? ata āha utsīdeyur iti | utsīdeyur dharma-lopena naśyeyuḥ | tataś ca yo varṇa-saṅkaro bhavet tasyāpy aham eva kartā syāṃ bhaveyam | evam aham eva prajā upahanyāṃ malinīkuryām iti ||24||

madhusūdanaḥ : śreṣṭhasya tava mārgānuvartitvaṃ manuṣyāṇām ucitam eva anuvartitve ko doṣa ity ata āha utsīdeyur iti | aham īśvaraś ced yadi karma na kuryāṃ tadā mad-anuvartināṃ manv-ādīnām api karmānupapatter loka-sthiti-hetoḥ karmaṇo lopeneme sarve lokā utsīdeyur vinaśyeyuḥ | tataś ca varṇa-saṃkarasya ca kartāham eva syām | tena cemāḥ sarvāḥ prajā aham evopahanyāṃ dharma-lopena vināśayeyam | kathaṃ ca prajānām anugrahārthaṃ pravṛtta īśvaro 'haṃ tāḥ sarvā vināśayeyam ity abhiprāyaḥ |

yad yad ācaratīty āder aparā yojanā | na kevalaṃ loka-saṃgrahaṃ sampaśyan kartum arhasy api tu śreṣṭhācāratvād apīty āha yad yad iti | tathā ca mama śreṣṭhasya yādṛśa eva ācāras tādṛśa eva mad-anuvartinā tvayānuṣṭheyo na svātantryeṇānya ity arthaḥ | kīdṛśas tavācāro yo mayānuvartanīya ity ākāṅkṣāyāṃ na me pārthety ādibhis tribhiḥ ślokais tat-pradarśanam iti ||24||

viśvanāthaḥ : utsīdeyur māṃ dṛṣṭāntīkṛtya dharmam akurvāṇā bhraṃśeyuḥ | tataś ca varṇa-saṅkaro bhavet tasyāpy aham eva kartā syām evam aham eva prajā hanyām | malināḥ kuryām ||24||

baladevaḥ : tataḥ kiṃ syād ity āha utsīdeyur iti | ahaṃ sarva-śreṣṭhaś cet śāstroktaṃ karma na kuryāṃ tarhīme lokā utsīdeyur vibhraṣṭa-maryādāḥ syuḥ | tad-vibhraṃśe sati yaḥ saṅkaraḥ syāt tasyāpy aham eva kartā syām | evaṃ ca prajāpatir aham imāḥ prajāḥ sāṅkarya-doṣeṇopahanyāṃ malināḥ kuryām | tathā ca - eṣa setur vidharaṇa eṣāṃ lokānām asaṃbhedāya iti śrutyā loka-maryādā-vidhārakatvena parigītasya me tan-maryādā-bhedakatvaṃ syād iti | evaṃ upadiśato 'pi harer yat kiṃcit sva-bhakta-sukhecchoḥ svairācaritaṃ
dṛṣṭaṃ, tat khalu vidhāyakena tad-vacasānupetatvād īśvarīyatvāc cāvarair naivācaraṇīyam | yad uktaṃ śrīmatā śukena -

īśvarāṇāṃ vacaḥ satyaṃ
tathaivācaritaṃ kvacit |
teṣāṃ yat sva-vaco-yuktaṃ
buddhimāṃs tat samācaret ||

naitat samācarej jātu
manasāpi hy anīśvaraḥ |
vinaśyaty ācaran mauḍhyād
yathārudro |bdhi-jaṃ viṣam || [BhP 10.33.31-2] iti ||24||

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BhG 3.25

saktāḥ karmaṇy avidvāṃso yathā kurvanti bhārata |
kuryād vidvāṃs tathāsaktaś cikīrṣur loka-saṃgraham ||25||

śrīdharaḥ : tasmād ātmavidāpi loka-saṅgrahārtha tat-kṛpayā karma kāryam evety upasaṃharati saktā iti | karmaṇi saktā abhiniviṣṭāḥ santo yathājñāḥ karmāṇi kurvanti, asaktaḥ san vidvān api kuryāt loka-saṃgraham kartum icchuḥ ||25||

madhusūdanaḥ : nanu taveśvarasya loka-saṃgrahārthaṃ karmāṇi kurvāṇasyāpi kartṛtvābhimānābhāvān na kāpi kṣatiḥ | mama tu jīvasya loka-saṃgrahārthaṃ karmāṇi kurvāṇasya kartṛtvābhimānena jñānābhibhavaḥ syād ity ata āha saktā iti | saktāḥ kartṛtvābhimānena phalābhisandhinā ca karmaṇy abhiniviṣṭā avidvāṃso 'jñā yathā kurvanti karma loka-saṃgrahaṃ kartum icchur vidvān ātmavid api tathaiva kuryāt | kintu asaktaḥ san kartṛtvābhimānaṃ phalābhisandhiṃ cākurvann ity arthaḥ | bhārateti bharata-vaṃśodbhavatvenabhā jñānaṃ tasyāṃ ratatvena vā tvaṃ yathokta-śāstrārtha-bodha-yogyo 'sīti darśayati ||25||

viśvanāthaḥ : tasmāt pratiṣṭhitena jñānināpi karma kartavyam ity upasaṃharati saktā iti ||25||

baladevaḥ : tasmāt pratiṣṭhite 'pi tvaṃ loka-hitāya vedoktaṃ sva-karma prakurv ity āśayenāha saktā iti | ajñā yathā karmaṇi saktāḥ phala-lipsayābhiniviṣṭās tata kurvanty evaṃ vidvān api kuryāt | kintv asaktaḥ phala-lipsā-śūnyaḥ san | sphuṭam anyat ||25||

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BhG 3.26

na buddhi-bhedaṃ janayed ajñānāṃ karma-saṅginām |
joṣayet sarva-karmāṇi vidvān yuktaḥ samācaran ||26||

śrīdharaḥ : nanu kṛpayā tattva-jñānam evopadeṣṭuṃ yuktam | nety āha na buddhi-bhedam iti ajñānām ataeva karma-saṅgināṃ karmāsaktānām akartātmeopadeśena buddher bhedam anyathātvaṃ na janayet | karmaṇaḥ sakāśād buddhi-vicālanaṃ na kuryāt | api tu joṣayet sevayet | ajñān karmāṇi kārayed ity arthaḥ | katham ? yukto 'vahito bhūtvā svayam ācaran san | buddhi-vicālane kṛte sati karmasu śraddhā-nivṛtter jñānasya cānutpattes tesām ubhaya-bhraṃśaḥ syād iti bhāvaḥ ||26||

madhusūdanaḥ : nanu karmānuṣṭhānenaiva loka-saṃgrahaḥ kartavyo na tu tattva-jñānopadeśeneti ko hetur ata āha na buddhīti | ajñānām avivekināṃ kartṛtvābhimānena phalābhisandhinā ca karma-saṅgināṃ karmaṇy abhiniviṣṭānāṃ yā buddhir aham etat karma kariṣya etat-phalaṃ ca bhokṣya iti tasyā bhedaṃ vicālanam akartrātmopadeśena na kuryāt | kintu yukto 'vahitaḥ san vidvān loka-saṃgrahaṃ cikīrṣur avidvad-adhikārikāṇi sarva-karmaṇi samācaraṃs teṣāṃ śraddhām utpādya joṣayet prītyā sevayet | anadhikāriṇām upadeśena buddhi-vicālane kṛte karmasu śraddhā-nivṛttir jñānasya cānutpatter ubhaya-bhraṣṭatvaṃ
syāt | tathā coktaṃ-

ajñasyārdha-prabuddhasya sarvaṃ brahmeti yo vadet |
mahā-niraya-jāleṣu sa tena viniyojitaḥ || iti ||26||

viśvanāthaḥ : alaṃ karma-jaḍimnā | tvaṃ karma-sannyāsaṃ kṛtvā jñānābhyāsenāham iva kṛtārthībhavaiti buddhi-bhedaṃ na janayet karma-saṅginaṃ aśuddhāntaḥkaraṇatvena karmasv evāsaktimatām | kintu tvaṃ kṛtārthībhaviṣyan niṣkāma-karmaiva kru iti karmāṇy eva yojayet kārayet | atra karmāṇi samācaran svayam eva dṛṣṭāntībhavet |

nanu,
svayaṃ niḥśreyasaṃ vidvān na vakty ajñāya karma hi |
na rāti rogiṇo 'pathyaṃ vāñchato 'pi bhiṣaktamaḥ || [BhP 6.9.5]

ity ajita-vākyenaitad virudhyate | satyam | tat khalu bhakty-upadeṣṭṛka-viṣayam idaṃ tu jñānopadeṣṭṛka-viṣayam ity avirodhaḥ | jñānasyāntaḥkaraṇa-śuddhy-adhīnatvāt | tac chuddhes tu niṣkāma-karmādhīnatvāt, bhaktes tu svataḥ prābalyād antaḥkaraṇa-śuddhi-paryantānapekṣatvāt | yadi bhaktau śraddhām utpādayituṃ śaknuyāt, tadā karmiṇāṃ buddhi-bhedam api janayet, bhaktau śraddhāvatāṃ karmānadhikārāt -

tāvat karmāṇi kurvīta na nirvidyeta yāvatā |
mat-kathā-śravaṇādau vā śraddhā yāvan na jāyate || [BhP 11.20.9] iti |

dharmān santyajya yaḥ sarvān māṃ bhajet sa tu sattamaḥ [BhP 11.11.32]iti,

sarva-dharmān parityajya mām ekaṃ śaraṇaṃ vraja [Gītā 18.66] iti,

tyaktvā sva-dharmaṃ caraṇāmbujaṃ harer
bhajann apakvo |tha patet tato yadi [BhP 1.5.17]

ity-ādi-vacanebhya iti vivecanīyam ||26||

baladevaḥ : kiṃ ca loka-hitecchur jñānī sāvahitaḥ syād ity āha na buddhīti | vidvān pariniṣṭhito 'pi karma-saṅgināṃ karma-śraddhā-jāḍya-bhājām ajñānāṃ buddhi-bhedaṃ na janayet | kiṃ karmab hir aham iva jñānenaiva kṛtārtho bhaveti karma-niṣṭhātas tad-buddhiṃ nāpanayed ity arthaḥ | kintu svayaṃ karmasu yuktaḥ sāvadhānas tāni samyak sarvāṅgopasaṃhāreṇācaran sarvāṇi vihitāni karmāṇi yoṣayet prītyā sevayet ajñān karmāṇi kārayed ity arthaḥ | buddhi-bhede sati karmasu śraddhā-nivṛtte jñānasya cānudayād ubhaya-vibhraṣṭās te syur iti bhāvaḥ |

svayaṃ niḥśreyasaṃ vidvān na vakty ajñāya karma hi |
na rāti rogiṇo 'pathyaṃ vāñchato 'pi bhiṣaktamaḥ || [BhP 6.9.5]

ity ajitoktis tu karma-saṅgītara-paratayā neyā ||26||

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BhG 3.27

prakṛteḥ kriyamāṇāni guṇaiḥ karmāṇi sarvaśaḥ |
ahaṃkāra-vimūḍhātmā kartāham iti manyate ||27||

śrīdharaḥ : nanu viduṣo 'pi cet karma kartavyaṃ tarhi vidvad-aviduṣoḥ ko viśeṣaḥ ? ity āśaṅkyobhayor viśeṣaṃ darśayati prakṛter iti dvābhyām | prakṛter guṇaiḥ prakṛti-kāryair indriyaiḥ sarva-prakāreṇa kriyamāṇāni karmāṇi | tāny aham eva kartā karomīti manyate | atra hetuḥ - ahaṃkāreṇa indriyādiṣv ātmādhyāsena vimūḍha-buddhiḥ san ||27||

madhusūdanaḥ : vidvad-aviduṣoḥ karmānuṣṣṭhāna-sāmye 'pi kartṛtvābhimāna-tad-abhāvābhyāṃ viśeṣaṃ darśayan saktāḥ karmaṇīti-ślokārthaṃ vivṛṇoti dvābhyāṃ prakṛter iti | prakṛtir māyā sattva-rajas-tamo-guṇa-mayī mithyā-jñānātmikā pārameśvarī śaktiḥ māyāṃ tu prakṛtiṃ vidyān māyinaṃ tu maheśvaraṃ iti śruteḥ | tasyāḥ prakṛter guṇair vikāraiḥ kārya-kāraṇa-rūpaiḥ kriyamāṇāni laukikāni vaidikāni ca karmāṇi sarvaśaḥ sarva-prakārair ahaṅkāreṇa kārya-kāraṇa-saṃghātātma-pratyayena vimūḍhaḥ svarūpa-vivekāsamartha ātmāntaḥkaraṇaṃ yasya so
'haṅkāra-vimūḍhātmānātmany ātmābhimānī tāni karmāṇi kartāham iti karomy aham iti manyate kartṛtvādhyāsena | kartāham iti tṛn-pratyayaḥ | tena na lokāvyaya-niṣṭhā-khal-artha-tṛṇām [Pāṇ 2.3.69] iti ṣaṣṭhī-pratiṣedhaḥ ||27||

viśvanāthaḥ : nanu yadi vidvān api karma kuryāt, tarhi vidvad-aviduṣoḥ ko viśeṣaḥ ? ity āśaṅkya tayor viśeṣaṃ darśayati prakṛter iti dvābhyām | prakṛter guṇaiḥ kāryair indriyaiḥ sarvaśaḥ sarva-prakāreṇa kriyamāṇāni yāni karmāṇi tāny aham eva kartā karomīty avidvān manyate ||27||

baladevaḥ : karmitva-sāmye 'pi vijñājñayor viśeṣam āha prakṛter iti dvābhyām | ahaṃkāra-vimūḍhātmā jano 'haṃ karmāṇi karteti manyate | na lokāvyaya-niṣṭhā iti sūtrāt ṣaṣṭhī-niṣedhaḥ | karmāṇi laukikāni vaidikāni ca | tāni kīdṛśānīty āha prakṛter īśa-māyāyā guṇais tat-kāryair śarīrendriya-prāṇair īśvara-pravartitaiḥ kriyamāṇānīti | idam eva veditavyam - upakrama-vinirṇayāt saṃvid-vapur-jīvātmāsmad-arthaḥ kartā cānādi-kāla-viṣaya-bhoga-vāsanākrāntas tad-bhogārthikāṃ sva-sannihitāṃ prakṛtim āśliṣṭas tat-kāryeṇāhaṅkāreṇa vimūḍhātmā tādṛśa-sva-vijñāna-śūnyaḥ śarīrādy-ahaṃ-bhāvavān prākṛtaiḥ śarīrādibhir īśena ca siddhāni
karmāṇi mayaivaikena kṛtānīti manyate | kartur ātmano yat kartṛtvaṃ tat kila dehādibhis tribhiḥ paramātmanā ca sarva-pravartakena ca siddhyati | na tv ekena jīvenaiva | tac ca mayaiva siddhyatīti jīvo yan manyate tad ahaṅkāra-vimauḍhyād eva - adhiṣṭhānaṃ tathā karthā [Gītā 18.14] ity ādikāc caramādhyāya-vākya-trayāt | kārya-kāraṇa-kartṛtve hetuḥ prakṛtir ucyate [Gītā 13.18] ity atra śarīrendriyādi-kartṛtvaṃ prakṛter iti yad varṇayiṣyate, tatrāpi kevalāyās tasyās tan na śakyaṃ mantum | puruṣa-saṃsargeṇaiva tat-pravṛtter aṅgīkārāt | tataś ca puruṣasya kartṛtvam avarjanīyam iti vyākhyāsyate ||27||

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BhG 3.28

tattvavit tu mahā-bāho guṇa-karma-vibhāgayoḥ |
guṇā guṇeṣu vartanta iti matvā na sajjate ||28||

śrīdharaḥ : vidvāṃs tu na tathā manyate ity āha tattvavid iti | nāhaṃ guṇātmaka iti guṇebhya ātmano vibhāgaḥ | na me karmāṇīti karmabhyo 'py ātmano vibhāgaḥ | tayor guṇa-karma-vibhāgayor yas tattvaṃ vetti sa tu na kartṛtvābhiniveśaṃ na karoti | tatra hetuḥ - guṇā iti | guṇā indriyāṇi guṇeṣu viṣayeṣu vartante nāham iti matvā ||28||

madhusūdanaḥ : vidvāṃs tu tathā na manyata ity āha tattvavid iti | tattvaṃ yāthātmyaṃ vettīti tattvavit | tu-śabdena tasyājñād vaiśiṣṭyam āha | kasya tattvam ity ata āha guṇa-karma-vibhāgayoḥ | guṇā dehendriyāntaḥ-karaṇāny ahaṅkārāspadāni karmāṇi ca teṣāṃ vyāpāra-bhūtāni mama-kārāspadānīti guṇa-karmeti dvandvaikavad bhāvaḥ | vibhajyate sarveṣāṃ jaḍānāṃ vikāriṇāṃ bhāsakatvena pṛthag bhavatīti vibhāgaḥ sva-prakāśa-jñāna-rūpo 'saṅga ātmā | guṇa-karma ca vibhāgaś ceti dvandvaḥ | tayor guṇa-karma-vibhāgayor bhāsya-bhāsakayor jaḍa-caitanyayor vikāri-nirvikārayos tattvaṃ yāthātmyaṃ yo vetti sa guṇāḥ karaṇātmakā guṇeṣu
viṣayeṣu pravartante vikāritvān na tu nirvikāra ātmeti matvā na sajjate saktiṃ kartṛtvābhiniveśam atattvavid iva na karoti | he mahābāho ! iti sambodhayan sāmudrikokta-sat-puruṣa-lakṣaṇa-yogitvān na pṛthag-jana-sādhāraṇyena tvam avivekī bhavitum arhasīti sūcayati |

guṇa-vibhāgasya karma-vibhāgasya ca tattvavid iti vā | asmin pakṣe guṇa-karmaṇor ity etāvataiva nirvāhe vibhāga-padasya prayojanaṃ cintyam ||28||

viśvanāthaḥ : guṇa-karmaṇor yau vibhāgau tayos tattvaṃ vettīti saḥ | tatra guṇa-vibhāgaḥ sattva-rajas-tamāṃsi | karma-vibhāgaḥ sattvādi-kārya-bhedā devatendriya-viṣayāḥ | tayos tattvaṃ svarūpaṃ | taj-jñas tu tattva-vit | guṇā devatāḥ prayojyānīndriyāṇi cakṣur-ādīni guṇeṣu rūpādiṣu viṣayeṣu vartante | ahaṃ tu na guṇaḥ, nāpi guṇa-kāryaḥ ko 'pi, nāpi guṇeṣu guṇa-kāryeṣu teṣu me ko 'pi sambandha iti matvā vidvāṃs tu na sajjate ||28||

baladevaḥ : vijñas tu na tathety āha tattva-vit tv iti | guṇa-vibhāgasya karma-vibhāgasya ca tattva-vit | guṇebhya indriyebhyaḥ karmabhyaś ca tat-kṛtebhyo yaḥ svayasa vibhāgo bhedas tasya tattvaṃ svarūpaṃ tat-tad-vaidharmya-paryālocanayā yo nāhaṃ guṇa-karma-vapuḥ iti vettīty arthaḥ | sa hi guṇā indriyāṇi guṇeṣu śabdādiṣu viṣayeṣu tat-tad-devatā-preritāni pravartante tān prakāśayanti | ahaṃ tv asaṅga-vijñānānandatvāt tad-bhinno, na teṣu tādrūpyeṇa varte, na tān prakāśayāmīti matvā teṣu na sajjante | kintv ātmany eva sajjate | atrāpi matvety anena kartṛtvaṃ jīvasyoktaṃ bodhyam ||28||

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BhG 3.29

prakṛter guṇa-saṃmūḍhāḥ sajjante guṇa-karmasu |
tān akṛtsna-vido mandān kṛtsna-vin na vicālayet ||29||

śrīdharaḥ : na buddhi-bhedam ity upasaṃharati prakṛter iti | ye prakṛter guṇaiḥ sattvādibhiḥ saṃmūḍhāḥ santaḥ guṇeṣv indriyeṣu tat-karmasu ca sajjante | tān akṛtsna-vido mandān manda-matīn kṛtsna-vit sarvajño na vicālayet ||29||

madhusūdanaḥ : tad evaṃ vidvad-aviduṣoḥ karmānuṣṭhāna-sāmyena vidvān aviduṣo buddhi-bhedaṃ na kuryād ity uktam upasaṃharati | prakṛteḥ pūrvoktāyā māyāyā guṇaiḥ kāryatayā dharmair dehādibhir vikāraiḥ samyaṅ mūḍhāḥ svarūpāsphuraṇena tān evātmatvena manyamānās teṣām eva guṇānāṃ dehendriyāntaḥ-karaṇānāṃ karmasu vyāpāreṣu sajjante saktiṃ vayaṃ kurmas tat-phalāyeti dṛḍhatarām ātmīya-buddhiṃ kurvanti ye tān karma-saṅgino 'kṛtsna-vido 'nātmābhimānino madnān aśuddha-cittatvena jñā̆nādhikāram aprāptān kṛtsna-vit paripūrṇātmavit svayaṃ na vicālayet karma-śraddhāto na pracyāvayed
ity arthaḥ | ye tv amandāḥ śuddhāntaḥ-karaṇās te svayam eva vivekodayena vicalanti jñānādhikāraṃ prāptā ity abhiprāyaḥ |

kṛtsnākṛtsna-śabdāv ātmānātma-paratayā śruty-arthānusāreṇa vārtika-kṛdbhir vyākhyātau -

sad evety ādi-vākyebhyaḥ kṛtsnaṃ vastu yato 'dvayam |
sambhavas tad-viruddhasya kuto 'kṛtsnasya vastunaḥ ||
yasmin dṛṣṭe 'py adṛṣṭo 'rthaḥ sa tad anyaś ca śiṣyate |
tathādṛṣṭe 'pi dṛṣṭaḥ syād akṛtsnas tādṛg ucyate || iti |

anātmanaḥ sāvayavatvād aneka-dharmavattāc ca kenacid dharmeṇa kenacid avayavena vā viśiṣṭe tasminn ekasmin ghaṭādau jñāte 'pi dharmāntareṇa avayavāntareṇa vā viśiṣṭaḥ sa evājñāto 'vaśiṣyate | tad anyaś ca paṭādir ajñāto ' vaśiṣyata eva | tathā tasmin ghaṭādāv ajñāte 'pi paṭādir jñātaḥ syād iti taj-jñāne 'pi tasyānyasya cājñānāt tad-ajñāne æpy anya-jñānāc ca so 'kṛtsna ucyate | kṛtsnas tv advaya ātmaiva taj-jñāne kasyacid avaśeṣasyābhāvād iti śloka-dvayārthaḥ ||29||

viśvanāthaḥ : nanu yadi jīvā guṇebhyo guṇa-kāryebhyaś ca pṛthag-bhūtās tad-asambandhās tarhi kathaṃ te viṣayeṣu sajjanto dṛśyante ? tatrāha prakṛter guṇa-saṃmūḍhās tad-āveśāt prāpta-saṃmohā yathā bhūtāviṣṭo manuṣya ātmānaṃ bhūtam eva manyate, tathaiva prakṛti-guṇāviṣṭā jīvāḥ svān guṇān eva manyante | tato guṇa-karmasu guṇa-kāryeṣu viṣayeṣu sajjante | tān akṛtsna-vido manda-matīn kṛtsna-vit sarvajño na vicālayet | tvaṃ guṇebhyaḥ pṛthag-bhūto jīvo na tu guṇaḥ iti vicāraṃ prāpayituṃ na yatate, kintu guṇāveśa-nivartakaṃ niṣkāma-karmaiva kārayet | na hi bhūtāviṣṭo manuṣyaḥ
na tvaṃ bhūtaḥ kintu manuṣya eva iti śata-kṛtve 'py upadeśena na svāsthyam āpadyate, kintu tan-nivartakauṣudha-maṇi-mantrādi-prayogenaiveti bhāvaḥ ||29||

baladevaḥ : na buddhi-bhedaṃ janayed ity etad upasaṃharati prakṛter iti | prakṛter guṇena tat-kāryeṇāhaṅkāreṇa mūḍhā bhūtāveśa-nyāyena dehādikam evātmānaṃ manyamānā janā guṇānāṃ dehendriyāṇāṃ karmasu vyāpāreṣu sajjante | tān akṛtsna-vido 'lpa-jñān mandān ātma-tattva-grahaṇālasān kṛtsna-vit pūrṇātma-jñāno na vicālayet guṇa-karmānyo viśuddha-caitanyānandas tvam iti tattvaṃ grāhayituṃ necchet, kintu tad-rucim anusṛtya vaidika-karmāṇi śreṇyākramād ātma-tattva-pravaṇaṃ cikīrsed iti bhāvaḥ ||29||

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BhG 3.30

mayi sarvāṇi karmāṇi saṃnyasyādhyātma-cetasā |
nirāśīr nirmamo bhūtvā yudhyasva vigata-jvaraḥ ||30||

śrīdharaḥ : tad evaṃ tattva-vido 'pi karma kartavyam | tvaṃ tu nādyāpi tattvavit | ataḥ karmaiva kurv ity āha mayīti | sarvāṇi karmāṇi mayi saṃnyasya samarpya | adhyātma-cetasā antaryāmy-adhīno 'haṃ karma karomīti dṛṣṭyā | nirāśī niṣkāmaḥ | ataeva mat-phala-sādhanaṃ mad-artham idaṃ karmety evaṃ mamatā-śūnyaś ca bhūtvā | vigata-jvaras tyakta-śokaś ca bhūtvā ||30||

madhusūdanaḥ : evaṃ karmānuṣṭhāna-sāmye 'py ajña-vijñeyoḥ kartṛtvābhiniveśa-tad-abhāvābhyāṃ viśeṣa uktaḥ | idānīm ajñasyāpi mumukṣor amumukṣv-apekṣayā bhagavad-arpaṇaṃ phalābhisandhy-abhāvaṃ ca viśeṣaṃ vadann ajñatayārjunasya karmādhikāraṃ draḍhayati mayīti | mayi bhagavati vāsudeve parameśvare sarvajñe sarva-niyantari sarvātmani sarvāṇi karmāṇi laukikāni vaidikāni ca sarva-prakārāṇi adhyātma-cetasāhaṃ kartāntaryāmy-adhīnas tasmā eveśvarāya rājña iva bhṛtyaḥ karmāṇi karomīty anayā buddhyā saṃnyasya samarpya nirāśīr niṣkāmo nirmamo deha-putra-bhrātrādiṣu svīyeṣu mamatā-śūnyo
vigata-jvaraḥ | santāpa-hetutvāc choka eva jvara-śabdenoktaḥ | aihika-pāratrika-duryaśo-naraka-pātādi-nimitta-śoka-rahitaś ca bhūtvā tvaṃ mumukṣur yudhyasva vihitāni karmāṇi kurv ity abhiprāyaḥ | atra bhagavad-arpaṇaṃ niṣkāmatvaṃ ca sarva-karma-sādhāraṇaṃ mumukṣoḥ | nirmamatvaṃ tyakta-śokatvaṃ ca yuddha-mātre prakṛta iti draṣṭavyam anyatra mamatāśokayor aprasaktatvāt ||30||

viśvanāthaḥ : tasmāt tvaṃ mayy adhyātma-cetasātmanīty arthaḥ | evam adhyātmam avyayībhāva-samāsāt | tataś ca ātmani yac cetas tad-adhyātma-cetas tenātma-niṣṭhenaiva cetasā, na tu viṣaya-niṣṭhenety arthaḥ | mayi karmāṇi saṃnyasya samarpya nirāśīr niṣkāmo nirmamaḥ sarvatra mamatā-śūnyo yudhyasva ||30||

baladevaḥ : mayīti | yasmād evaṃ tasmāt pariniṣṭhitas tvam adhyātma-cetaḥ svātma-tattva-viṣayaka-jñānena sarvāṇi karmāṇi rājñi bhṛtya iva mayi pareśe saṃnyasya samarpayitvā yudhyasva | kartṛtvābhiniveśa-śūnyaḥ | yathā rāja-tantro bhṛtyas tad-ājñayā karmāṇi karoti, tathā mat-tantras tvaṃ mad-ājñayā tāni kuru lokān saṃjighṛkṣuḥ | ātmani yac cetas tad adhyātma-cetas tena | vibhakty-arthe 'vyayībhāvaḥ | nirāśīḥ svāmy-ājñayā karomīti tat-phalecchā-śūnyaḥ | ataeva mat-phala-sādhanāni mad-artham amūni karmāṇīty evaṃ mamatva-varjjitaḥ | vigata-jvaras tyakta-bandhu-vadha-nimittaka-santāpaś ca bhūtveti | arjunasya kṣatriyatvād yudhyasvety uktam | svāśrama-vihitāni
karmāṇi mumukṣubhiḥ kāryāṇīti vākyārthaḥ ||30||

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BhG 3.31
ye me matam idaṃ nityam anutiṣṭhanti mānavāḥ |
śraddhāvanto 'nasūyanto mucyante te 'pi karmabhiḥ ||31||

śrīdharaḥ : evaṃ karmānuṣṭhāne guṇam āha ye ma iti | mad-vākye śraddhāvanto |nasūyanto duḥkhātmake karmaṇi pravartayatīti doṣa-dṛṣṭim akurvantaś ca me madīyam idaṃ matam anutiṣṭhanti te 'pi śanaiḥ karma kurvāṇāḥ samyag jñānivat karmabhir mucyante ||31||

madhusūdanaḥ : phalābhisandhi-rāhityena bhagavad-arpaṇa-buddhyā bhagavad-arpaṇa-buddhyā vihita-karmānuṣṭhānaṃ sattva-śuddhi-jñāna-prāpti-dvāreṇa mukti-phalam ity āha ye ma iti | idaṃ phalābhisandhi-rāhityena vihita-karmācaraṇa-rūpaṃ mama matam nityam nitya-veda-bodhitatvenānādi-paramparā-gatam āvaśyakam iti vā sarvadeti vā | mānavāḥ manuṣyā ye kecin manuṣyādhikāritvāt karmaṇāṃ śraddhāvantaḥ śāstrācāryopadiṣṭe 'rthe 'nanubhūte 'py evam evaitad iti viśvāsaḥ śraddhā tadvantaḥ | anasūyanto guṇeṣu doṣāviṣkaraṇam asūyā | sā ca duḥkhātmake karmaṇi māṃ pravartayann akāruṇiko 'yam ity evaṃrūpā prakṛte prasaktā
tām asūyāṃ mayi gurau vāsudeve sarva-suhṛdy akurvanto ye 'nutiṣṭhanti te 'pi sattva-śuddhi-jñāna-prāpti-dvāreṇa samyag-jñānivan tmucyante karmabhir dharmādharmākhyaiḥ ||31||

viśvanāthaḥ : sva-kṛtopadeśe pravartayitum āha ye ma iti ||31||

baladevaḥ : śruti-rahasye svamate 'nuvartināṃ phalaṃ vadan tasya śraiṣṭhyaṃ vyañjayati ye ma iti | nityaṃ sarvadā śruti-bodhitatvenānādi-prāptaṃ vā | śraddhāvanto dṛḍha-viśvastāḥ | anasūyanto mocakatva-guṇavati tasmin kim amunā śrama-bahulena niṣphalena karmaṇety evaṃ doṣāropa-śūnyāḥ | te 'pīty apir avadhāraṇe | yad vā, ye mamedaṃ matam anutiṣṭhanti ye cānuṣṭhātum aśaknuvanto 'pi tatra śraddhālavaḥ, ye ca śraddhālavo 'pi tan nāsūyante te 'pīty arthaḥ | sāmpratānuṣṭhānābhāve 'pi tasmin śraddhayānasūyayā ca kṣīṇa-doṣās te kiṃcit prānte tad anuṣṭhāya mucyante iti bhāvaḥ
||31||

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BhG 3.32

ye tv etad abhyasūyanto nānutiṣṭhanti me matam |
sarva-jñāna-vimūḍhāṃs tān viddhi naṣṭān acetasaḥ ||32||

śrīdharaḥ : vipakṣe doṣam āha ye tv etad iti | ye tu nānutiṣṭhanti tān acetaso viveka-śūnyān ataeva sarvasmin karmaṇi brahma-viṣaye ca yaj jñānaṃ tatra vimūḍhān naṣṭān viddhi ||32||

madhusūdanaḥ : evam anvaye guṇam uktvā vyatireke doṣam āha ye tv iti | tu-śabdaḥ śraddāvad-vaidharymyam aśraddhāṃ sūcayati | tena ye nāstikyād aśraddadhānā abhyasūyanto doṣam udbhāvayanta etan mama mataṃ nānuvartante tān acetaso duṣṭa-cittān ataeva sarva-jñāna-vimūḍhān sarvatra karmaṇi brahmaṇi sa-guṇe nirguṇe ca yaj jñānaṃ tatra vividhaṃ pramāṇataḥ prameyataḥ prayojanataś ca mūḍhān sarva-prakāreṇāyogyān naṣṭān sarva-puruṣārtha-bhraṣṭān viddhi jānīhi ||32||

viśvanāthaḥ : vipakṣe doṣam āha ye tv iti |

baladevaḥ : vipakṣe doṣam āha ye tv etad iti | ye tu nānutiṣṭhanti tān acetaso viveka-śūnyān ataeva sarvasmin karmaṇi brahma-viṣaye ca yaj jñānaṃ tatra vimūḍhān naṣṭān viddhi ||32||

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BhG 3.33

sadṛśaṃ ceṣṭate svasyāḥ prakṛter jñānavān api |
prakṛtiṃ yānti bhūtāni nigrahaḥ kiṃ kariṣyati ||33||

śrīdharaḥ : nanu tarhi mahā-phalatvād indriyāṇi nigṛhya niṣkāmāḥ santaḥ sarve 'pi svadharmam eva kiṃ nānutiṣṭhanti ? tatrāha sadṛśam iti | prakṛtiḥ prācīna-karma-saṃskārādhīnaḥ svabhāvaḥ | svasyāḥ svakīyāyāḥ prakṛteḥ svabhāvasya sadṛśam anurūpam eva guṇa-doṣa-jñānavān api ceṣṭate | kiṃ punar vaktavyam ajñaś ceṣṭata iti | yasmād bhūtāni sarve 'pi prāṇinaḥ prakṛtiṃ yānty anuvartante | evaṃ ca sati indriya-nigrahaḥ kiṃ kariṣyati ? prakṛter balīyastvād ity arthaḥ ||33||
madhusūdanaḥ : nanu rājña iva tava śāsanātikrame bhayaṃ paśyantaḥ katham asūyantas tava mataṃ nānuvartante kathaṃ vā sarva-puruṣārtha-sādhane pratikūlā bhavantīty ata āha sadṛśam iti | prakṛtir nāma prāg-janma-kṛta-dharmādharma-jñānecchādi-saṃskāro vartamāna-janmany abhivyaktaḥ sarvato balavān taṃ vidyā-karmaṇī samanvārabhete pūrva-prajñā ca iti śruti-pramāṇakaḥ | tasyāḥ svakīyāyāḥ prakṛteḥ sadṛśam anurūpam eva sarvo jantur jñānavān brahmavid api paśv-ādibhiś cāviśeṣāt iti nyāyāt | guṇa-doṣa-jñānavān vā ceṣṭate kiṃ punar mūrkhaḥ | tasmād bhūtāni sarve prāṇinaḥ prakṛtiṃ yānty anuvartante
puruṣārtha-bhraṃśa-hetu-bhūtām api | tatra mama vā rājño vā nigrahaḥ kiṃ kariṣyati | rāgautkaṭyena duritān nivartayituṃ na śaknotīty arthaḥ | mahā-naraka-sādhanatvaṃ jñātvāpi durvāsanā-prābalyāt pāpeṣu pravartamānā na mac-chvāsanātikrama-doṣād bibhyatīti bhāvaḥ ||3.33||

viśvanāthaḥ : nanu rājña iva tava parameśvarasya matam ananutiṣṭhanto rāja-kṛtād iva tva-kṛtān nigrahāt kiṃ na vibhāti ? satyam | ye khalu indriyāṇi cārayanto vartante, te vivvekino 'pi rājñaḥ parameśvarasya ca śāsanaṃ mantuṃ na śaknuvanti | tathaiva teṣāṃ svabhāvo 'bhūd ity āha sadṛśam iti | jñānavān api evaṃ pāpe kṛte saty evaṃ narako bhaviṣyaty evaṃ rāja-daṇḍo bhaviṣyati | evaṃ duryaśaś ca bhaviṣyatīti vivekavān api svasyāḥ prakṛteḥ cirantana-pāpābhyāsottha-duḥkha-bhārasya sadṛśam anurūpam eva ceṣṭate | tasmāt prakṛtiṃ svabhāvaṃ yānty anusaranti | tatra nigrahas tac-chāstra-dvārā mat-kṛto rāja-kṛto
vā tenāśuddha-cittān ukta-lakṣaṇo niṣkāma-karma-yogaḥ śuddha-cittān jñāna-yogaś ca saṃskartuṃ prabodhayituṃ ca śaknoti, na tv atyantāśuddha-cittān, kintu tān api pāpiṣṭha-svabhāvān yādṛcchika-mat-kṛpottha-bhakti-yoga eva uddhartuṃ prabhavet | yad uktaṃ skānde -

aho dhanyo 'si devarṣe kṛpayā yasya te kṣaṇāt |
nīco 'py utpulako lebhe lubdhako ratim ucyate ||33||

baladevaḥ : nanu sarveśvarasya te matam atikramatāṃ daṇḍaḥ śāstreṇocyate tasmāt te kim u na bibhyati ity āha sadṛśam iti | prakṛtir anādi-kāla-pravṛttyā sva-durvāsanā tasyāḥ svīyāyāḥ sadṛśam anurūpam eva jñānavān śāstroktaṃ daṇḍaṃ jānann api janaś ceṣṭate pravartate kim utājñaḥ | tato bhūtāni sarve janāḥ prakṛtiṃ puruṣārtha-vibhraṃśa-hetu-bhūtām api tāṃ yānty anusaranti | tatra nigrahaḥ śāstra-jñāno 'pi daṇḍaḥ sat-prasaṅga-śūnyasya kiṃ kariṣyati ? durvāsanāyāḥ prābalyatāṃ nivartayituṃ na śakṣyatīty arthaḥ | sat-prasaṅga-sahitasya tu tāṃ prabalām api nihanti - santa
evāsya chindanti mano-vyasanam uktibhiḥ [BhP 11.26.26] ity ādi smṛtibhyaḥ ||33||

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BhG 3.34

indriyasyendriyasyārthe rāga-dveṣau vyavasthitau |
tayor na vaśam āgacchet tau hy asya paripanthinau ||34||

śrīdharaḥ : nanv evaṃ prakṛty-adhīneva cet puruṣasya pravṛttis tarhi vidhi-niṣedha-śāstrasya vaiyarthyaṃ prāptam ity āśaṅkyāha indriyasyeti | indriyasyendriyasyeti-vīpsayā sarveṣām indriyāṇāṃ praty ekam ity uktam | arthe sva-sva-viṣaye 'nukūle rāgaḥ pratikūle dveṣa ity evaṃ rāga-dveṣau vyavasthitāv avaśyaṃ bhāvinau | tataś ca tad-anurūpā pravṛttir iti bhūtānāṃ prakṛtiḥ | tathāpi tayor vaśavartī na bhaved iti śāstreṇa niyamyate | hi yasmād | asya mumukṣos tau parinpanthinau pratipakṣau | ayaṃ bhāvaḥ - viṣaya-smaraṇādinā rāga-dveṣaāv utpādyānavahitaṃ puruṣam anarthe 'tigambhīre
srotasīva prakṛtir balā pravartayati | śāstraṃ tu tataḥ prāg eva viṣayeṣu rāga-dveṣa-pratibandhake parameśvara-bhajanādau taṃ pravartayati | tataś ca gambhīra-srotaḥ-pātāt pūrvam eva nāvam āśrita iva nānarthaṃ prāpnoti | tad evaṃ svābhāvikī paśv-ādi-sadṛśīṃ pravṛttiṃ tyaktvā dharme pravartitavyam ity uktam ||34||

madhusūdanaḥ : nanu sarvasya prāṇi-vargasya prakṛti-vaśa-vartitve laukika-vaidika-puruṣakāra-viṣayābhāvād vidhi-niṣedhārthakyaṃ prāptaṃ, na ca prakṛti-śūnyaḥ kaścid asti yaṃ prati tad-arthavattvaṃ syād ity ata āha indriyasyendriyasyārthe iti | indriyasyendriyasyeti vīpsayā sarveṣām indriyāṇām arthe viṣaye śabde sparśe rūpe gandhe ca | evaṃ karmendriya-viṣaye 'pi vacanādāv anukūle śāstra-niṣiddhe 'pi rāgaḥ pratikūle śāstra-vihite 'pi dveṣa ity evaṃ pratīndriyārthaṃ rāga-dveṣau vyavasthitāv ānukūlya-prātikūlya-vyavasthayā sthitau na tv aniyamena sarvatra tau bhavataḥ | tatra puruṣakārasya śāstrasya cāyaṃ
viṣayo yat tayor vaśaṃ nāgacched iti | kathaṃ yā hi puruṣasya prakṛtiḥ sā balavad aniṣṭānubandhitva-jñānābhāva-sahakṛteṣṭa-sādhanatva-jñāna-nibandhanaṃ rāgaṃ puraskṛtyaiva śāstra-niṣiddhe kalañja-bhakṣaṇādau pravartayati | tathā balavad-aniṣṭānubandhitva-jñānābhāva-sahakṛteṣṭa-sādhanatva-jñāna-nibandhanaṃ rāgaṃ puraskṛtyaiva śāstra-niṣiddhe kalañja-bhakṣaṇādau pravartayati | tatra śāstreṇa pratiṣiddhasya balavad aniṣṭānubandhitve jñāpite sahakārya-bhāvāt kevalaṃ dṛṣṭeṣṭa-sādhanatājñānaṃ madhu-viṣa-saṃpṛktānna-bhojana iva tatra na rāgaṃ
janayituṃ śaknoti | evaṃ vihitasya śāstreṇa balavad iṣṭānubandhitve bodhite sahakārya-bhāvāt kevalam aniṣṭa-sādhanatva-jñānaṃ bhojanādāv iva tatra na dveṣaṃ janayituṃ śaknoti | tataś cāpratibaddhaṃ śāstraṃ vihite puruṣaṃ pravartayati niṣiddhāc ca nivartayatīti śāstrīya-viveka-vijñāna-prābalyena svābhāvika-rāga-dveṣayoḥ kāraṇopamardenopamardān na prakṛtir viparīta-mārge puruṣaṃ śāstra-dṛṣṭiṃ pravartayituṃ śaknotīti na śāstrasya puruṣakārasya ca vaiyarthya-porasaṅgaḥ |

tayo rāga-dveṣayor vaśaṃ nāgacchet tad-adhīno na pravarteta nivarteta vā kintu śāstrīya-tad-vipakṣa-jñānena tat-kāraṇa-vighaṭana-dvārā tau nāśayet | hi yasmāt tau rāga-dveṣau svābhāvika-doṣa-prayuktāv asya puruṣasya śreyo 'rhtinaḥ paripanthinau śatrū śreyo-mārgasya vighna-kartārau dasyū iva pathikasya | idaṃ ca dvayā ha prājāpatyā devāś cāsurāś ca tataḥ kānīyasā eva devā jyāyasā asurās ta eṣu lokeṣv aspardhanta ity ādi-śrutau svābhāvika-rāga-dveṣa-nimitta-śāstra-viparīta-pravṛttim asuratvena śāstrīya-pravṛttiṃ ca devatvena nirūpya vyākhyātam ativistareṇety uparamyate ||34||

viśvanāthaḥ : yasmād duḥsvabhāveṣu lokeṣu vidhi-niṣedha-śāstraṃ na prabhavati, tasmād yāvat pāpābhyāsottha-duḥsvabhāvo nābhūt tāvad yatheṣṭam indriyāṇi na cārayed ity āha indriyasendriyasyeti vīpsā pratyekam | sarvendriyāṇām arthe sva-sva-viṣaye para-strī-mātra-gātra-darśana-sparśana-tat-sampradānaka-dravya-dānādau śāstra-niṣiddhe 'pi rāgas tathā guru-vipra-tīrthātithi-darśana-sparśana-paricaraṇa-tat-sampradānaka-dhana-vitaraṇādau śāstra-vihite 'pi dveṣa ity etau viśeṣaṇāvasthitau vartete | tayor vaśam adhīnatvaṃ na prāpnuyāt | yad vā, indriyārthe strī-darśanādau rāgas tat-pratighāte kenacit kṛte sati dveṣa ity asya puruṣārtha-sādhakasya kvacit tu mano 'nukūle 'rthe surasa-snigdhānnādau
rāgo manaḥ pratikūle 'rthe virasa-rukṣānnādau dveṣas tathā sva-putrādi-darśana-śravaṇādau rāgo vairi-putrādi-darśana-śravaṇādau dveṣaḥ | tayor vaśaṃ na gacched ity vyācakṣate ||34||

baladevaḥ : nanu prakṛty-adhīnā cet puṃsāṃ pravṛttis tarhi vidhi-niṣedha-śāstre vyartha iti cet tatrhā indriyasyendriyasyeti | vīpsayā sarveṣām ity uktam | tataś ca jñānendriyāṇāṃ śrotrādīnām arthe viṣaye śabdādau, karmendriyāṇām ca vāg-ādīnām arthe vacanādau rāgaḥ, pratikūle śāstra-vihite 'pi sat-sambhāṣaṇa-sat-sevana-sat-tīrthāgamanādau dveṣa ity evaṃ rāga-dveṣau vyavasthitau cānukūlya-prātikūlye vyavasthayā sthitau bhavato na tv aniyamenety arthaḥ | yadyapi tad-anuguṇā prāṇināṃ pravṛttis tathāpi śreyo-lipsur janas tayo rāga-dveṣayor vaśaṃ nāgacchet | hi yasmāt tāv asya paripanthinau vighna-kartārau bhavataḥ pānthasyeva dasyū | etad uktaṃ bhavati -
anādi-kāla-pravṛttā hi vāsanā niṣṭhānubandhitva-jñānābhāva-sahakṛteneṣṭa-sādhanatva-jñānena niṣiddhe 'pi para-dāra-sambhāṣaṇādau rāgam utpādya puṃsaḥ pravartayati | tatheṣṭa-sādhanatva-jñānābhāva-sahakṛtenāniṣṭa-sādhanatva-jñānena vihite 'pi sat-sambhāṣaṇādau dveṣam utpādya tatas tān nivartayati | śāstraṃ kila sat-prasaṅga-śrutam aniṣṭānubhandhitva-bodhanena niṣiddhān mano 'nukūlād api nivartayati dveṣam utpādya | iṣṭānubandhitva-bodhanena vihite manaḥ-pratikūle 'pi rāgam utpādya pravartayatīti na vidhi-niṣedha-śāstrayor vaiyarthyam iti ||34||

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BhG 3.35

śreyān sva-dharmo viguṇaḥ para-dharmāt svanuṣṭhitāt |
sva-dharme nidhanaṃ śreyaḥ para-dharmo bhayāvahaḥ ||35||

śrīdharaḥ : tarhi sva-dharmasya yuddhāder duḥkha-rūpasya yathāvat kartum aśakyatvāt para-dharmasya cāhiṃsādeḥ sukaratvād dharmatvāviśeṣāc ca tatra pravartitum icchantaḥ praty āha śreyān iti | kiṃcid aṅga-hīno 'pi sva-dharmaḥ śreyān praśasyataraḥ | svanuṣṭhitāt sakalāṅga-sampūrtyā kṛtād api para-dharmāt sakāśāt | tatra hetuḥ - sva-dharme yuddhādau pravartamānasya nidhanaṃ maraṇam api śreṣṭhaṃ svargādi-prāpakatvāt | para-dharmas tu bhayāvaho niṣiddhatvena naraka-prāpakatvāt ||35||

madhusūdanaḥ : nanu svābhāvika-rāga-dveṣa-prayukta-paśv-ādi-sādhāraṇa-pravṛtti-prahāṇena śāstrīyam eva karma kartavyaṃ cet tarhi yat sukaraṃ bhikṣāśanādi tad eva kriyatāṃ kim ati-duḥkhāvahena yuddhenety ata āha śreyān iti | śreyān praśasyataraḥ sva-dharmo yaṃ varṇāśramaṃ vā prati yo vihitaḥ sa tasya sva-dharmo viguṇo 'pi sarvāṅgopasaṃhāram antareṇa kṛto 'pi para-dharmāt svaṃ praty avihitāt svanuṣṭhitāt sarvāṅgopasaṃhāreṇa sampāditād api | na hi vedātirikta-māna-gamyo dharmaḥ, yena para-dharme 'py anuṣṭheyo dharmatvāt sva-dharmavad ity anumānaṃ tatra mānaṃ syāt | codana-lakṣaṇo 'rtho dharmaḥ
iti nyāyāt | ataḥ sva-dharme kiṃcid aṅga-hīne 'pi sthitasya nidhanaṃ maraṇam api śreyaḥ praśasyataraṃ para-dharma-sthasya jīvitād api | sva-dharma-sthasya nidhanaṃ hīha-loke kīrtyāvahaṃ para-loke ca svargādi-prāpakam | para-dharmas tu ihākīrti-karatvena paratra naraka-pradatvena ca bhayāvaho yato 'to rāga-dveṣādi-prayukta-svābhāvika-pravṛttivat para-dharmo 'pi heya evety arthaḥ |

evaṃ tāvad bhagavan-matāṅgīkāriṇāṃ śreyaḥ-prāptis tad-anaṅgīkāriṇāṃ ca śreyo-mārga-bhraṣṭatvam uktam | śreyo-mārga-bhraṃśena phalābhisandhi-pūrvaka-kāmya-karmācaraṇe ca kevala-pāpa-mātrācaraṇe ca bahūni kāraṇāni kathitāni ye tv etad abhyasūyanta ity ādinā | tatrāyaṃ saṅgraha-ślokaḥ -

śraddhā-hānis tathāsūyā duṣṭa-cittatvam ūḍhate |
prakṛter vaśa-vartitvaṃ rāga-dveṣau ca puṣkalau |
para-dharma-rucitvaṃ cety uktā durmārga-vāhakāḥ |||35||

viśvanāthaḥ : tataś ca yuddha-rūpasya yathāvad rāga-dveṣādi-rāhityena kartum aśakyatvāt para-dharmasya cāhiṃsādeḥ sukaratvād dharmatvāviśeṣāc ca tatra pravartitum icchantaṃ praty āha śreyān iti | viguṇaḥ kiṃcid doṣa-viśiṣṭo 'pi samyag anuṣṭhātum aśakyo 'pi para-dharmāt svanuṣṭhitāt sādhv evānuṣṭhātuṃ śakyād api sarva-guṇa-pūrṇād api sakāśāt śreyān | tatra hetuḥ - svadharma ity ādi |

vidharmaḥ para-dharmaś ca
ābhāsa upamā chalaḥ |
adharma-śākhāḥ pañcemā
dharma-jño 'dharmavat tyajet || [BhP 7.15.12] iti saptamokteḥ ||35||

baladevaḥ : nanu sva-prakṛti-nirmitāṃ rāga-dveṣa-mayīṃ paśv-ādi-sādhāraṇīṃ pravṛttiṃ vihāya śāstrokteṣu dharmeṣu vartitavyam ity uktam | dharma-hṛd-viśuddhau tādṛśa-pravṛttir nivartena, dharmāś ca yuddhādivad ahiṃsādayo 'pi śāstreṇoktāḥ | tasmād rāga-dveṣa-rāhityena kartum aśakyād yuddhāder ahiṃsā-śiloñcha-vṛtti-lakṣaṇo dharma uttama iti cet tatrāha śreyān iti |

yasya varṇasyāśramasya ca yo dharmo vedena vihitaḥ, sa ca viguṇaḥ kiṃcid aṅga-vikalo 'pi svanuṣṭhitā sarvāṅgopasaṃhāreṇācaritād api para-dharmāt śreyān | yathā brāhmaṇasyāhiṃsādiḥ sva-dharmaḥ kṣatriyasya ca yuddhādiḥ | na hi dharmo vedātiriktena pramāṇena gamyate | cakṣur bhinnendriyeṇeva rūpam | yathāha jaiminiḥ - codanā-lakṣaṇo dharmaḥ iti | tatra hetuḥ - svadharme nidhanaṃ maraṇaṃ śreyaḥ pratyavāyābhāvāt para-janmani dharmācaraṇa-sambhavāc ceṣṭa-sādhakam ity arthaḥ | para-dharmas tu bhayāvaho 'niṣṭa-janakaḥ | taṃ praty avihitatvena pratyavāya-sambhavāt |
na ca paraśurāme viśvāmitre cavyabhicāraḥ | tayos tat-tat-kulotpannāv api tat tac-coru-mahimnā tat-karmodayāt | tathāpi vigānaṃ kaṣṭaṃ ca tayoḥ smaryate | ataeva droṇādeḥ kṣātra-dharmo 'sakṛd vigītaḥ |

nanu daivarātyādeḥ kṣatriyasya pārivrājyaṃ śrūyate tataḥ katham ahiṃsādeḥ para-dharmatvam iti cet satyaṃ, pūrva-pūrvāśrama-dharmaiḥ kṣīṇa-vāsanayā pārivrājyādhikāre sati taṃ praty ahiṃsādeḥ sva-dharmatvena vihitatvāt | ataeva sva-dharme sthitasyeti yojyate ||35||

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BhG 3.36

arjuna uvāca
atha kena prayukto 'yaṃ pāpaṃ carati pūruṣaḥ |
anicchann api vārṣṇeya balād iva niyojitaḥ ||36||

śrīdharaḥ : tayor na vaśam āgacchet [Gītā 3.34] ity uktam | tad etad aśakyaṃ manvāno 'rjuna uvāca atheti | vṛṣṇer vaṃśe avatīrṇo vārṣṇeyaḥ | he vārṣṇeya ! anartha-rūpaṃ pāpaṃ kartum icchann api kena prayuktaḥ prerito 'yaṃ puruṣaḥ pāpaṃ carati ? kāma-krodhau viveka-balena niruddhato 'pi puruṣasya punaḥ pāpe pravṛtti-darśanāt | anyo 'pi tayor mūlabhūtaḥ kaścit pravartako bhaved iti sambhāvanayā praśnaḥ ||36||

madhusūdanaḥ : tatra kāmya-pratiṣiddha-karma-pravṛtti-kāraṇam apanudya bhagavan-matam anuvartituṃ tat-kāraṇāvadhāraṇāya arjuna uvāca atheti | dhyāyato viṣayān puṃsaḥ ity ādinā pūrvam anartha-mūlam uktam | sāmprataṃ ca prakṛter guṇa-saṃmūḍhā ity ādinā bahu-vistaraṃ kathitam | tatra kiṃ sarvāṇy api sama-prādhānyena kāraṇāni | athavaikam eva mukhyaṃ kāraṇam itarāṇi tu tat-sahakārīṇi kevalam | tatrādye sarveṣāṃ pṛthak pṛthaṅ nivāraṇe mahān prayāsaḥ syāt | antye tv ekasminn eva nirākṛte kṛta-kṛtyatā syād ity ato brūhi me kena hetunā prayuktaḥ prerito 'yaṃ tvan-matānanuvartī sarva-jñāna-vimūḍhaḥ puruṣaḥ pāpam anarthānubandhi
sarvaṃ phalābhisandhi-puraḥ-saraṃ kāmyaṃ citrādi śatru-vadha-sādhanaṃ ca śyanādi pratiṣiddhaṃ ca kalañja-bhakṣaṇādi bahu-vidhaṃ karmācarati svayaṃ kartum anicchann api na tu nivṛtti-lakṣaṇaṃ parama-puruṣārthānubandhi tvad-upadiṣṭaṃ karmecchann api karoti | na ca pāratantryaṃ vinetthaṃ sambhavati | ato yena balād iva niyojito rājñeva bhṛtyas tvan-mata-viruddhaṃ sarvānarthānubandhitvaṃ jānann api tādṛśaṃ karmācarati tam anartha-mārga-pravartakaṃ māṃ prati brūhi jñātvā samucchedāyety arthaḥ | he vārṣṇeya vṛṣṇi-vaṃśe man-mātāmaha-kule
kṛpayāvatīrṇeti sambodhanena vārṣṇeyī-suto 'haṃ tvayā nipekṣaṇīya iti sūcayati ||36||

viśvanāthaḥ : yad uktaṃ rāga-dveṣau vyavasthitāv [Gītā 3.34] ity atra śāstra-niṣiddhe |pīndriyārthe para-strī-sambhāṣaṇādau rāga ity atra pṛcchati atheti | kena prayojaka-kartrānicchann api vidhi-niṣedha-śāstrārtha-jñānavattvāt pāpe pravartitum icchā-rahito 'pi balād iveti prayojaka-preraṇa-vaśāt prayojyasyāpīcchā samyag utpadyate iti bhāvaḥ ||36||

baladevaḥ : indriyasya ity ādau śāstra-niṣiddhe 'pi para-dāra-sambhāṣaṇādau rāgo vyavasthita iti yad uktaṃ tatrārjunaḥ pṛcchati atha keneti | he vārṣṇeya vṛṣṇi-vaṃśodbhava ! śubhādibhyaś ceti prayuktaḥ preritaḥ pāpaṃ carati niṣedha-śāstrārtha-jñānāt tac-caritam anicchann api balād iveti | prayojakecchāpannatayā prayojye 'pīcchā prajāyate | sa kim īśvaraḥ, pūrva-saṃskāro vā ? tatrādyaḥ sākṣitvāt kāruṇikatvāc ca na pāpe prerakaḥ | na ca paro jaḍatvād iti praśnārthaḥ ||36||

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BhG 3.37

śrī-bhagavān uvāca
kāma eṣa krodha eṣa rajo-guṇa-samudbhavaḥ |
mahāśano mahā-pāpmā viddhy enam iha vairiṇam ||37||

śrīdharaḥ : atrottaraṃ śrī-bhagavān uvāca kāma eṣa krodha eṣa iti | yas tvayā pṛṣṭo hetur eva kāma eva | nanu krodho 'pi pūrvaṃ tvayoktam indriyasyendriyasyārtha ity atra | satyam | nāsau tataḥ pṛthak | kintu krodho 'py eṣaḥ | kāma eva hi kenacit pratihataḥ krodhātmanā pariṇamate | pūrvaṃ pṛthaktvenokto 'pi krodha-kāmaja evety abhiprāyeṇa ekīkṛtyocyate | rajo-guṇāt samudbhavatīti tathā | anena sattva-vṛddhyā rajasi kṣayaṃ nīte sati kāmo na jāyata iti sūcitam | enaṃ kāmam iha mokṣa-mārge vairiṇaṃ viddhi | ayaṃ ca vakṣyamāṇa-krameṇa hantavya eva | yato nāsau dānena sandhātuṃ śakya ity āha mahāśanaḥ | mahad-aśanaṃ
yasya saḥ | duṣpūra ity arthaḥ | na ca sāmnā sandhātuṃ śakyaḥ | yato mahā-pāpmā 'tyugraḥ ||37||

madhusūdanaḥ : evam arjunena pṛṣṭe atho khalv āhuḥ kāma-maya evāyaṃ puruṣa iti, ātmaivedam agra āsīd eka eva so 'kāmayata jāyā me syād atha prajāyeyātha vittaṃ me syād atha karma kurvīya ity ādi-śruti-siddham uttaram śrī-bhagavān uvāca kāma iti | yas tvayā pṛṣṭo hetur balād anartha-mārge pravartakaḥ sa eṣa kāma eva mahān śatruḥ | yan-nimittā sarvānartha-prāptiḥ prāṇinām |

nanu krodho 'py abhicārādau pravartako dṛṣṭa ity ata āha krodha eṣaḥ | kāma eva kenacid dhetunā pratihataḥ krodhatvena pariṇamate 'taḥ krodho 'py eṣa kāma eva | etasminn eva mahā-vairiṇi nivārite sarva-puruṣārtha-prāptir ity arthaḥ | tan-nivāraṇopāya-jñānāya tat-kāraṇam āha rajo-guṇa-samudbhavaḥ | duḥkha-pravṛtti-balātmako rajo-guṇa eva samudbhavaḥ kāraṇaṃ yasya | ataḥ kāraṇānuvidhāyitvāt kāryasya so 'pi tathā | yadyapi tamo-guṇo 'pi tasya kāraṇaṃ tathāpi duḥkhe pravṛttau ca rajasa eva prādhānyāt tasyaiva nirdeśaḥ | etena sāttvikyā vṛttyā rajasi kṣīṇe so 'pi kṣīyata ity uktam |

athavā tasya katham anartha-mārge pravartakatvam ity ata āha rajo-guṇasya pravṛttyādi-lakṣaṇasya samudbhavo yasmāt | kāmo hi viṣayābhilāṣātmakaḥ svayam udbhūto rajaḥ pravartayan puruṣaṃ duḥkhātmake karmaṇi pravartayati | tenāyam avaśyaṃ hantavya ity abhiprāyaḥ |

nanu sāma-dāna-bheda-daṇḍāś catvāra upāyās tatra prathama-trikasyāsambhave caturtho daṇḍaḥ prayoktavyo na tu haṭhād evety āśaṅkya trayāṇām asambhavaṃ vaktuṃ viśinaṣṭi mahāśano mahā-pāpmeti | mahad aśanam asyeti mahāśanaḥ |

yat pṛthivyāṃ vrīhi-yavaṃ hiraṇyaṃ paśavaḥ striyaḥ |
nālam ekasya tat sarvam iti matvā śamaṃ vrajet || iti smṛteḥ |

ato na dānena sandhātuṃ śakyaḥ | nāpi sāma-bhedābhyāṃ yato mahā-pāpmātyugraḥ | tena hi balāt prerito 'niṣṭa-phalam api jānan pāpaṃ karoti | ato viddhi jānīhi enaṃ kāmam iha saṃsāre vairiṇam |

tad etat sarvaṃ vivṛtaṃ vārtika-kāraiḥ ātmaivedam agra āsīt iti śruti-vyākhyāne -

pravṛttau ca nivṛttau ca yathoktasyādhikāriṇaḥ |
svātantrye sati saṃsāra-sṛtau kasmāt pravartate ||
na tu niḥśeṣa-vidhvasta-saṃsārānartha-vartmani |
nivṛtti-lakṣaṇe vācyaṃ kenāyaṃ preryate 'vaśaḥ ||
anartha-paripākatvam api jānan pravartate |
pāratantryam ṛte dṛṣṭā pravṛttir nedṛśī kvacit ||
tasmāc chreyorthinaḥ puṃsaḥ prerako 'niṣṭa-karmaṇi |
vaktavyas tan-nirāsārtham ity arthā syāt parā śrutiḥ ||
anāpta-puruṣārtho 'yaṃ niḥśeṣānartha-saṅkulaḥ |
ity akāmayatānāptān pumarthān sādhanair jaḍaḥ ||
jihāsati tathānarthān avidvān ātmani śritān |
avidyodbhūta-kāmaḥ sann atho khalv iti ca śrutiḥ ||
akāmataḥ kriyāḥ kāścid dṛśyante neha kasyacit |
yad yad dhi kurute jantus tat-tat-kāmasya ceṣṭitam ||
kāma eṣa krodha eṣa ity ādi-vacanaṃ smṛteḥ |
pravartako nāparo 'taḥ kāmād anyaḥ pratīyate || iti |

akāmata iti manu-vacanam | anyat spaṣṭam ||37||

viśvanāthaḥ : eṣa kāma eva viṣayābhilāṣātmakaḥ puruṣaṃ pāpe pravartayati tenaiva prayuktaḥ puruṣaḥ pāpaṃ caratīty arthaḥ | eṣa kāma eva pṛthaktvena dṛśyamāna eṣa pratyakṣaḥ krodho bhavati | kāma eva kenacit pratihato bhūtvā krodhākāreṇa pariṇamatīty arthaḥ | kāmo rajo-guṇa-samudbhava iti rājasāt kāmād eva tāmasaḥ krodho jāyate ity arthaḥ | kāmasya apekṣita-pūraṇena nivṛttiḥ syād iti cen nety āha mahāśano mahad aśanaṃ yasya saḥ |

yat pṛthivyāṃ vrīhi-yavaṃ hiraṇyaṃ paśavaḥ striyaḥ |
nālam ekasya tat sarvam iti matvā śamaṃ vrajet || iti smṛteḥ |

kāmasyāpekṣitaṃ pūrayitum aśakyam eva | nanu dānena sandhātum aśakyaś cet sāma-bhedābhyāṃ sa sva-vaśīkartavyaḥ | tatrāha mahā-pāpmātyugraḥ ||37||

baladevaḥ : tatrāha bhagavān kāma iti | kāmaḥ prāktana-vāsanā-hetukaḥ śabdādi-viṣayako 'bhilāṣaḥ puruṣaṃ pāpe prerayati tad anicchum api so 'sya preraka ity arthaḥ | nanv abhicārādau krodho 'pi prerako dṛṣṭaḥ sa cendriyasyety ādaubhavatāpi pṛthag ukta iti cet, satyam | na sa tasmāt pṛthak, kintv eṣa kāma eva kenacic cetanena pratihataḥ krodho bhavati | dugdham ivāmlena yuktaṃ dadhi | kāma-jaya eva krodha-jaya iti bhāvaḥ | kīdṛśaḥ kāma ity āha rajo-guṇeti | sattva-vṛddhyā rajasi nirjite kāmo nirjitaḥ syād ity arthaḥ | na cāpekṣita-pradānena kāmasya nivṛttir ity āha mahāśana iti |

yat pṛthivyāṃ vrīhi-yavaṃ hiraṇyaṃ paśavaḥ striyaḥ |
nālam ekasya tat sarvam iti matvā śamaṃ vrajet || iti smaraṇāt |

na ca sāmnā bhedena vā sa vaśībhaved ity āha mahāpāpmeti | yo 'tyugro viveka-jñāna-vilopena niṣiddhe 'pi pravartayati tasmād iha dāna-yoge enaṃ vairiṇaṃ viddhi tathā ca jñānādibhis tribhir upāyaiḥ sandhātum aśakyatvād vakṣyamāṇena daṇḍena sa hantavya iti bhāvaḥ | īśvaraḥ karmāntaritaḥ parjanyavat sarvatra prerakaḥ | kāmas tu svayam eva pāpmāgre iti tathoktam ||37||

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BhG 3.38

dhūmenāvriyate vahnir yathā-darśo malena ca |
yatholbenāvṛto garbhas tathā tenedam āvṛtam ||38||

śrīdharaḥ : kāmasya vairitvaṃ darśayati dhūmeneti | dhūmena sahajena yathā vahnir āvriyata ācchādyate | yathā cādarśo malenāgantukena | yathā colbena garbhaveṣṭana-carmaṇā garbhaḥ sarvato niruddha āvṛtaḥ | tathāprakāra-trayeṇāpi tena kāmenāvṛtam idam ||38||

madhusūdanaḥ : tasya mahā-pāpmatvena vairtvam eva dṛṣṭāntaiḥ spaṣṭayati dhūmeneti | tatra śarīrārambhāt prāg-antaḥ-karaṇa-sthālabdha-vṛttikatvāt sūkṣmaḥ kāmaḥ śarīrārambhakeṇa karmaṇā sthūla-śarīrāvacchinne labdha-vṛttike 'ntaḥkaraṇe kṛtābhivyaktiḥ san sthūlo bhavati | sa eva viṣayasya cintyamānatāvasthāyāṃ punaḥ punar udricyamānaḥ sthūlataro bhavati | sa eva punar viṣayasya bhujyamānatāvasthāyām atyantodrekaṃ prāptaḥ sthūlatamo bhavati | tatra prathamāvasthāyāṃ dṛṣṭāntaḥ -- yathā dhūmena sahajenāprakāśātmakena prakāśātmako vahnir āvriyate | dvitīyāvasthāyāṃ dṛṣṭāntaḥ -
yathādarśo malenāsahajenādarśotpatty-anantaram udriktena | ca-kāro 'vāntara-vaidharmya-sūcanārtha āvriyata iti kriyānukarṣaṇārthaś ca | tṛtīyāvasthāyāṃ dṛṣṭāntaḥ - yatholbena jarāyuṇā garbha-veṣṭana-carmaṇātisthūlena sarvato nirudhyāvṛtas tathā prakāra-trayeṇāpi tena kāmenedam āvṛtam |

atra dhūmenāvṛto 'pi vahnir dāhādi-lakṣaṇaṃ sva-kāryaṃ karoti | malenāvṛtas tv ādarśaḥ pratibimba-grahaṇa-lakṣaṇaṃ svakāryaṃ na karoti | svacchatā-dharma-mātra-tirodhānāt svarūpatas tūpalabhyata eva | ulbenāvṛtas tu garbho na hasta-pādādi-prasāraṇa-rūpaṃ sva-kāryaṃ karoti na vā svarūpata upalabhyata iti viśeṣaḥ ||38||

viśvanāthaḥ : na ca kasyacid evāyaṃ vairy api tu sarvasyaiveti sa-dṛṣṭāntam āha dhūmeneti | kāmasyāgāḍhatve gāḍhatve 'tigāḍhatve ca krameṇa dṛṣṭāntāḥ | dhūmenāvṛto 'pi malino vahnir dāhādi-lakṣaṇaṃ sva-kāryaṃ tu karoti | malenāvṛto darpaṇaṃ tu svacchatā-dharma-tirodhānād bimba-grahaṇaṃ sva-kāryaṃ na karoti svarūpatas tūpalabhyate | ulbena jarāyūṇāvṛto garbhas tu sva-kāryaṃ kara-caraṇādi-prasāraṇaṃ na karoti, na vā svarūpata upalabhyata iti | evaṃ kāmasyāgāḍhatve paramārtha-smaraṇaṃ kartuṃ śaknoti | gāḍhatve na śaknotīti gāḍhatve tv acetanam eva syād idaṃ jagad eva ||38||

baladevaḥ : mṛdu-madhya-tīvra-bhāvena trividhasya kāmasya dhūma-malolbaneti krameṇa dṛṣṭāntān āha dhūmenet | yathā dhūmenāvṛto 'nujjvalo 'pi vahnir auṣṇādikaṃ kiṃcit karoti malenāvṛto darpaṇaḥ svacchatā-tirodhānāt pratibimbaṃ na śaknoti grahītum ulbena jarā-guṇāvṛto garbhas tu pādādi-prasārarṃ na śaknoti kartuṃ na copalabhyate | tathā mṛdunā kāmenāvṛtaṃ jñānaṃ kathaṃcit tattvārthaṃ grahītuṃ śaknoti madhyenāvṛtaṃ na śaknoti | tīvreṇāvṛtaṃ tu prasartum api na śaknoti, na ca pratīyata ity arthaḥ ||38||

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BhG 3.39

āvṛtaṃ jñānam etena jñānino nitya-vairiṇā |
kāma-rūpeṇa kaunteya duṣpūreṇānalena ca ||39||

śrīdharaḥ : idaṃ śabda-nirdiṣṭaṃ darśayan vairitvaṃ sphuṭayati āvṛtam iti | idaṃ viveka-jñānam etena āvṛtam | ajñasya khalu bhoga-samaye kāmaḥ sukha-hetur eva | pariṇāme tu vairitvaṃ pratipadyate | jñāninaḥ punas tat-kālam apy anarthānusandhānād duḥkha-hetur eveti nitgya-vairiṇety uktam | kiṃ ca viṣayaiḥ pūryamāṇo 'pi yo duṣpūraḥ | āpūryamāṇaṃ tu śoka-santāpa-hetutvād anala-tulyaḥ | anena sarvān prati nitya-vairitvam uktam ||39||

madhusūdanaḥ : tathā tenedam āvṛtam iti saṅgraha-vākyaṃ vivṛṇoty āvṛtam iti | jñāyate 'neneti jñānam antaḥkaraṇaṃ viveka-vijñānaṃ veda-śabda-nirdiṣṭam etena kāmenāvṛtam | tathāpy āpātataḥ sukha-hetutvād upādeyaḥ syād ity ata āha jñānino nitya-vairiṇā | ajño hi viṣaya-bhoga-kāle kāmaṃ mitram iva paśyaṃs tat-kārye duḥkhe prāpte vairitvaṃ jānāti kāmenāhaṃ duḥkhitvam āpādita iti | jñānī tu bhoga-kāle 'pi jānāty anenāham anarthe praveśita iti | ato vivekī duḥkhī bhavati bhoga-kāle ca tat-pariṇāme cāneneti jñānino 'sau nitya-vairīti sarvathā tena hantavya evety arthaḥ |

tarhi kiṃ svarūo 'sāv ity ata āha kāma-rūpeṇa | kāma icchā tṛṣṇā saiva rūpaṃ yasya tena | he kaunteyeti sambandhāviṣkāreṇa premāṇaṃ sūcayati | nanu vivekino hantavyo 'py avivekina upādeyaḥ syād ity ata āha duṣpūreṇānalena ca | ca-kāra upamārthaḥ | na vidyate 'laṃ paryāptir yasyety analo vahniḥ | sa yathā haviṣā pūrayitum aśakyas tathāyam api bhogenety arthaḥ | ato nirantaraṃ santāpa-hetutvād vivekina ivāvivekino 'pi heya evāsau | tathā ca smṛtiḥ -

na jātu kāmaḥ kāmānām upabhogena śāṃyati |
haviṣā kṛṣṇa-vartmeva bhūya evābhivardhate || [BhP 9.19.14] iti |

athavecchāyā viṣaya-siddhi-nivartyatvād icchā-rūpaḥ kāmo viṣaya-bhogena svayam eva nivartiṣyate kiṃ tatrāti-nirbandhenety ata uktaṃ duṣpūreṇānalena ceti | viṣaya-siddhyā tat-kālam icchātirodhāne 'pi punaḥ prādurbhāvān na viṣaya-siddhir icchā-nivartikā | kintu viṣaya-doṣa-dṛṣṭir evatatheti bhāvaḥ ||39||

viśvanāthaḥ : kāma eva hi jīvasyāvidyety āha āvṛtam iti | nitya-vairiṇy ato 'sau sarva-prakāreṇa hantavya iti bhāvaḥ | kāma-rūpeṇa kāmākāreṇājñānenety arthaḥ | ca-kāra ivārthe | analo yathā haviṣā pūrayitum acakyas tathā kāmo 'pi bhogenety arthaḥ | yad uktam -
na jātu kāmaḥ kāmānām upabhogena śāṃyati |
haviṣā kṛṣṇa-vartmeva bhūya evābhivardhate || [BhP 9.19.14] iti ||39||

baladevaḥ : uktam arthaṃ sphuṭayati āvṛtam iti | anena kāma-rūpeṇa nitya-vairiṇā jñānino jīvasya jñānam āvṛtam iti sambandhaḥ | ajñasya viṣaya-bhoga-samaye sukhatvāt suhṛd api kāmas tat-kārye duḥkhe sati vairḥ syād vijñasya tu tat-samaye 'pi duḥkhānusandhānād duḥkha-hetur eveti nitya-vairiṇety uktiḥ | tasmāt sarvathā hantavya iti bhāvaḥ | kiṃ ca duṣpūreṇeti | ca-śabda ivārthaḥ | tatrānalo yathā haviṣā pūrayitum aśakyas tathā bhogena kāma ity arthaḥ | smṛtiś caivam āha-

na jātu kāmaḥ kāmānām upabhogena śāṃyati |
haviṣā kṛṣṇa-vartmeva bhūya evābhivardhate || [BhP 9.19.14] iti |

tasmāt sarveṣāṃ sa nitya-vairīti ||39||

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BhG 3.40

indriyāṇi mano buddhir asyādhiṣṭhānam ucyate |
etair vimohayaty eṣa jñānam āvṛtya dehinam ||40||

śrīdharaḥ : idānīṃ tasyādhiṣṭhānaṃ kathayan jayopāyam āha indriyāṇīti dvābhyām | viṣaya-darśana-śravaṇādibhiḥ saṃkalpenādhyavasāyena ca kāmasya āvirbhāvād indriyāṇi ca manaś ca buddhiś cāsyādhiṣṭhānam ucyate | etair indriyādibhir darśanādi-vyāpāravadbhir āśraya-bhūtair viveka-jñānam āvṛtya dehinaṃ vimohayati ||40||

madhusūdanaḥ : jñāte hi śatror adhiṣṭhāne sukhena sa jetuṃ śakyata iti tad-adhiṣṭhānam āha indriyāṇīti | indriyāṇi śabda-sparśa-rūpa-rasa-gandha-grāhakāṇi śrotrādīni vacanādāna-gamana-visargānanda-janakāni vāg-ādīni ca | manaḥ saṅkalpātmakaṃ buddhir adhyavasāyātmikā ca | asya kāmasyādhiṣṭhānam āśraya ucyate | yata etair indriyādibhiḥ sva-sva-vyāpāravadbhir āśrayair vimohayati vividhaṃ mohayati eṣa kāmo jñānam viveka-jñānam āvṛtyācchādya dehinaṃ dehābhimāninam ||40||

viśvanāthaḥ : kvāsau tiṣṭhaty ata āha indriyāṇīti | asya vairiṇaḥ kāmasyādhiṣṭhānaṃ mahā-durga-rājadhānyaḥ | śabdādayo viṣayās tu tasya rājño deśā iti bhāvaḥ | etair indriyādibhir dehinaṃ jīvam ||40||

baladevaḥ : vairiṇaḥ kāmasya durgeṣu nirjiteṣu tasya jayaḥ sukara iti tāny āha indriyāṇīti | viṣaya-śravaṇādinā saṅkalpenādhyavasāyena ca kāmasyābhivyakteḥ śrotrādīni ca manaś ca buddhiś ca tasyādhiṣṭhānaṃ mahā-durga-rājadhānī-rūpaṃ bhavati viṣayās tu tasya tasya janapadā bodhyāḥ | etair viṣaya-saṃcāribhir indriyādibhir dehinaṃ prakṛti-sṛṣṭa-dehavantaṃ jīvam ātma-jñānodyatam eṣa kāmo vimohayati ātma-jñāna-vimukhaṃ viṣaya-rasa-pravaṇaṃ ca karotīty arthaḥ ||40||

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BhG 3.41

tasmāt tvam indriyāṇy ādau niyamya bharatarṣabha |
pāpmānaṃ prajahihy enaṃ jñāna-vijñāna-nāśanam ||41||

śrīdharaḥ : yasmād evaṃ tasmād iti | tasmād ādau vimohāt pūrvam evendriyāṇi mano buddhiṃ ca niyamya pāpmānaṃ pāpa-rūpam enaṃ kāmaṃ hi sphuṭaṃ prajahi ghātaya | yad vā prajahihi parityaja | jñānam ātma-viṣayaṃ | vijñānaṃ nididhyāsanajam | tam eva dhīro vijñāya prajñāṃ kurvīta iti śruteḥ ||41||

madhusūdanaḥ : yasmād evam | yasmād indriyādhiṣṭhānaḥ kāmo dehinaṃ mohayati tasmāt tvam ādau mohanāt pūrvaṃ kāma-nirodhāt pūrvam iti vā | indriyāṇi śrotrādīni niyamya vaśīkṛtya | teṣu hi vaśīkṛteṣu mano-buddhyor api vaśīkaraṇaṃ sidhyati saṅkalpādhyavasāyayor bāhyendriya-pravṛtti-dvāraivānartha-hetutvāt | ata indriyāṇi mano buddhir iti pūrvaṃ pṛthaṅ-nirdiśyāpīhendriyāṇīty etāvad uktam | indriyatvena tayor api saṅgraho vā | he bharatarṣabha mahā-vaṃśa-prabhūtatvena samartho 'si | pāpmānaṃ sarva-pāpa-mūla-bhūtam enaṃ kāmaṃ vairiṇaṃ prajahihi parityaja hi sphuṭaṃ prajahi prakarṣeṇa mārayeti vā | jahi śatrum ity upasaṃhārāc ca
| jñānaṃ śāstrācāryopadeśa-jaṃ parokṣaṃ vijñānam aparokṣaṃ tat-phalaṃ tayor jñāna-vijñānayoḥ śreyaḥ-prāpti-hetvor nāśanam ||41||

viśvanāthaḥ : vairiṇaḥ khalv āśraye jite sati vairī jīyata iti nītir ataḥ kāmasyāśrayeṣv indriyādiṣu yathottaraṃ durjayatvādhikyam | ataḥ prathama-prāptānīndriyāṇi durjayāny apy uttarāpekṣayā sujayāni | prathamaṃ te jīyantām ity āha tasmād iti | indriyāṇi niyamyena yadyapi para-strī-para-dravyādy-apaharaṇe durnivāraṃ mano gacchaty eva | tad api tatra tatra netra-śrotra-kara-caraṇādīndriya-vyāpāra-stha-gaṇanād indriyāṇi na gamayety arthaḥ | pāpmānam atyugraṃ kāmaṃ jahītīndriya-vyāpārastha-gaṇanam atikālena mano 'pi kāmād vicyutaṃ bhavatīti bhāvaḥ ||41||

baladevaḥ : yasmād ayaṃ kāma-rūpo vairī nikhilendriya-vyāpāra-virati-rūpāyātma-jñānāyodyatasya viṣaya-rasa-pravaṇair indriyair jñānam āvṛṇoti tasmāt prakṛti-sṛṣṭa-dehādimāṃs tvam ādāv ātma-jñānodayāyārambha-kāla evendriyāṇi sarvāṇi tad-vyāpāra-rūpe niṣkāme karma-yoge niyamya pravaṇāni kṛtvā enaṃ pāpmānaṃ kāmaṃ śatruṃ prajahi vināśaya | hi yasmāj jñānasya śāstrīyasya dehādi-viviktātma-viṣayakasya vijñānasya ca tādṛg-ātmānubhavasya nāśanam āvarakam ||41||

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BhG 3.42

indriyāṇi parāṇy āhur indriyebhyaḥ paraṃ manaḥ |
manasas tu parā buddhir yo buddheḥ paratas tu saḥ ||42||

śrīdharaḥ : yatra citta-praṇidhānena indriyāṇi niyantuṃ śakyante, tad ātma-svarūpaṃ dehādibhyo vivicya darśayati indriyāṇīti | indriyāṇi dehādibhyo grāhyebhyaḥ parāṇi śreṣṭhāny āhuḥ sūkṣmatvāt prakāśakatvāc ca | ataeva tad-vyatiriktatvam apy arthād uktaṃ bhavati | indriyebhyaś ca saṅkalpātmakaṃ manaḥ param tat-pravartakatvāt | manasas tu niścayātmikā buddhiḥ parā | niścaya-pūrvakatvāt saṅkalpasya | yas tu buddheḥ paratas tat-sākṣitvenāvasthitaḥ sarvāntaraḥ sa ātmā | taṃ vimohayati dehinam iti dehi-śabdokta ātmā sa iti parāmṛśyate ||42||

madhusūdanaḥ : nanu yathā kathaṃcid bāhyendriya-niyama-sambhave 'py āntara-tṛṣṇā-tyāgo 'tiduṣkara iti cen, na | raso 'py asya paraṃ dṛṣṭvā nivartate [Gītā 2.59] ity atra para-darśanasya rasābhidhānīyaka-tṛṣṇā-tyāga-sādhanasya prāg-ukteḥ | tarhi ko 'sau paro yad-darśanāt tṛṣṇā-nivṛttir ity āśaṅkya śuddham ātmānaṃ para-śabda-vācyaṃ dehādibhyo vivicya darśayati indriyāṇīti | śrotrādīni jñānendriyāṇi pañca sthūlaṃ jaḍaṃ paricchinnaṃ bāhyaṃ ca deham apekṣya parāṇi sūkṣmatvāt prakāśakatvād vyāpakatvād antaḥsthatvāc ca prakṛṣṭāny āhuḥ paṇḍitāḥ śrutayo vā | tathendriyebhyaḥ paraṃ
manaḥ saṅkalpa-vikalpātmakaṃ tat-pravartakatvāt | tathā manasas tu parā buddhir adhyavasāyātmikā | adhyavasāyo hi niścayas tat-pūrvaka eva saṅkalpādir mano-dharmaḥ | yas tu buddheḥ paratas tad-bhāsakatvenāvasthito yaṃ dehinam indriyādibhir āśrayair yuktaḥ kāmo jñānāvaraṇa-dvāreṇa mohayatīty uktaṃ sa buddher draṣṭā para ātmā | sa eṣa iha praviṣṭaḥ itivad dvyavahitasyāpi dehinas tadā parāmarśaḥ | atrārthe śrutiḥ -

indriyebhyaḥ parā hy arthā arthebhyaś ca paraṃ manaḥ |
manasas tu parā buddhir buddher ātmā mahān paraḥ ||
mahataḥ parama-vyaktam avyaktāt puruṣaḥ paraḥ |
puruṣān na paraṃ kiṃcit sā kāṣṭhā sā parā gatiḥ || [KaṭhU 1.3.10-11] iti |

atrātmanaḥ paratvasyaiva vākya-tātparya-viṣayatvād indriyādi-paratvasyāvivakṣitatvād indriyebhyaḥ parā arthā iti sthāne 'rthebhyaḥ parāṇīndriyāṇīti vivakṣābhedena bhagavad-uktaṃ na virudhyate | buddher asmad-ādi-vyaṣṭi-buddheḥ sakāśān mahān ātmā samaṣṭi-buddhi-rūpaḥ paraḥ mano mahān matir brahma pūr buddhiḥ khyātir īśvaraḥ iti vāyu-purāṇa-vacanāt | mahato hairaṇyagarbhyā buddheḥ param avyaktam avyākṛtaṃ sarva-jagad-bījaṃ māyākhyaṃ māyāṃ tu prakṛtiṃ vidyād iti śruteḥ | tad dhedaṃ tarhy avyākṛtam āsīt iti ca | avyaktāt sakāśāt sakala-jaḍa-varga-prakāśakaḥ
puruṣaḥ pūrṇa ātmā paraḥ | tasmād api kaścid anyaḥ paraḥ syād ity ata āha puruṣān na paraṃ kiṃcid iti | kuta evaṃ yasmāt sā kāṣṭhā samāptiḥ sarvādhiṣṭhānatvāt | sā parā gatiḥ | so 'dhvanaḥ pāram āpnoti tad viṣṇoḥ paramaṃ padam ity ādi-śruti-prasiddhā parā gatir api saivety arthaḥ | tad etat sarvaṃ yo buddheḥ paratas tu sa ity anenoktam ||42||

viśvanāthaḥ : na ca prathamam eva mano-buddhi-jaye yatanīyam aśakyatvād ity āha indriyāṇi parāṇīti | daśa-dig-vijayibhir api vīrair durjayatvād atibalatvena śreṣṭhānīty arthaḥ | indriyebhyaḥ sakāśād api prabalatvān manaḥ paraṃ | svapne khalv indriyeṣv api naṣṭeṣv anaśvaratvād iti bhāvaḥ | manasaḥ sakāśād api parā prabalā buddhir vijñāna-rūpā | suṣuptau manasy api naṣṭe tasyāḥ sāmānyākārāyā anaśvarātvād iti bhāvaḥ | tasya buddheḥ sakāśād api parato balādhikyena yo vartate, tawsyām api jñānābhyāsena naṣṭāyāṃ satyāṃ yo virājata ity arthaḥ | sa tu prasiddho jīvātmā kāmasya jetā | tena vastutaḥ sarvato
'py atiprabalena jīvātmanā indriyādīn vijitya kāmo vijetuṃ śakya eveti nātrāsambhāvanā kāryeti bhāvaḥ ||42||

baladevaḥ : nanu mudrita-yantrāmbu-nyāyena niṣkāma-karma-pravaṇatayendriya-niyamane kāma-kṣatir iti tvayā pradarśitam | atha daihika-karma-kāle mukta-yantrāmbu-nyāyenendriya-vṛtti-prasāre kāmasya punar ujjīvatāpattiḥ syād iti tatra raso 'py asya paraṃ dṛṣṭvā [Gītā 2.59] iti pūrvopadiṣṭena viviktātmānubhavena niḥśeṣā tasya kṣatiḥ syād iti darśayati indriyāṇīti dvābhyām |

pāñcabhautikād dehād indriyāṇi parāṇy āhur paṇḍitāḥ | tac cālīkatvāt tato 'tisūkṣmatvāt tad-vināśe 'vināśāc ca | indriyebhyaḥ manaḥ paraṃ jāgare teṣāṃ pravartakatvāt svapne teṣu svasmin vilīneṣu rājya-kartṛtvena sthitatvāc ca | manasas tu buddhiḥ parā, niścayātmaka-buddhi-vṛttyaiva saṅkalpātmaka-mano-vṛtteḥ prasarāt | yas tu buddher api parato 'sti, sa dehī jīvātmā cit-svarūpo dehādi-buddhy-antar-viviktayānubhūtaḥ san niḥśeṣa-kāma-kṣati-hetur bhavatīti | kaṭhāś caivaṃ paṭhanti -

indriyebhyaḥ parā hy arthā arthebhyaś ca paraṃ manaḥ |
manasas tu parā buddhir buddher ātmā mahān paraḥ || ity ādi |

asyārthaḥ - indriyebhyo 'rthā viṣayās tad-ākarsiktatvāt parāḥ pradhāna-bhūtāḥ | viṣayendriya-vyavahārasya mano-mūlatvād arthebhyo manaḥ paraṃ viṣaya-bhogasya niścaya-pūrvakatvāt saṃśayātmakān manaso manaḥ paraṃ viṣaya-bhogasya niścaya-pūrvakatvāt saṃśayātmakān manaso niścayātmikā buddhiḥ parā buddher bhogopakaraṇatvāt tasyāḥ sakāśād bhoktātmā jīvaḥ paraḥ sa cātmā mahān dehendriyāntaḥkaraṇa-svāmīti daihikaṃ karma tu pūrvābhyāsa-vaśāc cakra-bhramitvat setsyati ||42||

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BhG 3.43

evaṃ buddheḥ paraṃ buddhvā saṃstabhyātmānam ātmanā |
jahi śatruṃ mahā-bāho kāma-rūpaṃ durāsadam ||43||

śrīdharaḥ : upasaṃharati evam iti | buddher eva viṣayendriyādi-janyāḥ kāmādi-vikriyāḥ | ātmā tu nirvikāras tat-sākṣīty evaṃ buddheḥ paramātmānaṃ buddhvātmanaivaṃ tṛtayā niściyātmikayā buddhyātmānaṃ manaḥ saṃstabhya niścalaṃ kṛtvā kāma-rūpiṇaṃ śatruṃ jahi māraya | durāsadaṃ duḥkhenāsādanīyaṃ durvijñeyam ity arthaḥ ||43||

sva-dharmeṇa yam ārādhya bhaktyā muktim itā budhāḥ |
tat kṛṣṇaṃ paramānandaṃ toṣayet sarva-karmabhiḥ ||

iti śrīdhara-svāmi-kṛtāyāṃ bhagavad-gītā-ṭīkāyāṃ subodhinyāṃ
karma-yogo nāma tṛtīyo 'dhyāyaḥ ||3||

madhusūdanaḥ : phalitam āha evam iti | raso 'py asya paraṃ dṛṣṭvā nivartate ity atra yaḥ para-śabdenoktas tam evambhūtaṃ pūrṇam ātmānaṃ buddheḥ paraṃ buddhvā sākṣātkṛtya saṃstabhya sthirītkṛtyātmānaṃ mana ātmanaitādṛśa-niścayātmkiayā buddhyā jahi māraya śatruṃ sarva-puruṣārtha-śātanaṃ he mahābāho mahā-bāhor hi śatru-māraṇaṃ sukaram iti yogyaṃ sambodhanam | kāma-rūpaṃ tṛṣṇā-rūpaṃ durāsadaṃ duḥkhenāsādanīyaṃ durvijñeyāneka-viśeṣam iti yatnādhikyāya viśeṣaṇam ||43||

iti śrīmat-paramahaṃsa-parivrājakācārya-śrī-viśveśvara-sarasvatī-pāda-śiṣya-śrī-madhusūdana-sarasvatī-viracitāyāṃ śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā-gūḍhārtha-dīpikāyām karma-yogo nāma
tṛtīyo 'dhyāyaḥ ||3||

viśvanāthaḥ : upasaṃharati evam iti | buddheḥ paraṃ jīvātmānaṃ buddhvā sarvopādhibhyaḥ pṛthak-bhūtaṃ jñātvā ātmanā svenaivāmānaṃ svaṃ saṃstabhya niścalaṃ kṛtvā durāsadaṃ durjayam api kāmaṃ jahi nāśaya ||43||

adhyāye 'smin sādhanasya niṣkāmasyaiva karmaṇaḥ |
prādhānyam ūce tat-sādhya-jñānasya guṇatāṃ vadan ||
iti sārārtha-darśinyāṃ harṣiṇyāṃ bhakta-cetasām |
tṛtīyaḥ khalu gītāsu saṅgataḥ saṅgataḥ satām ||

||3||

baladevaḥ : evam iti | evaṃ mad-upadeśa-vidhayā buddheś ca paraṃ dehādi-nikhila-jaḍa-varga-pravartakatvād viviktaṃ sukha-cid-ghanaṃ jīvātmānaṃ buddhvānubhūyety arthaḥ | ātmanā īdṛśa-niścayātmikayā buddhyātmānaṃ manaḥ saṃstabhya tādṛśy ātmani sthiraṃ kṛtvā kāma-rūpaṃ śatruṃ jahi nāśaya | durāsadaṃ durdharṣam api | mahā-bāho iti prāgvat ||43||

niṣkāmaṃ karma mukhyaṃ syād gauṇaṃ jñānaṃ tad-udbhavam |
jīvātma-dṛṣṭāv ity eṣa tṛtīyo 'dhyāya-nirṇayaḥ ||

iti śrīmad-bhagavad-gītopaniṣad-bhāṣye tṛtīyo 'dhyāyaḥ
||3||


tṛtīyo 'dhyāyaḥ karma-yogaḥ




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Bhagavadgita 4

BhG 4.1

śrī-bhagavān uvāca
imaṃ vivasvate yogaṃ proktavān aham avyayam |
vivasvān manave prāha manur ikṣvākave 'bravīt ||1||

śrīdharaḥ :
āvirbhāva-tirobhāvāv āviṣkartuṃ svayaṃ hariḥ |
tattvaṃ pada-vivekārthaṃ karma-yogaṃ praśaṃsati ||

evaṃ tāvad adhyāya-dvayena karma-yogopāyaka-jñāna-yogo mokṣa-sādhanatvenoktaḥ | tad evaṃ brahmārpaṇādi-guṇa-vidhānena tattvaṃ padārtha-vivekādinā ca prapañciṣyan prathamaṃ tāvat parasparāprāptatvena stuvan bhagavān uvāca imam iti tribhiḥ | avyaya-phalatvād avyayam | imaṃ yogaṃ purāham vivasvata ādityāya kathitavān | sa ca sva-putrāya manave śrāddha-devāya | sa ca manuḥ sva-putrāyekṣvākave 'bravīt ||1||

madhusūdanaḥ : yadyapi pūrvam upeyatvena jñāna-yogas tad-upāyatvena ca karma-yoga iti dvau yogau kathitau tathāpi ekaṃ sāṅkhyaṃ ca yogaṃ ca paśyati sa paśyati [Gītā 5.6] ity anayā diśā sādhya-sādhanayoḥ phalaikyād aikyam upacarya sādhana-bhūtaṃ karma-yogaṃ sādhya-bhūtaṃ ca jñāna-yogam aneka-vidha-guṇa-vidhānāya stauti vaṃśa-kathanena bhagavān |

imam adhyāya-dvayenoktaṃ yogaṃ jñāna-niṣṭhā-lakṣaṇaṃ karma-niṣṭhopāya-labhyaṃ vivasvate sarva-kṣatriya-vaṃśa-bīja-bhūtāyādityāya proktavān prakarṣeṇa sarva-sandehocchedādi-rūpeṇoktavān ahaṃ bhagavān vāsudevaḥ sarva-jagat-paripālakaḥ sargādi-kāle rājñāṃ balādhānena tad-adhīnaṃ sarvaṃ jagat pālayitum | katham anena balādhānam iti viśeṣeṇena darśayati -- avyayam avyaya-veda-mūlatvād avyaya-phalatvāc ca na vyeti sva-phalād ity avyayam avyabhicāri-phalam | tathā caitādṛśena balādhānaṃ śakyam iti bhāvaḥ |

sa ca mama śiṣyo vivasvān manave vaivasvatāya sva-putrāya prāha | sa ca manur ikṣvākave sva-putrāyādi-rājāyābravīt | yadyapi prati manvantaraṃ svāyambhuvādi-sādhāraṇo 'yaṃ bhāgavad-updeśas tathāpi sāmpratika-vaivasvata-manvantarābhi-prāyeṇādityam ārabhya sampradāyo gaṇitaḥ ||1||

viśvanāthaḥ :
turye svāvirbhāva-hetor nityatvaṃ janma-karmaṇoḥ |
svasyoktiṃ brahma-yajñādi-jñānotkarṣa-prapañcam ||

adhyāya-dvayenoktaṃ niṣkāma-karma-sādhyaṃ jñāna-yogaṃ stauti imam iti ||1||

baladevaḥ :
turye svābhivyakti-hetuṃ sva-līlā-
nityatvaṃ sat-karmasu jñāna-yogam |
jñānasyāpi prāy yan-māhātmyam uccaiḥ
prākhyad devo devakīnandano 'sau ||

pūrvādhyāyābhyām uktaṃ jñāna-yogaṃ karma-yogaṃ caika-phalatvād ekīkṛtya tad-vaṃśaṃ kīrtayan stauti imam iti | imaṃ tvāṃ sūryāyāhaṃ proktavān | avyayaṃ nityaṃ vedārtahtvān naveyeti sva-phalādityavyabhicāri-phalatvāc ca | sa ca mac-chiṣyo vivasvān sva-putrāya manave vaivasvatāya prāha | sa ca manur ikṣvākave sva-putrāyābravīt ||1||

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BhG 4.2

evaṃ paramparā-prāptam imaṃ rājarṣayo viduḥ |
sa kāleneha mahatā yogo naṣṭaḥ parantapa ||2||

śrīdharaḥ : evam iti | evaṃ rājānaś ca te ṛṣayaś ceti | anye 'pi rājarṣayo nimi-pramukhāḥ | sva-pitrādibhir ikṣvāku-pramukhaiḥ protkam imaṃ yogam vidur jānanti sma | adyatanānām ajñāne kāraṇam āha he parantapa śatru-pātana ! sa yogaḥ kāla-vaśād iha loke naṣṭo vicchinnaḥ ||2||

madhusūdanaḥ : evam ādityam ārabhya guru-śiṣya-paramparayā prāptam imaṃ yogaṃ rājānaś ca ta ṛṣayaś ceti rājarṣayaḥ prabhutve sati sūkṣmārtha-nirīkṣaṇa-kṣamā nimi-pramukhāḥ sva-pitrādi-proktaṃ viduḥ | tasmād anādi-veda-mūlatvenānanta-phalatvenānādi-guru-śiṣya-paramparā-prāptatvena ca kṛtrimatva-śaṅkānāspadatvān mahā-prabhāvo 'yaṃ yoga iti śraddhātiśayāya stūyate |

sa evaṃ mahā-prayojano 'pi yogaḥ kālena mahatā dīrgheṇa dharma-hrāsa-kareṇehedānīm āvayor vyavahāra-kāle dvāparānte durbalān ajitendriyān anadhikāriṇaḥ prāpya kāma-krodhādibhir abhibhūyamāno naṣṭo vicchinna-sampradāyo jātaḥ | taṃ vinā puruṣārthāprāpter aho daurbhāgyaṃ lokasyeti śocati bhagavān | he parantapa ! paraṃ kāma-krodhādi-rūpaṃ śatru-gaṇaṃ śauryeṇa balavatā vivekena tapasā ca bhānur iva tāpayatīti parantapaḥ śatru-tāpano jitendriya ity arthaḥ | urvaśy-upekṣaṇādy-adbhuta-karma-darśanāt | tasmāt tvaṃ jitendriyatvād atrādhikārīti sūcayati ||2||

viśvanāthaḥ : Nothing.

baladevaḥ : evaṃ vivasvantam ārabhya guru-śiṣya-paramparayā prāptam iimaṃ yogaṃ rājarṣayaḥ sva-pitrādibhir ikṣvāku-prabhṛtibhir upadiṣṭaṃ viduḥ | iha loke naṣṭo vicchinna-sampradāyaḥ ||2||




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BhG 4.3

sa evāyaṃ mayā te 'dya yogaḥ proktaḥ purātanaḥ |
bhakto 'si me sakhā ceti rahasyaṃ hy etad uttamam ||3||

śrīdharaḥ : sa evāyam iti | sa evāyaṃ yogo 'dya vicchinne sampradāye sati punaś ca te tubhyam uktaḥ | yatas tvaṃ mama bhakto 'si sakhā ca | anyasmai mayā nocyate | hi yasmād etad uttamaṃ rahasyam ||3||

madhusūdanaḥ : ya evaṃ pūrvam upadiṣṭo 'py adhikārya-bhāvād vicchinna-sampradāyo 'bhūt | yaṃ vinā ca puruṣārtho na labhyate | sa evāyaṃ purātano 'nādi-guru-paramparā-gato yogo 'dya sampradāya-viccheda-kāle mayātisnigdhena te tubhyaṃ prakarṣeṇoktaḥ | na tv anyasmai kasmaicit | kasmāt ? bhakto 'si me sakhā ceti | iti-śabdo hetau | yasmāt tvaṃ mama bhaktaḥ śaraṇāgatatve saty atyanta-prītimān sakhā ca samāna-vayāḥ snigdha-sahāyo 'si sarvadā bhavasi atas tubhyam ukta ity arthaḥ anyasmai kuto nocyate tatrāha | hi yasmād etaj jñānam uttamaṃ rahasyam atigopyam ||3||

viśvanāthaḥ : tvāṃ praty evāsya proktatve hetuḥ : bhakto dāsaḥ sakhā ceti bhāva-dvayam | anyas tu arvācīnaṃ praty eva avaktavyatve hetū rahasyam iti ||3||

baladevaḥ : sa eva tadānupūrvika-vacana-vācyo yogo mayā tvat-sakhenātisnigdhena te tubhyaṃ mat-sakhāyeti snigdhāya proktas tvaṃ me bhaktaḥ prapannaḥ sakhā cāsīti hetor na tv anyasmai kasmaicit | tatra hetuḥ rahasyam iti | hi yasmād uttamaṃ rahasyam iti gopyam etat ||3||

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BhG 4.4

arjuna uvāca
aparaṃ bhavato janma paraṃ janma vivasvataḥ |
katham etad vijānīyāṃ tvam ādau proktavān iti ||4||

śrīdharaḥ : bhagavato vivasvantaṃ prati yogopadeśāsambhavaṃ paśyann arjuna uvāca aparam iti | aparam arvācīnaṃ tava janma | paraṃ prāk kālīnaṃ vivasvato janma | tasmāt tavādhunātanatvāt cirantanāya vivasvate tvam ādau yogaṃ proktavān iti etat katham ahaṃ jānīyāṃ jñātuṃ śaknuyām ||4||

madhusūdanaḥ : yā bhagavati vāsudeve manuṣyatvenāsarvajñatvānityatvāśaṅkā mūrkhāṇāṃ tām apanetum anuvadann arjuna āśaṅkate - aparam iti | aparam alpa-kālīnam idānantanaṃ vasudeva-gṛhe bhavato janma śarīra-grahaṇaṃ vihīnaṃ ca manuṣyatvāt | paraṃ bahu-kālīnaṃ sargādi-bhavam utkṛṣṭaṃ ca devatvāt, vivasvato janma | atrātmano janmābhāvasya prāg-vyutpāditatvād dehābhiprāyeṇaivārjunasya praśnaḥ | ataḥ katham etad vijānīyām aviruddhārthatayā | etac chabdārtham eva vivṛṇoti | tvam ādau yogaṃ proktavān iti | tvam idānīṃtano manuṣyo 'sarvajñaḥ sargādau pūrvatanāya sarvajñāyādityāya proktavān iti viruddhārtham etad iti bhāvaḥ |

atrāyaṃ nirgalito 'rthaḥ | etad dehānavacchinnasya tava dehāntarāvacchedena vādityaṃ pratyupadeṣṭṛtvam etad-dehena vā | nādyaḥ | janmāntarānubhūtasyāsarvajñena smartum aśakyatvāt | anyathā mamāpi janmāntarānubhūta-smaraṇa-prasaṅgaḥ | tava mama ca manuṣyatvenāsarvajñatvāviśeṣāt | tad uktam abhiyuktaiḥ janmāntarānubhūtaṃ ca na smaryate iti | nāpi dvitīyaḥ sargādāv idānīṃtanasya dehasyāsad-bhāvāt | tad evaṃ dehāntareṇa sargādau sad-bhāvānupappattir ity asarvajñatvānityatvābhyāṃ dvāv arjunasya pūrva-pakṣau ||4||

viśvanāthaḥ : uktam artham asambhavaṃ pṛcchati aparam idānīntanam | paraṃ purātanam ataḥ katham etat pratyemīti bhāvaḥ ||4||

baladevaḥ : kṛṣṇasya sanātanatve sārvajñe ca śaṅkamānān anabhijñān nirākartum arjuna uvāca aparam iti | aparam arvācīnaṃ paraṃ parācīnaṃ tasmād ādhunikas tvaṃ prācīnāya vivasvate yogam uktavān ity etat katham ahaṃ vijānīyāṃ pratīyām | ayam arthaḥ : na khalu sarveśvaratvena kṛṣṇam arjuno na vetti tasya narākhya-tad-avatāratvena tādrūpyāt, paraṃ dhāma paraṃ dhāma ity ādi tad-ukteś ca | na tv atat-sarvajña-viṣayām ajña-śaṅkām apākartum aparam ity ādi pṛcchati | sarveśvaraḥ sa yathā sva-tattvaṃ vetti na tathānyaḥ | tatas tan-mukhāmbujād eva tad-rūpa-taj-janmādi parkāśanīyaṃ loka-maṅgalāya | tad-arthaṃ sva-mahimānaṃ pravadan
vikatthanatayā sa nākṣepyaḥ, kintu stavanīya eva kṛpālutayā | tac ca manuṣākṛti-para-brahmaṇas tava rūpaṃ janmādi ca loka-vilakṣaṇaṃ kiṃ-vidhaṃ kim-arthakaṃ kiṃ-kālam iti vijñasyāpy ājñavat praśno 'yam ajña-śaṅkā-nirāsaka-prativacanārthaḥ ||4||

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BhG 4.5

śrī-bhagavān uvāca
bahūni me vyatītāni janmāni tava cārjuna |
tāny ahaṃ veda sarvāṇi na tvaṃ vettha parantapa ||5||

śrīdharaḥ : rūpāntareṇopadiṣṭavān ity abhiprāyeṇottaraṃ śrī-bhagavān uvāca bahūnīti | tāny ahaṃ veda vedmi | alupta-vidyā-śaktitvāt | tvaṃ tu na vettha na vetsi avidyāvṛttatvāt ||5||

madhusūdanaḥ : tatra sarvajñatvena prathamasya parihāram āha bahūnīti | janmāni līlā-deha-grahaṇāni loka-dṛṣṭy-abhiprāyeṇādityasyodayavan me mama bahūni vyatītāni tava cājñāninaḥ karmārjitāni deha-grahaṇāni | tava cety upalakṣaṇam itareṣām api jīvānāṃ, jīvaikyābhiprāyeṇa vā | he 'rjuna ! ślokenārjuna-vṛkṣa-nāmnā sambodhayann āvṛta-jñānatvaṃ sūcayati | tāni janmāny ahaṃ sarvajñaḥ sarva-śaktir īśvaro veda jānāmi sarvāṇi madīyāni tvadīyāny anyadīyāni ca | na tvam ajño jīvas tirobhūta-jñāna-śaktir vettha na jānāsi svīyāny api kiṃ punaḥ parakīyāṇi | he parantapa ! paraṃ śatruṃ bheda-dṛṣṭyā parikalpya hantuṃ pravṛtto 'sīti viparīta-darśitatvād bhrānto 'sīti sūcayati
| tad anena sambodhana-dvayenāvaraṇa-vikṣepau dvāv apy ajñāna-dharmau darśitau ||5||

viśvanāthaḥ : avatārāntareṇopadiṣṭavān ity abhiprāyeṇāha bahūnīti | tava ceti yadā yadaiva mamāvatāras tadā mat-pārṣadatvāt tavāpy āvirbhāvo 'bhūd evety arthaḥ | veda vedmi sarveśvaratvena sarvajñatvāt | tvaṃ na vettha mayaiva sva-līlā-siddhy-arthaṃ tvaj-jñānāvaraṇād iti bhāvaḥ | ataeva he parantapa ! sāmpratika-kuntī-putratvābhimāna-mātreṇaiva parān śatrūṃs tāpayasi ||5||

baladevaḥ : eka evāhaṃ eko 'pi san bahudhā yo 'vabhāti ity ādi śruty-uktāni nitya-siddhāni bahūni rūpāṇi vaidūryavad ātmani dadhānaḥ purā rūpāntareṇa taṃ pratyupadiṣṭavān iti bhāvenāha bhagavān bahūnīti | tava ceti mat-sakhatvāt tāvanti janmāni tavāpy abhūvann ity arthaḥ | na tvaṃ vettheti | idānīṃ mayaivācintya-śaktyā sva-līlā-siddhaye tvaj-jñānācchādanād iti bhāvaḥ | etena sārvajñyaṃ svasya darśitam | atra bhagavaj-janmanāṃ vāstavatvaṃ bodhyam | bahūnītyādi śrī-mukhoktes tava ceti dṛṣṭāntāc ca | na ca janmākhyo vikāras tasyāgrima-vyākhyayā pratyākhyānāt ||5||

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BhG 4.6

ajo 'pi sann avyayātmā bhūtānām īśvaro 'pi san |
prakṛtiṃ svām adhiṣṭhāya saṃbhavāmy ātma-māyayā ||6||

śrīdharaḥ : nanu anādes tava kuto janma ? avināśinaś ca kathaṃ punar janma yena bahūni me vyatītānity ucyate | īśvarasya tava puṇya-pāpa-vihīnasya kathaṃ jīvavaj janmeti ? ata āha ajo 'pīti | satyam evam | tathāpi ajo 'pi janma-śūnyo 'pi sann aham | tathāvyayātmāpy anaśvara-svabhāvo 'pi san | tathā - īśvaro 'pi karma-pāratantrya-rahito 'pi san | sva-māyayā sambhavāmi samyag apracyuta-jñāna-bala-vīryādi-śaktyaiva bhavāmi |

nanu tathāpi ṣoḍaśa-kalātamka-liṅga-deha-śūnyasya ca tava kuto janmeti ? ata uktaṃ svāṃ śuddha-sattvātmikāṃ prakṛtiṃ adhiṣṭhāya svīkṛtya | viśuddhorjita-sattva-mūrtyā svecchayāvatarāmīty arthaḥ ||6||

madhusūdanaḥ : nanv atītāneka-janma-vattvam ātmanaḥ smarasi cet tarhi jāti-smaro jīvas tvaṃ para-janma-jñānam api yoginaḥ sārvātmyābhimānena śāstra-dṛṣṭyā tūpadeśo vāma-devavat [Vs 1.1.30] iti nyāyena sambhavati | tathā cāha vāmadevo jīvo 'pi ahaṃ manur abhavaṃ sūryaś cāhaṃ kakṣīvānṛpir asmi vipraḥity ādi dāśatayyām | ataeva na mukhyaḥ sarvajñas tvam | tathā ca katham ādityaṃ sarvajñam upadiṣṭavān asy anīśvaraḥ san | na hi jīvasya mukhyaṃ sārvajñyaṃ sambhavati vyaṣṭy-upādheḥ paricchinnatvena sarva-sambandhitvābhāvāt | samaṣṭy-upādher api virājaḥ sthūla-bhūtopādhitvena
sūkṣma-bhūta-pariṇāma-viṣayaṃ māyā-pariṇāma-viṣayaṃ ca jñānaṃ na sambhavati | evaṃ sūkṣma-bhūtopādher api hiraṇyagarbhasya tat-kāraṇa-māyā-pariṇāmākāśādi-sarga-kramādi-viṣaya-jñānābhāvaḥ siddha eva | tasmād īśvara eva kāraṇopāditvād atītān āgata-vartamāna-sarvārtha-viṣaya-jñānavān mukhyaḥ sarvajñaḥ | atītān āgata-vartamāna-viṣayaṃ māyā-vṛtti-trayam ekaiva vā sarva-viṣayā māyā-vṛttir ity anyat | tasya ca nityeśvarasya sarvajñasya dharmādharmādy-abhāvena janmaivānupapannam atītāneka-janmavattvaṃ tu dūrotsāritam eva | tathā ca jīvatve sārvajñyānupapattir īśvaratve ca deha-grahaṇānupapattir iti śaṅkā-dvayaṃ pariharann anityatva-pakṣasyāpi
parihāram āha ajo 'pīti |

apūrva-dehendriyādi-grahaṇaṃ janma | pūrva-ghīta-dehendriyādi-viyogo vyayaḥ | yad ubhayaṃ tārkikaiḥ prety abhāva ity ucyate | tad uktaṃ jātasya hi dhruvo mṛtyur dhruvaṃ janma mṛtasya ca [Gītā 2.27] iti | tad ubhayaṃ ca dharmādharma-vaśād bhavati | dharmādharma-vaśatvaṃ cājñasya jīvasaya dehābhimāninaḥ karmādhikāritvād bhavati | tatra yad ucyate sarvajñasyeśvarasya sarva-kāraṇasyedṛg-deha-grahaṇaṃ nopapadyata iti tat tathaiva | katham ? yadi tasya śarīraṃ sthūla-bhūta-kāryaṃ syāt tadā vyaṣṭi-rūpatve jāgrad-avasthāsmad-ādi-tulyatvam | samaṣṭi-rūpatve ca virāḍ-jīvatvaṃ tasya tad-upādhitvāt | atha sūkṣma-bhūta-kāryaṃ tadā vyaṣṭi-rūpatve svapnāvasthāsmad-ādi-tulyatvam
| samaṣṭi-rūpatve ca hiraṇya-garbha-jīvatvaṃ tasya tad-upādhitvāt | tathā ca bhautikaṃ śarīraṃ jīvānāviṣṭaṃ parameśvarasya na sambhavaty eveti siddham | na ca jīvāviṣṭa eva tādṛśe śarīre tasya bhūtāveśavat praveśa iti vācyam | tac-charīrāvacchedena taj-jīvasya bhogābhyupagame 'ntaryāmi-rūpeṇa sarva-śarīra-praveśasya vidyamānatvena śarīra-viśeṣābhyupagama-vaiyarthyāt | bhogābhāve ca jīva-śarīratvānupapatteḥ | ato na bhautikaṃ śarīram īśvarasyeti pūrvārdhenāṅgīkaroti -- ajo 'pi sann avyayātmā bhūtānām īśvaro 'pi sann iti |
ajo 'pi sann ity apūrva-deha-grahaṇam avyayātmāpi sann iti pūrva-deha-vicchedaṃ bhūtānāṃ bhagava-dharmāṇāṃ sarveṣāṃ brahmādi-stamba-paryantānām īśvaro 'pi sann iti dharmādharma-vaśatvaṃ nivārayati | kathaṃ tarhi deha-grahaṇam ity uttarārdhenāha prakṛtiṃ svām adhiṣṭhāya sambhavāmi | prakṛtiṃ māyākhyāṃ vicitrāneka-śaktim aghaṭamāna-ghaṭanāpaṭīyasīṃ svāṃ svopādi-bhūtām adhiṣṭhāya cid-ābhāsena vaśīkṛtya sambhavāmi tat-pariṇāma-viśeṣair eva jagat-kāraṇatva-sampādikā mad-icchayaiva pravartamānā viśuddha-sattva-mayatvena mama mūrtis tad-viśiṣṭasya cājatvam avyayatvam īśvaratvaṃ copapannam | ato 'nena nityenaiva dehena vivasvantaṃ
ca tvāṃ ca pratīmaṃ yogam upadiṣṭavān aham ity upapannam | tathā ca śrutiḥ - ākāśa-śarīraṃ brahma iti | ākāśo 'nnāvyākṛtam | ākāśa eva tad otaṃ ca protaṃ ca [BAU 3.8.7] ity ādau tathā darśanāt | ākāśas tal-liṅgāt [Vs. 1.1.22] iti nyāyāc ca |

tarhi bhautika-vigrahābhāvāt tad-dharma-manuṣyatvādi-pratītiḥ katham iti cet tatrāha ātma-māyayeti | man-māyayaiva mayi manuṣyatvādi-pratītir lokānugrahāya na tu vastu-vṛttyeti bhāvaḥ | tathā coktaṃ mokṣa-dharme -

māyā hy eṣā mayā sṛṣṭā yan māṃ paśyasi nārada |
sarva-bhūta-guṇair yuktaṃ na tu māṃ draṣṭum arhasi || [Mbh 12.326.43] iti |

sarva-bhūta-guṇair yuktaṃ kāraṇopādhiṃ māṃ carma-cakṣuṣā draṣṭuṃ nārhasīty arthaḥ | uktaṃ ca bhagavatā bhāṣyakāreṇa - sa ca bhagavān jñānaiśvarya-śakti-bala-vīrya-tejobhiḥ sadā sampannas triguṇātmikāṃ vaiṣṇavīṃ svāṃ māyāṃ prakṛtiṃ vaśīkṛtyājo 'vyayo bhūtānām īśvaro nitya-śuddha-buddha-mukta-svabhāvo 'pi san sva-māyayā dehavān iva jāta iva ca lokānugrahaṃ kurvan lakṣyate sva-prayojanābhāve 'pi bhūtānujighṛkṣayā iti | vyākhyātṛbhiś coktaṃ svecchā-vinirmitena māyāmayena divyena rūpeṇa sambabhūveti |

nityo yaḥ kāraṇopādhir māyākhyo 'neka-śaktimān |
sa eva bhagavad-deha iti bhāṣya-kṛtāṃ matam ||

anye tu parameśvare deha-dehi-bhāvaṃ na manyante | kiṃ yaś ca nityo vibhuḥ sac-cid-ānanda-ghano bhagavān vāsudevaḥ paripūrṇo nirguṇaḥ paramātmā sa eva tad-vigraho nānyaḥ kaścid bhautiko māyiko veti | asmin pakṣe yojanā - ākāśavat sarva-gataś ca nityaḥ, avināśī vā are 'yam ātmānucchitti-dharmā ity ādi śruteḥ, asaṃbhavas tu sato 'nupaptteḥ [Vs. 2.3.8], nātmāśruter nityatvāc ca tābhyaḥ [Vs. 2.3.16] ity ādi nyāyāc ca vastu-gatyā janma-vināśa-rahitaḥ sarva-bhāsakaḥ sarva-kāraṇa-māyādhiṣṭhānatvena sarva-bhūteśvaro 'pi sann ahaṃ prakṛtiṃ svabhāvaṃ sac-cid-ānanda-ghanaika-rasam |

māyāṃ vyāvartayati svām iti | nija-svarūpam ity arthaḥ | sa bhagavaḥ kasmin pratiṣṭhitaḥ sve mahimni [ChāU 7.24.1] iti śruteḥ | sva-svarūpam adhiṣṭhāya svarūpāvasthita eva san sambhavāmi deha-dehi-bhāvam antareṇaiva dehivad vyavaharāmi | kathaṃ tarhy adehe sac-cid-ānanda-ghane dehatva-pratītir ata āha ātma-māyayeti | nirguṇe śuddhe sac-cid-ānanda-ghane mayi bhagavati vāsudeve deha-dehi-bhāva-śūnye tad-rūpeṇa pratītir māyā-mātram ity arthaḥ | tad uktam -

kṛṣṇam enam avehi tvam ātmānam akhilātmanām |
jagad-dhitāya so 'py atra dehīvābhāti māyayā || iti [BhP 10.14.55]
aho bhāgyam aho bhāgyaṃ nanda-gopa-vrajaukasām
yan-mitraṃ paramānandaṃ pūrṇaṃ brahma sanātanam || [BhP 11.14.32] iti ca |

kecit tu nityasya niravayavasya nirvikārasyāpi paramānandasyāvayavāya-vibhāvaṃ vāstavam evecchanti te niryuktikaṃ bruvāṇas tu nāsmābhir vinivāryate iti nyāyena nāpavādyāḥ | yadi sambhavet tathaivāstu kim atipallavitenety uparamyate ||5||

viśvanāthaḥ : svasya janma-prakāram āha - ajo 'pi janma-rahito 'pi san sambhavāmi, deva-manuṣya-tiryag-ādiṣu āvirbhavāmi | nanu kim atra citram ? jīvo 'pi vastuto 'ja eva sthūla-deha-nāśānantaraṃ jāyata eva ? tatrāha savyayātmānaśvara-śarīraḥ | kiṃ ca, jīvasya sva-deha-bhinna-sva-svarūpeṇājatvam eva, āvidyakena deha-sambandhenaiva tasya janmavattvam, mama tv īśvaratvāt sva-dehābhinnasyājatvaṃ janmavattvam ity ubhayam api svarūpa-siddham | tac ca durghaṭatvāt citram atarkyam eva | ataḥ puṇya-pāpādimato jīvasyeva sad-asad-yoniṣu na me janmāśaṅkety āha - bhūtānām īśvaro 'pi san karma-pāratantrya-rahito 'pi bhūtvety arthaḥ |

nanu jīvo hi liṅga-śarīreṇa sva-bandhakena karma-prāpyān devādi-dehān prāpnoti | tvaṃ parameśvaro liṅga-rahitaḥ sarva-vyāpakaḥ karma-kālādi-niyantā | bahu syām iti śruteḥ sarva-jagad-rūpo bhavaty eva | tad api yad viśeṣata evambhūto 'py ahaṃ sambhavāmīti brūṣe, tan manye sarva-jagad-vilakṣaṇān deha-viśeṣān nityān eva loke prakāśayituṃ tvaj-janmety avagamyate | tat khalu katham ity ata āha prakṛtiṃ svām adhiṣṭhāyeti | atra prakṛti-śabdena yadi bahiraṅgā māyā-śaktir ucyate, tadā tad-adhiṣṭhātā parameśvaras tad-dvārā jagad-rūpo bhavaty eveti na viśeṣopalabdhiḥ | tasmāt saṃsiddhi-prakṛtī tv ime svarūpaṃ ca svabhāvaś ca ity abhidhānād atra prakṛti-śabdena
svarūpam evocyate | na tat svarūpa-bhūtā māyā-śaktiḥ | svarūpaṃ ca tasya sac-cid-ānanda eva | ataveva tvāṃ śuddha-sattvātmikāṃ prakṛtim iti śrī-svāmi-caraṇāḥ | prakṛtiṃ svabhāvaṃ svam eva svabhāvam adhiṣṭhāya svarūpeṇa svecchayā sambhavāmīty arthaḥ iti śrī-rāmānujācārya-caraṇāḥ | prakṛtiṃ svabhāvaṃ sac-cid-ānanda-ghanaika-rasam | māyāṃ vyāvartayati svām iti nija-svarūpam ity arthaḥ | sa bhagavaṃ kasmin pratiṣṭhitaḥ sva-mahimni iti śruteḥ | sva-svarūpam adhiṣṭhāya svarūpāvasthita eva sambhavāmi deha-dehi-bhāvam antareṇaiva dehivad vyavaharāmi iti śrī-madhusūdana-sarasvatī-pādāḥ |

nanu yady avyayātmā anaśvara-matsya-kūrmādi-svarūpa eva bhavasi, tarhi tava prādurbhavat-svarūpaṃ pūrva-prādurbhūta-svarūpāṇi ca yugapad eva kiṃ nopalabhyanta ? tatrāha ātma-bhūtā yā māyā tayā sva-svarūpāvaraṇa-prakāśana-karma ca yayā cic-chakti-vṛttyāyoga-māyayety arthaḥ | tayā hi pūrva-kālāvatīrṇa-svarūpāṇi pūrvam evāvṛtya vartamāna-svarūpaṃ prakāśya sambhavāmi | ātma-māyayā samyag apracyuta-jñāna-bala-vīryādi-śaktyaiva bhavāmi iti śrī-svāmi-caraṇāḥ | ātma-māyayātma-jñānena māyā vayunaṃ jñānam iti jñāna-paryāyo 'tra māyā-śabdaḥ | tathā cābhiyukta-prayogaḥ māyayā satataṃ vetti prācīnānāṃ śubhāśubham iti śrī-rāmānujācārya-caraṇāḥ | mayi bhagavati vāsudeve deha-dehi-bhāva-śūnye tad-rūpeṇa pratītiḥ
māyā-mātram iti śrī-madhusūdana-sarasvatī-pādāḥ ||6||

baladevaḥ : loka-vilakṣaṇatayā svarūpaṃ sva-janma ca vadan sanātanatvaṃ svasyāha ajo 'pīti | atra svarūpa-svabhāva-paryāyaḥ prakṛti-śabdaḥ | svāṃ prakṛtiṃ svaṃ svarūpaṃ adhiṣṭhāyālambya sambhavāmi āvirbhavāmi | saṃsiddhi-prakṛtī tv ime | svarūpaṃ ca svabhāvaś ca ity amaraḥ | svarūpeṇaiva sambhavāmīti | etam arthaṃ vicarituṃ viśinaṣṭi ajo 'pīty ādinā | api avadhāraṇe | apūrva-deha-yogo janma | tad-rahita eva san | avyayātmāpi san avyayaḥ pariṇāma-śūnya ātmā buddhyādir yasya tādṛśa eva san | ātmā puṃsi ity ādy ukteḥ | bhūtānām īśvaro 'pi san svetareṣāṃ jīvānāṃ niyantaiva
san ity arthaḥ | ajatvādi-guṇakaṃ yad vibhu-jñāna-sukha-ghanaṃ rūpaṃ tenaivāvatarāmīti svarūpeṇaiva sambhavāmīty asya vivaraṇaṃ tādṛśasya svarūpasya raver ivābhiyakti-mātram eva janmeti tat-svarūpasya taj-janmanaś ca loka-vilakṣaṇatvaṃ tena sanātanatvaṃ ca vyaktam | karma-tantratvaṃ nirastam | śrutiś caivam āha ajāyamāno bahudhā vijāyate iti | smṛtiś ca pratyakṣaṃ ca harer janma na vikāraḥ kathaṃcana ity ādyā | ataeva sūtikā-gṛhe divyāyudha-bhūṣaṇasya divya-rūpasya ṣaḍ-aiśvarya-sampannasya tasya vīkṣaṇaṃ smaryate | prayojanam āha ātma-māyayeti | bhajaj-jīvānukampayā hetunā tad-uddhārāyety arthaḥ | māyā dambhe kṛpāyāṃ
ca iti viśvaḥ | ātma-māyayā sva-sārvajñena sva-saṅkalpeneti kecit | māyā vayunaṃ jñānaṃ ca iti nirghaṇṭu-koṣāt | lokaḥ khalu rājādiḥ pūrva-dehādīni vihāyāpūrva-dehādīni bhajan niranusandhir ajño janmībhavati tad-vailakṣaṇyaṃ harer janminaḥ prasphuṭam | bhūtānām īśvaro 'pi sann ity anena labdha-siddhayo yogi-prabhṛtayo 'pi vyāvṛttāḥ | sukha-cid-ghano harir deha-dehi-bhedena guṇa-guṇi-bhedena ca śūnyo 'pi viśeṣa-balāt tat-tad-bhāvena viduṣāṃ pratītir āsīd iti ||6||

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BhG 4.7

yadā yadā hi dharmasya glānir bhavati bhārata |
abhyutthānam adharmasya tadātmānaṃ sṛjāmy aham ||7||

śrīdharaḥ : kadā sambhavasīty apekṣāyām āha yadā yadeti | glānir hāniḥ | abhyutthānam ādhikyam ||7||

madhusūdanaḥ : evaṃ sac-cid-ānanda-ghanasya tava kadā kim-arthaṃ vā dehivad vyavahāra iti tatrocyate yadā yadeti | dharmasya veda-vihitasya prāṇinām abhyudaya-niḥśreyasa-sādhanasya pravṛtti-nivṛtti-lakṣaṇasya varṇāśrama-tad-ācāra-vyaṅgyasya yadā yadā glānir hānir bhavati he bhārata bharata-vaṃśodbhavatvena bhā jñānaṃ tatra ratatvena vā tvaṃ na dharma-hāniṃ soḍhuṃ śaknoṣīti sambodhanārthaḥ | evaṃ yadā yadābhyutthānam udbhavo 'dharmasya veda-niṣiddhasya nānā-vidha-duḥkha-sādhanasya dharma-virodhinas tadā tadātmānaṃ dehaṃ sṛjāmi nitya-siddham eva sṛṣṭam iva darśayāmi māyayā ||7||

viśvanāthaḥ : kadā sambhavāmīty apekṣāyām āha yadeti | dharmasya glānir hānir adharmasyābhyutthānaṃ vṛddhis te dve soḍhum aśaknuvan tayor vaiparītyaṃ kartum iti bhāvaḥ | ātmānaṃ dehaṃ sṛjāmi nity siddham eva taṃ sṛṣṭam iva darśayāmi māyayā iti śrī-madhusūdana-sarasvatī-pādāḥ ||7||

baladevaḥ : atha sambhava-kālam āha yadeti | dharmasya vedoktasya glānir vināśaḥ adharmasya tad-viruddhasyābhyutthānam abhuyudayas tadāham ātmānaṃ sṛjāmi prakaṭayāmi | na tu nirmame tasya pūrva-siddhatvād iti nāsti mat-sambhava-kāla-niyamaḥ ||7||

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BhG 4.8

paritrāṇāya sādhūnāṃ vināśāya ca duṣkṛtām |
dharma-saṃsthāpanārthāya saṃbhavāmi yuge yuge ||8||

śrīdharaḥ : kim-artham ? ity apekṣāyām āha paritrāṇāyeti | sādhūnāṃ sva-dharma-vartināṃ rakṣaṇāya | duṣṭaṃ karma kurvantīti duṣkṛtaḥ | teṣāṃ vadhāya ca | evaṃ dharma-saṃsthāpanārthāya sādhu-rakṣaṇena duṣṭa-vadhena ca dharmaṃ sthirīkartum | yuge yuge tat-tad-avasare sambhavāmīty arthaḥ | na caivaṃ duṣṭa-nigrahaṃ kurvato 'pi nairghṛṇyaṃ śaṅkanīyam | yathāhuḥ - lālane tāḍane mātur nākāruṇyaṃ yathārbhake | tat tad eva maheśasya niyantur guṇa-doṣayoḥ ||8||

madhusūdanaḥ : tat kiṃ dharmasya hānir adharmasya ca vṛddhis tava paritoṣa-kāraṇaṃ yena tasminn eva kāla āvirbhavasīti tathā cānarthāvaha eva tavāvatāraḥ syāt ? iti nety āha paritrāṇāyeti | dharma-hānyā hīyamānānāṃ sādhūnāṃ puṇya-kāriṇāṃ veda-mārga-sthānāṃ paritrāṇāya paritaḥ sarvato rakṣaṇāya | tathādharma-vṛddhyā vardhamānānāṃ duṣkṛtāṃ pāpa-kāriṇāṃ veda-mārga-virodhināṃ vināśāya ca | tad ubhayaṃ kathaṃ syād iti tad āha dharma-saṃsthāpanārthāya dharmasya samyag-adharma-nivāraṇena sthāpanaṃ veda-mārga-parirakṣaṇaṃ dharma-saṃsthāpanaṃ
tad-arthaṃ sambhavāmi pūrvavat | yuge yuge pratiyugam ||8||

viśvanāthaḥ : nanu tvad-bhaktā rājarṣayo brahmarṣayo 'pi vā dharma-hāny-adharma-vṛddhī dūrīkartuṃ śaknuvanty eva | etāvad artham eva kiṃ tavāvatāreṇa ? iti cet, satyam | anyad api anya-duṣkaraṃ karma kartuṃ sambhavāmīty āha parīti | sādhūnāṃ paritrāṇāya mad-ekānta-bhaktānāṃ mad-darśanotkaṇṭhā-sphuṭa-cittānāṃ yad vaiyāgrya-rūpaṃ duḥkham | tasmāt trāṇāya | tathā duṣkṛtāṃ mad-bhakta-loka-duḥkha-dāyināṃ mad-anyair avadhyānāṃ rāvaṇa-kaṃsa-keśy-ādīnāṃ vināśāya | tathā dharma-saṃsthāpanārthāya madīya-dhyāna-yajana-paricaryā-saṅkīrtana-lakṣaṇaṃ parama-dharmaṃ
mad-anyaiḥ pravartayitum aśakyaṃ samyak prakāreṇa sthāpayitum ity arthaḥ | yuge yuge prati-yugaṃ pratikalpaṃ vā | na caivaṃ duṣṭa-nigraha-kṛto bhagavato vaiṣamyam āśaṅkanīyam | duṣṭānām apy asurāṇāṃ sva-kartṛ-vadhena vividha-duṣkṛta-phalān naraka-saha-praṇipātāt saṃsārāc ca paritrāṇatas tasya sa khalu nigraho 'py anugraha eva nirṇītaḥ ||8||

baladevaḥ : nanu tvad-bhaktā rājarṣayo 'pi dharma-glānim adharmābhyutthānaṃ cāpanetuṃ prabhavanti tāvate 'rthāya kiṃ sambhavāmīty āha parīti | sādhūnāṃ mad-rūpa-guṇa-niratānāṃ mat-sākṣāt-kāram ākāṅkṣyatāṃ tena vinātivyagrāṇāṃ tad-vaiyagrya-rūpād duḥkhāt paritrāṇāyātimanojña-svarūpa-sākṣāt-kāreṇa | tathā duṣkṛtāṃ duṣṭa-karma-kāriṇāṃ mad-anyair avadhyānāṃ daśagrīva-kaṃsādīnāṃ tādṛg-bhakta-drohiṇāṃ vināśāya dharmasya mad-ekārcana-dhyānādi-lakṣaṇasya śuddha-bhakti-yogasya vaidikasyāpi mad-itaraiḥ pracārayitum aśakyasya saṃsthāpanārthāya
sampracārāyety etat trayaṃ mat-sambhavasya kāraṇam iti | yuge yuge tat-tat-samayena ca duṣṭa-vadhena harau vaiṣamyaṃ, tena duṣṭānāṃ mokṣānanda-lābhe sati tasyānugraha-rūpatvena pariṇāmāt ||8||

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BhG 4.9

janma karma ca me divyam evaṃ yo vetti tattvataḥ |
tyaktvā dehaṃ punar janma naiti mām eti so 'rjuna ||9||

śrīdharaḥ : evaṃ-vidhānām īśvara-janma-karmaṇāṃ jñāne phalam āha janmeti | svecchayā kṛtaṃ mama janma karma ca dharma-pālana-rūpaṃ divyam alaukikaṃ tattvataḥ parānugrahārtham eveti yo vetti sa dehābhimānaṃ tyaktvā punar janma saṃsāraṃ naiti na prāpnoti | kintu mām eva prāpnoti ||9||

madhusūdanaḥ : janma nitya-siddhasyaiva mama sac-cid-ānanda-ghanasya līlayā tathānukaraṇam | karma ca dharma-saṃsthāpanena jagat-paripālanaṃ me mama nitya-siddheśvarasya divyam aprākṛtam anyaiḥ kartum aśakyam īśvarasyaivāsādharaṇam | evam ajo 'pi sann ity ādinā pratipāditaṃ yo vetti tattvato bhrama-nivartanena | mūḍhair hi mauṣyatva-bhrāntyā bhagavato 'pi garbha-vāsādi-rūpam eva janma sva-bhogārtham eva karmety āropitam | paramārthataḥ śuddha-sac-cid-ānanda-rūpatva-jñānena tad-apanudyājasyāpi māyayā janmānukaraṇam akartur api parānugrahāya karmānukaraṇam iy evaṃ yo vetti sa ātmano 'pi tattva-sphuraṇāt tyaktvā deham imaṃ punar janma naiti | kintu māṃ bhagavantaṃ vāsudevam eva sac-cid-ānanda-ghanam eti saṃsārān
mucyata ity arthaḥ ||9||

viśvanāthaḥ : ukta-lakṣaṇasya maj-janmanas tathā janmānantaraṃ mat-karmaṇaś ca tattvato jñāna-mātreṇaiva kṛtārthaḥ syād ity āha janmeti | divyam aprākṛtaṃ iti śrī-rāmānujācārya-caraṇāḥ śrī-madhusūdana-sarasvatī-pādāś ca | divyam alaukikaṃ iti śrī-svāmi-caraṇāḥ | lokānāṃ prakṛti-sṛṣṭatvād alaukika-śabdasya aprākṛtatvam evārthas teṣām apy abhipretaḥ | ataevāprākṛtatvena guṇātītatvād bhagavaj-janma-karmaṇo nityatvam | tac ca bhagavat-sandarbhe na vidyate yasya ca janma karma vā [BhP 8.3.8] ity atra śloke śrī-jīva-gosvāmi-caraṇair upapāditam | yad vā yukty-anupapannam api śruti-smṛti-vākya-balād atarkam evedaṃ mantavyam | tatra pippalāda-śākhāyāṃ puruṣa-bodhinī-śrutiḥ -
eko devo nitya-līlānurakto bhakta-vyāpī bhakta-hṛdayāntarātmā iti | tathā janma-karmaṇo nityatvaṃ śrī-bhāgavatāmṛte bahuśa eva prapañcitam | evaṃ yo vetti tattvata iti ajo 'pi sann avyayatātmā ity asmiṃs tathā janma karma ca me divyam ity asmiṃś ca mad-vākya evāstikatayā maj-janma-karmaṇor nityatvam eva yo jānāti, na tu tayor nityatve kāñcid yuktim apy apekṣamāṇo bhavatīty arthaḥ | yad vā tattvataḥ oṃ tat sad iti nirdeśo brahmaṇas trividhaḥ smṛtaḥ [Gītā 17.18] ity agrimoktes tac-chabdena brahmocyate tasya bhāvas tattvaṃ tena brahma-svarūpatvena yo vettīty arthaḥ | sa vartamānaṃ dehaṃ tyaktvā punar janma naiti kintu mām evaiti | atra dehaṃ tyaktvā ity asyādhikyād evaṃ vyācakṣate
sma | sa dehaṃ tyaktvā punar janma naiti kintu deham atyaktvaiva mām eti | madīya-divya-janma-ceṣṭita-yāthātmya-vijñānena vidhvasta-samasta-mat-samāśrayaṇa-virodhi-pāpmāsminn eva janmani yathodita-prakāreṇa mām āśritya mad-eka-priyo mad-eka-citto mām eva prāpnoti iti śrī-rāmānujācārya-caraṇāḥ ||9||

baladevaḥ : bahulāyāsaiḥ sādhana-sahasrair api durlabho mokṣo maj-janma-carita-śravaṇena mad-ekānti-pathānuvartināṃ sulabho 'stv ity etad arthaṃ ca sambhavāmīty āśayā bhagavān āha janmeti | mama sarveśvarasya satyecchasya vaidūryavan nitya-siddha-nṛsiṃha-raghunāthādi-bahula-rūpasya tatra tatrokta-lakṣṇaṃ janma tathā karma ca tat-tad-bhakta-sambandhaṃ caritaṃ tad ubhayaṃ divyam aprākṛtaṃ nityaṃ bhavatīty evam evaitad iti yas tattvato vetti yad gataṃ bhavac ca bhaviṣyac ca eko devo nitya-līlānurakto bhakta-vyāpī bhakta-hṛdy antarātmā iti śrutyā divyam iti mad-uktyā ca dṛḍha-śraddho yukti-nirapekṣaḥ san | he arjuna ! sa vartamānaṃ dehaṃ
tyaktvā punaḥ prāpañcikaṃ janma naiti | kintu mām eva tat-tat-karma-manojñam eti mukto bhavatīty arthaḥ | yad vā mocakatva-liṅgena tat tvam asi iti śruteś ca me janma-karmaṇī tattvato brahmatvena yo vettīti vyākhyeyam | itarathā tam eva viditvātimṛtyum eti nānyaḥ panthā vidyate 'yanāya [ŚvetU 3.8] iti śrutir vyākupyet | samānam anyat | janmādi-nityatāyāṃ yuktayas tv anyatra vistṛtā draṣṭavyāḥ ||9||

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BhG 4.10

vīta-rāga-bhaya-krodhā man-mayā mām upāśritāḥ |
bahavo jñāna-tapasā pūtā mad-bhāvam āgatāḥ ||10||

śrīdharaḥ : kathaṃ janma-karma-jñānena tvat-prāptiḥ syād iti ? ata āha vīta-rāgeti | ahaṃ śuddha-sattvāvatāraiḥ dharma-pālanaṃ karomīti madīyaṃ parama-kāruṇikatvaṃ jñātvā | mām evopāśritāḥ santaḥ | mat-prasāda-labdhaṃ yadātma-jñānaṃ ca tapaś ca | tat-paripāka-hetuḥ sva-dharmaḥ | tayor dvandvaikavad bhāvaḥ | tena jñāna-tapasā pūtāḥ śuddhā nirastājñāna-tat-kārya-malāḥ | mad-bhāvaṃ mat-sāyujyaṃ prāptā bahavaḥ | na tv adhunaiva pravṛtto 'yaṃ mad-bhakti-mārga ity arthaḥ | tad evaṃ tāny ahaṃ veda sarvāṇīty ādinā vidyāvidyopādhibhyāṃ tat-tvaṃ-padārthāv
īśvara-jīvau pradarśyeśvarasya cāvidyābhāvena nitya-śuddhatvāj jīvasya ceśvara-prasāda-labdha-jñānenājñāna-nivṛtteḥ śuddhasya sataś cid-aṃśena tadaikyam uktam iti draṣṭavyam ||10||

madhusūdanaḥ : mām eti so 'rjunety uktaṃ tatra svasya sarva-mukta-prāpyatayā puruṣārthatvam asya mokṣa-mārgasyānādi-parasparāgatatvaṃ ca darśayati vīta-rāgeti | rāgas tat-tat-phala-tṛṣṇā | sarvān viṣayān parityajya jñāna-mārge kathaṃ jīvitavyam iti trāso bhayam | sarva-viṣayocchedako 'yaṃ jñāna-mārgaḥ kathaṃ hitaḥ syād iti dveṣaḥ krodhaḥ | ta ete rāga-bhaya-krodhā vītā vivekena vigatā yebhyas te vīta-rāga-bhaya-krodhāḥ śuddha-sattvāḥ | man-mayā māṃ paramātmānaṃ tat-padārthatvaṃ gatāḥ | bahavo 'neke jñāna-tapasā jñānam eva tapaḥ sarva-karma-kṣaya-hetutvāt
| na hi jñānena sadṛśaṃ pavitram iha vidyate iti hi vakṣyati | tena pūtāḥ kṣīṇa-sarva-pāpāḥ santo nirastājñāna-tat-kārya-malāḥ | mad-bhāvaṃ mad-rūpatvaṃ viśuddha-sac-cid-ānanda-ghanaṃ mokṣam āgatā ajñāna-mātrāpanayena mokṣaṃ prāptāḥ |

jñāna-tapasā pūtā jīvan-muktāḥ santo mad-bhāvaṃ mad-viṣayaṃ bhāvaṃ raty-ākhyaṃ premāṇam āgatā iti vā | teṣāṃ jñānī nitya-yuktā eka-bhaktir viśiṣyate iti hi vakṣyati ||10||

viśvanāthaḥ : na kevalam eka evādhunika eva, maj-janma-karma-tattva-jñāna-mātreṇaiva māṃ prāpnoty api tu prāktanā api pūrva-pūrva-kalpāvatīrṇasya mama janma-karma-tattva-jñānavanto mām āpur evety āha vīteti | jñānam ukta-lakṣaṇaṃ maj-janma-karmaṇos tattvato 'nubhava-rūpam eva tapas tena pūtāḥ iti śrī-rāmānujācārya-caraṇāḥ |

yad vā, jñāne maj-janma-karmaṇor nityatva-niścayānubhave yan-nānā-kumata-kutarka-yukti-sarpī-viṣa-dāha-sahana-rūpaṃ tapas tena pūtāḥ | tathā ca śrī-rāmānuja-dhṛta-śrutiḥ - tasya dhīrāḥ parijānanti yoniṃ iti dhīrā dhīmanta eva tasya yoniṃ janma-prakāraṃ jānantīty arthaḥ | vītās tyaktāḥ kumata-prajalpiteṣu janeṣu rāgādyā yais te na teṣu rāgaḥ prītir nāpi tebhyo bhayaṃ nāpi teṣu krodho mad-bhaktānām ity arthaḥ | kuto man-mayā maj-janma-karmānudhyāna-manana-śravaṇa-kīrtanādi-pracurāḥ | mad-bhāvaṃ mayi premāṇam ||10||

baladevaḥ : idānīm iva purāpi maj-janmādi-nityatā-jñānena bahūnāṃ vimuktir abhūd iti tan-nityatāṃ draḍhayitum āha vīteti | bahavo janā jñāna-tapasā pūtāḥ santaḥ purā mad-bhāvam āgatā ity anuṣaṅgaḥ | maj-janmādi-nityatva-viṣayakaṃ yaj jñānaṃ tad eva duradhigama-śruti-yukti-sampādyatvāt tapas tasmin jñāne vā yad vividha-kumata-kutarkādi-nivāraṇa-rūpaṃ tapas tena pūtā nirdhūtāvidyā ity arthaḥ | mayi bhāvaṃ premāṇaṃ vidyamānatāṃ vā mat-sākṣāt-kṛtim | kīdṛśās te ity āha vīteti | vītāḥ parityaktās tan-nityatva-virodhiṣu rāgādayo yais te, na teṣu rāgaṃ na bhayaṃ na ca krodhaṃ prakāśayantīty
arthaḥ | tatra hetuḥ - man-mayā mad-eka-niṣṭhā upāśritāḥ saṃsevamānāḥ ||10||

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BhG 4.11

ye yathā māṃ prapadyante tāṃs tathaiva bhajāmy aham |
mama vartmānuvartante manuṣyāḥ pārtha sarvaśaḥ ||11||

śrīdharaḥ : nanu tarhi kiṃ tvayy api vaiṣamyam asti ? yad evaṃ tvad-eka-śaraṇānām evātmābhāvaṃ dadāsi nānyeṣāṃ sakāmānām iti | ata āha ya iti | yathā yena prakāreṇa sakāmatayā niṣkāmatayā vā ye māṃ bhajante tān ahaṃ tathaiva tad-apekṣita-phala-dānena bhajāmi anugṛhṇāmi, na tu sakāmā māṃ vihāyendrādīn eva ye bhajante tān aham upekṣa iti mantavyam | yataḥ sarvaśaḥ sarva-prakārair indrādi-sevakā api mamaiva vartma bhajana-mārgam anuvartante | indrādi-rūpeṇāpi mamaiva sevyatvāt ||11||

madhusūdanaḥ : nanu ye jñāna-tapasā pūtā niṣkāmās te tvad-bhāvaṃ gacchanti, ye tv apūtāḥ sakāmās te na gacchantīti phala-dātus tava vaiṣamya-nairghṛṇye syātām iti nety āha ye yatheti | ya ārtā arthārthino jijñāsavo jñāninaś ca yathā yena prakāreṇa sakāmatayā niṣkāmatayā ca mām īśvaraṃ sarva-phala-dātāraṃ prapadyante bhajanti tāṃs tathaiva tad-apekṣita-phala-dānenaiva bhajāmy anugṛhṇāmy ahaṃ na viparyayeṇa | tatrāmumukṣūn ārtān arthārthinaś cārti-haraṇenārtha-dānena cānugṛhṇāmi | jiijñāsūn vividiṣanti yajñenety ādi-śruti-vihita-niṣkāma-karmānuṣṭhātṝn jñāna-dānena jñāninaś ca mumukṣūn mokṣa-dānena na tv anya-kāmāyānyad dadāmīty arthaḥ
|

nanu tathāpi sva-bhaktānām eva phalaṃ dadāsi na tv anya-deva-bhaktānām iti vaiṣamyaṃ sthitam eveti nety āha mama sarvātmano vāsudevasya vartma bhajana-mārgaṃ karma-jñāna-lakṣaṇam anuvartante he pārtha sarvajñaḥ sarva-prakārair indrādīn apy anuvartamānā manuṣyā iti karmādhikāriṇaḥ | indraṃ mitraṃ varuṇam agnim āhuḥ ity ādi-mantra-varṇāt phalam ata upapatteḥ [Vs. 3.2.38] iti nyāyāc ca sarva-rūpeṇāpi phala-dātā bhagavān eka evety arthaḥ | tathā ca vakṣyati ye 'py anya-devatā-bhaktā [Gītā 9.23] ity ādi ||11||

viśvanāthaḥ : nanu tvad-ekānta-bhaktāḥ kilataj-janma-karmaṇor nityatvaṃ manyanta eva | kecit tu jñānādi-siddhy-arthaṃ tvāṃ prapannā jñāni-prabhṛtayas tvaj-janma-karmaṇor nityatvaṃ nāpi manyanta iti tatrāha ya iti | yathā yena prakāreṇa māṃ prapadyante bhajante aham api tāṃs tenaiva prakāreṇa bhajāmi | bhajana-phalaṃ dadāmi |

ayam arthaḥ - ye mat-prabhor janma-karmaṇī nitye eveti manasi kurvāṇās tat-tal-līlāyām eva kṛta-manoratha-viśeṣā māṃ bhajantaḥ sukhayanty aham apīśvaratvāt kartum akartum anyathā kartum api samarthas teṣām api janma-karmaṇor nityatvaṃ kartuṃ tān sva-pārṣadīkṛtya taiḥ sārdham eva yathā-samayam avatarann antar dadhānaś ca tān pratikṣaṇam anugṛhṇann eva tad-bhajana-phalaṃ premāṇam eva dadāmi | ye jñāni-prabhṛtayo maj-janma-karmaṇor naśvaratvaṃ mad-vigrahasya māyā-mayatvaṃ ca manyamānā māṃ prapadyante aham api tān punaḥ punar naśvara-janma-karmavato māyā-pāśa-patitān eva kurvāṇas tat-pratiphalaṃ janma-mṛtyu-duḥkham eva dadāmi
| ye tu maj-janma-karmaṇor nityatvaṃ mad-vigrahasya ca sac-cid-ānandatvaṃ manyamānā jñāninaḥ sva-jñāna-siddhy-arthaṃ māṃ prapadyante, teṣāṃ sva-deha-dvaya-bhaṅgam evecchatāṃ mumukṣūṇām anaśvaraṃ brahmānandam eva sampādayan bhajana-phalam āvidyaka-janma-mṛtyu-dhvaṃsam eva dadāmi | tasmān na kevalaṃ mad-bhaktā eva māṃ prapadyante, api tu sarvaśaḥ sarve 'pi manuṣyā jñāninaḥ karmiṇo yoginaś ca devatāntaropāsakāś ca mama vartmānuvartante mama sarva-svarūpatvāt jñāna-karmādikaṃ sarvaṃ māmakam eva vartmeti bhāvaḥ ||11||

baladevaḥ : nanu nitya-janmādi-manojñaḥ sarveśvaras tvaṃ mayāvagata-kvacittvaṅguṣṭha-mātrādir apīśvaro janmādi-śūnyaḥ śrūyate | tat kiṃ tava tvad-upāsanasya ca vaividhyaṃ bhaved iti ced om ity āha ye yatheti | ye bhaktā mām ekaṃ vaidūryam iva bahu-rūpaṃ sarveśvaraṃ yathā yena prakāreṇa bhāveneti yāvat prapadyante bhajanti, tān ahaṃ tādṛśas tathaiva tad-bhāvānusāriṇā rūpeṇa bhāvena ca bhajāmi sākṣāt bhavann anugṛhṇāmi | nūnatām eva-kāro nivartayati | ato mamaikasyaiva bahu-rūpasya vartma-bahu-vidham upāsana-mārgam anādi-pravṛtta-tad-upāsaka-paramparānukampitā manuṣyāḥ sarve 'nuvartante anusaranti ||11||

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BhG 4.12

kāṅkṣantaḥ karmaṇāṃ siddhiṃ yajanta iha devatāḥ |
kṣipraṃ hi mānuṣe loke siddhir bhavati karmajā ||12||

śrīdharaḥ : tarhi mokṣārtham eva kim iti sarve tvāṃ na bhajantīti | ata āha kāṅkṣanta iti | karmaṇāṃ siddhiṃ karma-phalaṃ kāṅkṣantaḥ prāyeneha mānuṣya-loke indrādi-devatā eva yajante | na tu sākṣān mām eva | hi yasmāt karmajā siddhiḥ karmajaṃ phalaṃ śīghraṃ bhavati | na tu jñāna-phalaṃ kaivalyaṃ, duṣprāpyatvāj jñānasya ||12||

madhusūdanaḥ : nanu tvām eva bhagavantaṃ vāsudevaṃ kim iti sarve na prapadyanta iti tatrāha kāṅkṣanta iti | karmaṇāṃ siddhiṃ phala-niṣpattiṃ kāṅkṣanta iha loke devatā devān indrāgny-ādyān yajante pūjayanti ajñāna-pratihatatvān na tu niṣkāmāḥ santo māṃ bhagavantaṃ vāsudevam iti śeṣaḥ | kasmāt ? hi yasmād indrādi-devatā-yājināṃ tat-phala-kāṅkṣiṇāṃ karmajā siddhiḥ karma-janyaṃ phalaṃ kṣipraṃ śīghram eva bhavati mānuṣe loke | jñāna-phalaṃ tv antaḥkaraṇa-śuddhi-sāpekṣatvān na kṣipraṃ
bhavati |

mānuṣe loke karma-phalaṃ śīghraṃ bhavatīti viśeṣaṇād anya-loke 'pi varṇāśrama-dharma-vyatirikta-karma-phala-siddhir bhagavatā sūcitā | yatas tat tat kṣudra-phala-siddhy-arthaṃ sa-kāmā mokṣa-vimukhā anyā devatā yajante 'to na mumukṣava iva māṃ vāsudevaṃ sākṣāt te prapadyanta ity arthaḥ ||12||

viśvanāthaḥ : tatrāpi manuṣyeṣu madhye kāminas tu mama sākṣād-bhūtam api bhakti-mārgaṃ parihāya śīghra-phala-sādhakaṃ karma-vartmaivānuvartanta ity āha kāṅkṣanta iti | karmajā siddhiḥ svargādimayī ||12||

baladevaḥ : evaṃ prāsaṅgikaṃ procya prakṛtasya niṣkāma-karmaṇo jñānākāratvaṃ vadiṣyaṃs tad anuṣṭhātuṃ viralatvam āha kāṅkṣanta iti | iha loke 'nādi-bhoga-vāsanā-niyantritāḥ prāṇinaḥ karmaṇāṃ siddhiṃ paśuputrādi-phala-niṣpattiṃ kāṅkṣanto 'nityālpa-dān apīndrādi-devān yajante sakāmaiḥ karmabhir na tu sarva-deveśvaraṃ nityānanda-phala-pradam api māṃ niṣkāmais tair yajante | hi yasmād asmin mānuṣe loke karmajā siddhiḥ kṣipraṃ bhavati | niṣkāma-karmārādhitān matto jñānato mokṣa-lakṣaṇā siddhis
tu cireṇaiva bhavatīti | sarve lokā bhoga-vāsanā-grasta-sad-asad-vivekāḥ śīghra-bhogecchavas tad-arthaṃ mad-bhṛtyān devān bhajanti | na tu kaścit sad-asad-vivekī saṃsāra-duḥkha-vitrasta-duḥkha-nivṛttaye niṣkāma-karmabhiḥ sarva-deveśaṃ māṃ bhajatīti viralas tad-adhikārīti bhāvaḥ ||12||

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BhG 4.13

cātur-varṇyaṃ mayā sṛṣṭaṃ guṇa-karma-vibhāgaśaḥ |
tasya kartāram api māṃ viddhy akartāram avyayam ||13||

śrīdharaḥ : nanu kecit sakāmatayā pravartante, kecit niṣkāmatayā iti karma-vaicitryam | tat-kartṛṇā ca brāhmaṇādīnām uttama-madhyamādi-vaicitryaṃ kurvatas tava kathaṃ vaiṣamyaṃ nāsti ? ity āśaṅkyāha cāturvarṇyam iti | catvāro varṇā eveti cāturvarṇyaṃ svārthe ṣyañ-pratyayaḥ | ayam arthaḥ -- sattva-pradhānā brāhmaṇās teṣāṃ śama-damādīni karmāṇi | sattva- rajaḥ-pradhānāḥ kṣatriyās teṣāṃ śaurya-yuddhādīni karmāṇi | rajas- tamaḥ-pradhānā vaiśyās teṣāṃ kṛṣi-vāṇijyādīni karmāṇi | tamaḥ-pradhānāḥ śūdrās teṣāṃ traivarṇika-śuśrūṣādīni
karmāṇi | ity evaṃ guṇānāṃ karmaṇāṃ ca vibhāgaiś cāturvarṇyaṃ mayaiva sṛṣṭam iti satyam, tathāpy evaṃ tasya kartāram api phalato 'kartāram eva māṃ viddhi | tatra hetuḥ -- avyayam āsakti-rāhityena śrama-rahitaṃ nāśādi-rahitaṃ vā ||13||

madhusūdanaḥ : śarīrārambhaka-guṇa-vaiṣamyād api na sarve samāna-svabhāvā ity āha cāturvarṇyam iti | catvāro varṇā eva cāturvarṇyaṃ svārthe ṣyañ | mayeśvareṇa sṛṣṭam utpāditaṃ guṇa-karma-vibhāgaśo guṇa-vibhāgaśaḥ karma-vibhāgaśaś ca | tathā hi sattva-pradhānā brāhmaṇās teṣāṃ ca sāttvikāni śama-damādīni karmāṇi | sattvopasarjana-rajaḥ-pradhānāḥ kṣatriyās teṣāṃ ca tādṛśāni śaurya-tejaḥ-prabhṛtīni karmāṇi | tama-upasarjana-rajaḥ-pradhānā vaiśyās teṣāṃ ca kṛṣy-ādīni tādṛśāni karmāṇi | tamaḥ-pradhānāḥ śūdrās teṣāṃ ca tāmasāni traivarṇika-śuśrūṣādīni
karmāṇīti mānuṣe loke vyavasthitāni |

evaṃ tarhi viṣama-svabhāva-cāturvarṇya-sraṣṭṛtena tava vaiṣamyaṃ durvāram ity āśaṅkya nety āha tasya viṣama-svabhāvasya cāturvarṇyasya vyavahāra-dṛṣṭyā kartāram api māṃ paramārtha-dṛṣṭyā viddhy akartāram avyayaṃ nirahaṅkāratvenākṣīṇa-mahimānam ||13||

viśvanāthaḥ : nanu bhakti-jñāna-mārgau mocakau, karma-mārgas tu bandhaka iti sarva-mārga-sraṣṭari tvayi parameśvare vaiṣamyaṃ prasaktam | tatra nahi nahīty āha cāturvarṇyam iti | catvāro varṇā eva cāturvarṇyam | svārthe ṣyañ | atra sattva-pradhānā brāhmaṇās teṣāṃ śama-damādīni karmāṇi | rajaḥ-sattva-pradhānāḥ kṣatriyās teṣāṃ śaurya-yuddhādīni karmāṇi | tamo-rajaḥ-pradhānā vaiśyās teṣāṃ kṛṣi-go-rakṣādīni karmāṇi | tamaḥ-pradhānāḥ śūdrās teṣāṃ paricaryātmakaṃ karmety evaṃ guṇa-karma-vibhāgaśo guṇānāṃ karmaṇāṃ ca vibhāgaiś catvāro
varṇā mayā dharma-mārgāśritatvena sṛṣṭāḥ | kintu teṣāṃ kartāraṃ sraṣṭāram api mām akartāram asraṣṭāram eva viddhi | teṣāṃ prakṛti-guṇa-sṛṣṭatvāt prakṛteś ca mac-chaktitvāt | sraṣṭāram api māṃ vastutas tv asraṣṭāram | mama prakṛti-guṇātīta-svarūpatvād iti bhāvaḥ | ataevāvyayam | sraṣṭṛtve 'pi na sāmyaṃ kiṃcid evety arthaḥ ||13||

baladevaḥ : atha niṣkāma-karmānuṣṭhāna-virodhi-bhoga-vāsanā-vināśa-hetum āha cāturvarṇyam iti dvābhyām | catvāro varṇāś cāturvarṇyaṃ svārthikaḥ ṣyañ | sattva-pradhānāḥ viprās teṣāṃ śamādīni karmāṇi | rajaḥ-sattva-pradhānāḥ kṣatriyās teṣāṃ yuddhādīni | tamo-rajaḥ-pradhānā vaiśyās teṣāṃ kṛṣy-ādīni | tamaḥ-pradhānāḥ śūdrās teṣāṃ viprādi-trika-paricaryādīnīti guṇa-vibhāgaiḥ karma-vibhāgaiś ca vibhaktāś catvāro varṇāḥ sarveśvareṇa mayā sṛṣṭāḥ sthiti-saṃhṛtyor upalakṣaṇam etat | brahmādi-stambāntasya
prapañcasyāham eva sargādi-karteti | yad āha sūtrakāraḥ - janmādy asya yataḥ [Vs 1.1.2] iti | tasya sargādeḥ kartāram api māṃ tat tat karmāntaritatvād akartāraṃ viddhīti svasmin vaiṣamyādikaṃ parihṛtam | etat prāhāvyayaym iti sraṣṭṛtve 'pi sāmyān na vyemīty arthaḥ ||13||

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BhG 4.14

na māṃ karmāṇi limpanti na me karma-phale spṛhā |
iti māṃ yo 'bhijānāti karmabhir na sa badhyate ||14||

śrīdharaḥ : tad eva darśayann āha na mām iti | karmāṇi viśva-sṛṣṭy-ādīny api māṃ na limpanty āsaktaṃ na kurvanti | nirahaṅkāratvān mama karma-phale spṛhābhāvāc ca | māṃ limpantīti kiṃ kartavyam ? yataḥ karma-lepa-rahitatvena māṃ yo 'bhijānāti so 'pi karmabhir na badhyate | mama nirlepatve kāraṇaṃ nirahaṅkāratva-niḥspṛhatvādikaṃ jānatas tasyāpy ahaṅkārādi-śaithilyāt ||14||

madhusūdanaḥ : karmāṇi viśva-sargādīni māṃ nirahaṅkāratvena kartṛtvena kartṛtvābhimāna-hīnaṃ bhagavantaṃ na limpanti dehārambhakatvena na badhnanti | evaṃ kartṛtvaṃ nirākṛtya bhoktṛtvaṃ nirākaroti na me mamāpta-kāmasya karma-phale spṛhā tṛṣṇā āpta-kāmasya kā spṛhā iti śruteḥ | kartṛtvābhimāna-phala-spṛhābhyāṃ hi karmāṇi limpanti tad-abhāvān na māṃ karmāṇi limpantīti | evaṃ yo 'nyo 'pi mām akartāram abhoktāraṃ cātmatvenābhijānāti karmabhir na sa badhyate 'kartrātma-jñānena mucyata ity arthaḥ ||14||

viśvanāthaḥ : nanv etat tāvad āstām, samprati tvaṃ kṣatriya-kule 'vatīrṇaḥ | kṣatriya-jāty-ucitāni karmāṇi pratyahaṃ karoṣy eva | tatra kā vārtā ity ata āha na mām iti | na limpanti jīvam iva na liptīkurvanti | nāpi jīvasyeva karma-phale svargādau spṛhā | parameśvaratvena svānanda-pūrṇatve 'pi loka-pravartanārtham eva me karmādi-karaṇam iti bhāvaḥ | iti mām iti | yas tu na jānāti sa karmabhir badhyata iti bhāvaḥ ||14||

baladevaḥ : etad viśadayati na mām iti | karmāṇi viśva-sargādīni māṃ na limpanti vaiṣamyādi-doṣeṇa jīvam iva liptaṃ na kurvanti, yat tāni sṛjya-jīva-karma-prayuktāni na ca mat-prayuktāni na ca sargādi-karma-phale mama spṛhāsty ato na limpantīti | phala-spṛhayā yaḥ karmāṇi karoti sa tat-phalair lipyate | ahaṃ tu svarūpānanda-pūrṇaḥ prakṛti-vilīna-kṣetrajña-bubhukṣābhyudita-dayaḥ | parjanyavan nimitta-mātraḥ san tat-karmāṇi pravartayāmīti | smṛtiś ca -

nimitta-mātram evāsau sṛjyānāṃ sarga-karmaṇi |
pradhāna-kāraṇībhūtā yato vai sṛjya-śaktayaḥ || ity ādyā |

sṛjyānāṃ deva-mānavādi-bhāva-bhājāṃ kṣetrajñānāṃ sarga-kriyāyām asau pareśo nimitta-mātram eva devādi-bhāva-vaicitryāṃ kāraṇībhūtās tu sṛjyānāṃ teṣāṃ prācīna-karma-śaktaya eva bhavantīti tad-arthaḥ | evam āha sūtrakṛt - vaiṣamya-nairghṛṇyena [Vs. 2.1.35] ity ādinā | evaṃ jñānasya phalam āha iti mām iti | itthambhūtaṃ māṃ yo 'bhijānāti, sa tad-virodhibhis tad-dhetubhiḥ prācīna-karmabhir na badhyate | tair vimucyata ity arthaḥ ||14||

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BhG 4.15

evaṃ jñātvā kṛtaṃ karma pūrvair api mumukṣubhiḥ |
kuru karmaiva tasmāt tvaṃ pūrvaiḥ pūrvataraṃ kṛtam ||15||

śrīdharaḥ : ye yathā mām ity ādi caturbhiḥ ślokaiḥ prāsaṅgikam īśvarasya vaiṣamyaṃ parihṛtya pūrvoktam eva karma-yogaṃ prapañcayitum anusmārayati evam iti | ahaṅkārādi-rāhityena kṛtaṃ karma bandhakaṃ na bhavati | ity evaṃ jñātvā pūrvair janakādibhir api mumukṣubhiḥ sattva-śuddhy-arthaṃ pūrvataraṃ yugāntareṣv api kṛtam | tasmāt tvam api prathamaṃ karmaiva kuru ||15||

madhusūdanaḥ : yato nāhaṃ kartā na me karma-phala-spṛheti jñānāt karmabhir na badhyate 'ta āha evam iti | evam ātmano 'kartuḥ karmālepaṃ jñātvā kṛtaṃ karma pūrvair atikrāntair api asmin yuge yayāti-yadu-prabhṛtibhir mumukṣubhiḥ | tasmāt tvam api karmaiva kuru na tūṣṇīm āsanaṃ nāpi saṃnyāsam | yady atattvavit tadātma-śuddhy-arthaṃ tattva-vic cel loka-saṅgrahārtham | pūrvair janakādibhiḥ pūrvataram atipūrvaṃ yugāntare kṛtam | etenāsmin yuge 'nya-yuge ca pūrva-pūrvataraiḥ kṛtatvād avaśyaṃ tvayā kartavyaṃ karmeti darśayati ||15||

viśvanāthaḥ : evambhūtam eva māṃ jñātvā pūrvair janakādibhir api loka-pravartanārtham eva karma kṛtam ||15||

baladevaḥ : evam iti | mām eva jñātvā tad-anusāribhir mac-chiṣyaiḥ pūrvair vivasvad-ādibhir mumukṣubhir niṣkāmaṃ karma kṛtam | tasmāt tvam api karmaiva tat kuru | na karma-saṃnyāsam | aśuddha-cittaś cej jñāna-garbhāyai citta-śuddhyai śuddha-cittaś cel loka-saṅgrahāyety arthaḥ | kīdṛśaṃ pūrvais taiḥ kṛtaṃ ? pūrvataraṃ atiprācīnam ||15||

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BhG 4.16

kiṃ karma kim akarmeti kavayo 'py atra mohitāḥ |
tat te karma pravakṣyāmi yaj jñātvā mokṣyase 'śubhāt ||16||

śrīdharaḥ : tac ca tattvavidbhiḥ saha vicārya kartavyam | na loka-paramparā-mātreṇety āha kiṃ karmeti | kiṃ karma ? kīdṛśaṃ karma-karaṇam | kim akarma ? kīdṛśaṃ karmākaraṇam | ity asminn arthe vivekino 'pi mohitāḥ | ato yaj jñātā yad-anuṣṭhāyāśubhāt saṃsārān mokṣyase mukto bhaviṣyasi tat karmākarma ca tubhyam ahaṃ pravakṣyāmi tac chṛṇu ||16||

madhusūdanaḥ : nanu karma-viṣaye kiṃ kaścit saṃśayo 'py asti yena pūrvaiḥ pūrvataraṃ kṛtam ity atinirbadhnāsi ? asty evety āha kiṃ karmeti | nau-sthasya niṣkriyeṣv api taṭastha-vṛkṣeṣu gamana-bhrama-darśanāt tathā dūrāc cakṣuḥ-saṃnikṛṣṭeṣu gacchatsv api puruṣeṣv agamana-bhrama-darśanāt paramārthataḥ kiṃ karma kiṃ vā paramārthato 'karmeti kavayo medhāvino 'py atrāsmin viṣaye mohitā mohaṃ nirṇayāsāmarthyaṃ prāptā atyanta-durnirūpatvād ity arthaḥ | tat tasmāt te tubhyam ahaṃ karma, a-kāra-praśleṣeṇa cchedād akarma
ca pravakṣyāmi prakarṣeṇa sandehocchedena vakṣyāmi | yat karmākarma-svarūpaṃ jñātvā mokṣyase mukto bhaviṣyasy aśubhāt saṃsārāt ||16||

viśvanāthaḥ : kiṃ ca karmāpi na gatānugatika-nyāyenaiva kevalaṃ vivekinā kartavyam | kintu tasya prakāra-viśeṣaṃ jñātvaivety atas tasya prathamaṃ durjñeyatvam āha ||16||

baladevaḥ : nanu kiṃ karma-viṣayakaḥ kaścit sandeho 'py asti yataḥ pūrvaiḥ pūrvataraṃ kṛtam ity atinirbandhād bravīṣīti ced asty evety āha kiṃ karmeti | mumukṣubhir anuṣṭheyaṃ karma kiṃ rūpaṃ syād akarma ca karmānyat tad-antargataṃ jñānaṃ ca kiṃ rūpam ity arthaḥ | tad-anyatve enaṃ ca | atrārthe kavayo dhīmanto 'pi mohitās tad-yāthātmya-nirṇayāsāmarthyān mohaṃ prāpuḥ | ahaṃ sarveśaḥ sarvajñas te tubhyaṃ tat karma a-kāra-praśleṣād akarma ca pravakṣyāmi yaj jñātvānuṣṭhāya prāpya cāśubhāt saṃsārān
mokṣyase ||16||

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BhG 4.17

karmaṇo hy api boddhavyaṃ boddhavyaṃ ca vikarmaṇaḥ |
akarmaṇaś ca boddhavyaṃ gahanā karmaṇo gatiḥ ||17||

śrīdharaḥ : nanu loka-prasiddham eva karma dehādi-vyāpārātmakam | akarma tad-avyāpārātmakam | ataḥ katham ucyate kavayo 'py atra mohaṃ prāptā iti ? tatrāha karmaṇa iti | karmaṇo vihita-vyāpārasyāpi tattvaṃ boddhavyam asti | na tu loka-prasiddha-mātram eva | akarmaṇo 'vihita-vyāpārasyāpi tattvaṃ boddhavyam asti | vikarmaṇo niṣiddha-vyāpārasyāpi tattvaṃ boddhavyam asti | yataḥ karmaṇo gatir gahanā | karmaṇa ity upalakṣaṇārtham | karmākarma-vikarmaṇāṃ tattvaṃ durvijñeyam ity arthaḥ ||17||

madhusūdanaḥ : nanu sarva-loka-prasiddhatvād aham evaitaj jānāmi dehendriyādi-vyāpāraḥ karma tūṣṇīm āsanam akarmeti tatra kiṃ tvayā vaktavyam iti tatrāha karmaṇa iti | hi yasmāt karmaṇaḥ śāstra-vihitasyāpi tattvaṃ boddhavyam asti, vikarmaṇaś ca pratiṣiddhasya, akarmaṇaś ca tūṣṇīmbhāvasya | atra vākya-traye 'pi tattvam asīty adhyāhāraḥ | yasmād gahanā durjñānā | karmaṇa ity upalakṣaṇaṃ karmākarma-vikarmaṇām | gatis tattvam ity arthaḥ ||18||

viśvanāthaḥ : niṣiddhācaraṇaṃ durgati-prāpakam iti tattvam | tathākarmaṇaḥ karmākaraṇasyāpi sannyāsinaḥ kīdṛśaṃ karmākaraṇaṃ śubhadam iti | anyathā niḥśreyasaṃ kathaṃ hasta-gataṃ syād iti bhāvaḥ | karmaṇa ity upalakṣaṇaṃ karmākarma-vikarmaṇām | gatis tattvam | gahanā durgamā ||17||

baladevaḥ : nanu kavayo 'pi mohaṃ prāpur iti cet tatrāha karmaṇo hīti | karmaṇo niṣkāmasya mumukṣubhir anuṣṭhātavyasya svarūpaṃ boddhavyam | vikarmaṇo jñāna-viruddhasya kāmya-karmaṇaḥ svarūpaṃ boddhavyam | akarmaṇaś ca karma-bhinnasya jñānasya ca svarūpaṃ boddhavyam | tat-tat-svarūpavidbhiḥ sārdhaṃ vicāryam ity arthaḥ | karmaṇo 'karmaṇaś ca gatir gahanā durgamā | ataḥ kavayo 'pi tatra mohitāḥ ||17||

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BhG 4.18

karmaṇy akarma yaḥ paśyed akarmaṇi ca karma yaḥ |
sa buddhimān manuṣyeṣu sa yuktaḥ kṛtsna-karma-kṛt ||18||

śrīdharaḥ : tad evaṃ karmādīnāṃ durvijñeyatvaṃ darśayann āha karmaṇīti | parameśvarārādhana-lakṣaṇe karmaṇi karma-viṣaye akarma karmedaṃ na bhavatīti yaḥ paśyet | tasya jñāna-hetutvena bandhakatvābhāvāt | akarmaṇi ca vihitākaraṇe karma yaḥ paśyet pratyavāyotpādakatvena bandha-hetutvāt | manuṣyeṣu karma kurvāṇeṣu sa buddhimān vyavasāyātmaka-buddhimattvāc chreṣṭhaḥ | taṃ stauti sa yukto yogī | tena karmaṇā jñāna-yogāvāpteḥ | sa eva kṛtsna-karma-kartā ca | sarvataḥ samplutodaka-sthānīye ca tasmin karmaṇi sarva-karma-phalānām antarbhāvāt tad evam ārurukṣoḥ karma-yogādhikārāvasthāyāṃ na karmaṇām
anārambhād ity ādinokta eva karma-yogaḥ spaṣṭīkṛtaḥ | tat-prapañca-rūpatvāc cāsya prakaraṇasya na paunaruktya-doṣaḥ | anenaiva yogārūḍhāvasthāyāṃ yas tv ātma-ratir eva syād ity ādinā yaḥ karmānupayoga uktas tasyāpy arthāt prapañcaḥ kṛto veditavyaḥ | yad ārurukṣor api karma bandhakaṃ na bhavati tad-ārūḍhasya kuto bandhakaṃ syāt ity atrāpi śloko yujyate |

yad vā, karmaṇi dehendriyādi-vyāpāre vartamāne 'py ātmano dehādi-vyatirekānubhavena akarma svābhāvikaṃ niaṣkarmyam eva yaḥ paśyet tathā akarmaṇi ca jñāna-rahite duḥkha-buddhyā karmaṇāṃ tyāge karma yaḥ paśyet tasya prayatna-sādhyatvena mithyācāratvāt | tad uktaṃ karmendriyāṇi saṃyamyety ādinā | ya evambhūtaḥ sa tu sarveṣu manuṣyeṣu buddhimān paṇḍitaḥ | tatra hetuḥ - yataḥ kṛtsnāni sarvāṇi yadṛcchayā prāptāny āhārādīni karmāṇi kurvann api sa yukta eva akartrātma-jñānena samādhistha evety arthaḥ | anenanaiva jñāninaḥ svabhāvād āpannaṃ kalañja-bhakṣaṇādikaṃ na doṣāya | ajñasya tu
rāgataḥ kṛtaṃ doṣāya iti vikarmaṇo 'pi tattvaṃ nirūpitaṃ draṣṭavyam ||18||

madhusūdanaḥ : kīdṛśaṃ tarhi karmādīnāṃ tattvam iti tad āha karmaṇīti | karmaṇi dehendriyādi-vyāpāre vihite pratiṣiddhe cāhaṃ karomīti dharmy-adhyāsenātmany āropit## | nau-sthenācalatsu taṭastha-vṛkṣādiṣu samāropite calana ivākartātma-svarūpālocanena vastutaḥ karmābhāvaṃ taṭastha-vṛkṣādiṣv iva yaḥ paśyet paśyati | tathā dehendriyādiṣu triguṇa-māyā-pariṇāmatvena sarvadā savyāpāreṣu nirvyāpāras tūṣṇīṃ sukham āsa ity abhimānena samāropite 'karmaṇi vyāpāroparame dūrastha-cakṣuḥ-saṃnikṛṣṭa-puruṣeṣu gacchatsv apy agamana iva sarvadā sa-vyāpāra-dehendriyādi-svarūpa-paryālocanena
vastu-gatyā karma nivṛttyākhya-prayatna-rūpaṃ vyāpāraṃ yaḥ paśyed udāhṛta-puruṣeṣu gamanam iva | audāsīnyāvasthāyām apy udāsīno 'ham āsa ity abhimāna eva karma | etādṛśaḥ paramārtha-darśī sa buddhimān ity ādinā buddhimattva-yoga-yuktatva-sarva-karma-kṛttvais tribhir dharmaiḥ stūyate |

atra prathama-pādena karma-vikarmaṇos tattvaṃ karma-śabdasya vihita-pratiṣiddha-paratvāt | dvitīya-pādena cākarmaṇas tattvaṃ darśitam iti draṣṭavyam | tatra yat tvaṃ manyase karmaṇo bandha-hetutvāt tūṣṇīm eva mayā sukhena sthātavyam iti tan mṛṣā | asati kartṛtvābhimāne vihitasya pratiṣiddhasya vā karmaṇo bandha-hetutvābhāvāt | tathā ca vyākhyātaṃ na māṃ karmāṇi limpanti [Gītā 4.14] ity ādinā | satica kartṛtvābhimāne tūṣṇīm aham āsa ity audāsīnyābhimānātmakaṃ yat karma tad api bandha-hetur eva vastu-tattvāparijñānāt | tasmāt karma-vikarmākarmaṇāṃ tattvam īdṛśaṃ jñātvā vikarmākarmaṇī parityajya kartṛtvābhimāna-phalābhisandhi-hānena vihitaṃ karmaiva kurv ity abhiprāyaḥ |

aparā vyākhyā karmaṇi jñāna-karmaṇi dṛśye jaḍe sad-rūpeṇa sphuraṇa-rūpeṇa cānusyūtaṃ sarva-bhramādhiṣṭhānam akarmāvedyaṃ sva-prakāśa-caitanyaṃ paramārtha-dṛṣṭyā yaḥ paśyet | tathākarmaṇi ca sva-prakāśe dṛg-vastuni kalpitaṃ karma dṛśyaṃ māyā-mayaṃ na paramārtha-sat | dṛg-dṛśyayoḥ sambandhānupapatteḥ -

yas tu sarvāṇi bhūtāni ātmany evānupaśyati |
sarva-bhūteṣu cātmānaṃ tato na vijugupsate || [ĪśaU 6] iti śruteḥ |

evaṃ parasparādhyāse 'pi śuddhaṃ vastu yaḥ paśyati manuṣyeṣu madhye sa eva buddhimān nānyaḥ | asya paramārtha-darśitvād anyasya cāparamārtha-darśitvāt | sa ca buddhi-sādhana-yogya-yukto 'ntaḥ-karaṇa-śuddhy-aikāgra-cittaḥ | ataḥ sa evāntaḥkaraṇa-śuddhi-sādhana-kṛtsna-karma-kṛd iti vāstava-dharmair eva stūyate | yasmād evaṃ tasmāt tvam api paramārtha-darśī bhava tāvataiva kṛtsna-karma-kāritvopapatter ity abhiprāyaḥ |

ato yad uktaṃ yaj jñātvā mokṣyase 'śubhād iti | yac coktaṃ karmādīnāṃ tattvaṃ boddhavyam astīti sa buddhimān ity ādi-stutiś ca | tat sarvaṃ paramārtha-darśane saṃgacchate | anya-jñānād aśubhāt saṃsārān mokṣānupapatteḥ | atattvaṃ cānyan na boddhavyaṃ na vā yaj-jñāne buddhimattvam iti yuktaiva paramārtha-darśināṃ vyākhyā |

yat tu vyākhyānaṃ karmaṇi nitye parameśvarārthe 'nuṣṭhīyamāne bandha-hetutvābhāvād akarmedam iti yaḥ paśyet | tathākarmaṇi ca nitya-karmākaraṇe pratyavāya-hetutvena karmedam iti yaḥ paśyet sa buddhimān ity ādi tad asaṅgatam eva | nitya-karmaṇy akarmedam iti jñānasyāśubha-mokṣa-hetutvābhāvāt, mithyājñānatvena tasyivāśubhatvāc ca | na caitādṛśaṃ mithyā-jñānaṃ boddhavyaṃ tattvaṃ nāpy etādṛśa-jñāne buddhimattvādi-stuty-upapattir bhrāntitvāt | nitya-karmānuṣṭhānaṃ hi svarūpato 'ntaḥkaraṇa-śuddhi-dvāropayujyate na tatrākarma-buddhiḥ kutrāpy upayujyate śāstreṇa nāmādiṣu brahma-dṛṣṭivad avihitatvāt | nāpīdam eva vākyaṃ tad-vidhāyakam upakramādi-virodhasyokteḥ
| evaṃ nitya-karmākaraṇam api svarūpato nitya-karma-viruddha-karma-lakṣakatayopayujyate na tu tatra karma-dṛṣṭiḥ kvāpy upayujyate | nāpi nitya-karmākaraṇāt pratyavāyaḥ | abhāvād bhāvotpatty-ayogāt | anyathā tad-aviśeṣeṇa sarvadā kāryotpatti-prasaṅgāt | bhāvārthāḥ karma-śabdās tebhyaḥ kriyā pratīyetaiṣa hy artho vidhīyata iti nyāyena bhāvārthasyaivāpūrva-janakatvāt | atirātre ṣoḍaśinaṃ na gṛhṇāti ity ādāv api saṅkalpa-viśeṣasyaivāpūrva-janakatvābhyupagamāt | nekṣetodyantam ādityam ity ādi-prajāpati-vratavat | ato nitya-karmānuṣṭhānārhe kāle tad-viruddhatayā yad-upaveśanādi karma tad eva nitya-karmākaraṇopalakṣitaṃ pratyavāya-hetur iti vaidikānāṃ
siddhāntaḥ | ataevākurvan vihitaṃ karmety atra lakṣaṇārthe śatā vyākhyātaḥ | lakṣaṇa-hetvoḥ kriyāyā ity aviśeṣa-smaraṇe 'py atra hetutvānupapatteḥ | tasmān mithyā-darśanāpanode prastute mithyā-darśana-vyākhyānaṃ na śobhatetarām | nāpi nityānuṣṭhāna-param evaitad vākyaṃ nityāni kuryād ity arthe karmaṇy akarma yaḥ paśyed ity ādi tad-abodhakaraṃ vākyaṃ prayuñjānasya bhagavataḥ pratārakatvāpatter ity ādi bhāṣya eva vistareṇa vyākhyātam ity uparamyate ||18||

viśvanāthaḥ : tatra karmākarmaṇos tattva-bodham āha karmaṇīti | śuddhāntaḥ-karaṇasya jñānavattve 'pi janakāder ivākṛta-sannyāsasya karmaṇy anuṣṭhīyamāne niṣkāma-karma-yoge akarma | karmedaṃ na bhavatīti yaḥ paśyet tat-karmaṇo bandhakatvābhāvāt iti bhāvaḥ | tathāśuddhāntaḥkaraṇasya jñānābhāve 'pi śāstrajñatvāt jñāna-vāvadūkasya sannyāsino 'karmaṇi karmākaraṇe karma paśyet durgati-prāpakaṃ karma-bandham evopalabhate | sa eva buddhimān | sa tu kṛtsna-karmāṇy eva karoti, na tu tasya jñāna-vāvadūkasya jñāni-māninaḥ saṅgenāpi tad-vacasāpi sannyāsaṃ na karotīti bhāvaḥ | tathā ca bhagavad-vākyam -

yas tv asaṃyata-ṣaḍ-vargaḥ pracaṇḍendriya-sārathiḥ |
jñāna-vairāgya-rahitas tri-daṇḍam upajīvati ||
surān ātmānam ātma-sthaṃ nihnute māṃ ca dharma-hā |
avipakva-kaṣāyo 'smād amuṣmāc ca vihīyate || [BhP 11.18.40-1] iti ||18||

baladevaḥ : karmākarmaṇor boddhavyaṃ svarūpam āha karmaṇīti | anuṣṭhīyamāne niṣkāme karmaṇi yo 'karma prastutatvāt karmaṇy ātma-jñānaṃ paśyet, akarmaṇy ātma-jñāne yaḥ karma paśyet | etad uktaṃ bhavati - yo mumukṣur hṛd-viśuddhaye kriyamāṇaṃ karmātma-jñānānusandhi-garbhatvāj jñānākāraṃ, tac ca jñānaṃ karma-dvārakatvāt karmākāraṃ paśyet | ubhayor ekātmoddeśyatvād ubhayam ekaṃ vidyād ity arthaḥ | evam eva vakṣyate sāṅkhya-yogau pṛthag bālāḥ ity ādineti | evam anuṣṭhīyamāne karmaṇi ātma-yāthātmyaṃ yo 'nusandhatte sa manuṣyeṣu buddhimān paṇḍitaḥ | yukto mokṣa-yogyaḥ
| kṛtsna-karma-kṛt sarveṣāṃ karma-phalānām ātma-jñāna-sukhāntarbhūtatvāt ||18||

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BhG 4.19

yasya sarve samārambhāḥ kāma-saṃkalpa-varjitāḥ |
jñānāgni-dagdha-karmāṇaṃ tam āhuḥ paṇḍitaṃ budhāḥ ||19||

śrīdharaḥ : karmaṇy akarma yaḥ paśyed ity anena śruty-arthārthāpattibhyāṃ yad uktam artha-dvandvaṃ tad eva spaṣṭayati yasyeti pañcabhiḥ | samyag ārabhyanta iti samārambhāḥ karmāṇi | kāmyata iti kāmaḥ phalam | tat-saṅkalpena varjitā yasya bhavanti taṃ paṇḍitam āhuḥ | tatra hetur yatas taiḥ samārambhaiḥ śuddhe citte sati jātena jñānāgninā dagdhāny akarmatāṃ nītāni karmāṇi yasya tam | ārūḍhāvasthāyāṃ tu kāmaḥ phala-hetu-viṣayaḥ | tad-artham idaṃ kartavyam iti kartavya-viṣayaḥ saṅkalpaḥ | tābhyāṃ varjitāḥ | śeṣaṃ spaṣṭam ||19||

madhusūdanaḥ : tad etat paramārtha-darśinaḥ kartṛtvābhimānābhāvena karmāliptatvaṃ prapañcyate yasya sarva ity ādi brahma-karma-samādhinety antena | yasya pūrvokta-paramārtha-darśinaḥ sarve yāvanto vaidikā laukikā vā samārambhāḥ samārabhyanta iti vyutpattyā karmāṇi kāma-saṅkalpa-varjitāḥ kāmaḥ phala-tṛṣṇā saṅkalpo 'haṃ karomīti kartṛtvābhimānas tābhyāṃ varjitāḥ | loka-saṅgrahāthaṃ vā jīvana-mātrārthaṃ vā prārabdha-karma-vegād vṛthā-ceṣṭā-rūpā bhavanti | taṃ karmādāv akarmādi-darśanaṃ jñānaṃ tad evāgnis tena dagdhāni śubhāśubha-lakṣaṇāni karmāṇi yasya tad-adhigama uttara-pūrvārdhayor aśleṣa-vināśau tad-vyapadeśāt
[Vs 4.1.13] iti nyāyāt | jñānāgni-dagdha-karmāṇaṃ taṃ budhā brahma-vidaḥ paramārthataḥ paṇḍitam āhuḥ | samyag-darśī hi paṇḍita ucyate na tu bhrānta ity arthaḥ ||19||

viśvanāthaḥ : uktam arthaṃ vivṛṇoti yasyeti pañcabhiḥ | samyag ārabhyanta iti samārambhāḥ karmāṇi | kāmaḥ phalaṃ, tat-saṅkalpena varjitāḥ | jñānam evāgnis tena dagdhāni karmāṇi kriyamāṇāni vihitāni niṣiddhāni ca yasya saḥ | etena vikarmaṇaś ca boddhavyam ity api vivṛtam | etādṛśādhikāriṇi karma yathā akarma paśyet, tathaiva vikarmāpy akarmaiva paśyed iti pūrva-ślokasyaiva saṅgatiḥ | yad agre vakṣyate -

api ced asi pāpebhyaḥ sarvebhyaḥ pāpa-kṛttamaḥ |
sarvaṃ jñāna-plavenaiva vṛjinaṃ santariṣyasi ||
yathaidhāṃsi samiddho 'gnir bhasmasāt kurute 'rjuna |
jñānāgniḥ sarva-karmāṇi bhasmasāt kurute tathā || [Gītā 4.36-37] iti ||19||

baladevaḥ : karmaṇo jñānākāram āha yasyeti pañcabhiḥ | samārambhāḥ karmāṇi kāmyanta iti kāmāḥ phalāni tat-saṅkalpena varjitāḥ śūnyā yasya karmabhir ātmoddeśino bhavanti | taṃ budhāḥ paṇḍitam ātmajñam āhuḥ | tatra hetuḥ - jñāneti | taiḥ samārambhair hṛd-viśuddhau satyām āvirbhūtenātma-jñānāgninā dagdhāni saṃcitāni karmāṇi yasya tam ||19||

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BhG 4.20

tyaktvā karma-phalāsaṅgaṃ nitya-tṛpto nirāśrayaḥ |
karmaṇy abhipravṛtto 'pi naiva kiṃcit karoti saḥ ||20||

śrīdharaḥ : kiṃ ca tyaktveti | karmaṇi tat-phale cāsaktiṃ tyaktvā nityena nijānandena tṛptaḥ | ataeva yoga-kṣemārtham āśrayaṇīya-rahitaḥ | evambhūto yaḥ svābhāvike vihite vā karmaṇy abhitaḥ pravṛtto 'pi kiṃcid eva naiva karoti | tasya karmākarmatām āpadyata ity arthaḥ ||20||

madhusūdanaḥ : bhavatu jñānāgninā prāktanānām aprārabdha-karmaṇāṃ dāha āgāmināṃ cānutpattiḥ | jñānotpatti-kāle kriyamāṇaṃ tu pūrvottarayor anantar-bhāvāt phalāya bhaved iti bhavet kasyacid āśaṅkā tām apanudaty āha tyaktveti | karmaṇi phale cāsaṅgaṃ kartṛtvābhimānaṃ bhogābhilāṣaṃ ca tyaktvākartr-abhoktr-ātma-samyag-darśanena bādhitvā nitya-tṛptaḥ paramānanda-svarūpa-lābhena sarvatra nirākāṅkṣaḥ | nirāśraya āśrayo dehendriyādir advaita-darśanena nirgato yasmāt sa nirāśrayo dehendriyādy-abhimāna-śūnyaḥ | phala-kāmanāyāḥ kartṛtvābhimānasya ca nivṛttau hetu-garbhaṃ krameṇa viśeṣaṇa-dvayam | evambhūto jīvanmukto vyutthāna-daśāyāṃ
karmaṇi vaidike laukike vābhipravṛtto 'pi prārabdha-karma-vaśāl loka-dṛṣṭyābhitaḥ sāṅgopāṅgānuṣṭhānāya pravṛtto 'pi sva-dṛṣṭyā naiva kiṃcit karoti sa niṣkriyātma-darśanena bādhitatvād ity arthaḥ ||20||

viśvanāthaḥ : nitya-tṛpto nityaṃ nijānandaena tṛptaḥ | nirāśrayaḥ svayoga-kṣemārthaṃ na kam apy āśrayate ||20||

baladevaḥ : uktam arthaṃ viśadayati tyaktveti | karma-phale saṅgaṃ tyaktvā nityenātmanānubhūtena tṛpto nirāśrayo yoga-kṣemaārtahm apy āśraya-rahita īdṛśo yo 'dhikārī sa karmaṇy abhitaḥ pravṛtto 'pi naiva kiṃcit karoti | karmānuṣṭhānāpadeśena jñāna-niṣṭhām eva sampādayatīty ārurukṣor daśeyam | etena vikarmaṇaḥ svarūpaṃ bandhakatvaṃ boddhavyam ity uktaṃ bhavati ||20||

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BhG 4.21

nirāśīr yata-cittātmā tyakta-sarva-parigrahaḥ |
śārīraṃ kevalaṃ karma kurvan nāpnoti kilbiṣam ||21||

śrīdharaḥ : kiṃ ca nirāśīr iti | nirgatā āśiṣaḥ kāmanā yasmāt | yataṃ niyataṃ cittam ātmā śarīraṃ ca yasya | tyaktāḥ sarve parigraho yena | sa śarīraṃ śarīra-mātra-nirvartyaṃ kartṛtvābhiniveśa-rahitaṃ kurvann api kilbiṣam bandhanaṃ na prāpnoti | yogārūḍha-pakṣe śārīra-nirvāha-mātropayogi svābhāvikaṃ bhikṣāṭanādi kurvann api kilbiṣaṃ vihitākaraṇa-nimitta-doṣaṃ na prāpnoti ||21||

madhusūdanaḥ : yadātyanta-vikṣepa-hetor api jyotiṣṭomādeḥ samyag-jñāna-vaśān na tat-phala-janakatvaṃ tadā śarīra-sthiti-mātra-hetor avikṣepakasya bhikṣāṭanāder nāsty eva bandha-hetutvam iti kaimutya-nyāyenāha nirāśīr iti | nirāśīr gata-tṛṣṇo yata-cittātmā cittam antaḥkaraṇam ātmā bāhyendriya-sahito dehas tau saṃyatau pratyāhāreṇa nigṛhītau yena saḥ | yato jitendriyo 'to vigata-tṛṣṇatvāt tyakta-sarva-parigrahas tyaktāḥ sarve parigrahā bhogopakaraṇāni yena saḥ | etādṛśo 'pi prārabdha-karma-vaśāc chārīraṃ śarīra-sthiti-mātra-prayojanaṃ kaupīnācchādanādi-grahaṇa-bhikṣāṭanādi-rūpaṃ yatiṃ prati śāstrābhyanujñātaṃ karma
kāyikaṃ vācikaṃ mānasaṃ ca, tad api kevalaṃ kartṛtvābhimāna-śūnyaṃ parādhyāropita-kartṛtvena kurvan paramārthato 'kartrātma-darśanān nāpnoti na prāpnoti kilbiṣaṃ dharmādharma-phala-bhūtam aniṣṭaṃ saṃsāraṃ pāpavat puṇyasyāpy aniṣṭa-phalatvena kilbiṣatvam |

ye tu śarīra-nirvartyaṃ śārīram iti vyācakṣate tan mate kevalaṃ karma kurvann ity ato 'dhikārthālābhād avyāvartakatvena śārīra-padasya vaiyarthyam | atha vācika-mānasika-vyāvartanātham iti brūyāt tadā karma-padasya vihita-mātra-paratvena śārīraṃ vihitaṃ karma kurvan nāpnoti kilbiṣam ity aprasakta-pratiṣedho 'narthakaḥ | pratiṣiddha-sādhāraṇa-paratve 'py evam eva vyāghāta iti bhāṣya eva vistaraḥ ||21||

viśvanāthaḥ : ātmā sthūla-dehaḥ | śārīraṃ śārīra-nirvāhārthaṃ karmāsat-pratigrahādikaṃ kurvann api kilbiṣaṃ pāpaṃ nāpnotīty etad api vikarmaṇaś ca boddhavyam ity asya vivaraṇam ||21||

baladevaḥ : athārūḍhasya daśām āha nirāśīr iti tribhiḥ | nirgatā āśīḥ phalecchā yasmāt sa | yata-cittātmā vaśīkṛta-citta-dehas tyakta-sarva-parigraha ātmaikāvalokanārthatvāt prākṛteṣu vastuṣu mamatva-varjitaḥ | śārīraṃ karma śarīra-nirvāhārthaṃ karmāsat-parigrahādi kurvann api kilbiṣaṃ pāpaṃ nāpnoti ||21||

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BhG 4.22

yadṛcchā-lābha-santuṣṭo dvandvātīto vimatsaraḥ |
samaḥ siddhāv asiddhau ca kṛtvāpi na nibadhyate ||22||

śrīdharaḥ : kiṃ ca yadṛcchā-lābheti | aprārthitopasthito lābho yadṛcchā-lābhaḥ | tena santuṣṭaḥ | dvandvāni śītoṣṇādīny atīto 'tikrāntaḥ | tat-sahana-śīla ity arthaḥ | vimatsaro nirvairaḥ | yadṛcchā-lābhasyāpi siddhāv asiddhau ca samo harṣa-viṣāda-rahitaḥ | ya evambhūtaḥ sa pūrvottara-bhūmikayor yathāyathaṃ vihitaṃ svābhāvikaṃ vā karma kṛtvāpi bandhaṃ na prāpnoti ||22||

madhusūdanaḥ : tyakta-sarva-parigrahasya yateḥ śarīra-sthiti-mātra-prayojanaṃ karmābhyanujñātaṃ tatrānnācchādanādi-vyatirekeṇa śarīra-sthiter asaṃbhavād yācñādināpi sva-prayatnenānnādikaṃ sampādyam iti prāpte niyamāyāha yadṛcchā-lābheti | śāstrānanumata-prayatna-vyatireko yadṛcchā tayaiva yo lābho 'nnācchādanādeḥ śāstrānumatasya sa yadṛcchālābhas tena santuṣṭas tad-adhika-tṛṣṇā-rahitaḥ | tathā ca śāstraṃ bhaikṣaṃ caret iti prakṛṣya ayācitam asaṃk ptam upapannaṃ yadṛcchayā iti yācñā-saṃkalpādi-prayatnaṃ vārayati | manur api -

na cotpāta-nimittābhyāṃ na nakṣatrāṅgavidyayā |
nānuśāsana-vādābhyāṃ bhikṣāṃ lipseta karhicit || [Manu 6.50] iti |

yatayo bhikṣārthaṃ grāmaṃ viśantīty ādi-śāstrānumatas tu prayatnaḥ kartavya eva | evaṃ labdhavyam api śāstra-niyatam eva -

kaupīna-yugalaṃ vāsaḥ kanthāṃ śīta-nivāriṇīm |
pāduke cāpi gṛhṇīyāt kuryān nānyasya saṅgraham || ity ādi |

evam anyad api vidhi-niṣedha-rūpaṃ śāstram ūhyam |
nanu sva-prayatnam antareṇālābhe śītoṣṇādi-pīḍitaḥ kathaṃ jīved ata āha dvandvātīta dvandvāni kṣut-pipāsā-śītoṣṇa-varṣādīni atīto 'tikrāntaḥ samādhi-daśāyāṃ teṣām asphuraṇāt | vyutthāna-daśāyāṃ sphuraṇe 'pi paramānandādvitīyākartr-abhoktr-ātma-pratyayena bādhāt tair dvandvair upahanyamāno 'py akṣubhita-cittaḥ | ataeva parasya lābhe svasyālābhe ca vimatsaraḥ parotkarṣāsahana-pūrvikā svotkarṣa-vāñchā matsaras tad-rahito 'dvitīyātma-darśanena nirvaira-buddhiḥ | ataeva samas tulyo yadṛcchā-lābhasya siddhāv asiddhau ca siddhau na hṛṣṭo nāpy asiddhau viṣaṇṇaḥ sa svānubhavenākartaiva parair āropita-kartṛtvaḥ
śarīra-sthiti-mātra-prayojanaṃ bhikṣāṭanādi-rūpaṃ karma kṛtvāpi na nibadhyate bandha-hetoḥ sa-hetukasya karmaṇo jñānāgninā dagdhatvād iti pūrvoktānuvādaḥ ||22||

viśvanāthaḥ : Nothing.

baladevaḥ : atha śarīra-nirvāhārtham annācchādanādikaṃ sva-prayatnena na sampādyam ity āha yadṛcchayeti | yācñāṃ vinaiva lābho yadṛcchā-lābhas tena santuṣṭas tṛptaḥ | dvandvāni śītoṣṇādīny atītas tat-sahiṣṇuḥ | vimatsaro 'nyair upadruto 'pi taiḥ saha vairam akurvan yadṛcchā-lābha-siddhau harṣasya tad-asiddhau viṣādasya cābhāvāt sama evaṃbhūtaḥ śārīraṃ karma kṛtvāpi tena tena na badhyate jñāna-niṣṭhā-prabhāvān na lipyate ||22||

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BhG 4.23

gata-saṅgasya muktasya jñānāvasthita-cetasaḥ |
yajñāyācarataḥ karma samagraṃ pravilīyate ||23||

śrīdharaḥ : kiṃ ca gata-saṅgasyeti | gata-saṅgasya niṣkāmasya rāgādibhir muktasya | jñāne 'vasthitaṃ ceto yasya tasya | yajñāya parameśvarārthaṃ karmācarataḥ sataḥ samagraṃ savāsanaṃ karma pravilīyate | akarma-bhāvam āpadyate | arūḍha-yoga-pakṣe yajñāyeti | yajñāya yajña-rakṣaṇārthaṃ loka-saṃgrahārtham eva karma kurvata ity arthaḥ ||23||

madhusūdanaḥ : tyakta-sarva-parigrahasya yadṛcchā-lābha-santuṣṭasya yater yac-charīra-sthiti-mātra-prayojanaṃ bhikṣāṭanādi-rūpaṃ karma tat kṛtvā na nibadhyata ity ukte gṛhasthasya brahma-vido janakāder yajñādi-rūpaṃ yat karma tad-bandha-hetuḥ syād iti bhavet kasyacid āśaṅkā tām apanetuṃ tyaktvā karma-phalāsaṅgam ity ādinoktaṃ vivṛṇoti gata-saṅgasyeti | gata-saṅgasya phalāsaṅga-śūnyasya muktasya kartṛtva-bhoktṛtvādy-adhyāsa-śūnyasya jñānāvasthita-cetaso nirvikalpaka-brahmātmaikya-bodha eva sthitaṃ cittaṃ yasya tasya sthita-prajñasyety arthaḥ | uttarottara-viśeṣaṇasya pūrva-pūrva-hetutvenānvayo draṣṭavyaḥ | gata-saṅgatvaṃ kuto yato 'dhyāsa-hīnatvaṃ tat kuto
yataḥ sthita-prajñatvam iti | īdṛśasyāpi prārabdha-karma-vaśād yajñāya yajña-saṃrakṣaṇārthaṃ jyotiṣṭomādi-yajñe śreṣṭhācāratvena loka-pravṛtty-arthaṃ yajñāya viṣṇave tat-prīty-artham iti vā | ācarataḥ karma yajña-dānādikaṃ samagraṃ sahāgreṇa phalena vidyata iti samagraṃ pravilīyate prakarṣeṇa kāraṇocchedena tattva-darśanād vilīyate vinaśyatīty arthaḥ ||23||

viśvanāthaḥ : yajño vakṣyamāṇa-lakṣaṇas tad-arthaṃ karmācaratas tat karma pravilīyate akarma-bhāvam āpadyata ity arthaḥ ||23||

baladevaḥ : gata-saṅgasya niṣkāmasya rāga-dveṣādibhir muktasya svātma-viṣayaka-jñāna-niviṣṭa-manaso yajñāya viṣṇuṃ prasādayituṃ tac-cintanam ācarataḥ prācīnaṃ bandhakaṃ karma samagraṃ kṛtsnaṃ pravilīyate ||23||
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BhG 4.24

brahmārpaṇaṃ brahma havir brahmāgnau brahmaṇā hutam |
brahmaiva tena gantavyaṃ brahma-karma-samādhinā ||24||

śrīdharaḥ : tad evaṃ parameśvarārādhana-lakṣaṇaṃ karma jñāna-hetutvena bandhakatvābhāvād akarmaiva | āruḍhāvasthāyāṃ tu akartrātma-jñānena bādhitatvāt svābhāvikam api karma-karmaiveti karmaṇy akarma yaḥ paśyed ity anenoktaḥ karma-pravilayaḥ prapañcitaḥ | idānīṃ karmaṇi tad-aṅgeṣu ca brahmaivānusyūtaṃ paśyataḥ karma-pravilayam āha brahmārpaṇam iti | arpyate 'nenety arpaṇaṃ sruv-ādi | tad api brahmaiva | arpyamāṇaṃ havir api ghṛtādikaṃ brahmaiva | brahmaivāgniḥ | tasmin brahmaṇā kartrā hutaṃ homaḥ | agniś ca kartā ca kriyā ca brahmaivety arthaḥ | evaṃ brahmaṇy eva karmātmake samādhiś
cittaikāgryaṃ yasya tena brahmaiva gantavyaṃ prāpyam | na tu phalāntaram ity arthaḥ ||24||

madhusūdanaḥ : nanu kriyamāṇaṃ karma phalam ajanayitvaiva kuto naśyati brahma-bodhe tat-kāraṇocchedād ity āha brahmārpaṇam iti | aneka-kāraka-sādhyā hi yajñādi-kriyā bhavati | devatoddeśena hi dravya-tyāgo yāgaḥ | sa eva tyajyamāna-dravyasyāgnau prakṣepād dhoma ity ucyate | tatroddeśyā devatā sampradānaṃ, tyajyamānaṃ dravyaṃ haviḥ-śabda-vācyaṃ sākṣād-dhātv-artha-karma, tat phalaṃ tu svargādi vyavahitaṃ bhāvanā-karma | evaṃ dhārakatvena haviṣo 'gnau prakṣepe sādhakatamatayā juhvādi karaṇaṃ prakāśakatayā mantrādīti karaṇam api kāraka-jñāpaka-bhedena dvividham | evaṃ tyāgo 'gnau prakṣepaś ca dve kriye | tatrādyāyāṃ
yajamānaḥ kartā | prakṣepe tu yajamāna-parikrīto 'dhvaryuḥ prakṣepādhikaraṇaṃ cāgniḥ | evaṃ deśa-kālādikam apy adhikaraṇaṃ sarva-kriyā-sādhāraṇaṃ draṣṭavyam |

tad evaṃ sarveṣāṃ kriyā-kārakādi-vyavahārāṇāṃ brahma-jñāna-kalpitānāṃ rajjv-ajñāna-kalpitānāṃ sarpa-dhārā-daṇḍādīnāṃ rajju-tattva-jñāneneva brahma-tattva-jñānena bādhe badhitānuvṛttyā kriyākārakādi-vyavhārābhāso dṛśyamāno 'pi dagdha-paṭa-nyāyena na phalāya kalpata ity anena ślokena pratipādyate | brahma-dṛṣṭir eva ca sarva-yajñātmiketi stūyate |

tathā hi - arpyate 'neneti karaṇa-vyutpattyārpaṇaṃ juhvādi mantrādi ca | evam arpyate 'smā iti vyutpattyārpaṇaṃ devatā-rūpaṃ sampradānam | evam arpyate 'sminn iti vyutpattyārpaṇam adhikaraṇaṃ deśa-kālādi | tat sarvaṃ brahmaṇi kalpitatvād brahmaiva rajju-kalpita-bhujaṅgavad adhiṣṭhāna-vyatirekeṇāsad ity arthaḥ | evaṃ havis-tyāga-prakṣepa-kriyayoḥ sākṣāt karma kārakaṃ tad api brahmaiva | evaṃ yatra prakṣipyate 'gnau so 'pi brahmaiva | brahmāgnāv iti samastaṃ padam | tathā yena kartrā yajamānenādhvaryuṇā ca tyajyate prakṣipyate ca tad ubhayam api kartṛ-kārakaṃ kartari vihitayā tṛtīyayānūdya brahmeti nidhīyae brahmaṇeti | evaṃ hutam iti havanaṃ
tyāga-kriyā prakṣepa-kriyā ca tad api brahmaiva | tathā yena havanena yad gantavyaṃ svargādi vyavahitaṃ karma tad api brahmaiva | atratya eva-kāraḥ sarvatra sambadhyate | hutam ity atrāpīta eva brahmety anuṣajyate | vyavadhānābhāvāt sākāṅkṣatvāc ca cit-patis tvā punātu ity ādāv acchidreṇetyādi-para-vākya-śeṣavat |

anena rūpeṇa karmaṇi samādhir brahma-jñānaṃ yasya sa karma-samādhis tena brahma-vidā karmānuṣṭhātrāpi brahma paramānandādvayaṃ gantavyam ity anuṣajyate | sākāṅkṣatvād avyavadhānāc ca yā te agne rajāśayety ādau tanūr varṣiṣṭheyādi-pūrva-vākya-śeṣavat |

athavārpyate 'smai phalāyeti vyutpattyārpaṇa-padenaiva svargādi-phalam api grāhyam | tathā ca brahmaiva tena gantavyaṃ brahma-karma-samādhinā ity uttarārdhaṃ jñāna-phala-kathanāyaiveti samañjasam | asmin pakṣe brahma-karma-samādhinety ekaṃ vā padam | pūrvaṃ brahma-padaṃ hutam ity anena sambadhyate caramaṃ gantavya-padeneti bhinnaṃ vā padam | evaṃ ca nānuṣaṅga-dvaya-kleśa iti draṣṭavyam | brahma gantavyam ity abhedenaiva tat-prāptir upacārāt | ataeva na svargādi tuccha-phalaṃ tena gantavyaṃ vidyayāvidyaka-kāraka-vyavahārocchedāt | tad uktaṃ vārtika-kṛdbhiḥ -

kāraka-vyavahāre hi śuddhaṃ vastu na vīkṣyate |
śuddhe vastuni siddhe ca kāraka-vyāvṛttiḥ kutaḥ || iti |

arpaṇādi-kāraka-svarupānupamardenaiva tatra nāmādāv iva brahma-dṛṣṭiḥ kṣipyate sampan-mātreṇa phala-viśeṣāyeti keṣāṃcid vyākhyānaṃ bhāṣyakṛdbhir eva nirākṛtam upakramādi-virodhād brahma-vidyā-karaṇe sampan-mātrasyāprasaktatvād ity ādi yuktibhiḥ ||24||

viśvanāthaḥ :. yajñāyācarata ity uktam | sa yajña eva kīdṛśaḥ ? ity apekṣāyām āha brahmeti | arpyate 'nenety arpaṇaṃ juhv-ādi | tad api brahmaiva | arpyamāṇaṃ havir api brahmaiva | brahmaivāgnāv iti havanādhikaraṇam agnir api brahmaiva | evaṃ vivekatavatā puṃsā brahmaiva gantavyaṃ, na tu phalāntaram | kutaḥ ? brahmātmakaṃ yat karma tatraiva samādhiś cittaikāgryaṃ yasya tena ||24||

baladevaḥ : evaṃ vivikta-jīvātmānusandhi-garbhatayā sva-vihitasya karmaṇo jñānākāratām abhidhāya sāṅgasya tasya parātma-rūpatānusandhinā tad-ākāratām āha brahmārpaṇam iti | arpyate 'nenātmaiveti vyutpatter arpaṇaṃ sruvaṃ mantrādhidaivataṃ cendrādi tat tac ca brahmaiva | arpyamāṇaṃ haviś cājyādi tad api brahmaiva | tac ca havir homādhāre 'gnau brahmaṇi yajamānenādhvaryuṇā ca brahmaṇā hutaṃ tyaktaṃ prakṣiptaṃ ca | agnir yajamāno 'dhvaryuś ca brahmaivety arthaḥ | brahmāgnāv ity atra ṇi-kāra-lopaś chāndasaḥ | na ca samastaṃ padam iti vācyam | agnau brahma-dṛṣṭer vidheyatvād itthaṃ ca brahma-rūpe sāṅge karmaṇi samādhiś cittaikāgryaṃ yasya tena mumukṣuṇā
brahmaiva gantavyaṃ sva-svarūpaṃ para-svarūpaṃ ca labhyam avalokyam ity arthaḥ | vijñānaṃ brahma ced veda ity ādau jīve brahma-śabdaḥ | vijñānam ānandaṃ brahma ity ādau paramātmani ca brahmārpaṇatvādi-guṇa-yogān nāsya prakaraṇasya paunaruktam | sruv-ādīnāṃ brahmatvaṃ tad-āyatta-vṛttikatvāt tad-vāpyatvāc ca iti vyākhyātāraḥ | tādṛśatayānusandhitaṃ karma-jñānākāraṃ sat tad avalokanāya kalpyate ||24||

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BhG 4.25

daivam evāpare yajñaṃ yoginaḥ paryupāsate |
brahmāgnāv apare yajñaṃ yajñenaivopajuhvati ||25||

śrīdharaḥ : etad eva yajñatvena sampāditaṃ sarvatra brahma-darśana-lakṣaṇaṃ jñānaṃ sarva-yajñopāya-prāpyatvāt sarva-yajñebhyaḥ śreṣṭham ity evaṃ stotum adhikāri-bhedena jñānopāya-bhūtān bahūn yajñān āha daivam ity ādibhir aṣṭabhiḥ | devā indra-varuṇādaya ijyante yasmin | eva-kāreṇendrādiṣu brahma-buddhi-rāhityaṃ darśitam | taṃ daivam eva yajñam apare karma-yoginaḥ paryupāsate śraddhayānutiṣṭhanti | apare tu jñāna-yogino brahma-rūpe 'gnau apare yajñenaivopāyena brahmārpaṇam ity ādy ukta-prakāreṇa yajñam upajuhvati | yajñādi-sarva-karmāṇi pravilāpayantīty arthaḥ | so 'yaṃ jñāna-yajñaḥ ||25||

madhusūdanaḥ : adhunā samyag-darśanasya yajña-rūpatvena stāvakatayā brahmārpaṇa-mantre sthite punar api tasya stuty-artham itarāny ajñān upanyasyati daivam iti | devā indrāgny-ādaya ijyante yena sa daivas tam eva yajñaṃ darśa-pūrṇamāsa-jyotiṣṭomādi-rūpam apare yoginaḥ paryupāsate sarvadā kurvanti na jñāna-yajñam | evaṃ karma-yajñam uktvāntaḥ-karaṇa-śuddhi-dvāreṇa tat-phala-bhūtaṃ jñāna-yajñam āha brahmāgnau satya-jñānānantānanda-rūpaṃ nirasta-samasta-viśeṣaṃ brahma tat-padārthas tasminn agnau yajñaṃ pratyag ātmānaṃ tva-padārthaṃ yajñenaiva | yajña-śabda ātma-nāmasu yāskena paṭhitaḥ | itthambhūta-lakṣaṇe tṛtīyā | eva-kāro bhedābheda-vyāvṛtty-arthaḥ |
tvaṃ-padārthābhedenaivopajuhvati tat-svarūpatayā paśyantīty arthaḥ | apare pūrva-vilakṣaṇās tattva-darśana-niṣṭhāḥ saṃnyāsina ity arthaḥ |

jīva-brahmābheda-darśanaṃ yajñatvena sampādya tat-sādhana-yajña-madhye paṭhyate śreyān dravya-mayād yajñāj jñāna-yajñaa ity ādinā stotum ||25||

viśvanāthaḥ : yajñāḥ khalu bhedenānye 'pi bahavo vartante | tāṃs tvaṃ śṛṇv ity āha daivam evety aṣṭabhiḥ | devā indra-varuṇādaya ijyante yasmin taṃ daivam iti | indrādiṣu brahma-buddhi-rāhityaṃ darśitam | sāsya devatety aṇ | yoginaḥ karma-yoginaḥ | apare jñāna-yoginas tu brahma paramātmaivāgnis tasmiṃs tat-padārthe yajñaṃ haviḥ-sthānīyaṃ tvaṃ-padārthaṃ jīvaṃ yajñena praṇava-rūpeṇa mantreṇaiva juhvati | ayam eva jñāna-yajño 'gre stoṣyate | atra yajñaṃ yajñena iti śabdau karma-karaṇa-sādhanau prathamātiśayoktyā śuddha-jīva-praṇavāvāhatuḥ ||25||

baladevaḥ : evaṃ brahmānusandhi-garbhatayā ca karmaṇo jñānākāratāṃ nirūpya karma-yoga-bhedān āha daivam iti | daivam indrādi-devārcana-rūpaṃ yajñam apare yoginaḥ paryupāsate tatraiva niṣṭhāṃ kurvanti | apare brahmārpaṇaṃ ity ādi-nyāyena brahma-bhūtāgnāv yajñena sruvādinā yajñaṃ ghṛtādi-havī-rūpaṃ juhvati homa eva niṣṭhāṃ kurvatīty arthaḥ ||25||

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BhG 4.26

śrotrādīnīndriyāṇy anye saṃyamāgniṣu juhvati |
śabdādīn viṣayān anya indriyāgniṣu juhvati ||26||

śrīdharaḥ : śrotrādīnīti | anye naiṣṭhikī brahmacāriṇas tat-tad-indriya-saṃyama-rūpeṣv agniṣu śrotrādīni juhvati pravilāpayanti | indriyāṇi nirudhya saṃyama-pradhānās tiṣṭhantīty arthaḥ | indriyāṇy evāgnayaḥ | teṣu śabdādīn anye gṛhasthā juhvati | viṣaya-bhoga-samaye 'py anāsaktāḥ santo 'gnitvena bhāviteṣv indriyeṣu haviṣṭvena bhāvitān śabdādīn prakṣipantīty arthaḥ ||26||

madhusūdanaḥ : śrotrādīnīndriyāṇy anye saṃyamāgniṣu juhvati śabdādīn viṣayān anya indriyāgniṣu juhvati ||26||

viśvanāthaḥ : anye naiṣṭhikāḥ śrotrādīnīndriyāṇi | saṃyamaḥ saṃyataṃ mana evāgnayas teṣu juhvati | śuddhe manasīndriyāṇi pravlāpayantīty arthaḥ | anye tato nyūnā brahmacāriṇaḥ śabdādīn viṣayāni indriyāgniṣv indriyāṇy evāgnayas teṣu juhvati śabdādīnīndriyeṣu pravilāpayantīty arthaḥ ||26||

baladevaḥ : śrotrādīnīty anye naiṣṭhika-brahmacāriṇaḥ saṃyamāgniṣu tat-tad-ndriya-saṃyama-rūpeṣv agniṣu śrotrādīni juhvati tāni nirudhya saṃyama-pradhānās tiṣṭhanti | anye gṛhiṇa indriyāgniṣv agnitvena bhāviteṣu śrotrādiṣu śabdādīn upajuhvati anāsaktyā tān bhuñjānās tāni tat-pravaṇāni kurvanti ||26||

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BhG 4.27

sarvāṇīndriya-karmāṇi prāṇa-karmāṇi cāpare |
ātma-saṃyama-yogāgnau juhvati jñāna-dīpite ||27||

śrīdharaḥ : kiṃ ca sarvāṇīti | apare dhyāna-niṣṭhāḥ | buddhīndriyāṇāṃ śrotrādīnāṃ karmāṇi śravaṇa-darśanādīni | karmendriyāṇāṃ vāk-pāṇy-ādīnāṃ karmāṇi vacanopādānādīni | prāṇānāṃ ca daśānāṃ karmāṇi | prāṇasya bahir gamanam | apānasyādho-nayanam | vyānasya vyānayanam ākuñcana-prasāraṇādi | samānasyāśitapītādīnāṃ samunnayanam | udānasyordhva-nayanam -

udgāre nāga ākhyātaḥ kūrmas tūnmīlane smṛtaḥ |
kṛkaraḥ kṣut-karo jñeyo devadatto vijṛmbhaṇe |
na jahāti mṛte kvāpi sarvavyāpī dhanaṃjayaḥ || [Gheraṇḍa-saṃhitā 5.64|

ity evaṃ rūpāṇi juhvati | ātmani saṃyamo dhyānaikāgryam | sa eva yogaḥ | sa evāgniḥ | tasmin jñānena dhyeya-viṣayeṇa dīpite prajvalite dhyeyaṃ samyag jñātvā tasmin manaḥ saṃyamya tāni sarvāṇi karmāṇy uparamayantīty arthaḥ ||27||

madhusūdanaḥ : tad ananyatvam ārambhaṇa-śabdādibhyaḥ [Vs. 2.1.14] apare śuddha-tvaṃ-padārtha-vijñāḥ | sarvāṇīndriyāṇi tat-karmāṇi śravaṇa-darśanāni sarvāṇīndriya-karmāṇi prāṇa-karmāṇi cāpare ātma-saṃyama-yogāgnau juhvati jñāna-dīpite ||27||

viśvanāthaḥ : apare śuddha-tvaṃ-padārtha-vijñāḥ | sarvāṇīndriyāṇi tat-karmāṇi śravaṇa-darśanādīni ca | prāṇa-karmāṇi daśa-prāṇās tat-karmāṇi ca | prāṇasya bahir gamanam | apānasyādho-nayanam | samānasya bhukta-pītādīnāṃ samīkaraṇam | udānasyoccair nayanam | vyānasya viṣvak-nayanam |

udgāre nāga ākhyātaḥ kūrmas tūnmīlane smṛtaḥ |
kṛkaraḥ kṣut-karo jñeyo devadatto vijṛmbhaṇe |
na jahāti mṛte kvāpi sarvavyāpī dhanaṃjayaḥ || [Gheraṇḍa-saṃhitā 5.64|

ity evaṃ daśa-prāṇās tat-karmāṇi | ātmanas tvaṃ-padārthasya saṃyamaḥ śuddhir evāgnis tasmin juhvati | mano-buddhy-ādīndriyāṇi daśa-prāṇāṃś ca pravilāpayanti | ekaḥ pratyag ātmaivāsti, nānye mana ādāya iti bhāvayantīty arthaḥ ||27||

baladevaḥ : sarvāṇīti | apare indriya-karmāṇi prāṇa-karmāṇi cātma-saṃyama-yogāgnau ca juhvati | ātmano manasaḥ saṃyamaḥ sa eva yogas tasminn agnitvena bhāvite juhvati | manasā indriyāṇāṃ prāṇānāṃ ca karma-pravaṇatāṃ nivārayituṃ prayatante | indriyāṇāṃ śrotrādīnāṃ karmāṇi śabda-grahaṇādīni prāṇa-karmāṇi prāṇasya bahir-gamanaṃ karma, apānasyādhogamanaṃ, vyānasya nikhila-deha-vyāpanam ākuñcana-prasāraṇādi, samānasyāśita-pītādi-samīkaraṇam, udānasyordhva-nayanaṃ cety evaṃ bodhyāni sarvāṇi sāmastyena jñāna-dīpite ātmānusandhānojjvalite ||27||

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BhG 4.28

dravya-yajñās tapo-yajñā yoga-yajñās tathāpare |
svādhyāya-jñāna-yajñāś ca yatayaḥ saṃśita-vratāḥ ||28||

śrīdharaḥ : dravya-yajñā ity ādi | dravya-dānam eva yajño yeṣāṃ te dravya-yajñāḥ | kṛcchra-cāndrāyaṇādi tapa eva yajño yeṣāṃ te eva yajño yeṣāṃ te tapo-yajñāḥ | yogo 'ṣṭāṅga eva yajño yeṣāṃ te yoga-yajñāḥ | svādhyāyena vedena śravaṇa-mananādinā yat tad artha-jñānaṃ tad eva yajño yeṣāṃ te svādhyāya-jñāna-yajñāḥ | yad vā veda-pāṭha-yajñās tad-artha-jñāna-yajñāś ceti dvividhāḥ | yatayaḥ prayatna-śīlāḥ | samyak śitaṃ tīkṣṇīkṛtaṃ vrataṃ yeṣāṃ te ||28||

madhusūdanaḥ : dravya-yajñās tapo-yajñā yoga-yajñās tathāpare svādhyāya-jñāna-yajñāś ca yatayaḥ saṃśita-vratāḥ ||28||

viśvanāthaḥ : dravya-dānam eva yajño yeṣāṃ te dravya-yajñāḥ | tapaḥ kṛcchra-cāndrāyaṇādy eva yajño yeṣāṃ te tapo-yajñāḥ | yogo 'ṣṭāṅga eva yajño yeṣāṃ te yoga-yajñāḥ | svādhyāyo vedasya pāṭhas tad-arthasya jñānaṃ ca yajño yeṣāṃ te | yatayo yatna-parāḥ | sarva ete samyak śitaṃ tīkṣṇīkṛtaṃ vrataṃ yeṣāṃ te ||28||

baladevaḥ : dravyeti | kecit karma-yogino dravya-yajñā annādi-dāna-parāḥ | kecit tapo-yajñāḥ kṛcchra-cāndrāyaṇādi-vrata-parāḥ | kecit svādhyāya-jñāna-yajñā vedābhyāsa-parās tad-arthābhyāsa-parāś ca | yatayas tatra prayatna-śīlāḥ | saṃśita-vratās tīkṣṇa-tat-tad-ācaraṇāḥ ||28||

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BhG 4.29

apāne juhvati prāṇaṃ prāṇe 'pānaṃ tathāpare |
prāṇāpāna-gatī ruddhvā prāṇāyāma-parāyaṇāḥ ||29||

śrīdharaḥ : kiṃ ca apāne iti | apāne 'dho-vṛttau prāṇam ūrdhva-vṛttiṃ pūrakeṇa juhvati | pūraka-kāle prāṇam apānenaikīkurvanti | tathā kumbhakena prāṇāpānayor ūrdhvādho-gatī ruddhvā recaka-kāle 'pānaṃ prāṇe juhvati | evaṃ pūraka-kumbhaka-recakaiḥ prāṇāyāma-parāyaṇā apara ity arthaḥ | kiṃ ca apara iti | apare tv āhāra-saṅkocam abhyasyantaḥ svayam eva jīryamāṇeṣv indriyeṣu tat-tad-indriya-vṛtti-layaṃ bhāvayantīty arthaḥ |

yad vā - apāne juhvati prāṇaṃ prāṇe 'pānaṃ tathāpara ity anena pūraka-recakayor āvartamānayor haṃsaḥ so 'ham ity anulomataḥ pratilomataś ca abhivyajyamānenājapā-mantreṇa tat-ttvaṃ-padārthaikyaṃ vyatīhāreṇa bhāvayantīty arthaḥ | tad uktaṃ yoga-śāstre -
sa-kāreṇa bahir yāti haṃ-kāreṇa viśet punaḥ |
prāṇas tatra sa evāhaṃ haṃsa ity anucintayet || iti |

prāṇāpāna-gatī ruddhvety anena tu ślokena prāṇāyāma-yajñā aparaiḥ kathyante | tatrāyam arthaḥ - dvau bhāgau pūrayed annair jalenaikaṃ prapūrayet | pracārārthaṃ caturtham avaśeṣayed iti | evam ādi-vacanokto niyata āhāro yeṣāṃ te | kumbhakena prāṇāpāna-gatī ruddhvā prāṇāyāma-parāyaṇāḥ santaḥ prāṇān indriyāṇi prāṇeṣu juhvati | kumbhake hi sarve prāṇā ekībhavantīti tatraiva layamāneṣv indriyeṣu homaṃ bhāvayantīty arthaḥ | tad uktaṃ yoga-śāstre -

yathā yathā sadābhyāsān manasaḥ sthiratā bhavet |
vāyu-vāk-kāya-dṛṣṭīnāṃ sthiratā ca tathā tathā || iti ||29||

madhusūdanaḥ : apāne juhvati prāṇaṃ prāṇe 'pānaṃ tathāpare prāṇāpāna-gatī ruddhvā prāṇāyāma-parāyaṇāḥ ||29||

viśvanāthaḥ : apare prāṇāyāma-niṣṭhāḥ apāne 'dho-vṛttau prāṇam ūrdhva-vṛttaṃ juhvati pūraka-kāle prāṇam apānenaikīkurvanti | tathā recaka-kāle 'pānaṃ prāṇe juhvati | kumbhaka-kāle prāṇāpānayor gatī ruddhvā prāṇāyāma-parāyaṇā bhavanti | apare indriya-jaya-kāmāḥ | niyatāhārā alpāhārāḥ prāṇeṣv āhāra-saṅkocanenaiva jīvyamāneṣu prāṇān indriyāṇi juhvati | indriyāṇāṃ prāṇādhīna-vṛttitvāt prāṇa-daurbalye sati svayam eva sva-sva-viṣaya-grahaṇāsamarthānīndriyāṇi prāṇeṣv evālpīyanta ity arthaḥ ||29||

baladevaḥ : kiṃ cāpāne iti | tathāpare prāṇāyāma- parāyaṇās te tridhā adho-vṛttāv apāne prāṇam ūrdhva-vṛttiṃ juhvati | pūrakeṇa prāṇam apānena sahaikīkurvanti | tathā prāṇe 'pānaṃ juhvati recakenāpānaṃ prāṇena sahaikīkṛtya bahir nirgamayanti | yathā prāṇāpānayor gatī śvāsa-praśvāsau kumbhakena ruddhvā vartanta iti | āntarasya vāyor nāsāsyena bahir nirgamaḥ śvāsaḥ prāṇasya gatiḥ | vinirgatasya tasyāntaḥ-praveśaḥ praśvāso 'pānasya gatiḥ | tayor nirodhaḥ kumbhakaḥ sa dvividhaḥ vāyum āpūrya śvāsa-praśvāsayor nirodho 'ntaḥ-kumbhakaḥ | vāyuṃ virecya tayor nirodho bhaiḥ kumbhakaḥ | apare nityatāhārāḥ bhojana-saṅkocaam
abhyasyantaḥ prāṇān indriyāṇi prāṇeṣu juhvati | teṣv alpāhāreṇa jīryamāṇeṣu tad-āyatta-vṛttikāni tāni viṣaya-grahaṇākṣamāṇi taptāyoniṣiktoda-binduvat teṣv eva vilīyante ||29||

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BhG 4.30

apare niyatāhārāḥ prāṇān prāṇeṣu juhvati |
sarve 'py ete yajña-vido yajña-kṣapita-kalmaṣāḥ ||30||

śrīdharaḥ : tad evam uktānāṃ dvādaśānāṃ yajña-vidāṃ phalam āha sarve 'pīti | yajñān vindanti labhanta iti yajña-vidaḥ | yajña-jñā iti vā | yajñaiḥ kṣayitaṃ nāśitaṃ kalmaṣaṃ yais te ||30||

madhusūdanaḥ : tad evam uktānāṃ dvādaśadhā yajña-vidāṃ phalam āha sarve 'pīti | yajñān vidanti jānanti vindanti labhante veti yajña-vido yajñānāṃ jñātāraḥ kartāraś ca | yajñaiḥ pūrvoktaiḥ kṣapitaṃ nāśitaṃ kalmaṣaṃ pāpaṃ yeṣāṃ te yajña-kṣapita-kalmaṣāḥ | yajñān kṛtvāvaśiṣṭe kāle 'nnam amṛta-śabda-vācyaṃ bhuñjata iti yajña-śiṣṭāmṛta-bhujaḥ | te sarve 'pi sattva-śuddhi-jñāna-prāpti-dvāreṇa yānti brahma sanātanaṃ nityaṃ saṃsārān mucyanta ity arthaḥ ||30||

viśvanāthaḥ : sarve 'py ete yajña-vida ukta-lakṣaṇān yajñān vindamānāḥ santo jñāna-dvārā brahma yānti | atrānanusaṃhitaṃ phalam āha yajña-śiṣṭaṃ yajñāvaśiṣṭaṃ yad amṛtaṃ bhogaiśvarya-siddhy-ādikaṃ tad bhuñjata iti ||30||

baladevaḥ : ete khalv indirya-vijaya-kāmāḥ sarve 'pīti yajña-vidaḥ | pūrvoktān devādi-yajñān vindamānā tair eva yajñaiḥ kṣapita-kalmaṣāḥ ||30||

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BhG 4.31

yajña-śiṣṭāmṛta-bhujo yānti brahma sanātanam |
nāyaṃ loko 'sty ayajñasya kuto 'nyaḥ kurusattama ||31||

śrīdharaḥ : yajña-śiṣṭāmṛta-bhuja iti | yajñān kṛtvā avaśiṣṭe kāle 'niṣiddham annam amṛta-rūpaṃ bhuñjata iti tathā | te sanātanaṃ nityaṃ brahma jñāna-dvāreṇa prāpnuvanti | tad-akaraṇe doṣam āha nāyam iti | ayam alpa-sukho 'pi manuṣya-loko 'yajñasya yajñānuṣṭhāna-rahitasya nāsti | kuto 'nyo bahu-sukhaḥ para-lokaḥ | ato yajñāḥ sarvathā kartavyā ity arthaḥ ||31||

madhusūdanaḥ : evam anvaye guṇam uktvā vyatireke doṣam āha yejñety ardhena | uktānāṃ yajñānāṃ madhye 'nyatamo 'pi yajño yasya nāsti so 'yajñas tasyāyam alpa-sukho 'pi manuṣya-loko nāsti sarva-nindyatvāt | kuto 'nyo viśiṣṭa-sādhana-sādhyaḥ para-loko he kuru-sattama ||31||

viśvanāthaḥ : tathānusaṃhitaṃ phalam āha brahma yāntīti | tad-akaraṇe pratyavāyam āha nāyam iti | ayam alpa-sukho manuṣa-loko 'pi nāsti | kuto 'nyo devādi-lokas tena prāptavya ity arthaḥ ||31||

baladevaḥ : ananusaṃhitaṃ phalam āha yajña-śiṣṭeti | yajña-śiṣṭaṃ yad amṛtam annādi bhogaiśvarya-siddhy-ādi ca tad-bhuñjānāḥ | anusaṃhitaṃ phalam āha yāntīti | tat-sādhyena jñānena brahmeti prāgvat ||30||

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BhG 4.32

evaṃ bahu-vidhā yajñā vitatā brahmaṇo mukhe |
karmajān viddhi tān sarvān evaṃ jñātvā vimokṣyase ||32||

śrīdharaḥ : jñāna-yajñaṃ stotum uktān yajñān upasaṃharati evaṃ bahu-vidhā iti | brahmaṇo vedasya mukhe vitatāḥ | vedena sākṣād-vihitā ity arthaḥ | tathāpi tān sarvān vāṅ-manaḥ-kāya-karma-janitān ātma-svarūpa-saṃsparśa-rahitān viddhi jānīhi | ātmanaḥ karmāgocaratvāt | evaṃ jñātvā jñāna-niṣṭhaḥ san saṃsārād vimukto bhaviṣyasi ||32||

madhusūdanaḥ : kiṃ tvayā svotprekṣā-mātreṇaivam ucyate na hi veda evātra pramāṇam ity āha evam iti | evaṃ yathoktā bahu-vidhā bahu-prakārā yajñāḥ sarva-vaidika-śreyaḥ-sādhana-rūpā vitatā vistṛtā brahmaṇo vedasya mukhe dvāre veda-dvāreṇaivaite 'vagatā ity arthaḥ | veda-vākyāni tu pratyekaṃ vistara-bhayān nodāhriyante | karmajān kāyika-vācika-mānasa-karmodbhavān viddhi jānīhi tān sarvān yajñān nātmajān | nirvyāpāro hy ātmā na tad-vyāpārā ete kintu nirvyāpāro 'ham udāsīna ity evaṃ jñātvā vimokṣyase 'smāt saṃsāra-bandhanād iti śeṣaḥ ||32||

viśvanāthaḥ : brahmaṇo vedasya mukhena vedena svamukhenaiva spaṣṭam uktā ity arthaḥ | karmajān vāṅ-manaḥ-kāya-karma-janitān ||32||

baladevaḥ : evam iti | brahmaṇo vedasya mukhe vitatāḥ | viviktātma-prāpty-upāyatayā sva-mukhenaiva tena sphuṭam uktāḥ | karmajān vāṅ-manaḥ-kāya-karma-janitān ity arthaḥ | evaṃ jñātvā tad-upāyatayā tenoktān tān avabudhyānuṣṭhāya tad-utpanna-vijñānenāvalokitātma-dvayaḥ saṃsārād vimokṣyase ||32||

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BhG 4.33

śreyān dravya-mayād yajñāj jñāna-yajñaḥ parantapa |
sarvaṃ karmākhilaṃ pārtha jñāne parisamāpyate ||33||

śrīdharaḥ : karma-yajñāj jñāna-yajñas tu śreṣṭha ity āha śreyān iti | dravya-mayād anātma-vyāpāra-janyād daivādi-yajñāj jñāna-yajñaḥ śreyān śreṣṭhaḥ | yadyapi jñāna-yajñasyāpi mano-vyāpārādhīnatvam asty eva tathāpy ātma-svarūpasya jñānasya manaḥ-pariṇāme 'bhivyakti-mātram | na taj-janyatvam iti dravya-mayād viśeṣaḥ | śreṣṭhatve hetuḥ -- sarvaṃ karmākhilaṃ phala-sahitaṃ jñāne parisamāpyate | antarbhavatīty arthaḥ | sarvaṃ tad abhisameti yat kiṃ ca prajāḥ sādhu kurvantīti śruteḥ ||33||

madhusūdanaḥ : sarveṣāṃ tulyavan nirdeśātma-karma-jñānayoḥ sāmya-prāptāv āha śreyān iti | śreyān praśasyataraḥ sākṣān mokṣa-phalatvāt | dravya-mayāt tad-upalakṣitāj jñāna-śūnyāt sarvasmād api yajñāt saṃsāra-phalāj jñāna-yajña eka eva | he parantapa ! kasmād evam ? yasmāt sarvaṃ karmeṣṭi-paśu-soma-cayana-rūpaṃ śrautam akhilaṃ niravaśeṣaṃ smārtam upāsanādi-rūpaṃ ca yat karma taj-jñāne brahmātmaikya-sākṣātkāre samāpyate pratibandha-kṣaya-dvāreṇa paryavasyati | tam etaṃ vedānuvacanena brāhmaṇā vividiṣanti yajñena dāne tapasānāśakena iti dharmena pāpam apanudati iti ca śruteḥ | sarvāpekṣā
ca yajñādi-śruter aśvavat [Vs. 3.4.26] iti nyāyāc cety arthaḥ ||33||

viśvanāthaḥ : teṣāṃ madhye brahmārpaṇaṃ brahma-havir iti lakṣaṇād api dravya-mayād yajñād brahmāgnāv ity anenokto jñāna-yajñaḥ śreyān | kutaḥ ? jñāne sati sarvaṃ karmākhilam avyarthaṃ sat parisamāpyate samāptībhavati | jñānānantaraṃ karma na tiṣṭhatīty arthaḥ ||33||

baladevaḥ : uktāḥ karma-yogā viviktātmānusandhi-garbhatvād araṇyād iva ubhaya-rūpās teṣu jñāna-rūpaṃ saṃstauti śreyān iti | dvirūpe karmaṇi karma-dravya-bhayād aṃśāj jñāna-mayo 'ṃśaḥ śreyān praśastaraḥ | dravya-mayād ity upalakṣaṇām indirya-saṃyamādīnāṃ teṣāṃ tad-upāyatvāt | etad vivṛṇoti - he pārtha ! jñāne sati sarvaṃ karmākhilaṃ sāṅgaṃ parisamāpyate nivṛttim eti phale jāte sādhana-nivṛtter darśanāt ||33||

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BhG 4.34

tad viddhi praṇipātena paripraśnena sevayā |
upadekṣyanti te jñānaṃ jñāninas tattva-darśinaḥ ||34||

śrīdharaḥ : evambhūtātma-jñāne sādhanam āha tad iti | tad taj jñānaṃ viddhi jānīhi prāpnuhīty arthaḥ | jñānināṃ praṇipātena daṇḍavan-namaskāreṇa | tataḥ paripraśnena | kuto 'yaṃ me saṃsāraḥ ? kathaṃ vā nivarteta ? iti paripraśnena | sevayā guru-śuśrūṣayā ca | jñāninaḥ śāstrajñāḥ | tattva-darśino 'parokṣānubhava-sampannāś ca | te tubhyaṃ jñānam upadeśena sampādayiṣyanti ||34||

madhusūdanaḥ : etādṛśa-jñāna-prāptau ko 'tipratyāsanna upāya ity ucyate tad viddhīti | tat-sarva-karma-phala-bhūtaṃ jñānaṃ viddhi labhasva ācāryānabhigamya teṣāṃ praṇipātena prakarṣeṇa nīcaiḥ patanaṃ praṇipāto dīrgha-namaskāras tena ko 'haṃ kathaṃ baddho 'smi kenopāyena mucyeyam ity ādi paripraśnena bahu-viṣayeṇa praśnena | sevayā sarva-bhāvena tad-anukūla-kāritayā | evaṃ bhakti-śraddhātiśaya-pūrvakeṇāvanati-viśeṣeṇābhimukhāḥ santa upadekṣyanty upadeśena sampādayiṣyanti te tubhyaṃ jñānaṃ paramātma-viṣayaṃ sākṣān mokṣa-phalaṃ jñāninaḥ pada-vākya-nyāyādimāna-nipuṇās
tattva-darśinaḥ kṛta-sākṣātkārāḥ | sākṣātkāravadbhir upadiṣṭam eva jñānaṃ phala-paryavasāyi na tu tad-rahitaiḥ pada-vākya-nyāyādimāna-nipuṇair apīti bhagavato matam | tad vijñānārthaṃ sa gurum evābhigacchet samit-pāṇiḥ śrotriyaṃ brahma-niṣṭham iti śruti-saṃvādi | tatrāpi śrotriyam adhīta-vedaṃ brahma-niṣṭhaṃ kṛta-brahma-sākṣātkāram iti vyākhyānāt | bahu-vacanaṃ cedam ācārya-viṣayam ekasminn api gauravātiśayārthaṃ na tu bahutva-vivakṣayā | ekasmād eva tattva-sākṣātkāravata ācāryāt tattva-jñānodaye satyācāryāntara-gamanasya tad-artham ayogād iti draṣṭavyam ||34||

viśvanāthaḥ : taj-jñāna-prāptaye prakāram āha tad iti | praṇipātena jñānopadeṣṭari gurau daṇḍavan-namaskāreṇa | bhagavan ! kuto 'yaṃ me saṃsāraḥ ? kathaṃ nivartiṣyate ? iti paripraśnena ca | sevayā tat-paricaryayā ca | tad vijñānārthaṃ sa gurum evābhigacchet samit-pāṇiḥ śrotriyaṃ brahma-niṣṭham iti śruteḥ ||34||

baladevaḥ : evaṃ jīva-svarūpa-jñānaṃ tat-sādhanaṃ ca sāṅgam upadiśya para-svarūpopāsana-jñānam upadśan sat-prasaṅga-labhyatvaṃ tasyāha tad iti | yad arthaṃ tad ubhayaṃ mayā tavopadiṣṭaṃ avināśi tu tad viddhi [Gītā 2.17] ity ādinā tat parātma-sambandhi-jñānaṃ praṇipātādibhiḥ prasāditebhyo jñānibhyaḥ sadbhyas tvam avagata-sva-svarūpo viddhi prāpnuhi | tatra praṇipāto daṇḍavat-praṇatiḥ | sevā bhṛtyavat teṣāṃ paricaryā | paripraśnaḥ tat-svarūpa-tad-guṇa-tad-vibhūti-viṣayako vividhaḥ praśnaḥ |

nanūdāsīnās te na vakṣyantīti cet tatrāha upeti | te jñānino 'dhigata-svarūpātmānaḥ praṇipātādinā taj-jijñāsutām ālakṣya te tubhyaṃ tādṛśāya tat-sambandhi jñānam upadekṣyanti tattva-darśinas taj-jñāna-pracārakāḥ kāruṇikā iti yāvat |

nanv atra tad iti jīva-jñānaṃ vācyaṃ prakṛtatvād iti cen, na | na tv evāhaṃ jātu nāsaṃ [Gītā 2.12], yukta āsīta mat-paraḥ [Gītā 2.61], ajo 'pi sann avyayātmā [Gītā 4.6] ity ādinā parātmano 'py aprākṛtatvāt | evam āha sūtrakāraḥ - anyārthaś ca parāmarśaḥ [Vs. 1.3.20] iti | anyathā śruti-sūtrārtha-saṃvādino 'grimasya jñāna-mahimno virodhaḥ syād uktam eva suṣṭhu ||34||

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BhG 4.35

yaj jñātvā na punar moham evaṃ yāsyasi pāṇḍava |
yena bhūtāny aśeṣeṇa drakṣyasy ātmany atho mayi ||35||

śrīdharaḥ : jñāna-phalam āha yaj jñātveti sārdhais tribhiḥ | yaj jñānaṃ jñātvā prāpya punar bandhu-vadhādi-nimittaṃ moham na prāpsyasi | tatra hetuḥ - yena jñānena bhūtāni pitāputrādīni svāvidyā-vijṛmbhitāni svātmany evābhedena drakṣyasi | atho anantaram ātmānaṃ mayi paramātmany abhedena drakṣyasīty arthaḥ ||35||

madhusūdanaḥ : evam atinirbandhena jñānotpādane kiṃsyāt ata āha yaj jñātveti | yat pūrvoktaṃ jñānam ācāryair upadiṣṭaṃ jñātvā prāpya | odana-pākaṃ pacatītivat tasyaiva dhātoḥ | sāmānya-vivakṣayā prayogaḥ | na punar moham evaṃ bandhu-vadhādi-nimittaṃ bhramaṃ yāsyasi | he parantapa !

kasmād evaṃ yasmād eva jñānena bhūtāni pitṛ-putrādīni aśeṣeṇa brahmādi-stamba-paryantāni svāvidyā-vijṛmbhitāni ātmani tvayi tvaṃ-padārthe 'tho api mayi bhagavati vāsudeve tat-padārthe paramārthato bheda-rahite 'dhiṣṭhāna-bhūte drakṣyasy abhedenaiva | adhiṣṭhānātirekeṇa kalpitasyābhāvāt | māṃ bhagavantaṃ vāsudevam ātmatvena sākṣātkṛtya sarvājñāna-nāśe tat-kāryāṇi bhūtāni na sthāsyantīti bhāvaḥ ||35||

viśvanāthaḥ : jñānasya phalam āha yaj jñātveti sārdhais tribhiḥ | yaj jñānaṃ dehād atiikta evātmeti lakṣaṇaṃ jñātvaivaṃ moham antaḥ-karaṇa-dharmaṃ na prāpsyasi | yena ca moha-vigamena svābhāvika-nitya-siddhātma-jñāna-lābhād aśeṣāṇi bhūtāni manuṣya-tiryag-ādīny ātmani jīvātmany upādhitvena sthitāni pṛthag drakṣyasi | atho mayi parama-kāraṇe ca kāryatvena sthitāni drakṣyasi ||35||

baladevaḥ : ukta-jñāna-phalam āha yad iti | yaj-jīva-jñāna-pūrvakaṃ paramātma-sambandhi-jñānaṃ jñātvopalabhya punar evaṃ bandhu-vadhādi-hetukaṃ mohaṃ na yāsyasi | kathaṃ na yāsyāmītiy atrāha yeneti | yena jñānena bhūtāni deva-mānavādi-śarīrāṇi aśeṣeṇa sāmastyena sarvāṇīty arthaḥ | ātmani sva-svarūpe upādhitvena sthitāni tāni pṛthag drakṣyasi | atho mayi sarveśvare sarva-hetau kāryatvena sthitāni tāni drakṣyasīti | etad uktaṃ bhavati - deha-dvaya-viviktā jīvātmānas teṣāṃ hari-vimukhānāṃ hari-māyayaiva deheṣu daihikteṣu ca mamatvāni racitāni | hantṛ-hantavya-bhāvāvabhāsaś ca tayaiva | śuddha-svarūpāṇāṃ na tat-tat-sambaddhaḥ
| paramātmā khalu sarveśvaraḥ svāśritānāṃ jīvānāṃ tat-tat-karmānuguṇatayā tat-tad-dehendriyāṇi tat-tad-deha-yātrāṃ lokāntareṣu tat-tat-sukha-bhogāṃś ca sampādayaty upāsitas tu muktim ity eva jñānino na mohāvakāśa iti ||35||

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BhG 4.36

api ced asi pāpebhyaḥ sarvebhyaḥ pāpa-kṛttamaḥ |
sarvaṃ jñāna-plavenaiva vṛjinaṃ santariṣyasi ||36||

śrīdharaḥ : kiṃ ca api ced iti | sarvebhyaḥ pāpa-kāribhyo yadyapy atiśayena pāpa-kārī tvam asi, tathāpi sarvaṃ pāpa-samudraṃ jñāna-plavenaiva jñāna-potenaiva samyag-anāyāsena tariṣyasi ||36||

madhusūdanaḥ : kiṃ ca śṛṇu jñānasya māhātmyam api ced iti | api ced ity asambhāvitābhyupagama-pradarśanārthau nipātau | yadyapy ayam artho na sambhavaty eva, tathāpi jñāna-phala-kathanāyābhyupetyocyate | yadyapi tvaṃ pāpa-kāribhyaḥ sarvebhyo 'py atiśayena pāpa-kārī pāpa-kṛttamaḥ syās tathāpi sarvaṃ vṛjinaṃ pāpam atidustaratvenārṇava-sadṛśaṃ jñāna-plavenaiva nānyena jñānam eva plavaṃ potaṃ kṛtvā santariṣyasi samyag anāyāsena punar āvṛtti-varjitatvena ca tariṣyasi atikramiṣyasi | vṛjina-śabdenātra dharmādharma-rūpaṃ karma saṃsāra-phalam abhipretaṃ mumukṣoḥ pāpavat puṇyasyāpy aniṣṭatvāt ||36||
viśvanāthaḥ : jñānasya māhātmyam āha api ced iti | pāpibhyaḥ pāpa-kṛdbhyo 'pi sakāśād yadyapy atiśayena pāpakārī tvam asi, tathāpi atraitāvat pāpa-sattve katham antaḥ-karaṇa-śuddhiḥ ? tad-abhāve ca kathaṃ jñānotpattiḥ ? nāpy utpanna-jñānasyaitad durācāratvaṃ sambhaved ato 'tra vyākhyā śrī-madhusūdana-sarasvatī-pādānām - api ced ity asambhāvitābhyupagama-pradarśanārthau nipātau | yadyapy ayam artho na sambhavaty eva, tathāpi jñāna-phala-kathanāyābhyupetyocyate ity eṣā ||36||

baladevaḥ : jñāna-prabhāvam āha api ced iti | yadyapi sarvebhyaḥ pāpa-kartṛbhyas tvam atiśayena pāpa-kṛd asi, tathāpi sarvaṃ vṛjinaṃ nikhilaṃ pāpaṃ dustaratvenārṇava-tulyam ukta-lakṣaṇa-jñāna-plavena santariṣyasi ||36||

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BhG 4.37

yathaidhāṃsi samiddho 'gnir bhasmasāt kurute 'rjuna |
jñānāgniḥ sarva-karmāṇi bhasmasāt kurute tathā ||37||

śrīdharaḥ : samudravat sthitasyaiva pāpasyātilaṅghana-mātraṃ, na tu pāpasya nāśaḥ | iti bhrāntiṃ dṛṣṭāntena vārayann āha yathaidhāṃsīti | edhāṃsi kāṣṭhāni pradīpto 'gnir yathā bhasmībhāvaṃ nayati tathātma-jñānam āpanno mumukṣuḥ kālena mahatātmani vindati labhata ity arthaḥ ||37||

madhusūdanaḥ : nanu samudravat taraṇe karmaṇāṃ nāśo na syād ity āśaṅkya dṛṣṭāntaram āha yathaidhāṃsīti | yathaidhāṃsi kāṣṭhāni samiddhaḥ prajvalito 'gnir bhasmasāt kurute bhasmībhāvaṃ nayati he 'rjuna jñānāgniḥ sarva-karmāṇi pāpāni puṇyāni cāviśeṣeṇa prārabdha-phala-bhinnāni bhasmasāt kurute tathā tat-kāraṇājñāna-vināśena vināśayatīty arthaḥ | tathā ca śrutiḥ -

bhidyate hṛdaya-granthiś chidyante sarvasaṃśayāḥ |
kṣīyante cāsya karmāṇi tasmin dṛṣṭe parāvare || [MuṇḍU 2.2.8] iti |

tad-adhigama uttara-pūrvārdhayor aśleṣa-vināśau tad-vyapadeśāt | itarasyāpy evam asaṃśleṣaḥ pāte tu [Vs. 4.1.13-14] iti ca sūtre | anārabdhe puṇya-pāpe naśyata evety atra sūtram anārabdha-kārya eva tu pūrve tad-avadheḥ [Vs. 4.1.15] iti | jñānotpādaka-dehārambhakāṇāṃ tu tad-dehānta eva vināśaḥ | tasya tāvad eva ciraṃ yāvan na vimokṣye [ChāndU 6.14.2] iti śruteḥ | bhogena tv itare kṣapayitvā sampadyate [Vs. 4.1.19] iti sūtrāc ca | ādhikārikāṇāṃ tu yāny eva jñānotpādaka-dehārambhakāṇi tāny eva dehāntarārambhakāṇy api | yathā vasiṣṭāpāntara-tamaḥ-prabhṛtīnām | tathā ca sūtraṃ yāvad-adhikāram avasthitir ādhikārikāṇām [Vs. 3.3.32] iti | adhikāro 'neka-dehārambhakaṃ balavat-prārabdha-phalaṃ
karma | tac copāsakānām eva nānyeṣāṃ | anārabdha-phalāni naśyanti ārabdha-phalāni tu yāvad-bhoga-samāpti tiṣṭhanti | bhogaś caikena dehenānekena veti na viśeṣaḥ | vistaras tv ākara draṣṭavyaḥ ||37||

viśvanāthaḥ : śuddhāntaḥkaraṇasyotpannaṃ tu prārabdha-bhinnaṃ karma-mātraṃ vināśayatīti sa-dṛṣṭāntam āha yatheti | samiddhaḥ prajvalitaḥ ||37||

baladevaḥ : brahma-vidyayā pāpa-karmāṇi naśyantīty uktam | idānīṃ puṇya-karmāṇy api naśyantīty āha yatheti | edhāṃsi kāṣṭhāni samiddhaḥ prajvalito 'gnir yathā bhasmasāt kurute, tathā jñānāgniḥ sva-parātmānubhava-vahniḥ sarvāṇi karmāṇi puṇyāni pāpāni ca prārabdhetarāṇi bhasmasāt kurute | tatra sañcitāni prārabdhetarāṇīpīkatulavan nirdahati kriyamāṇāni padma-patrāmbu-binduvad viśeṣayati prārabdhāni tu tat-prabhāvenātijīrṇāny api sat-patha-pracārārthayā harer icchayaivātmānubhaviny avasthāpayatīti | śrutiś ca -ubhe uhaivaiṣa ete taraty amṛtaḥ sādhvasādhunī iti | eṣa brahmānubhavī ubhe saṃcitya kriyamāṇe ete sādhvasādhunī puṇya-pāpe karmaṇī tarati krāmatīty arthaḥ | evam āha sūtrakāraḥ
tad-adhigama uttara-pūrvārdhayor aśleṣa-vināśau tad-vyapadeśāt [Vs. 4.1.13] ity ādibhiḥ ||37||

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BhG 4.38

na hi jñānena sadṛśaṃ pavitram iha vidyate |
tat svayaṃ yoga-saṃsiddhaḥ kālenātmani vindati ||38||

śrīdharaḥ : tatra hetum āha na hīti | pavitraṃ śuddhi-karam | iha tapo-yogādiṣu madhye jñāna-tulyaṃ nāsty eva | tarhi sarve 'pi kim ity ātma-jñānam eva nābhyasanta iti ? ata āha tat svayam iti sārdhena | tad ātmani viṣaye jñānaṃ kālena mahatā karma-yogena saṃsiddho yogyatāṃ prāptaḥ san svayam evānāyāsena labhate | na tu karma-yogaṃ vinety arthaḥ ||38||

madhusūdanaḥ : yasmād evaṃ tasmāt na hīti | na hi jñānena sadṛśaṃ pavitram pāvanaṃ śuddhi-karam anyad iha vede loka-vyavahāre vā vidyate, jñāna-bhinnasya ajñānānivartakatvena samūla-pāpa-nivartakatvābhāvāt kāraṇa-sad-bhāvena punaḥ pāpodayāc ca | jñānena tv ajñāna-nivṛttyā samūla-pāpa-nivṛttir iti tat-samam anyac ca vidyate |

tad ātma-viṣayaṃ jñānaṃ sarveṣāṃ kim iti jhaṭiti notpadyate ? tatrāha taj jñānaṃ kālena mahatā yoga-saṃsiddho yogena pūrvokta-karma-yogena saṃsiddhaḥ saṃskṛto yogyatām āpannaḥ svayam ātmany antaḥ-karaṇe vindati labhate na tu yogayatām āpanno 'nya-dattaṃ sva-niṣṭhatayā na vā para-niṣṭhaṃ svīyatayā vindatīty arthaḥ ||38||

viśvanāthaḥ : iha tapo-yogādi-yukteṣu madhye jñānena sadṛśaṃ pavitraṃ kim api nāsti | taj jñānaṃ na sarva-sulabham | kintu yogena niṣkāma-karma-yogena samyak siddha eva, na tv aparipakvaḥ | so 'pi kālenaiva, na tu sadyaḥ | ātmani svasmin svayaṃ prāptaṃ vindati | na tu sannyāsa-grahaṇa-mātreṇaiveti bhāvaḥ ||38||

baladevaḥ : na hīti | hi yato jñānena sadṛśaṃ pavitraṃ śuddhi-karaṃ tapas tīrthāṭanādikaṃ nāsti | atas tat sarva-pāpa-nāśakaṃ taj jñānaṃ na sarva-sulabhaṃ, kintu yogena niṣkāma-karmaṇā saṃsiddhaḥ paripakva eva kālenaiva, na tu sadyaḥ | ātmani svasmin svayaṃ labdhaṃ vindati | na tu pārivrājya-grahaṇa-mātreṇeti ||38||

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BhG 4.39

śraddhāvāṃl labhate jñānaṃ tatparaḥ saṃyatendriyaḥ |
jñānaṃ labdhvā parāṃ śāntim acireṇādhigacchati ||39||

śrīdharaḥ : kiṃ ca śraddhāvān iti | śraddhāvān gurūpadiṣṭe 'rthe āstikya-buddhimān | tat-paras tad-eka-niṣṭhaḥ | saṃyatendriyaś ca | taj jñānaṃ labhate | nānyaḥ | ataḥ śraddhādi-sampattyā jñāna-lābhāt prāk karma-yoga eva śuddhy-artham anuṣṭheyaḥ | jñāna-lābhānantaraṃ tu na tasya kiṃcit kartavyam ity āha jñānaṃ labdhvā tu mokṣam acireṇa prāpnoti ||39||

madhusūdanaḥ : yenaikāntena jñāna-prāptir bhavati sa upāyaḥ pūrvokta-praṇipātādy-apekṣayāpy āsannatara ucyate śraddhāvān iti | guru-vedānta-vākyeṣv idam ittham veti pramā-rūpāstikya-buddhiḥ śraddhā tadvān puruṣo labhate jñānam | etādṛśo 'pi kaścid alasaḥ syāt tatrāha tat-paraḥ | gurūpāsanādau jñānopāye 'tyantābhiyuktaḥ | śraddhāvāṃs tat-paro 'pi kaścid ajitendriyaḥ syād ata āha saṃyatendriyaḥ | saṃyatāni viṣayebhyo nivartitānīndriyāṇi yena sa saṃyatendriyaḥ | ya evaṃ viśeṣaṇa-traya-yuktaḥ so 'vaśyaṃ jñānaṃ labhate | praṇipātādis tu bāhyo māyāvitvādi-sambhavād anaikāntiko 'pi | śraddhāvattvādis
tv aikāntika upāya ity arthaḥ |

īdṛśenopāyena jñānaṃ labdhvā parāṃ caramāṃ śāntim avidyā-tat-kārya-nivṛtti-rūpāṃ muktim acireṇa tad-avyavadhānenaivādhigacchati labhate | yathā hi dīpaḥ svotpatti-mātreṇaivāndhakāra-nivṛttiṃ karoti na tu kaṃcit sahakāriṇam apekṣate tathā jñānam api svotpatti-mātreṇaivājñāna-nivṛttiṃ karoti na tu kiṃcit prasaṅkhyānādikam apekṣata iti bhāvaḥ ||39||

viśvanāthaḥ : tarhi kīdṛśaḥ san kadā prāpnotīty ata āha śraddhāvān iti | śraddhā niṣkāma-karmaṇaivāntaḥkaraṇa-śuddhyaiva jñānaṃ syād iti śāstrārthaṃ āstikya-buddhis tadvān eva | tat-paras tad-anuṣṭhāna-niṣṭhas tādṛśo 'pi yadā saṃyatendriyaḥ syāt tadā parāṃ śāntim saṃsāra-nāśam ||39||

baladevaḥ : kīdṛśaḥ san kadā vindatīty āha śraddhāvān iti | niṣkāmena karmaṇā hṛd-viśuddhau jñānaṃ syād iti | dṛḍha-viśvāsaḥ śraddhā tadvān | tat-paras tad-anuṣṭhāna-niṣṭhas tādṛg api yadā saṃyatendriyas tadā parāṃ śāntim muktim ||39||

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BhG 4.40

ajñaś cāśraddadhānaś ca saṃśayātmā vinaśyati |
nāyaṃ loko 'sti na paro na sukhaṃ saṃśayātmanaḥ ||40||

śrīdharaḥ : jñānādhikāriṇam uktvā tad-viparītam anadhikāriṇam āha ajñaś ceti | ajño gurūpadiṣṭārthānabhijñaḥ | kathaṃcij jñāne jāte 'pi tatrāśraddadhānaś ca | jātāyām api śraddhāyāṃ mamedaṃ siddhen na veti aṃśayākrānta-cittaś ca vinaśyate | svārthād bhraśyati | eteṣu triṣv api saṃśayātmā sarvathā naśyati | yatas tasyāyaṃ loko nāsti dhanārjana-vivāhādy-asiddheḥ | na ca para-loko dharmasyāniṣpatteḥ | na ca sukhaṃ saṃśayenaaiva bhogasyāpy asambhavāt ||40||

madhusūdanaḥ : atra ca saṃśayo na kartavyaḥ, kasmāt ? ajña iti | ajño 'nadhīta-śāstratvenātma-jñāna-śūnyaḥ | guru-vedānta-vākyārtha idam evaṃ na bhavaty eveti viparyaya-rūpā nāstikya-buddhir aśraddhā tadvān aśraddadhānaḥ | idam evaṃ bhavati na veti sarvatra saṃśayākrānta-cittaḥ saṃśayātmā vinaśyati svārthād bhraṣṭo bhavati | ajñaś cāśraddadhānaś ca vinaśyatīti saṃśayātmāpekṣayā nyūnatva-kathanārthaṃ cakārābhyāṃ tayoḥ prayogaḥ | kutaḥ ? saṃśayātmā hi sarvataḥ pāpīyān yato nāyaṃ manuṣya-loko 'sti vittārjanādy-abhāvāt, na paro lokaḥ svarga-mokṣādi-dharma-jñānādy-abhāvāt
| na sukhaṃ bhojanādi-kṛtaṃ saṃśayātmanaḥ sarvatra sandehākrānta-cittasya | ajñaś cāśraddadhānaś ca paro loko nāsti manuṣya-loko bhojanādi-sukhaṃ ca vartate | saṃśayātmā tu tritaya-hīnatvena sarvataḥ pāpīyān ity arthaḥ ||40||

viśvanāthaḥ : jñānādhikāriṇam uktvā tad-viparītādhikāriṇam āha ajñaś ceti | ajñaḥ paśv-ādivan mūḍhaḥ | aśraddadhānaḥ śāstra-jñānavattve 'pi nānā-vādināṃ paraspara-vipratipattiṃ dṛṣṭvā na kvāpi viśvastaḥ | śraddhāvattve 'pi saṃśayātmā mamaitat sidhyen na veti sandehākrānt-matiḥ | teṣv api madhye saṃśayātmānaṃ viśeṣato nindati nāyam iti ||40||

baladevaḥ : jñānādhikāriṇaṃ tat-phalaṃ cābhidhāya tad-viparītaṃ tat-phalaṃ cāha ajñaś ceti | ajñaḥ paśv-ādivac chāstra-jñāna-hīnaḥ | aśraddadhānaḥ śāstra-jñāne saty api vivādi-pratipattibhir na kvāpi viśvastaḥ, śraddadhānatve 'pi saṃśayātmā mamaitat siddhyen na veti sandihāna-manā vinaśyati svārthād vicyavate | teṣv api madhye saṃśayātmānaṃ vinindati nāyam iti | ayaṃ prākṛto lokaḥ paro 'prākṛtaḥ saṃśayātmanaḥ kiṃcid api sukhaṃ nāsti | śāstrīya-karma-janyaṃ hi sukhaṃ, tac ca karma viviktātma-jñāna-pūrvakam | tatra sandihānasya kutas tad ity arthaḥ ||40||

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BhG 4.41

yoga-saṃnyasta-karmāṇaṃ jñāna-saṃchinna-saṃśayam |
ātmavantaṃ na karmāṇi nibadhnanti dhanañjaya ||41||

śrīdharaḥ : adhyāya-dvayoktāṃ pūrvāpara-bhūmikā-bhedena karma-jñāna-mayīṃ dvividhāṃ brahma-niṣṭhām upasaṃharati yogeti dvābhyām | yogena parameśvarārādhana-rūpeṇa tasmin saṃnyastāni karmāṇi yena taṃ karmāṇi sva-phalair na nibadhnanti | tataś ca jñānena ātma-bodhena kartrā saṃchinnaḥ saṃsāro dehādy-atimāna-lakṣaṇo yasya tam ātmavantam apramādinaṃ karmāṇi loka-saṅgrahārthāni svātāvikāni vā na nibadhnanti ||41||

madhusūdanaḥ : etādṛśaysya sarvānartha-mūlasya saṃśayasya nirākaraṇāyātma-niścayam upāyaṃ vadann adhyāya-dvayoktāṃ pūrvāpara-bhūmikā-bhedena karma-jñāna-mayīṃ dvividhāṃ brahma-niṣṭhām upasaṃharati yogeti dvābhyām | yogena bhagavad-ārādhana-lakṣaṇa-samatva-buddhi-rūpeṇa saṃnyastāni bhagavati samarpitāni karmāṇi yena | yad vā paramārtha-darśana-lakṣaṇena yogena saṃnyastāni tyaktāni karmāṇi yena taṃ yoga-saṃnyasta-karmāṇam | saṃśaye sati kathaṃ yoga-saṃnyasta-karmatvam ata āha jñāna-saṃchinna-saṃśayaṃ jñānenātma-niścaya-lakṣaṇena cchinnaḥ saṃśayo yena
tam | viṣaya-para-vaśatva-svarūpa-prasāde sati kuto jñānotpattir ity ata āha ātmavantam apramādinaṃ sarvadā sāvadhānam | etādṛśam apramāditvena jñānavantaṃ jñāna-saṃchinna-saṃśayatvena yoga-saṃnyasta-karmāṇaṃ karmāṇi loka-saṅgrahārthāni vṛthā-ceṣṭā-rūpāṇi vā na nibadhnanti aniṣṭam iṣṭaṃ miśraṃ vā śarīraṃ nārabhante he dhanaṃjaya ||41||

viśvanāthaḥ : naiṣkarmyaṃ tv etādṛśasya syād ity āha yogān niṣkāma-karma-yogānantaram eva saṃnyasta-karmāṇaṃ saṃnyāsena tyakta-karmāṇam | tataś ca jñānābhyāsānantaraṃ chinna-saṃśayam | ātmavantaṃ prāpta-pratyag-ātmānaṃ karmāṇi na nibadhnanti ||41||

baladevaḥ : īdṛśasya naiṣkarmya-lakṣaṇā siddhiḥ syād ity āha yogeti | yogena yoga-sthaḥ kuru karmāṇi ity atroktena saṃnyastāni jñānākāratāpannāni karmāṇi yasya tam | mad-upadiṣṭena jñānena chinna-saṃśayo yasya tam | ātmavantam avalokitātmānaṃ karmāṇi na nibadhnanti | teṣāṃ jñānena vigamāt ||42||

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BhG 4.42

tasmād ajñāna-saṃbhūtaṃ hṛt-sthaṃ jñānāsinātmanaḥ |
chittvainaṃ saṃśayaṃ yogam ātiṣṭhottiṣṭha bhārata ||42||

śrīdharaḥ : tasmād iti | yasmād evaṃ tasmād ātmano 'jñānena saṃbhūtaṃ hṛdi-sthitam enaṃ saṃśayaṃ śokādi-nimittaṃ dehātma-viveka-khaḍgena chittvā paramātma-jñānopāya-bhūtaṃ karma-yogam ātiṣṭhāśraya | tatra ca prathamaṃ prastutāya yuddhāyottiṣṭha | he bhārateti kṣatriyatvena yuddhasya dharmatvaṃ darśitam ||42||

pum-avasthādi-bhedena karma-jñāna-mayī dvidhā |
niṣṭhoktā yena taṃ vande śauriṃ saṃśaya-saṃchidam ||

iti śrīdhara-svāmi-kṛtāyāṃ bhagavad-gītā-ṭīkāyāṃ subodhinyāṃ
jñāna-yogo nāma caturtho 'dhyāyaḥ ||4||

madhusūdanaḥ : tasmād ajñāna-saṃbhūtaṃ hṛt-sthaṃ jñānāsinātmanaḥ chittvainaṃ saṃśayaṃ yogam ātiṣṭhottiṣṭha bhārata ||42||

iti śrīmat-paramahaṃsa-parivrājakācārya-śrī-viśveśvara-sarasvatī-pāda-śiṣya-śrī-madhusūdana-sarasvatī-viracitāyāṃ śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā-gūḍhārtha-dīpikāyām jñāna-yogo nāma
caturtho 'dhyāyaḥ ||4||

viśvanāthaḥ : upasaṃharati tasmād iti | hṛt-sthaṃ hṛd-gataṃ saṃśayaṃ chittvā yogaṃ niṣkāma-karma-yogam ātiṣṭhāśraya | uttiṣṭha yuddhaṃ kartum iti bhāvaḥ ||42||

ukteṣu mukty-upāyeṣu jñānam atra praśasyate |
jñānopāyaṃ tu karmaivety adhyāyārtho nirūpitaḥ ||
iti sārārtha-darśinyāṃ harṣiṇyāṃ bhakta-cetasām |
gītāsv ayaṃ caturtho hi saṅgataḥ saṅgataḥ satām ||4||

baladevaḥ : tasmād iti | hṛt-sthaṃ hṛd-gatam ātma-viṣayakaṃ saṃśayaṃ mad-upadiṣṭena jñānāsinā chittvā yogaṃ niṣkāmaṃ karma mayopadiṣṭam ātiṣṭha | tad-artham uttiṣṭheti ||42||

dvy-aṃśakaṃ dhānyavat karma tuṣāṃśād iva taṇḍulaḥ |
śreṣṭhaṃ dravyāṃśato jñānam iti turyasya nirṇayaḥ ||4||

iti śrīmad-bhagavad-gītopaniṣad-bhāṣye caturtho 'dhyāyaḥ
||4||


caturtho 'dhyāyaḥ - brahmārpaṇa-yogaḥ



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Bhagavadgita 5

BhG 5.1

arjuna uvāca
saṃnyāsaṃ karmaṇāṃ kṛṣṇa punar yogaṃ ca śaṃsasi |
yac chreya etayor ekaṃ tan me brūhi suniścitam ||1||

śrīdharaḥ :
nivārya saṃśayaṃ jiṣṇoḥ karma-saṃnyāsa-yogayoḥ |
jitendriyasya ca yateḥ pañcame muktim abravīt ||

ajñāna-sambhūtaṃ saṃśayaṃ jñānāsinā chittvā karma-yogam ātiṣṭha ity uktam | tatra pūrvāpara-virodhaṃ manvāno 'rjuna uvāca saṃnyāsam iti | yas tv ātma-ratir eva syād ity ādinā sarvaṃ karmākhilaṃ pārtha ity ādinā ca karma-saṃnyāsaṃ kathayasi | jñānāsinā saṃśayaṃ chittvā yogam ātiṣṭha iti punar yogaṃ ca kathayasi | na ca karma-saṃnyāsaḥ karma-yogaś ca ekasyaiva ekadaiva sambhavataḥ viruddha-svarūpatvāt | tasmād etayor madhya ekasminn anuṣṭhātavye sati mama yac chreyaḥ suniścitam tad ekaṃ brūhi ||1||

madhusūdanaḥ :
adhyāyābhyāṃ kṛto dvābhyāṃ nirṇayaḥ karma-bodhayoḥ |
karma-tat-tyāgayor dvābhyāṃ nirṇayaḥ kriyate 'dhunā ||

tṛtīye 'dhyāye jyāyasī cet karmaṇas te ity ādinārjunena pṛṣṭo bhagavān jñāna-karmaṇor vikalpa-samuccayāsambhavenādhikāri-bheda-vyavasthayā loke 'smin dvividhā niṣṭhā purā proktā mayānagha ity ādinā nirṇayaṃ kṛtavān | tathā cājñādhikārikaṃ karma na jñānena saha samuccīyate tejas-timirayor iva yugapad asambhavāt karmādhikāra-hetu-bheda-buddhy-apanodakatvena jñānasya tad-virodhitvāt | nāpi vikalpyate ekārthatvābhāvāt | jñāna-kāryasyājñāna-nāśasya karmaṇā kartum aśakyatvāt tam eva viditvāpi mṛtyum eti nānyaḥ panthā vidyate 'nāyanāya iti śruteḥ |

jñāne jāte tu karma-kāryaṃ nāpekṣyata evety uktaṃ yāvān artha udapāne ity atra | tathā ca jñāninaḥ karmānadhikāre niścite prārabdha-karma-vaśād vṛthā-ceṣṭā-rūpeṇa tad-anuṣṭhānaṃ vā sarva-karma-saṃnyāso veti nirvivādaṃ caturthe nirṇītam | ajñena tv antaḥ-karaṇa-śuddhi-dvārā jñānotpattaye karmāṇy anuṣṭheyāni tam etaṃ vedānuvacanena brāhmaṇā vividiṣanti yajñena dānena tapasānāśakena iti śruteḥ | sarvaṃ karmākhilaṃ pārtha jñāne parisamāpyate iti bhagavad-vacanāc ca | evaṃ sarva-karmāṇi jñānārthāni | tathā sarva-karma-saṃnyāso 'pi jñānārthaḥ śrūyate etam eva pravrājino lokam icchantaḥ pravrajanti, śānto
dānta uparatas titikṣuḥ samāhito bhūtvātmany evātmānaṃ paśyet, tyajataiva hi taj jñeyaṃ tyuktuḥ pratyak paraṃ padam, satyānṛte sukha-duḥkhe vedān imaṃ lokam amuṃ ca parityajyātmānam anvicchet ity ādau |

tatra karma tat-tyāgayor ārād upakāraka-saṃnipatyopakārakayoḥ prayājāvaghātayor iva na samuccayaḥ sambhavati viruddhatvena yaugapadyābhāvāt | nāpi karma-tat-tyāgayor ātma-jñāna-mātra-phalatvenaikārthatvād atirātrayoḥ ṣoḍaśi-grahaṇāgrahaṇayor iva vikalpaḥ syāt | dvāra-bhedenaikārthatvābhāvāt | karmaṇo hi pāpa-kṣaya-rūpam adṛṣṭam eva dvāraṃ, saṃnyāsasya tu sarva-vikṣepābhāvena vicārāvasara-dāna-rūpaṃ dṛṣṭam eva dvāram | niyamāpūrvaṃ tu dṛṣṭa-samavāyitvād avaghātādāv iva na prayojakam | tathā cādṛṣṭārtha-dṛṣṭārthayor ārād upakāraka-saṃnipātyopakārakayor eka-pradhānārthatve 'pi vikalpo nāsty eva | prayājāvaghātādīnām
api tat-prasaṅgāt | tasmāt krameṇobhayam apy anṣṭheyam | tatrāpi saṃnyāsānantaraṃ karmānuṣṭhānaṃ cet tadā parityakta-pūrvāśrama-svīkāreṇārūḍha-patitatvāt karmānadhikāritvaṃ prāktana-saṃnyāsa-vaiyarthyaṃ ca tasyādṛṣṭārthatvābhāvāt | prathama-kṛta-saṃnyāsenaiva jñānādhikāra-lābhe tad-uttara-kāle karmānuṣṭhāna-vaiyarthyaṃ ca | tasmād ādau bhagavad-arpaṇa-buddhyā niṣkāma-karmānuṣṭhānād antaḥ-karaṇa-śuddhau tīvreṇa vairāgyeṇa vividiṣāyāṃ dṛḍhāyāṃ sarva-karma-saṃnyāsaḥ śravaṇa-mananādi-rūpa-vedānta-vākya-vicārāya kartavya iti bhagavato matam | tathā coktam - na karmaṇām anārambhān
naiṣkarmyaṃ puruṣo 'śnute iti | vakṣyate ca -

ārurukṣor muner yogaṃ karma kāraṇam ucyate |
yogārūḍhasya tasyaiva śamaḥ kāraṇam ucyate || [Gītā 6.3] iti |

yogo 'tra tīvra-vairāgya-pūrvikā vividiṣā | tad uktaṃ vārtika-kāraiḥ -

pratyag vividiṣāsiddhyai vedānuvacanādayaḥ |
brahmāvāptyai tu tat-tyāga īpsantīti śruter balāt || iti |

smṛtiś ca -
kaṣāya-paṅktiḥ karmāṇi jñānaṃ tu paramā gatiḥ |
kaṣāye karmabhiḥ pakve tato jñānaṃ pravartate || iti |

mokṣa-dharme -
kaṣāyaṃ pācayitvā ca śreṇī-sthāneṣu ca triṣu |
pravrajec ca paraṃ sthānaṃ pārivrājyam anuttamam ||
bhāvinaḥ karaṇaiś cāyaṃ bahu-saṃsāra-yoniṣu |
āsādayati śuddhātmā mokṣaṃ vai prathamāśrame ||
tam āsādya tu muktasya dṛṣṭārthasya vipaścitaḥ |
triṣv āśrameṣu ko nv artho bhavet paramābhīpsitaḥ || iti |

mokṣaṃ vairāgyam | etena kramākrama-saṃnyāso dvāv api darśinau | tathā ca śrutiḥ - brahmacaryaṃ samāpya gṛhī bhaved gṛhād vanī bhūtvā pravrajed yadi vetarathā brahmacaryād eva pravrajed gṛhād vā vanād vā yad ahar eva virajet tad ahar eva pravrajet iti |

tasmād ajñasyāviraktatā-daśāyāṃ karmānuṣṭhānam eva | tasyaiva viraktatā-daśāyāṃ saṃnyāsaḥ śravaṇādy-avasara-dānena jñānārthaṃ iti daśā-bhedenājñam adhikṛtyaiva karma-tat-tyāgau vyākhyātuṃ pañcama-ṣaṣṭhāv adhyāyāv ārabhyete | vidvat-saṃnyāsas tu jñāna-balād artha-siddha eveti sandehābhāvān na vicāryate |

tatraikam eva jijñāsum ajñaṃ prati jñānārthatvena karma-tat-tyāgayor vigdhānāt tayoś ca viruddhayor yugapad anuṣṭhānāsambhavān mayā jijñāsunā kim idānīm anuṣṭheyam iti sandihāno 'rjuna uvāca saṃnyāsam iti |

he kṛṣṇa ! sadānanda-rūpa bhakta-duḥkha-karṣaṇeti vā | karmaṇāṃ yāvaj-jīvādi-śruti-vihitānāṃ nityānāṃ naimittikānāṃ ca saṃnyāsaṃ tyāgaṃ jijñāsum ajñaṃ prati kathayasi veda-mukhena punas tad-viruddhaṃ yogaṃ ca karmānuṣṭhāna-rūpaṃ śaṃsasi | etam eva pravrājino lokam icchantaḥ pravrajanti, tam etaṃ vedānuvacanena brāhmaṇā vividiṣanti yajñena ity ādi-vākya-dvayena -

nirāśīr yata-cittātmā tyakta-sarva-parigrahaḥ |
śārīraṃ kevalaṃ karma kurvann āpnoti kilbiṣam || [Gītā 4.21]

chittvainaṃ saṃśayaṃ yogam ātiṣṭhottiṣṭha bhārata iti gītā-vākya-dvayena vā | tatraikam ajñaṃ prati karma-tat-tyāgayor vidhānād yugapad ubhayānuṣṭhānasambhavād etayoḥ karma-tat-tyāgayor madhye yad ekaṃ śreyaḥ praśasyataraṃ manyase karma vā tat-tyāgaṃ vā tan me brūhi suniścitaṃ tava matam anuṣṭhānāya ||1||

viśvanāthaḥ :
proktaṃ jñānād api śreṣṭhaṃ karma tad-dāṛḍhya-siddhaye |
tat-padārthasya ca jñānaṃ sāmyād yā api pañcame ||

pūrvādhyāyānte śrutena vākya-dvāreṇa virodham āśaṅkamānaḥ pṛcchati sannyāsam iti |

yoga-saṃnyasta-karmāṇaṃ jñāna-saṃchinna-saṃśayam |
ātmavantaṃ na karmāṇi nibadhnanti dhanaṃjaya || [Gītā 4.41]

iti vākyena tvaṃ karma-yogenotpanna-jñānasya karma-saṃnyāsaṃ brūṣe |

tasmād ajñāna-saṃbhūtaṃ hṛt-sthaṃ jñānāsinātmanaḥ |
chittvainaṃ saṃśayaṃ yogam ātiṣṭhottiṣṭha bhārata || [Gītā 4.42]

ity anena punas tasyaiva karma-yogaṃ ca brūṣe | na ca karma-saṃnyāsaḥ karma-yogaś ca ekasyaiva ekadaiva sambhavataḥ, sthiti-gativat viruddha-svarūpatvāt | tasmāj jñānī karma-saṃnyāsaṃ kuryāt, karma-yogaṃ vā kuryād iti tvad-abhiprāyam anavagato |haṃ pṛcchāmi etayor madhye yad ekaṃ śreyas tvayā suniścitam tan me brūhi ||1||

baladevaḥ :
jñānataḥ karmaṇaḥ śraiṣṭhyaṃ sukaratvādinā hariḥ |
śuddhasya tad-akartṛtvaṃ tvety ādi prāha pañcame ||

dvitīye mumukṣuṃ praty ātma-vijñānaṃ mocakam abhidhāya tad-upāyayā niṣkāmaṃ karma kartavyam abhyadhāt | labdha-vijñānasya na kiṃcit karmāstīti yas tv ātma-ratir eva syāt iti tṛtīye, sarvaṃ karmākhilaṃ pārtha iti caturthe cāvādīt | ante tu tasmād ajñāna-saṃbhūtaṃ [Gītā 4.42] ity ādinā tasyaiva punaḥ karma-yogaṃ prāvocat | tatrārjunaḥ pṛcchati saṃnyāsam iti | he kṛṣṇa ! karmaṇāṃ sannyāsaṃ sarvendriya-vyāpāra-virati-rūpaṃ jñāna-yogam ity arthaḥ | punar yogaṃ karmānuṣṭhānaṃ ca sarvendriya-vyāpāra-rūpaṃ śaṃsasi | na caikasya yugapat tau sambhavetāṃ,
sthiti-gativat tamas-tejovac ca viruddha-svarūpatvāt | tasmāl labdha-jñānaḥ karma sannyased anutiṣṭhed veti bhavad-abhimataṃ vettum aśakto 'haṃ pṛcchāmi | etayoḥ karma-sannyāsa-karmānuṣṭhānayor yad ekaṃ śreyas tvayā suniścitaṃ tattvaṃ me brūhīti ||1||

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BhG 5.2

śrī-bhagavān uvāca
saṃnyāsaḥ karma-yogaś ca niḥśreyasa-karāv ubhau |
tayos tu karma-saṃnyāsāt karma-yogo viśiṣyate ||2||

śrīdharaḥ : atrottaraṃ śrī-bhagavān uvāca saṃnyāsa iti | ayaṃ bhāvaḥ - na hi vedānta-vedyātma-tattvajñaṃ prati karma-yogam ahaṃ bravīmi | yataḥ pūrvoktena saṃnyāsena virodhaḥ syāt | api tu dehātmābhimāninaṃ tvāṃ bandhu-vadhādi-nimitta-śoka-mohādi-kṛtam enaṃ saṃśayaṃ dehātma-viveka-jñānāsinā chittvā paramātma-jñānopāya-bhūtaṃ karma-yogam ātiṣṭheti bravīmi | karma-yogena śuddha-cittasyātma-tattva-jñāne jāte sati tat-paripākārthaṃ jñāna-niṣṭhāṅgatvena saṃnyāsaḥ pūrvam uktaḥ | evaṃ saty aṅga-pradhānayor vikalpa-yogāt saṃnyāsaḥ karma-yogaś
cety etāv ubhāv api bhūmikā-bhedena samuccitāv eva niḥśreyasaṃ sādhayataḥ | tathāpi tu tayor madhye tu karma-saṃnyāsāt sakāśāt karma-yogo viśiṣṭo bhavatīti ||2||

madhusūdanaḥ : evam arjunasya praśne tad-uttaram śrī-bhagavān uvāca saṃnyāsa iti | niḥśreyasa-karau jñānotpatti-hetutvena mokṣopayoginau | tayos tu karma-saṃnyāsād anadhikāri-kṛtāt karma-yogo viśiṣyate śreyān adhikāra-sampādakatvena ||2||

viśvanāthaḥ : karma-yogo viśiṣyata iti jñāninaḥ karma-karaṇe na ko 'pi doṣaḥ | pratyuta niṣkāma-karmaṇā citta-śuddhi-dārḍhyāj jñāna-dārḍhyam eva syāt | saṃnyāsinas tu kadācit citta-vaiguṇye sati tad-upaśamanārthaṃ kiṃ karma niṣiddham ? jñānābhyāsa-pratibandhakaṃ tu citta-vaiguṇyam eva | viṣaya-grahaṇe tu vāntāśitvam eva syād iti bhāvaḥ ||2||

baladevaḥ : evaṃ pṛṣṭo śrī-bhagavān uvāca saṃnyāsa iti | niḥśreyasa-karau mukti-hetū | karma-saṃnyāsāj jñāna-yogād viśiṣyate śreṣṭho bhavati | ayaṃ bhāvaḥ - na khalu labdha-jñānasyāpi karma-yogo doṣāvahaḥ | kintu jñāna-garbhatvāj jñāna-dārḍhya-kṛd eva | jñāna-niṣṭhatayā karma-sannyāsinas tu citta-doṣe sati tad-doṣa-vināśāya karmānuṣṭheyaṃ pratiṣedhaka-śāstrāt | karma-tyāga-vākyāni tv ātmani ratau satyāṃ karmāṇi taṃ svayaṃ tjayantīty āhuḥ | tasmāt sukaratvād apramādatvāj jñāna-garbhatvāc ca karma-yogaḥ śreyān iti ||2||

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BhG 5.3

jñeyaḥ sa nitya-saṃnyāsī yo na dveṣṭi na kāṅkṣati |
nirdvandvo hi mahā-bāho sukhaṃ bandhāt pramucyate ||3||

śrīdharaḥ : kuta ity apekṣāyāṃ saṃnyāsitvena karma-yoginaṃ stuvaṃs tasya śreṣṭhatvaṃ darśayati jñeya iti | rāga-dveṣādi-rāhityena parameśvarārthaṃ karmāṇi yo 'nutiṣṭhati sa nityaṃ karmānuṣṭhāna-kāle 'pi saṃnyāsīty evaṃ jñeyaḥ | tatra hetuḥ nirdvandvo rāga-dveṣādi-dvandva-śūnyo hi śuddha-citto jñāna-dvārā sukham anāyāsenaiva bandhāt saṃsārāt pramucyate ||3||

madhusūdanaḥ : tam eva karma-yogaṃ stauti jñeya iti tribhiḥ | sa karmaṇi pravṛtto 'pi nityaṃ saṃnyāsīti jñeyaḥ | ko 'sau ? yo na dveṣṭi bhagavad-arpaṇa-buddhyā kriyamāṇaṃ karma niṣphalatva-śaṅkayā | na kāṅkṣati svargādikam | nirdvandvo rāga-dveṣa-rahito hi yasmāt sukham anāyāsena he mahābāho bandhād antaḥkaraṇāśuddhi-rūpāj jñāna-pratibandhāt pramucyate nityānitya-vastu-vivekādi-prakarṣeṇa mukto bhavati ||3||

viśvanāthaḥ : na ca sannyāsa-prāpyo mokṣo 'kṛta-saṃnyāsenaiva tena na prāpya iti vācyam ity āha jñeya iti | sa tu śuddha-cittaḥ karmī nitya-saṃnyāsī eva jñeyaḥ | he mahābāho iti mukti-nagarīṃ jetuṃ sa eva mahāvīra iti bhāvaḥ ||3||

baladevaḥ : kuto viśiṣyate tatrāha jñeya iti | sa viśuddha-cittaḥ karma-yogī nitya-saṃnyāsī | sa sarvadā jñāna-yoga-niṣṭho jñeyaḥ | yaḥ karmāntargatātmānubhavānanda-paritṛptas tato 'nyat kiṃcit na kāṅkṣati na ca dveṣṭi | nirdvandvo dvandva-sahiṣṇuḥ sukham anāyāsena sukara-karma-niṣṭhayety arthaḥ ||3||

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BhG 5.4

sāṃkhya-yogau pṛthag bālāḥ pravadanti na paṇḍitāḥ |
ekam apy āsthitaḥ samyag ubhayor vindate phalam ||4||

śrīdharaḥ : yasmād evam aṅga-pradhānatvenobhayor avasthā-bhedena krama-samuccayaḥ | ato vikalpam aṅgīkṛtyobhayoḥ kaḥ śreṣṭha iti praśno 'jñāninām evocitaḥ | na vivekinām ity āha sāṅkhya-yogāv iti | sāṅkhya-śabdena jñāna-niṣṭhā-vācinā tad-aṅgaṃ saṃnyāsaṃ lakṣayati | saṃnyāsa-karma-yogau eka-phalau santau pṛthak svatantrāv iti bālā ajñā eva pravadanti na tu paṇḍitāḥ | tatra hetuḥ - anayor ekam apy samyag āsthita āśritavān ubhayor api phalam āpnoti | tathā hi karma-yogaṃ samyag anutiṣṭhan śuddha-cittaḥ san jñāna-dvārā yad ubhayoḥ phalaṃ kaivalyaṃ tad vindati | saṃnyāsaṃ samyag
āsthito 'pi pūrvam anuṣṭhitasya karma-yogasyāpi paramparayā jñāna-dvārā yad ubhayoḥ phalaṃ kaivalyaṃ tad vindatīti na pṛthak phalatvam anayor ity arthaḥ ||4||

madhusūdanaḥ : nanu yaḥ karmaṇi pravṛttaḥ sa kathaṃ saṃnyāsīti jñātavyaḥ karma-tat-tyāgayoḥ svarūpa-virodhāt phalaikyāt tatheti cet, na | svarūpato viruddhayoḥ phale 'pi virodhasyaucityāt | tathā ca niḥśreyasa-karāv ubhāv ity anupapannam ity āśaṅkyāha sāṃkhya-yogāv iti | saṃkhyā samyag ātma-buddhis tāṃ vahatīti jñānāntaraṅga-sādhanatayā sāṅkhyaḥ saṃnyāsaḥ | yogaḥ pūrvokta-karma-yogaḥ | tau pṛthag viruddha-phalau bālāḥ śāstrārtha-viveka-jñāna-śūnyāḥ pravadanti, na paṇḍitāḥ | kiṃ tarhi paṇḍitānāṃ matam ? ucyate - ekam apy saṃnyāsa-karmaṇor madhye samyag āsthitaḥ
svādhikārānurūpeṇa samyag yathā-śāstraṃ kṛtavān sann ubhayor vindate phalam jñānotpatti-dvāreṇa niḥśreyasam ekam eva ||4||

viśvanāthaḥ : tasmād yac chreya evaitayor iti tvad-uktam api vastuto na ghaṭate | vivekibhir ubhayoḥ pārthakyābhāvasya dṛṣṭatvād ity āha sāṃkhya-yogāv iti | sāṃkhya-śabdena jñāna-niṣṭhā-vācinā tad-aṅgaḥ saṃnyāso lakṣyate | saṃnyāsa-karma-yogau pṛthak svatantrāv iti bālāḥ vadanti, na tu vijñāḥ jñeyaḥ sa nitya-saṃnyāsī iti pūrvokteḥ | ata ekam apīty ādi ||4||

baladevaḥ : yaḥ śreya etayor ekam iti tvad-vākyaṃ ca na ghaṭata ity āha sāṃkhyeti | jñāna-yoga-karma-yogau phala-bhedāt pṛthag-bhūtāv iti bālāḥ pravadanti, na tu paṇḍitāḥ | ataeva ekam ity ādi phalam ātmāvaloka-lakṣaṇam ||4||

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BhG 5.5

yat sāṃkhyaiḥ prāpyate sthānaṃ tad yogair api gamyate |
ekaṃ sāṃkhyaṃ ca yogaṃ ca yaḥ paśyati sa paśyati ||5||

śrīdharaḥ : etad eva sphuṭayati yat sāṃkhyair iti | sāṃkhyair jñāna-niṣṭhaiḥ saṃnyāsibhir yat sthānaṃ mokṣākhyaṃ prakarṣeṇa sākṣād avāpyate, yogair ity ārśa āditvān matv-arthīyo 'c-pratyayo draṣṭavyaḥ | tena karma-yogibhir api tad eva jñāna-dvāreṇa gamyate 'vāpyate | ataḥ sāṃkhyaṃ ca yogaṃ ca ekaphalatvena ekaṃ yaḥ paśyati sa eva samyak paśyati ||5||

madhusūdanaḥ : ekasyānuṣṭhānāt katham ubhayoḥ phalaṃ vindate tathāha yat sāṃkhyair iti | sāṅkhyair jñāna-niṣṭhaiḥ saṃnyāsibhir aihika-karmānuṣṭhāna-śūnyatve 'pi prāg-bhavīya-karmabhir eva saṃskṛtāntaḥ-karaṇaiḥ śravaṇādi-pūrvikayā jñāna-niṣṭhayā yat prasiddhaṃ sthānaṃ tiṣṭhaty evāsmin na tu kadāpi cyavata iti vyutpattyā mokṣākhyaṃ prāpyata āvaraṇābhāva-mātreṇa labhyata iva nitya-prāptatvāt, yogair api bhagavad-arpaṇa-buddhyā phalābhisandhi-rāhityena kṛtāni karmāṇi śāstrīyāṇi yogās te yeṣāṃ santi te 'pi yogāḥ | arśa-āditvān matv-arthīyo 'c-pratyayaḥ | tair yogibhir api sattva-śuddhyā
saṃhyāsa-pūrvaka-śravaṇādi-puraḥ-sarayā jñāna-niṣṭhayā vartamāne bhaviṣyati vā janmani sampatsyamānayā tat sthānaṃ gamyate | ata eka-phalatvād ekaṃ sāṃkhyaṃ ca yogaṃ ca yaḥ paśyati sa eva samyak paśyati nānyaḥ |

ayaṃ bhāvaḥ yeṣāṃ saṃnyāsa-pūrvikā jñāna-niṣṭhā dṛśyate teṣāṃ tayaiva liṅgena prāg-janmasu bhagavad-arpita-karma-niṣṭhānumīyate | kāraṇam antareṇa kāryotpatty-ayogāt | tad uktam -

yāny ato 'nyāni janmāni teṣu nūnaṃ kṛtaṃ bhavet |
yat kṛtyaṃ puruṣeṇeha nānyathā brahmaṇi sthitiḥ || iti |

evaṃ yeṣāṃ bhagavad-arpita-karma-niṣṭhā dṛśyate teṣāṃ tayaiva liṅgena bhāvinī saṃnyāsa-pūrvajñāna-niṣṭhānumīyate sāmagryāḥ kāryāvyabhicāritvāt | tasmād ajñena mumukṣuṇāntaḥkaraṇa-śuddhaye prathamaṃ karma-yogo 'nuṣṭheyo na tu saṃnyāsaḥ | sa tu vairāgya-tīvratāyāṃ svayam eva bhaviṣyatīti ||5||

viśvanāthaḥ : etad eva spaṣṭayati yad iti | sāṃkhyaiḥ sannyāsena yogair niṣkāma-karmaṇā | bahu-vacanaṃ gauraveṇa | ataeva tad dvayaṃ pṛthag-bhūtam api yo vivekenaikam eva paśyati sa paśyati, cakṣuṣmān paṇḍita ity arthaḥ ||5||

baladevaḥ : etad viśadayati yad iti | sāṃkhyair jñāna-yogibhir yogaiḥ niṣkāma-karmabhiḥ | arśa ādy ac | sthānaṃ ātmāvaloka-lakṣaṇam | ataeva tad dvayaṃ nivṛtti-pravṛtti-rūpatayā bhinna-rūpam api phalaikyād ekaṃ yaḥ paśyati vetti, sa paśyati sa cakṣuṣmān paṇḍita ity arthaḥ ||5||

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BhG 5.6

saṃnyāsas tu mahābāho duḥkham āptum ayogataḥ |
yoga-yukto munir brahma nacireṇādhigacchati ||6||

śrīdharaḥ : yadi karma-yogino 'py antataḥ saṃnyāsenaiva jñāna-nisṭhā tarhy ādita eva saṃnyāsaḥ kartuṃ yukta iti manvānaṃ praty āha saṃnyāsa iti | ayogataḥ karma-yogaṃ vinā saṃnyāso duḥkham āptum duḥkha-hetuḥ | aśakya ity arthaḥ | citta-śuddhy-abhāvena jñāna-niṣṭhāyā asambhavāt | yoga-yuktas tu śuddha-cittatayā muniḥ saṃnyāsī bhūtvācireṇaiva brahmādhigacchati | aparokṣaṃ jānāti | ataś citta-śuddheḥ prāk karma-yoga eva saṃnyāsād viśiṣyata iti pūrvoktaṃ siddham | tad uktaṃ vārttika-kṛdbhiḥ -

pramādino bahiś cittāḥ piśunāḥ kalahotsukāḥ |
sannyāsino 'pi dṛśyante daiva-sandūṣitāśrayāḥ || iti ||6||

madhusūdanaḥ : aśuddhāntaḥkaraṇenāpi saṃnyāsa eva prathamaṃ kuto na kriyate jñāna-niṣṭhā-hetutvena tasyāvaśakatvād iti cet tatrāha saṃnyāsa iti | ayogato yogam antaḥ-karaṇa-śodhakaṃ śāstrīyaṃ karmāntareṇa haṭhād eva yaḥ kṛtaḥ saṃnyāsaḥ sa tu duḥkham āptum eva bhavati, aśuddhāntaḥkaraṇatvena tat-phalasya jñāna-nisṭhāyā asambhavāt | śodhake ca karmaṇy anadhikārāt karma-brahmobhaya-bhraṣṭatvena parama-saṅkaṭāpatteḥ | karma-yoga-yuktas tu śuddhāntaḥkaraṇatvān munir manana-śīlaḥ saṃnyāsī bhūtvā brahma satya-jñānādi-lakṣaṇam ātmānaṃ na cireṇa śīghram evādhigacchati
sākṣātkaroti pratibandhakābhāvāt | etac coktaṃ prāg eva -

na karmaṇām anārambhān naiṣkarmyaṃ puruṣo 'śnute |
na ca saṃnyasanād eva siddhiṃ samadhigacchati || [Gītā 3.4] iti |

ata eka-phalatve 'pi karma-saṃnyāsāt karma-yogo viśiṣyata iti yat prāg uktaṃ tad upapannam ||6||

viśvanāthaḥ : kintu samyak-citta-śuddhim anirdhārayato jñāninaḥ saṃnyāso duḥkhadaḥ karma-yogas tu sukhada eveti pūrva-vyañjitam arthaṃ spaṣṭam evāha saṃnyāsas tv iti | citta-vaiguṇye satīti śeṣaḥ | ayogataḥ karma-yogābhāvāc citta-vaiguṇya-praśāmaka-karma-yogasya saṃnyāsiny abhāvāt tatra anadhikārād ity arthaḥ | saṃnyāso duḥkham eva prāptuṃ bhavati | tad uktaṃ vārttika-kṛdbhiḥ -

pramādino bahiś cittāḥ piśunāḥ kalahotsukāḥ |
sannyāsino 'pi dṛśyante daiva-sandūṣitāśrayāḥ || iti |

śrutir api -yadi na samuddharanti yatayo hṛdi kāma-jaṭā iti | bhagavatāpi yas tva saṃyata-ṣaḍ-vargaḥ [BhP 11.18.40] ity ādy uktam | tasmād yoga-yuktaḥ niṣkāma-karmavān munir jñānī san brahma śīghraṃ prāpnoti ||6||

baladevaḥ : jñāna-yogasya duṣkaratvāt sukara-karma-yogaḥ śreyān ity āha saṃnyāsas tv iti | saṃnyāsaḥ sarvendriya-vyāpāra-vinivṛtti-rūpo jñāna-yogaḥ | ayogataḥ karma-yogaṃ vinā duḥkhaṃ prāptum bhavati | duṣkaratvāt sapramādatvāc ca duḥkha-hetur eva syād ity arthaḥ | yoga-yukta-niṣkāma-karmī tu munir ātma-manana-śīlaḥ sann acireṇa śīghram eva brahmādhigacchati ||6||

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BhG 5.7

yoga-yukto viśuddhātmā vijitātmā jitendriyaḥ |
sarva-bhūtātma-bhūtātmā kurvann api na lipyate ||7||

śrīdharaḥ : karma-yogādi-krameṇa brahmādhigame saty api tad-uparitanena karmaṇā bandhaḥ syād evety āśaṅkyāha yoga-yukta iti | yogena yuktaḥ | ataeva viśuddha ātmā cittaṃ yasya saḥ | ataeva vijita ātmā śarīraṃ yena | ataeva jitānīndriyāṇi yena | tataś ca sarveṣāṃ bhūtānām ātma-bhūta ātmā yasya sa loka-saṅgrahārthaṃ svābhāvikaṃ vā karma kurvann api na lipyate ||7||

madhusūdanaḥ : nanu karmaṇo bandha-hetutvād yoga-yukto munir brahmādhigacchatīty anupapannam ity ata āha yoga-yukta iti | bhagavad-arpaṇa-phalābhisandhi-rāhityādi-guṇa-yuktaṃ śāstrīyaṃ karma yoga ity ucyate | tena yogena yuktaḥ puruṣaḥ prathamaṃ viśuddhātmā viśuddho rajas-tamo-bhyām akaluṣita ātmāntaḥkaraṇa-rūpaṃ sattvaṃ yasya sa tathā | nirmalāntaḥ-karaṇaḥ san vijitātmā sva-vaśīkṛta-dehaḥ | tato jitendriyaḥ sva-vaśīkṛta-sarva-bāhyendriyaḥ | etena manūktas tridaṇḍī kathitaḥ -

vāg-daṇḍo 'tha mano-daṇḍaḥ kāya-daṇḍas tathaiva ca |
yasyaite nityatā daṇḍāḥ sa tridaṇḍīti kathyata || iti |

vāg iti bāhyendriyopalakṣaṇam | etādṛśasya tattva-jñānam avaśyaṃ bhavatīty āha sarva-bhūtātma-bhūtātmā sarva-bhūta ātma-bhūtaś cātmā svarūpaṃ yasya sa tathā | jaḍājaḍātmakaṃ sarva ātma-mātraṃ paśyann ity arthaḥ | sarveṣāṃ bhūtānām ātma-bhūta ātmā yasyeti vyākhyāne tu sarva-bhūtātmety etāvataivārtah-lābhād ātma-bhūtety adhikaṃ syāt | sarvātma-padayor jaḍājaḍa-paratve tu samañjasam | etādṛśaḥ paramārtha-darśī kurvann api karmāṇi para-dṛṣṭyā na lipyate taiḥ karmabhiḥ sva-dṛṣṭyā tad-abhāvād ity arthaḥ ||7||

viśvanāthaḥ : kṛtenāpi karmaṇā jñāninas tasya na lepa ity āha yogeti | yoga-yukto jñānī trividhaḥ - viśuddhātmā vijita-buddhir ekaḥ | vijitātmā viśuddha-citto dvitīyaḥ | jitendriyas tṛtīya iti | pūrva-pūrveṣāṃ sādhana-tāratamyād utkarṣaḥ | etādṛśe gṛhasthe tu sarve 'pi jīvā anurajyantīty āha sarveṣām api bhūtānām ātma-bhūtaḥ premāspadībhūta ātmā deho yasya saḥ ||7||

baladevaḥ : īdṛśī mumukṣuḥ sarveṣāṃ preyān ity āha yogeti | yoge niṣkāme karmaṇi yukto nirataḥ | ataeva viśuddhātmā nirmala-buddhiḥ | ataeva vijitātmā vaśīkṛta-manāḥ | ataeva jitendriyaḥ śabdādi-viṣaya-rāga-śūnyaḥ | ataeva sarveṣāṃ bhūtānāṃ jīvānām ātma-bhūtaḥ premāspadatām gata ātmā deho yasya saḥ | na cātra pārtha-sārathinā sarvātmaikyam abhimatam - na tv evāham ity ādinā sarvātmanāṃ mitho bhedasya tenābhidhānāt | tad-vādināpi vijñājñābhedasya vaktum aśaktyatvāc ca | evambhūtaḥ kurvann api viviktātmānusandhānād anātmany ātmābhimānena na lipyate acireṇātmānam adhigacchati | ataḥ karma-yogaḥ
śreyān ||7||

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BhG 5.8

naiva kiṃ cit karomīti yukto manyeta tattva-vit |
paśyañ śṛṇvan spṛśañ jighrann aśnan gacchan svapañ śvasan ||8||
pralapan visṛjan gṛhṇann unmiṣan nimiṣann api |
indriyāṇīndriyārtheṣu vartanta iti dhārayan ||9||

śrīdharaḥ : karma kurvann api na lipyata ity etad viruddham ity āśaṅkya kartṛtvābhimānābhāvān na viruddham ity āha naiveti dvābhyām | karma-yogena yuktaḥ krameṇa tattvavid bhūtvā darśana-śravaṇādīni kurvann apīndriyāṇīndriyārtheṣu vartanta iti dhārayan buddhyā niścinvan kiṃcid apy ahaṃ na karomīti manyeta manyate | tatra darśana-śravaṇa-sparśanāghrānāśanāni cakṣur-ādi-jñānendriya-vyāpārāḥ | gatiḥ pādayoḥ | svāpo buddheḥ | śvāsaḥ prāṇasya | pralapanaṃ vāg-indriyasya | visargaḥ pāyūpasthayoḥ | grahaṇaṃ hastayoḥ | unmeṣaṇa-nimeṣaṇe kūrmākhya-prāṇasyeti vivekaḥ | etāni karmāṇi kurvann api abhimānābhāvād brahma-vin
na lipyate | tathā ca parāmarṣaṃ sūtram - tad-adhigama uttara-pūrvāghayor aśleṣa-vināśau tad-vyapadeśād iti ||8-9||
madhusūdanaḥ : etad eva vivṛṇoti naiveti dvābhyām | cakṣur-ādi-jñānendriyair vāg-ādi-karmendriyaiḥ prāṇā̆di-vāyu-bhedair antaḥ-karaṇa-catuṣṭayena ca tat-tac-ceṣṭāsu kriyamāṇāsu indriyāṇīndriyādīny evendriyārtheṣu sva-sva-viṣayeṣu vartante pravartante na tv aham iti dhārayann avadhārayann naiva kiṃcit karomīti manyeta manyate tattvavit paramārtha-darśī yuktaḥ samāhita-cittaḥ | athavādau yuktaḥ karma-yogena paścād antaḥkaraṇa-śuddhi-dvāreṇa tattvavid bhūtvā naiva kiṃcit karomīti manyata iti sambandhaḥ |

tatra darśana-śravaṇa-sparśana-ghrāṇāśanāni cakṣuḥ-śrotra-tvag-ghrāṇa-rasanānāṃ pañca-jñānendriyāṇāṃ vyāpārāḥ paśyan śṛṇvan spṛśañ jighrann aśnann ity uktāḥ | gatiḥ pādayoḥ | pralāpo vācaḥ | visargaḥ pāyūpasthayoḥ | grahaṇaṃ hastayor iti pañca karmendriya-vyāpārā gacchan pralapan visṛjan gṛhṇann ity uktāḥ | śvasann iti prāṇādi-pañcakasya vyāpāropalakṣaṇam | unmiṣan nimiṣann iti nāga-kūrmādi-pañcakasya | svapann ity antaḥ-karaṇa-catuṣṭayasya | artha-krama-vaśāt pāṭha-kramaṃ bhaṅktvā vyākhyātāv imau ślokau | yasmāt sarva-vyāpāreṣv apy ātmano 'kartṛtvam eva paśyati | ataḥ kurvann api na lipyata
iti yuktam evoktam iti bhāvaḥ ||8-9||

viśvanāthaḥ : yena karmaṇālepas taṃ prakāraṃ śikṣayati naiveti | yuktaḥ karma-yogī darśanādīni kurvann apīndriyāṇīndriyārtheṣu vartanta iti dhārayan buddhyā niścinvan nirabhimānaḥ kiṃcid apy ahaṃ naiva karomīti manyate ||8-9||

baladevaḥ : śuddhasyātmano 'dhiṣṭhānādi-pañcāpekṣita-karma-kartṛtvaṃ nāstīty upadiśati naiveti | yukto niṣkāma-karmī prādhānika-dehendriyādi-saṃsargād darśanādīni karmāṇi kurvann api tattva-vit viviktam ātma-tattvam anubhavan indriyārtheṣu rūpādiṣu indriyāṇi cakṣur-ādīni mad-vāsanānuguṇa-paramātma-preritāni vartanta iti dhārayan niścinvann ahaṃ kiṃcid api na karomīti manyate | paśyañ śṛṇvan spṛśañ jighrann aśnann iti cakṣuḥ-śrotra-tvag-ghrāṇa-rasanānāṃ jñānendriyāṇāṃ darśana-śravaṇa-sparśanāghrānāśanāni vyāpārāḥ | tatra gamanaṃ pādayoḥ | pralāpo vācaḥ | visargānandaḥ pāyūpasthayoḥ
| grahaṇaṃ hastayor iti bodhyam | śvasann iti prāṇādīnām unmiṣan nimiṣann iti nāgādīnāṃ prāṇa-bhedānām | svapann ity antaḥkaraṇānām ity arthaḥ kramād vyākhyeyam | vijñāna-sukhaika-rasasya mamānādi-vāsanā-hetuka-prādhānika-dehādi-sambandha-nimittaṃ tadīdṛśa-karma-kartṛtvam, na tu svarūpaika-nimittam iti manyata ity arthaḥ | na svarūpa-prayuktam ātmanaḥ kartṛtvaṃ kiṃcid api nāstīti śakyam abhidhātuṃ nirdhāraṇe manane ca tasyābhidhānāt | tat tac ca jñānam eva tac cātmano nityam | na hi vijñātur vijñāter viparilāpo vidyate iti śruteḥ | tat-siddhiś ca hariṇā dharma-bhūtena jñānena ca ity āhuḥ ||8-9||

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BhG 5.10

brahmaṇy ādhāya karmāṇi saṅgaṃ tyaktvā karoti yaḥ |
lipyate na sa pāpena padma-patram ivāmbhasā ||10||

śrīdharaḥ : tarhi yasya karomīti abhimāno 'sti tasya karma-lepo durvāraḥ | tathāviśuddha-cittatvāt saṃnyāso 'pi nāsti iti mahat saṅkaṭam āpannam ity āśaṅkyāha brahmaṇīti | brahmaṇy ādhāya parameśvare samarpya | tat-phale ca saṅgaṃ tyaktvā | yaḥ karmāṇi karoti asau pāpena bandhu-hetutayā pāpiṣṭhena puṇya-pāpātmakena karmaṇā na lipyate yathā padma-patram ambhasi sthitam api tenāmbhasā na lipyate tadvat ||10||

madhusūdanaḥ : tarhy avidvān kartṛtvābhimānāl lipyetaiva tathā ca karthaṃ tasya saṃnyāsa-pūrvikā jñāna-niṣṭhā syād iti tatrāha brahmaṇīti | brahmaṇi parameśvara ādhāya samarpya saṅgaṃ phalābhilāṣaṃ tyaktveśvarārthaṃ bhṛtya iva svāmy-arthaṃ sva-phala-nirapekṣatayā karomīty abhiprāyeṇa karmāṇi laukikāni vaidikāni ca karoti yo lipyate na sa pāpena pāpa-puṇyātmakena karmaṇeti yāvat | yathā padma-patram upari prakṣiptenāmbhasā na lipyate tadvat | bhagavad-arpaṇa-buddhyānuṣṭhitaṃ karma buddhi-śuddhi-phalam eva syāt ||10||

viśvanāthaḥ : kiṃ ca brahmaṇi parameśvare mayi samarpya saṅgaṃ tyaktvā sābhimāno 'pi karmāsaktiṃ vihāya yaḥ karmāṇi karoti | pāpenety upalakṣaṇam | so 'pi karma-mātreṇaiva na lipyate ||10||

baladevaḥ : uktaṃ viśadayann āha brahmaṇīti | brahma-śabdenātra triguṇāvasthaṃ pradhānam uktam | tasmād etad brahma-nāma-rūpam annaṃ ca jñāyata iti śravaṇāt | mama yonir mahad brahma iti vakṣyamāṇāc ca | dehendriyādīni pradhāna-pariṇāma-viśeṣāṇi bhavanti tad-rūpatayā pariṇate pradhāne darśanādīni karmāṇy ādhāya tasyaivaitāni | na tu tad-viviktasya śuddhasya mameti nirdhāryety arthaḥ | saṅgaṃ tat-phalābhilāṣaṃ tat-kartṛtvābhiniveśaṃ ca tyaktvā | yas tāni karoti sa tādṛg dehādimattayā sann api dehādy-ātmābhimānena pāpena na lipyate | tathoparinikṣiptenāmbhasā spṛṣṭam api padma-patraṃ tadvat | na ca mayi saṃnyasya karmāṇi iti pūrva-svārasyād brahmaṇi paramātmanīti vyākhyeyam
| prādhānika-dehādi-saṃsṛṣṭasyaiva jīvasya darśanādi-karma-kartṛtvaṃ, na tu tad-viviktasyety arthasya prakṛtatvāt ||10||

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BhG 5.11

kāyena manasā buddhyā kevalair indriyair api |
yoginaḥ karma kurvanti saṅgaṃ tyaktvātma-śuddhaye ||11||

śrīdharaḥ : kevalaṃ sattva-śuddhi-mātra-phalam eva tasya karmaṇaḥ syāt yasmāt kāyeneti | kāyena dehena manasā buddhyā ca | yoginaḥ saṅgaṃ tyaktvā kāyena manasā buddhyā kevalair indriyair api | kevala-śabdaḥ kāyādibhir api pratyekaṃ sambadhyate | sarva-vyāpāreṣu mamatā-varjanāya yoginaḥ karmiṇaḥ karma kurvanti | saṅgaṃ tyaktvā phala-viṣayam | ātma-śuddhaye sattva-śuddhaya ity arthaḥ | tasmāt tatraiva tavādhikāra iti ||11||

madhusūdanaḥ : tad eva vivṛṇoti kāyeneti | kāyena manasā buddhyendriyair api yoginaḥ karmiṇaḥ phala-saṅgaṃ tyaktvā karma kurvanti kāyādīnāṃ sarveṣāṃ viśeṣaṇaṃ kevalair iti | īśvarāyaiva karomi na mama phalāyeti mamatā-śūnyair ity arthaḥ | ātma-śuddhaye citta-śuddhy-artham ||11||

viśvanāthaḥ : kevalair indriyair iti | indrāya svāhā ity ādinā havir-ādy-arpaṇa-kāle yadyapi manaḥ kvāpy anyatra tad apīty arthaḥ | ātma-viśuddhaye manaḥ-śuddhy-artham ||11||

baladevaḥ : sad-ācāraṃ pramāṇayann etad vivṛṇoti kāyeneti | kāyādibhiḥ sādhyaṃ karma kāyādy-ahaṃbhāva-śūnyā yoginaḥ kurvanti | kevalair viśuddhaiḥ | saṅgaṃ tyaktveti prāgvad ātma-śuddhaye anādi-dehātmābhimāna-nivṛttaye ||11||

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BhG 5.12

yuktaḥ karma-phalaṃ tyaktvā śāntim āpnoti naiṣṭhikīm |
ayuktaḥ kāma-kāreṇa phale sakto nibadhyate ||12||

śrīdharaḥ : nanu kathaṃ tenaiva karmaṇā kaścin mucyate kaścid badhyate iti vyavasthā ? ata āha yukta iti | yuktaḥ parameśvaraika-niṣṭhaḥ san karmaṇaḥ phalaṃ tyaktvā karmaṇi kurvann ātyantikīṃ śāntiṃ mokṣaṃ prāpnoti | ayuktas tu bahirmukhaḥ kāma-kāreṇa kāmataḥ pravṛttyā phala āsakto nitarāṃ bandhaṃ prāpnoti ||12||

madhusūdanaḥ : kartṛtvābhimāna-sāmye 'pi tenaiva karmaṇā kaścin mucyate kaścit tu badhyata iti vaiṣamye ko hetur iti tatrāha yukta iti | yukta īśvarāyaivaitāni karmāṇi na mama phalāyety evam abhiprāyavān karma-phalaṃ tyaktvā karmāṇi kurvan śāntim mokṣākhyām āpnoti naiṣṭhikīṃ sattva-śuddhi-nitya-vastu-viveka-saṃnyāsa-jñāna-niṣṭhā-krameṇa jātām iti yāvat | yas tu punar ayukta īśvarāyaivaitāni karmāṇi na mama phalāyety abhiprāya-śūnyaḥ sa kāma-kāreṇa kāmataḥ pravṛttyā mama phalāyaivedaṃ karma karomīti phale sakto nibadhyate karmabhir nitarāṃ saṃsāra-bandhaṃ prāpnoti | yasmād evaṃ tasmāt tvam api yuktaḥ san karmāṇi kurv iti vākya-śeṣaḥ
||12||

viśvanāthaḥ : karma-karaṇe anāsakty-āsaktī eva mokṣa-bandha-hetū ity āha yukto yogī niṣkāma-karmītity arthaḥ | naiṣṭhikīm niṣṭhā-prāptāṃ śāntiṃ mokṣam ity arthaḥ | ayuktaḥ sa-kāma-karmīty arthaḥ | kāma-kāreṇa kāma-pravṛttyā ||12||

baladevaḥ : yukta ātmārpita-manāḥ karma-phalaṃ tyaktvā kurvann naiṣṭhikīm sthirāṃ śāntim ātmāvaloka-lakṣaṇām āpnoti | ayukta ātmānarpita-manāḥ karma-phale saktaḥ kāma-kāreṇa kāmataḥ karmaṇi pravṛttyā nibadhyate saṃsarati ||12||

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BhG 5.13

sarva-karmāṇi manasā saṃnyasyāste sukhaṃ vaśī |
nava-dvāre pure dehī naiva kurvan na kārayan ||13||

śrīdharaḥ : evaṃ tāvac citta-śuddhi-śūnyasya saṃnyāsāt karma-yogo viśiṣyate ity etat prapañcitam | idānīṃ śuddha-cittasya saṃnyāsaḥ śreṣṭha ity āha sarva-karmāṇīti | vaśī yata-cittaḥ | sarvāṇi karmāṇi vikṣepakāni manasā viveka-yuktena saṃnyasya sukhaṃ yathā bhavaty evaṃ jñāna-niṣṭhaḥ sann āste | kvāsta iti ? ata āha nava-dvāra iti | netre nāsike karṇau mukhaṃ ceti sapta śiro-gatāni | adhogate dve pāyūpastha-rūpe iti | evaṃ nava-dvārāṇi yasmiṃs tasmin pure puravad ahaṅkāra-śūnye dehe dehy avatiṣṭhate | ahaṅkārābhāvād eva svyaṃ tena dehena naiva kurvan mama-kārābhāvāc ca na kārayan ity aviśuddha-cittād vyavṛttir
uktā | aśuddha-citto hi saṃnyasya punaḥ karoti kārayati ca | na tv ayaṃ tathā | antaḥ sukhaṃ āsta ity arthaḥ ||13||

madhusūdanaḥ : aśuddha-cittasya kevalāt saṃnyāsāt karma-yogaḥ śreyān iti pūrvoktaṃ prapañcyādhunā śuddha-cittasya sarva-karma-saṃnyāsa eva śreyān ity āha sarva-karmāṇīti | nityaṃ naimittikaṃ kāmyaṃ pratiṣiddhaṃ ceti sarvāṇi karmāṇi manasā karmaṇy akarma yaḥ paśyed ity atroktenākartrātma-svarūpa-samyag-darśanena saṃnyasya parityajya prārabdha-karma-vaśād āste tiṣṭhaty eva | kiṃ duḥkhena nety āha sukham anāyāsena | āyāsa-hetu-kāya-vāṅ-mano-vyāpāra-śūnyatvāt | kāya-vāṅ-manāṃsi svacchandāni kuto na vyāpriyante tatrāha vaśī sva-vaśīkṛta-kārya-karaṇa-saṅghātaḥ | kvāste ? nava-dvāre pure dve śrotre dve cakṣuṣī dve
nāsike vāg eketi śirasi sapta | dve pāyūpasthākhye adha iti nava-dvāra-viśiṣṭe dehe | dehī deha-bhinnātma-darśī pravāsīva para-gehe tat-pūjā-paribhavādibhir aprahṛṣyann aviṣīdann ahaṅkāra-mamakāra-śūnyas tiṣṭhati | ajño hi dehatādātmyābhimānād deha eva na tu dehī | sa ca dehādhikaraṇam evātmano 'dhikaraṇaṃ manyamāno gṛhe bhūmāvasāne vāham āsa ity abhimanyate na tu dehe 'ham āsa iti bheda-darśanābhāvāt | saṃghāta-vyatiriktātma-darśī tu sarva-karma-saṃnyāsī bheda-darśanād dehe 'ham āsa iti pratipadyate | ataeva dehādi-vyāpārāṇām avidyayātmany akriye samāropitānāṃ vidyayā bādha eva sarva-karma-saṃnyāsa ity ucyate | etasmād evājña-vailakṣaṇyādy-uktaṃ viśeṣaṇaṃ nava-dvāre pure āsta iti |

nanu dehādi-vyāpārāṇām ātmany āropitānāṃ nau-vyāpārāṇāṃ tīrastha-vṛkṣa iva vidyayā bādhe 'pi sva-vyāpāreṇātmanaḥ kartṛtvaṃ dehādi-vyāpāreṣu kārayitṛtvaṃ ca syād iti nety āha naiva kurvan na kārayan | āsta iti sambandhaḥ ||13||

viśvanāthaḥ : ato 'nāsaktaḥ karmāṇi kurvann api jñeyaḥ sa nitya-saṃnyāsī iti pūrvoktavad vastutaḥ saṃnyāsī evocyate tatrāha sarva-karmāṇi manasā saṃnyasya kāyādi-vyāpāreṇa bahiḥ kurvann api vaśī jitendriyaḥ sukham āste | kutra ? nava-dvāre pure ahaṃ-bhāva-śūnye dehe dehy utpanna-jñāno jīvo naiva kurvann iti karma-sukhasya vastutaḥ kartṛtvaṃ naivāstīti jānan, na kārayann iti nāpi teṣu prayojana-kartṛtvam ity api jānann ity arthaḥ ||13||

baladevaḥ : sarveti | vivekatā manasā tādṛśi pradhāne sarva-karmāṇi saṃnyasyārpayitvā dehādinā bahis tāni kurvann api vaśī jitendriyaḥ sukhaṃ āste | nava-dvāre pure puravad ahaṃ-bhāva-varjite dehe dve netre dve nāsike dve śrotre mukhaṃ ceti śirasi sapta dvārāṇi adhastāt tu pāyūpasthākhye dve iti nava-dvārāṇi dehī labdha-jñānojīvaḥ | naiveti dehādi-viviktasyātmanaḥ karmasu kartṛtvaṃ kārayitṛtvaṃ ca nāstīti vijānann ity arthaḥ ||13||

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BhG 5.14

na kartṛtvaṃ na karmāṇi lokasya sṛjati prabhuḥ |
na karma-phala-saṃyogaṃ svabhāvas tu pravartate ||14||

śrīdharaḥ : nanu eṣa hy evainaṃ sādhu karma kārayati taṃ yam ebhyo lokebhya unninīṣate | eṣa asādhu karma kārayati taṃ yam adho ninīṣate ity-ādi-śruteḥ parameśvareṇaiva śubhāśubha-phaleṣu karmasu kartṛtvena prayujyamāno 'svatantraḥ puruṣaḥ kathaṃ tāni karmāṇi tyajet ? īśvareṇaiva jñāna-mārge prayujyamāṇaḥ śubhāśubhani ca tyakṣyatīti cet ? evaṃ sati vaiṣamya-nairghṛṇyābhyām īśvarasyāpi prayojaka-kartṛtvāt puṇya-pāpa-sambandhaḥ syād ity āśaṅkyāha na kartṛtvam iti dvābhyām | prabhur īśvaro jīva-lokasya kartṛtvādikaṃ na sṛjati, kintu jīvasya svabhāvo 'vidyaiva kartṛtvādi-rūpeṇa pravartate | anādy-avidyā-kāma-vaśāt
pravṛtti-svabhāvaṃ jīva-lokam īśvaraḥ karmasu niyuṅkte | na tu svayam eva kartṛtvādikam utpādayatīty arthaḥ ||14||

madhusūdanaḥ : devadattasya svagataiva gatir yathā sthitau satyāṃ na bhavati evam ātmano 'pi kartṛtvaṃ kārayitṛtvam na svagatam eva sat-saṃnyāse sati na bhavati, athavā nabhasi tala-malinatādivad vastu-vṛttyā tatra nāsty eveti sandehāpohāyāha na kartṛtvam iti | lokasya dehādeḥ kartṛtvaṃ prabhur ātmā svāmī na sṛjati tvaṃ kurv iti niyogena tasya kārayitā na bhavatīty arthaḥ | nāpi lokasya karmāṇīpsitatamāni ghaṭādīni svayaṃ sṛjati kartāpi na bhavatīty arthaḥ | nāpi lokasya karma kṛtavatas tat-phala-sambandhaṃ sṛjati bhojayitāpi bhoktāpi na bhavatīty arthaḥ | na samānaḥ sann ubhau lokāv anusaṃcarati dhyāyatīva lelāyatīva sadhīḥ ity ādi śruteḥ | atrāpi śarīrastho 'pi kaunteya na karoti
na lipyate [Gītā 13.31] ity ukteḥ |

yadi kiṃcid api svato na kārayati na karoti cātmā kas tarhi kārayan kurvaṃś ca pravartata iti tatrāha svabhāvas tv iti | ajñānātmikā daivī māyā prakṛtiḥ pravartate ||14||

viśvanāthaḥ : nanu ca yadi jīvasya vastutaḥ kartṛtvādikaṃ naivāsti, tarhi parameśvara-sṛṣṭe jagati sarvatra jīvasya kartṛtva-bhokṛtvādi-darśanān manye parameśareṇaiva balāt tasya kartṛtvādikaṃ sṛṣṭam | tathā sati tasmin vaiṣamya-nairghṛṇye prasakte, tatra na hi nahīty āha na kartṛtvam iti | nāpi tat-kartṛtvena karmāṇy api, na ca karma-phalair bhogaiḥ saṃyogam api, kintu jīvasya svabhāvo 'nādy-avidyaiva pravartate | taṃ jīvaṃ kartṛtvādy-abhimānam ārohayitum iti bhāvaḥ ||14||

baladevaḥ : etad dvayaṃ śuddhasya nāstīti viśadayati neti | prabhur dehendriyādīnāṃ svāmī jīvo lokasya janasya kartṛtvaṃ na sṛjatīti tvaṃ kurv iti kārayitā na bhavati | nāpi tasyepsitatamāni karmāṇi mālyāmbarādīni sṛjatīti svayaṃ kartāpi na bhavati | na ca karma-phalena sukhena duḥkhena ca saṃyogaṃ sambandhaṃ sṛjatīti bhojayitā bhoktā ca na bhavatīty arthaḥ | yady evaṃ, tarhi kaḥ kārayan kurvaṃś ca pratīyate ? tatrāha svabhāvas tv iti | anādi-pravṛttā pradhāna-vāsanātra svabhāva-śabdenokta-prādhānika-dehādimān jīvaḥ kārayitā kartā ceti na viviktasya tattvam iti | śuddhe 'pi kiṃcit kartṛtvam asty eva pūrvatra sukhāsane tattvasyokteḥ bhānādāv ivaitad bodhyaṃ,
dhātv-arthaḥ khalu kriyā, tan-mukhyatvaṃ hi kartṛtvam uktam ||14||

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BhG 5.15

nādatte kasya cit pāpaṃ na caiva sukṛtaṃ vibhuḥ |
ajñānenāvṛtaṃ jñānaṃ tena muhyanti jantavaḥ ||15||

śrīdharaḥ : yasmād evaṃ tasmāt nādatta iti | prayojako 'pi san prabhuḥ kasyacit pāpaṃ sukṛtaṃ ca naivādatte na bhajate | tatra hetuḥ - vibhuḥ paripūrṇaḥ | āpta-kāma ity arthaḥ | yadi hi svārtha-kāmanayā kārayet tarhi tathā syāt | na tv etad asti | āpta-kāmasyaivācintya-nija-māyayā tat-tat-pūrva-karmānusāreṇa pravartakatvāt |

nanu bhaktān anugṛhṇato 'bhaktān nigṛhṇataś ca vaiṣamyopalambhāt katham āpta-kāmatvam iti ? ata āha ajñāneneti | nigraho 'pi daṇḍa-rūpo 'nugraha eveti | evam ajñānena sarvatra samaḥ parameśvara ity evaṃbhūtaṃ jñānam āvṛtam | tena hetunā jantavo jīvā muhyanti | bhagavati vaiṣamyaṃ manyanta ity arthaḥ ||15||

madhusūdanaḥ : nanv īśvaraḥ kārayitā jīvaḥ kartā, tathā ca śrutiḥ - eṣa u hy eva sādhu karma kārayati taṃ yam unninīyate | eṣa u evāsādhu karma kārayati taṃ yam adho ninīṣate ity ādiḥ | smṛtiś ca -

ajño jantur anīśo 'yam ātmanaḥ sukha-duḥkhayoḥ |
īśvara-prerito gacchet svargaṃ vāśvabhram eva ca || iti |

tathā ca jīveśvarayoḥ kartṛtva-kārayitṛtvābhyāṃ bhoktṛtva-bhojayitṛtvābhyāṃ ca pāpa-puṇya-lepa-sambhavāt katham uktaṃ svabhāvas tu pravartata iti tatrāha nādatta iti | paramārthataḥ vibhuḥ parameśvaraḥ kasyacit jīvasya pāpaṃ sukṛtaṃ ca naivādatte paramārthato jīvasya kartṛtvābhāvāt parameśvarasya ca kārayitṛtvābhāvāt | kathaṃ tarhi śrutiḥ smṛtir loka-vyavahāraś ca tatrāha ajñānenāvaraṇa-vikṣepā-śaktimatā māyākhyenānṛtena tamasāvṛtam ācchāditaṃ jñānaṃ jīveśvara-jagad-bheda-bhramādhiṣṭhāna-bhūtaṃ nityaṃ sva-prakāśaṃ sac-cid-ānanda-rūpam advitīyaṃ paramārtha-satyaṃ, tena svarūpāvaraṇena muhyanti
pramātṛ-prameya-pramāṇa-kartṛ-karma-karaṇa-bhoktṛ-bhogya-bhogākhya-nava-vidha-saṃsāra-rūpaṃ moham atasmiṃs tad-avabhāsa-rūpaṃ vikṣepaṃ gacchanti jantavo janana-śīlāḥ saṃsāriṇo vastu-svarūpādarśinaḥ | akartr-abhoktṛ-paramānandādvitīyātma-svarūpādarśana-nibandhano 'yaṃ jīveśvara-jagad-bheda-bhramaḥ pratīyamāno vartate mūḍhānām | tasyāṃ cāvasthāyāṃ mūḍha-pratyayānuvādinyāv ete śruti-smṛtī vāstavādvaita-bodhi-vākya-śeṣa-bhūte iti na doṣaḥ ||15||

viśvanāthaḥ : yasmād asādhu-sādhu-karmaṇām īśvaro na kārayitā, tasmād eva na tasya pāpa-puṇya-bhāgitvam ity āha nādatta iti | nādatte na gṛhṇāti | kintu tadīyā khalu yā śaktir avidyā saiva jīva-jñānam āvṛṇoti ity āha ajñānenāvidyayā | jñānaṃ jīvasya svābhāvikam | tena hetunā ||15||

baladevaḥ : nanu yadi viśuddhasya jīvasya tādṛśa-karma-kartṛtvādi nāstīti brūṣe, tarhi kautukākrāntaḥ paramātmā pradhānaṃ tad-gale nipātya tat-pariṇāma-dehendriyādi-matas tasya tad-racitavān ity āpadyate | yuktaṃ caitat | anyathā eṣa u hy eva sādhu karma kārayati taṃ yam ebhyo lokebhya unninīṣate | eṣa u evāsādhu karma kārayati taṃ yam adho ninīṣate iti śrutiḥ |

ajño jantur anīśo 'yam ātmanaḥ sukha-duḥkhayoḥ |
īśvara-prerito gacchet svargaṃ vāśv abhram eva ca ||

iti smṛtiś ca vyākupyet | tathā ca pāpa-puṇya-mayīm avasthāṃ nayati | prayojake tasmin vaiṣamyādikaṃ pāpādi-bhāgitvaṃ ca syād iti cet tatrāha nādatta iti |

vibhur aparimita-vijñānānando 'nanta-śakti-pūrṇaḥ svānandaika-rasikas tato 'nyatrodāsīnaḥ paramātmānādi-pradhāna-vāsanā-nibandhaṃ bubhukṣuṃ sva-sannidhi-mātra-pariṇata-pradhāna-maya-dehādimantaṃ jīvaṃ tad-vāsanānusāreṇa karmāṇi kārayan kasyacij jīvasya pāpaṃ sukṛtaṃ ca nādatte na gṛhṇāti | evam uktaṃ śrī-vaiṣṇave -

yathā sannidhi-mātreṇa gandhaḥ kṣobhāya jāyate |
manaso nopakartṛtvāt tathāsau parameśvaraḥ ||
sannidhānād yathākāśa-kālādyāḥ kāraṇaṃ taroḥ |
tathaivāpariṇāmena viśvasya bhagavān hariḥ || [ViP 1.2.30-1] iti |

audāsīnya-mātre 'yaṃ gandhādi-dṛṣṭānto na tv icchāyā abhāve tasyāḥ | so 'kāmayata iti śrutatvāt | tarhi jīvās taṃ viṣamaṃ kuto vadanti, tatrāha ajñāneneti | anādi-tad-vaimukhyenājñānena jīvānāṃ nityam api jñānam āvṛtaṃ tirohitam | tena hetunā jantavo jīvā muhyanti | samam api taṃ vimūḍhā viṣamaṃ vadanti na vijñā ity arthaḥ | āha caivaṃ sūtrakāraḥ - vaiṣamya-nairghṛṇye na sāpekṣatvāt tathā hi darśayati [Vs 2.1.35], na karmāvibhāgād iti cen nānāditvāt [Vs 2.1.36] iti ||15||

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BhG 5.16

jñānena tu tad ajñānaṃ yeṣāṃ nāśitam ātmanaḥ |
teṣām ādityavaj jñānaṃ prakāśayati tatparam ||16||

śrīdharaḥ : jñāninas tu na muhyantīty āha jñāneneti | bhagavato jñānena yeṣāṃ tad-vaiṣamyopalambhakam ajñānaṃ nāśitam taj jñānaṃ teṣām ajñānaṃ nāśayitvā tat paraṃ paripūrṇam īśvara-svarūpaṃ prakāśayati | yathādityas tamo nirasya samastaṃ vastu-jātaṃ prakāśayati tadvat ||16||

madhusūdanaḥ : tarhi sarveṣām andādy-ajñānāvṛtatvāt kathaṃ saṃsāra-nivṛttiḥ syād ? ata āha jñāneneti | tad-āvaraṇa-vikṣepa-śakti-madanādy-anirvācyam anṛtam anarthavāta-mūlam ajñānam ātmāśraya-viṣayam avidyā-māyādi-śabda-vācyam ātmano jñānena gurūpadiṣṭa-vedānta-mahā-vākya-janyena śravana-manana-nididhyāsana-paripāka-nirmalāntaḥkaraṇa-vṛtti-rūpeṇa nirvikalpaka-sākṣātkāreṇa śodhita-tat-tvaṃ-padārthābheda-rūpa-śuddha-sac-cid-ānandākhaṇḍaika-rasa-vastu-mātra-viṣayeṇa nāśitaṃ bādhitaṃ kāla-traye 'py asad evāsattayā jñātam adhiṣṭhāna-caitanya-mātratāṃ prāpitaṃ śuktāv iva rajataṃ śukti-jñānena
śravana-manana-nididhyāsanādi-sādhana-sampannānāṃ bhagavad-anugṛhītānāṃ mumukṣūṇāṃ teṣāṃ taj jñānaṃ kartṛ | ādityavad yathādityaḥ svodaya-mātreṇaiva tamo niravaśeṣaṃ nivartayati na tu kaṃcit sahāyam apekṣate tathā brahma-jñānam api śuddha-sattva-pariṇāmatvād vyāpaka-prakāśa-rūpaṃ svotpatti-mātreṇaiva sahakāryantara-nirapekṣatayā sa-kāryam ajñānaṃ nivartayat param satya-jñānaānantānanda-rūpam ekam evādvitīyaṃ paramātma-tattvaṃ prakāśayati praticchāyā-grahaṇa-mātreṇaiva karmatām antareṇābhivyanakti |

atrājñānenāvṛtaṃ jñānena nāśitam ity ajñānansyāvaraṇatva-jñāna-nāśyatvābhyāṃ jñānābhāva-rūpatvaṃ vyāvartitam | nahy abhāvaḥ kiṃcid āvṛṇoti na vā jñānābhāvo jñānena nāśyate svabhāvato nāśa-rūpatvāt tasya | tasmād aham ajño mām anyaṃ ca na jānāmīty ādi-sākṣi-pratyakṣa-siddhaṃ bhāva-rūpam evājñānam iti bhagavato matam | vistaras tv advaita-siddhau draṣṭavyaḥ |

yeṣām iti bahu-vacanenāniyamo darśitaḥ | tathā ca śrutiḥ - tad yo yo devānāṃ pratyabudhyata sa eva tad abhavat tatha rṣīṇāṃ tathā manuṣyāṇāṃ tad idam apy etarhi ya evaṃ vedāhaṃ brahmāsmīti sa idaṃ sarvaṃ bhavati ity ādir yad viṣayaṃ yad-āśrayam ajñānaṃ tad-viṣaya-tad-āśraya-pramāṇa-jñānāt tan-nivṛttir iti nyāya-prāptam aniyamaṃ darśayati | tatrājñāna-gatam āvaraṇaṃ dvividham - ekaṃ sato 'py asattvāpādakam anyat tu bhāto 'py abhānāpādakam | tatrādyaṃ parokṣāparokṣa-sādhāraṇa-pramāṇa-jñāna-mātrān nivartate | anumite 'pi vahny-ādau parvate vahnir nāstīty ādi-bhramādarśanāt | tathā
satyaṃ jñānam anantaṃ brahmāsti iti vākyāt parokṣa-niścaye 'pi brahma nāstīti bhramo nivartata eva | asty eva brahma kintu mama na bhātīty ekaṃ bhrama-janakaṃ dvitīyam abhānāvaraṇaṃ sākṣātkārād eva nivartate | sa ca sākṣātkāro vedānta-vākyenaiva janyate nirvikalpaka ity ādy advaita-siddhāv anusandheyam ||16||

viśvanāthaḥ : yathāvidyā tasya jñānam āvṛṇoti, tathaivāparā tasya vidyā-śaktir avidyāṃ vināśya jñānaṃ prakāśayatīty arthaḥ | jñānena vidyā-śaktyā | ajñānam avidyām | teṣāṃ jīvānāṃ jñānam eva kartṛ ādityavad ity-āditya-prabhā yathāndhakāraṃ vināśya ghaṭa-paṭādikaṃ prakāśayati, tathaiva vidyayaivāvidyāṃ vināśya taj-jīva-niṣṭhaṃ jñānaṃ param aprākṛtaṃ prakāśayati | tena parameśvaro na kam api badhnāti, nāpi kam api mocayati | kintv ajñāna-jñāne prakṛter eva dharmaḥ krameṇa badhnāti mocayati ca | kartṛtva-bhoktṛtva-tat-prayojakatvādayor bandhakāḥ | anāsakti-śāntyādayo mocakāś ca prakṛter eva dharmāḥ | kintu parameśvarasyāntaryāmitva eva prakṛtes
te te dharmā udbudhyanta ity etad-aṃśenaiva tasya prayojakatvam iti na tasya vaiṣamya-nairghṛṇye ||16||

baladevaḥ : vijñā na muhyantīty etad āha jñāneneti | sarvaṃ jñāna-plavenaiva [Gītā 4.36] iti | jñānāgniḥ sarva-karmāṇi [Gītā 4.37], na hi jñānena sadṛśaṃ [Gītā 4.38] iti cokta-mahimnā sad-guru-prasāda-labdhena sva-parātma-viṣayakena jñānena yeṣāṃ sat-prasaṅgināṃ tad-vaimukhyam ajñānaṃ nāśitaṃ pradhvaṃsitaṃ teṣāṃ taj-jñānaṃ kartṛ paraṃ prakāśayati | dehādeḥ paraṃ jīvaṃ vaiṣamyādi-doṣāt param īśvaraṃ ca bodhayati | ādityavat yathā ravir udita eva tamo nirasyan yathāvad vastu pradarśayati, tathā sad-gurūpadeśa-labdham ātma-jñānaṃ yathāvad ātma-vastv iti | atra vinaṣṭājñānānāṃ
jīvānāṃ bahutvaṃ nigadatā pārtha-sārathinā mokṣe teṣāṃ tad-darśitaṃ aupādhikatvaṃ tasya praty uktaṃ neme janādhipāḥ ity upakramoktaṃ ca tat sopapattikam abhūt ||16||

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BhG 5.17

tad-buddhayas tad-ātmānas tan-niṣṭhās tat-parāyaṇāḥ |
gacchanty apunar-āvṛttiṃ jñāna-nirdhūta-kalmaṣāḥ ||17||

śrīdharaḥ : evaṃbhūteśvaropāsakānāṃ phalam āha tad-buddhaya iti | tasminn eva buddhir niścayātmikā yeṣām | tasminn etātmā mano yeṣām | tasminn eva niṣṭhā tātparyaṃ yeṣām | tad eva param ayamam āśrayo yeṣām | tataś ca tat-prasāda-labdhenātma-jñānena nirdhūtaṃ nirastaṃ kalmaṣaṃ yeṣām | te 'punar-āvṛttiṃ muktiṃ yānti ||17||

madhusūdanaḥ : jñānena paramātma-tattva-prakāśe sati tad-buddhaya iti | tasmin jñāna-prakāśite paramātma-tattve sac-cid-ānanda-ghana eva bāhya-sarva-viṣaya-parityāgena sādhana-paripākāt paryavasitā buddhir antaḥkaraṇa-vṛttiḥ sākṣātkāra-lakṣaṇā yeṣāṃ te tad-buddhayaḥ sarvadā nirbīja-samādhi-bhāja ity arthaḥ | tat kiṃ boddhāro jīvā boddhavyaṃ brahma-tattvam iti boddhṛ-boddhavya-bhāvo hi māyā-vijṛmbhito na vāstavābheda-virodhīti bhāvaḥ |

nanu tad-ātmāna iti viśeṣaṇaṃ vyartham | avidvad-vyavartakaṃ hi vidvad-viśeṣaṇam | ajñā api hi vastu-gatyā tad-ātmāna iti kathaṃ tad-vyāvṛttir iti cet, na | itarātmatva-vyāvṛttau tātparyāt | ajñā hi anātma-bhūte dehādāv ātmābhimānina iti na tad-ātmāna iti vyapadiśyante | vijñās tu nivṛtta-dehādy-abhimānā iti virodhi-nivṛttyā tad-ātmāna iti vyapadiśyanta iti yuktaṃ viśeṣaṇam |

nanu karmānuṣṭhāna-vikṣepe sati kathaṃ dehādy-abhimāna-nivṛttir iti tatrāha tan-niṣṭhā iti | tasminn eva brahmaṇi sarva-karmānuṣṭhāna-vikṣepa-nivṛttyā niṣṭhā sthitir yeṣāṃ te tan-niṣṭhāḥ | sarva-karma-saṃnyāsena tad-eka-vicāra-parā ity arthaḥ | phala-rāge sati kathaṃ tat-sādhana-bhūta-karma-tyāga iti tatrāha tat-parāyaṇāḥ | tad eva param ayanaṃ prāptavyaṃ yeṣāṃ te tat-parāyaṇāḥ | sarvato viraktā ity arthaḥ |

atra tad-buddhaya ity anena sākṣātkāra uktaḥ | tad-ātmāna ity anātmābhimā-rūpa-viparīta-bhāva-nivṛtti-phalako vedānta-vicāraḥ śravaṇa-manana-paripāka-rūpaḥ | tat-parāyaṇā ity anena vairāgya-prakarṣaṃ ity uttarottarasya pūrva-pūrva-hetutvaṃ draṣṭavyam | ukta-viśeṣaṇā yatayo gacchanty apunar-āvṛttiṃ punar-deha-sambandhābhāva-rūpāṃ muktiṃ prāpnuvanti | sakṛn muktānām api punar deha-sambandhaḥ kuto na syād iti tatrāha jñāna-nirdhūta-kalmaṣāḥ jñānena nirdhūtaṃ samūlam unmūlitaṃ punar-deha-sambandha-kāraṇaṃ kalmaṣaṃ puṇya-pāpātmakaṃ karma yeṣāṃ te tathā | jñānenānādy-ajñāna-nivṛttyā
tat-kārya-karma-kṣaye tan-mūlakaṃ punar deha-grahaṇaṃ kathaṃ bhaved iti bhāvaḥ ||17||

viśvanāthaḥ : kintu vidyā jīvātma-jñānam eva prakāśayati, na tu paramātma-jñānaṃ bhaktyāham ekayā grāhyaḥ iti bhagavad-ukteḥ | tasmāt paramātma-jñānārthaṃ jñānibhir api punar viśeṣato bhaktiḥ kāryā ity ata āha tad-buddhaya iti | tat-padena pūrvam upakrānto vibhuḥ parāmṛśyate | tasmin parameśvara eva buddhir yeṣām te tam-manana-parā ity arthaḥ | tad-ātmānas tan-manaskās tam eva dhyāyanta ity arthaḥ | tan-niṣṭhāḥ jñānaṃ mayi saṃnyaset iti bhagavad-ukteḥ | dehādy-atiriktātmma-jñāne 'pi sāttvike niṣṭhāṃ parityajya tad-eka-niṣṭhāḥ | tat-parāyaṇās tadīya-śravaṇa-kīrtana-parāḥ | yad vakṣyate -


bhaktyā mām abhijānāti yāvān yaś cāsmi tattvataḥ |
tato māṃ tattvato jñātvā viśate tad-anantaram || [Gītā 18.55] iti |

jñāna-nirdhūta-kalmaṣā jñānena vidyāyaiva pūrvam eva dhvasta-samastāvidyāḥ ||17||

baladevaḥ : paramātmany avaiṣamyādi-dhyāyatāṃ phalam āha tad iti | tasmiṃs tad-avaiṣamyādike guṇa-gaṇe buddhir niścayātmikā yeṣāṃ te | tad-ātmānas tasmin niviṣṭa-manasaḥ tan-niṣṭhās tat-tātparyavantas tat-parāyaṇās tat-samāśrayāḥ | evam abhyastena tad-vaiṣamyādi-guṇa-jñānena nirdhūta-kalmaṣā vinaṣṭa-tad-vaimukhyāḥ santa apunar-āvṛttiṃ muktiṃ gacchantīti ||17||

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BhG 5.18

vidyā-vinaya-saṃpanne brāhmaṇe gavi hastini |
śuni caiva śvapāke ca paṇḍitāḥ sama-darśinaḥ ||18||

śrīdharaḥ : kīdṛśās te jñānino ye 'punar-āvṛttiṃ gacchantīty apekṣāyām āha vidyā-vinaya-saṃpanna iti | viṣameṣv api samaṃ brahmaiva draṣṭuṃ śīlaṃ yeṣāṃ te paṇḍitāḥ | jñānina ity arthaḥ | atra vidyā-vinayābhyāṃ yukte brāhmaṇe ca | śuno yaḥ pacati tasmin śvapāke ca iti karmaṇā vaiṣamyam | gavi hastini śuni ceti jātito vaiṣamyaṃ darśitam ||18||

madhusūdanaḥ : deha-pātād ūrdhvaṃ videha-kaivalya-rūpaṃ jñāna-phalam uktvā prārabdha-karma-vaśāt saty api dehe jīvan-mukti-rūpaṃ tat-phalam āha vidyeti | vidyā vedārtha-parijñānaṃ brahma-vidyā vā | vinayo nirahaṅkāratvam anauddhatyam iti yāvat | tābhyāṃ saṃpanne brahma-vidi vinīte ca brāhmaṇe sāttvike sarvottame | tathā gavi saṃskāra-hīnāyāṃ rājasyāṃ madhyamāyāṃ | tathā hastini śuni śvapāke cātyanta tāmase sarvādhame 'pi | sattvādi-guṇais taj-jaiś ca saṃskārair aspṛṣṭam eva samaṃ brahma draṣṭuṃ śīlaṃ yeṣāṃ te sama-darśinaḥ | paṇḍitā jñāninaḥ | yathā gaṅgā-toye taḍāge surāyāṃ
mūtre vā pratibimbitasyādityasya na tad-guṇa-doṣa-sambandhas tathā brahmaṇo 'pi cid-ābhāsa-dvārā pratibimbitasya nopādhi-gata-guṇa-doṣa-sambandha iti pratisandadhānāḥ sarvatra sama-dṛṣṭyaiva rāga-dveṣa-rāhityena paramānanda-sphūrtyā jīvan-muktim anubhavantīty arthaḥ ||18||

viśvanāthaḥ : tataś ca guṇātītānāṃ teṣāṃ guṇa-maye vastu-mātra eva tāratamya-mayaṃ viśeṣam ajighṛkṣūṇāṃ sama-buddhir eva syād ity āha vidyeti | brāhmaṇe gavīti sāttvika-jātitvāt | hastini madhyame | śuni ca śvapāke ceti tāmas-jātitvād adhame 'pi tat-tad-viśeṣāgrahaṇāt sama-darśinaḥ paṇḍitā guṇātītāḥ | viśeṣāgrahaṇam eva samaṃ guṇātītaṃ brahma | tad draṣṭuṃ śīlaṃ yeṣāṃ te ||18||

baladevaḥ : tān stauti vidyeti | tādṛśe brāhmaṇe śvapāke ceti karmaṇaitau viṣamau gavi hastini śuni ceti jātyaite viṣamāḥ | evaṃ viṣamatayā sṛṣṭeṣu brāhmaṇādiṣu ye paramātmānaṃ samaṃ paśyanti, ta eva paṇḍitāḥ | tat-karmānusāriṇī tena teṣāṃ tathā tathā sṛṣṭiḥ, na tu rāga-dveṣānusāriṇīti parjanyavat sarvatra samaḥ paramātmeti ||18||

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BhG 5.19

ihaiva tair jitaḥ sargo yeṣāṃ sāmye sthitaṃ manaḥ |
nirdoṣaṃ hi samaṃ brahma tasmād brahmaṇi te sthitāḥ ||19||

śrīdharaḥ : nanu viṣamesu sama-darśanaṃ niṣiddhaṃ kurvanto 'pi kathaṃ te paṇḍitāḥ ? yathāha gautamaḥ samāsam ābhyāṃ viṣama-same pūjātaḥ iti | asyārthaḥ samāya pūjayā viṣame prakāre kṛte sati viṣamāya ca same prakāre kṛte sati sa pūjaka iha lokāt para-lokāc ca hīyata iti | tatrāha ihaiveti | ihaiva jīvadbhir eva taiḥ | sṛjyate iti sargaḥ saṃsāraḥ | jito nirastaḥ | kaiḥ ? yeṣāṃ manaḥ sāmye samatve sthitaṃ | tatra hetuḥ -- hi yasmād brahma samaṃ nirdoṣaṃ ca tasmāt te sama-darśino brahmaṇy eva sthitāḥ
| brahma-bhāvaṃ prāptā ity arthaḥ | gautamoktas tu doṣo brahma-bhāva-prāpteḥ pūrvam eva | pūjāta iti pūjakāvasthāśravaṇāt ||19||

madhusūdanaḥ : nanu sāttvika-rājasa-tāmaseṣu svabhāva-viṣameṣu prāṇiṣu samatva-darśanaṃ dharma-śāstra-niṣiddham | tathā ca tasyānnam abhojyam ity upakramya gautamaḥ smarati samāsam ābhyāṃ viṣama-same pūjāta iti | samāsam ābhyām iti caturthī-dvi-vacanam | viṣama-sama iti dvandvaikavad bhāvena saptamy-eka-vacanam | catur-veda-pāragāṇām atyanta-sadācārāṇāṃ yādṛśo vastrālaṅkārānnādi-dāna-puraḥsaraḥ pūjā-viśesaḥ kriyate tat-samāyaivānyasmai caturveda-pāragāya sad-ācārāya viṣame tad-apekṣayā nyūne pūjā-prakāre kṛte | tathālpa-vedānāṃ hīnācārāṇāṃ yādṛśo hīna-sādhanaḥ pūjā-prakāraḥ
kriyate tādṛśāyaivāsamāya pūrvokta-veda-pāraga-sad-ācāra-brāhmaṇāpekṣayā hīnāya tādṛśa-hīna-pūjādhike mukhya-pūjā-same pūjā-prakāre kṛte, uttamasya hīnatayā hīnasyottamatayā pūjāto hetos tasya pūjayitur annam abhojyaṃ bhavatīty arthaḥ | pūjayitā pratipatti-viśesam akurvan dhanād dharmāc ca hīyata iti ca doṣāntaram | yadyapi yatīnāṃ niṣparigrahāṇāṃ pākābhāvād dhanābhāvāc cābhojyānnatvaṃ dhana-hīnatvaṃ ca svata eva vidyate tathāpi dharma-hānir doso bhavaty eva | abhojyānnatvaṃ cāśucitvena pāptpatty-upalakṣaṇam | tapo-dhanānāṃ ca tapa eva dhanam iti tad-dhānir api dūṣaṇaṃ bhavaty eveti kathaṃ sama-darśinaḥ paṇḍitā jīvan-muktā iti prāpte pariharati ihaiveti
|

taiḥ sama-darśibhiḥ paṇḍitair ihaiva jīvana-daśāyām eva jito 'tikrāntaḥ sargaḥ sṛjyata iti vyutpattyā dvaita-prapañcaḥ | deha-pātād ūrdhvam atikramitavya iti kim u vaktavyam ? kaiḥ ? yeṣāṃ sāmye sarva-bhūteṣu viṣameṣv api vartamānasya brahmaṇaḥ sama-bhāve sthitaṃ niścalaṃ manaḥ | hi yasmān nirdoṣaṃ samaṃ sarva-vikāra-śūnyaṃ kūṭastha-nityam ekaṃ ca brahma tasmāt te brahmaṇy eva sthitāḥ |

ayaṃ bhāvaḥ | duṣṭatvam hi dvedhā bhavati aduṣṭasyāpi duṣṭa-sambandhāt svato duṣṭatvād vā | yathā gaṅgodakasya mūtra-garta-pātāt | svata eva vā yathā mūtrādeḥ | tatra doṣavatsu śvapākādiṣu sthitaṃ doṣair duṣyati brahmeti mūḍhair vibhāvyamānam api sarva-doṣāsaṃsṛṣṭam eva brahma vyomavad asaṅgatvāt | asaṅgo hy ayaṃ puruṣaḥ |

sūryo yathā sarva-lokasya cakṣur
na lipyate cākṣuṣair bāhya-doṣaiḥ |
ekas tathā sarva-bhūtāntarātmā
na lipyate loka-duḥkhena bāhyaḥ || iti śruteḥ |

nāpi kāmādi-dharmavattayā svata eva kaluṣitaṃ kāmāder antaḥkaraṇa-dharmatvasya śruti-smṛti-siddhatvāt | tasmān nirdoṣa-brahma-rūpā yatayo jīvan-muktā abhojyānnādi-doṣa-duṣṭāś ceti vyāhṛtam | smṛtis tv avidvad-gṛhastha-viṣayaiva | tasyānna-bhojyam ity upakramāt | pūjāta iti madhye nirdeśāt | dhanād dharmāc ca hīyata ity upasaṃhārāc ceti draṣṭavyam ||19||

viśvanāthaḥ : sama-dṛṣṭitvaṃ stauti | ihaiva iha loka eva sṛjyata iti sargaḥ saṃsāro jitaḥ parābhūtaḥ ||19||

baladevaḥ : iheti | iha sādhana-daśāyām eva taiḥ sargaḥ saṃsāro jitaḥ parābhūtaḥ | kaiḥ ? yeṣāṃ manaḥ sāmye 'vaiṣamyākhye brahma-dharme sthitaṃ niviṣṭam | kuto brahmāviṣamam ? tatrāha nirdoṣaṃ hīti | hi yato brahmaṇy avaiṣamyādikaṃ niścikyus tasmāt prapañce tiṣṭhanto 'pi te brahmaṇy eva sthitāḥ muktis teṣāṃ sulabhety arthaḥ ||19||

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BhG 5.20

na prahṛṣyet priyaṃ prāpya nodvijet prāpya cāpriyam |
sthira-buddhir asaṃmūḍho brahmavid brahmaṇi sthitaḥ ||20||

śrīdharaḥ : brahma-prāptasya lakṣaṇam āha na prahṛṣyed iti | brahma-vid bhūtvā brahmaṇy eva yaḥ sthitaḥ sa priyaṃ prāpya na prahṛṣyet prakṛṣṭa-harṣavān syāt | apriyam prāpya ca nodvijet na viṣīdatīty arthaḥ | yataḥ sthira-buddhir sthirā niścalā buddhir yasya | tat kutaḥ ? yato 'saṃmūḍho nivṛtta-mohaḥ ||20||

madhusūdanaḥ : yasmān nirdoṣaṃ samaṃ brahma tasmāt tad-rūpam ātmānaṃ sākṣātkurvann āha na prahṛṣyed iti | duḥkheṣv anudvigna-manāḥ sukheṣu vigata-spṛhaḥ ity atra vyākhyātaṃ pūrvārdham | jīvan-muktānāṃ svābhāvikaṃ caritam eva mumukṣubhiḥ prayatna-pūrvakam anuṣṭheyam iti vadituṃ liṅga-pratyayau | advitīyātma-darśana-śīlasya vyatirikta-priyāpriya-prāpty-ayogyāc ca tan-nimittau harṣa-viṣādāv ity arthaḥ |

advitīyātma-darśanam eva vivṛṇoti - sthira-buddhiḥ sthirā niścalā saṃnyāsa-pūrvaka-vedānta-vākya-vicāra-paripākeṇa sarva-saṃśaya-śūnyatvena nirvicikitsā niścitā brahmaṇi buddhir yasya sa tathā labdha-śravaṇa-manana-phala iti yāvat | etādṛśasya sarvāsaṃbhāvanā-śūnyatve 'pi viparīta-bhāva-pratibandhāt sākṣātkāro nodetīti nididhyāsanam āha - asaṃmūḍhaḥ | nididhyāsanasya vijātīya-pratyayānantarita-sajātīya-pratyaya-pravāhasya paripākeṇa viparīta-bhāvanākhya-saṃmoha-rahitaḥ | tataḥ sarva-pratibandhāpagamād brahmavid brahma-sākṣātkāravān | tataś ca samādhi-paripākeṇa nirdoṣe same brahmaṇy eva sthito nānyatreti brahmaṇi sthito jīvan-muktaḥ sthita-prajña ity arthaḥ | etādṛśasya dvaita-darśanābhāvāt
praharṣodvegau na bhavata ity ucitam eva | sādhakena tu dvaita-darśane vidyamāne 'pi viṣaya-doṣa-darśanādinā praharṣa-viṣādau tyājyāv ity abhiprāyaḥ ||20||
viśvanāthaḥ : evaṃ laukika-priyāpriyādiṣv api teṣāṃ sāmyam āha na prahṛṣyed iti | na prahṛṣyet na prahṛṣyati | nodvijet nodvijate | sādhana-daśāyām evam abhyased iti vivakṣayā vā liṅ | asaṃmūḍho harṣa-śokādīnām abhimāna-nibandhanatvena saṃmoha-mātratvāt ||20||

baladevaḥ : brahmaṇi sthitasya lakṣaṇam āha neti | vartamāne dehe sthitaḥ prārabdhākṛṣṭaṃ priyam apriyaṃ ca prāpya na prahṛṣyen na codvijet | kutaḥ ? sthirā svātmani buddhir yasya saḥ | asaṃmūḍho 'nityena dehena nityam ātmānam ekīkṛtya mohaṃ na labdhaḥ | brahmavit tādṛśaṃ brahmānubhavan | evaṃlakṣaṇo brahmaṇi sthito bodhyaḥ ||20||

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BhG 5.21

bāhya-sparśeṣv asaktātmā vindaty ātmani yat sukham |
sa brahma-yoga-yuktātmā sukham akṣayam aśnute ||21||

śrīdharaḥ : moha-nivṛttyā buddhi-sthairye hetum āha bāhya-sparśeṣv iti | indriyaiḥ spṛśyanta iti sparśā viṣayāḥ | bāhyendriya-viṣayeṣv asaktātmānāsakta-cittaḥ | ātmani antaḥ-karaṇe yad upaśamātmakaṃ sāttvikaṃ sukham tad vindati labhate | sa copaśamaṃ sukhaṃ labdhvā brahmaṇi yogena samādhinā yuktas tadaikyaṃ prāpta ātmā yasya so 'kṣayaṃ sukham aśnute prāpnoti ||21||

madhusūdanaḥ : nanu bāhya-viṣaya-prīter aneka-janmānubhūtatvenātipracalatvāt tad-āsakta-cittasya katham alaukike brahmaṇi dṛṣṭa-sarva-sukha-rahite sthitiḥ syāt | paramānanda-rūpatvād iti cet, na | tad-ānandasyānanubhūta-caratvena citta-sthiti-hetutvābhāvāt | tad uktaṃ vārttike -

apy ānandaḥ śrutaḥ sākṣān mānenāviṣayīkṛtaḥ |
dṛṣṭānandābhilāṣaṃ sa na mandīkartum apy alam || iti |

tatrāha bāhyeti | indriyaiḥ spṛśyanta iti sparśāḥ śabdādayaḥ | te ca bāhyā anātma-dharmatvāt | teṣv asaktātmānāsakta-cittas tṛṣṇā-śūnyatayā viraktaḥ sann ātmani antaḥ-karaṇa eva bāhya-viṣaya-nirapekṣaṃ yad upaśamātmakaṃ sukhaṃ tad vindati labhate nirmala-sattva-vṛttyā | tad uktaṃ bhārate -

yac ca kāma-sukhaṃ loke yac ca divyaṃ mahat sukham |
tṛṣṇākṣaya-sukhasyaite nārhataḥ ṣoḍaśīṃ kalām || iti |

athavā pratyag-ātmani tvaṃ-padārthe yat sukhaṃ svarūpa-bhūtaṃ suṣuptāv anubhūyamānaṃ bāhya-viṣayāsakti-pratibandhād alambhamānaṃ tad eva tad-abhāvāl labhate |

na kevalaṃ tvaṃ-padārtha-sukham eva labhate kintu tat-padārthaikyānubhavena pūrṇa-sukham apīty āha sa tṛṣṇā-śūnyo brahmaṇi paramātmani yogaḥ samādhis tena yuktas tasmin vyāpṛta ātmāntaḥ-karaṇaṃ yasya sa brahma-yoga-yuktātmā | athavā brahmaṇi tat-padārthe yogena vākyārthānubhava-rūpeṇa samādhinā yukta aikyaṃ prāpta ātmā tvaṃ-padārtha-svarūpaṃ yasya sa tathā | sukham akṣayam anantaṃ sva-svarūpa-bhūtam aśnute vyāpnoti sukhānubhava-rūpa eva sarvadā bhavatīty arthaḥ | nitye 'pi vastuny avidyānivṛtty-abhiprāyeṇa dhātv-artha-yoga aupacārikaḥ | tasmād ātmany akṣaya-sukhānubhavārthī san bāhya-viṣaya-prīteḥ kṣaṇikāyā mahā-narakānubandhinyāḥ
sakāśād indriyāṇi nivartayet tāvataiva ca brahmaṇi sthitir bhavatīty abhiprāyaḥ ||21||

viśvanāthaḥ : sa ca bāhya-sparśeṣu viṣaya-sukheṣv asaktātmā anāsakta-manāḥ | tatra hetur ātmani jīvātmani paramātmānaṃ vindati sati prāpte yat sukhaṃ tad akṣayaṃ sukham | sa evāśnute prāpnoti, na hi nirantaram amṛtāsvādine mṛttikā rocata iti bhāvaḥ ||21||

baladevaḥ : paurvauttaryeṇa sva-parātmānāv anubhavatīty āha bāhyeti | bāhya-sparśeṣu śabdādi-viṣayānubhaveṣu asaktātmā san yadātmani sva-svarūpe 'nubhūyamāne sukham tadādau vindati, tad uttaraṃ brahmaṇi paramātmani yogaḥ samādhis tad-yuktātmā san yad akṣayaṃ mahad-anubhava-lakṣaṇaṃ sukham tad aśnute labhate ||21||

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BhG 5.22

ye hi saṃsparśajā bhogā duḥkha-yonaya eva te |
ādy-anta-vantaḥ kaunteya na teṣu ramate budhaḥ ||22||

śrīdharaḥ : nanu priya-viṣaya-bhogānām api nivṛtteḥ kathaṃ mokṣaḥ puruṣārthaḥ syāt | tatrāha ye hīti | saṃsparśā viṣayās tebhyo jātā ye bhogāḥ sukhāni | te hi vartamāna-kāle 'pi spardhāsūyādi-vyāptatvād duḥkhasyaiva yonayaḥ kāraṇa-bhūtāḥ | tathādimanto 'ntavantaś ca | ato vivekī teṣu na ramate ||22||

madhusūdanaḥ : nanu bāhya-viṣaya-prīti-nivṛttāv ātmany akṣaya-sukhānubhavas tasmiṃś ca sati tat-prasādād eva bāhya-viṣaya-prīti-nivṛttir itītaretarāśraya-vaśān naikam api sidhyed ity āśaṅkya viṣaya-doṣa-darśanābhyāsenaiva tat-prīti-nivṛttir bhavatīti parihāram āha ye hīti | hi yasmād ye saṃsparśajā viṣayendriya-sambandha-jā bhogāḥ kṣudra-sukha-lavānubhavā iha vā paratra vā rāga-dveṣādi-vyāptatvena duḥkha-yonaya eva te | te sarve 'pi brahma-loka-paryantaṃ duḥkha-hetava eva | tad uktaṃ viṣṇu-purāṇe -

yāvataḥ kurute jantuḥ saṃbandhān manasaḥ priyān |
tāvanto 'sya nisvanyante hṛdaye śoka-śaṅkavaḥ || iti |

etādṛśā aḸ na sthirāḥ kintu ādy-anta-vantaḥ | ādir viṣayendriya-saṃyogo 'ntaś ca tad-viyoga evaṃ tau vidyete yeṣāṃ te pūrvāparayor asattvān madhye svapnavad āvirbhūtāḥ kṣaṇikā mithyā-bhūtāḥ | tad uktaṃ gauḍapādācāryaiḥ - ādāv ante ca yat tv asti vartamāne 'pi tat tathā iti |

yasmād evaṃ tasmāt teṣu budho vivekī na ramate pratikūla-vedanīyatvāc ca prītim anubhavati | tad uktaṃ bhagavatā patañjalinā pariṇāma-tāpa-saṃskāra-duḥkhair guṇa-vṛtti-virodhāc ca duḥkham eva sarvaṃ vivekinaḥ [YogS 2.15] iti | sarvam api viṣaya-sukhaṃ dṛṣṭam ānuśravikaṃ ca duḥkham eva pratikūla-vedanīyatvāt | vivekinaḥ parijñāta-kleśādi-svarūpasya na tv avivekinaḥ | akṣi-pātra-kalpo hi vidvān atyalpa-duḥkha-leśenāpy udvijate yathorṇa-tantur atisukumāro 'py akṣi-pātre nyastaḥ sparśena duḥkhayati netareṣv aṅgeṣu tadvad vivekina eva madhu-viṣa-saṃpṛktānna-bhojanavat
sarvam api bhoga-sādhanaṃ kāla-traye 'pi kleśānubiddhatvād duḥkhaṃ na mūḍhasya bahuvidha-duḥkha-sahiṣṇor ity arthaḥ | tatra pariṇāma-tāpa-saṃskāra-duḥkhair iti bhūta-vartamāna-bhaviṣyt-kāle 'pi duḥkhānubiddhatvād aupādhikaṃ duḥkhatvaṃ viṣaya-sukhasyoktaṃ, guṇa-vṛtti-virodhāc cety anena svarūpato 'pi duḥkhatvam | tatra pariṇāmaś ca tāpaś ca saṃskāraś ca ta eva duḥkhāni tair ity arthaḥ | itthaṃ-bhūta-lakṣaṇe tṛtīyā | tathā hi - rāgānubiddha eva sarvo 'pi sukhānubhavaḥ | na hi tatra na rajyati tena sukhī ceti sambhavati | rāga eva ca pūrvam udbhūtaḥ san viṣaya-prāptyā
sukha-rūpeṇa pariṇamate | tasya ca pratikṣaṇaṃ vardhamānatvena sva-viṣayāprāpti-nibandhana-duḥkhasyāparihāryatvād duḥkha-rūpataiva | yā hi bhogeṣv indriyāṇām upaśāntiḥ paritṛptatvāt tat sukham | yā laulyād anupaśāntis tad duḥkham | na cendriyāṇāṃ bhogābhyāsena vaitṛṣṇyaṃ kartuṃ śakyam | yato bhogābhyāsam anu vivardhante rāgāḥ kauśalāni cendriyāṇāṃ | smṛtiś ca -

na jātu kāmaḥ kāmānām upabhogena śāmyati |
haviṣā kṛṣṇa-vartmaiva bhūya evābhivardhate || iti |

tasmād duḥkhātmaka-rāga-pariṇāmatvād viṣaya-sukham api duḥkham eva kārya-kāraṇayor abhedād iti pariṇāma-duḥkhatvam |

tathā sukhānubhava-kāle tat-pratikūlāni duḥkha-sādhanāni dveṣṭi | nānupahatya bhūtāny upabhogaḥ sambhavatīti bhūtāni ca hinasti | dveṣaś ca sarvāṇi duḥkha-sādhanāni me mā bhūvann iti saṅkalpa-viśeṣaḥ | na ca tāni sarvāṇi kaścid api parihartuṃ śaknoti | ataḥ sukhānubhava-kāle 'pi tat-paripanthinaṃ prati dveṣasya sarvadaivāvasthitatvāt tāpa-duḥkhaṃ duṣparihāram eva | tāpo hi dveṣaḥ | evaṃ duḥkha-sādhanāni parihartum aśakto muhyati ceti moha-duḥkhatāpi vyākhyeyā | tathā coktaṃ yoga-bhāṣya-kāraiḥ - sarvasya dveṣānubiddhaś cetanācetana-sādhanādhīnas tāpānubhava iti
| tatrāsti dveṣajaḥ karmāśayaḥ | sukha-sādhanāni ca prārthayamānaḥ kāyena vācā manasā ca parispandate | tataḥ param anugṛṇāty upahanti ceti parānuraha-pīḍābhyāṃ dharmādharmāv upacinoti | na karmāśayo lobhān mohāc ca bhavati ity eṣā tāpa-duḥkhatocyate | tathā vartamānaḥ sukhānubhavaḥ sva-vināśa-kāle saṃskāram ādhatte | sa ca sukha-smaraṇaṃ, tac ca rāgaṃ, sa ca manaḥ-kāya-vacana-ceṣṭāṃ, sā ca puṇyāpuṇya-karmāśayau, tau ca janmādīti saṃskāra-duḥkhatā | evaṃ tāpa-mohayor api saṃskārau vyākhyeyau |

evaṃ kāla-traye 'pi duḥkhānuvedhād viṣaya-sukhaṃ duḥkham evety uktvā svarūpato 'pi duḥkhatām āha guṇa-vṛtti-virodhāc ca | guṇāḥ sattva-rajas-tamāṃsi sukha-duḥkha-mohātmakāḥ paraspara-viruddha-svabhāvā api taila-varty-agnaya iva dīpaṃ puruṣa-bhogopayuktatvena try-ātmakam ekaṃ kāryam ārabhante tatraikasya prādhānye dvayor guṇa-bhāvāt pradhāna-mātra-vyapadeśena sāttvikaṃ rājasaṃ tāmasam iti triguṇam api kāryam ekena guṇena vyapadiśyate | tatra sukhopabhoga-rūpo 'pi pratyaya udbhūta-sattva-kāryatve 'py anudbhūta-rajas-tamaḥ-kāryatvāt triguṇātmaka eva | tathā ca sukhātmakatvavad duḥkhātmakatvaṃ viṣādātmakatvaṃ
ca tasya dhruvam iti duḥkham eva sarvaṃ vivekinaḥ | na caitādṛśo 'pi pratyayaḥ sthiraḥ | yasmāc calaṃ ca guṇa-vṛttam iti kṣipra-pariṇāmi cittam uktam |
nanv ekaḥ pratyayaḥ kathaṃ paraspara-viruddha-sukha-duḥkha-mohatvāny ekadā pratipadyata iti cet, na | udbhūtānudbhūtayor virodhābhāvāt | sama-vṛttikānām eva hi guṇānāṃ yugapad virodho na viṣama-vṛttikānām | yathā dharma-jñāna-vairāgyaiśvaryāṇi labdha-vṛttikāni labdha-vṛttikair evādharmājñānāvairāgyānaiśvaryaiḥ saha virudhyante na tu svarūpa-sadbhiḥ | pradhānasya pradhānena saha virodho na tu durbaleneti hi nyāyaḥ | evaṃ sattva-rajas-tamāṃsy api parasparaṃ prādhānya-mātraṃ yugapan na sahante na tu sad-bhāvam api |

etena pariṇāma-tāpa-saṃskāra-duḥkheṣv api rāga-dveṣa-mohānāṃ yugapat sad-bhāvo vyākhyātaḥ prasupta-tanu-vicchinnodāra-rūpeṇa kleśānāṃ catur-avasthatvāt | tathā hi - avidyāsmitā-rāga-dveṣābhiniveśāḥ pañca-kleśāḥ | avidyā kṣetram uttareṣāṃ prasupta-tanu-vicchinnodārāṇām | anityāśuci-duḥkhānātmasu nitya-śuci-sukhātma-khyātir avidyā | dṛg-darśana-śaktyor ekātmataivāsmitā | sukhanuśayī rāgaḥ | duḥkhānuśayī dveṣaḥ | svarasa-vāhī viduṣo 'pi tathārūḍho 'bhiniveśaḥ | te pratiprasava-heyāḥ sūkṣmāḥ | dhyāna-heyās tad-vṛttayaḥ | kleśa-mūlaḥ
karmāśayo dṛṣṭādṛṣṭa-janma-vedanīyaḥ | sati mūle tad-vipāko jātyāyur bhogāḥ [YogS 2.3-13] iti pātañjalāni sūtrāṇi | tatrātasmiṃs tad-buddhir viparyayo mithyā-jñānam avidyeti paryāyāḥ | tasyā viśeṣaḥ saṃsāra-nidānam | tatrānitye nitya-buddhir yathā - dhruvā pṛthivī dhruvā sa-candra-tārakā dyaur amṛtā divaukasa iti | aśucau parama-bībhatse kāye śuci-buddhir yathā naveva śaśāṅkalekhā kamanīyeyaṃ kanyā madhv-amṛtāvayava-nirmiteva candraṃ bhittvā niḥsṛteva jñāyate nīlotpala-patrāyatākṣī hāvagarbhābhyāṃ locanābhyāṃ jīva-lokam āśvāsayatīveti kasya kena sambandhaḥ |

sthānād bījād upaṣṭambhān
niṣyandān nidhanād api |
kāyam ādheya-śaucatvāt
paṇḍitā hy aśuciṃ viduḥ || iti ca vaiyāsaki-ślokaḥ |

etenāpuṇye puṇya-pratyayo 'narthe cārtha-pratyayo vyākhyātaḥ | duḥkhe sukha-khyātir udāhṛtā pariṇāma-tāpa-saṃskāra-duḥkhair guṇa-vṛtti-virodhāc ca duḥkham eva sarvaṃ vivekina iti | anātmany ātma-khyātir yathā śarīre manuṣyo 'ham ity ādiḥ | iyaṃ cāvidyā sarva-kleśa-mūla-bhūtā tama ity ucyate | buddhi-puruṣayor abhedābhimāno 'smitā mohaḥ | sādhana-rahitasyāpi sarvaṃ sukha-jātīyaṃ me bhūyād iti viparyaya-viśeṣo rāgaḥ | sa eva mahā-mohaḥ | duḥkha-sādhane vidyamāne 'pi kim api duḥkham me mā bhūd iti viparyaya-viśeṣo dveṣaḥ | sa tāmisraḥ | āyur-abhāve 'py etaiḥ śarīrendriyādibhir
anityair api viyogo me mā bhūd ity āvidvad-aṅganā-bālaṃ svābhāvikaḥ sarva-prāṇi-sādhāraṇo maraṇa-trāsa-rūpo viparyaya-viśeṣo 'bhiniveśaḥ | so 'ndha-tāmisraḥ | tad uktaṃ purāṇe-

tamo moho mahā-mohas tāmisro hy andha-saṃjñitaḥ |
avidyā pañca-parvaiṣā prādurbhūtā mahātmanaḥ || iti |

ete ca kleśāś catur avasthā bhavanti | tatrāsato 'nutpatter anabhivyakta-rūpeṇāvasthānaṃ suptāvasthā | abhivyaktasyāpi saha-kārya-lābhāt kāryājanakatvaṃ tanv-avasthā | abhivyaktasya janita-kāryasyāpi kenacid balavatābhibhavo vicchedāvasthā | abhivyaktasya prāpta-sahakāri-sampatter apratibandhena sva-kārya-karatvam udārāvasthā | etādṛg avasthā-catuṣṭaya-viśiṣṭānām asmitādīnāṃ caturṇāṃ viparyaya-rūpāṇāṃ kleśānām avidyaiva sāmānya-rūpā kṣetraṃ prasava-bhūmiḥ | sarveṣām api viparyaya-rūpatvasya darśitatvāt | tenāvidyā-nivṛttyaiva kleśānāṃ nivṛttir ity arthaḥ | te ca kleśāḥ prasuptā yathā prakṛti-līnānāṃ, tanavaḥ pratipakṣa-bhāvanayā tanūkṛtā yathā yoginām
| ta ubhaye 'pi sūkṣmāḥ pratiprasavena mano-nirodhenaiva nirbīja-samādhinā heyāḥ | ye tu sūkṣma-vṛttayas tat-kārya-bhūtāḥ sthūlā vicchinnā udāhārāś ca vicchidya vicchidya tena tenātmanā punaḥ prādurbhavantīti vicchinnāḥ | yathā rāga-kāle krodho vidyamāno 'pi na prādurbhūta iti vicchinna ucyate | evam ekasyāṃ striyāṃ caitro rakta iti nānyāsu viraktaḥ kintv ekasyāṃ rāgo labdha-vṛttir anyāsu ca bhaviṣyad-vṛttir iti sa tadā vicchinna ucyate, ye yadā viṣayeṣu labdha-vṛttayas te tadā sarvātmanā prādurbhūtā udārā ucyante, ta ubhaye 'py atisthūlatvāc chuddha-sattva-bhavena bhagavad-dhyānena heyā na mano-niodham apekṣante | nirodha-heyās tu sūkṣmā eva | tathā ca
pariṇāma-tāpa-saṃskāra-duḥkheṣu prasupta-tanu-vicchinna-rūpeṇa sarve kleśāḥ sarvadā santi | udāratā tu kadācit kasyacid iti viśeṣaḥ | ete ca bādhanā-lakṣaṇaṃ duḥkham upajanayantaḥ kleśa-śabda-vācyā bhavanti | yataḥ karmāśayo dharmādharmākhyaḥ kleśa-mūlaka eva | sati ca mūla-bhūte kleśe tasya karmāśayasya vipākaḥ phalaṃ janmāyur bhogaś ceti | sa ca karmāśaya iha paratra ca sva-vipākārambhakatvena dṛṣṭādṛṣṭa-janma-vedanīyaḥ | evaṃ kleśa-santatir ghaṭī-yantravad aniśam āvartate | ataḥ samīcīnam uktaṃ ye hi saṃsparśajā bhogā duḥkha-yonaya eva te ādyantavanta iti | duḥkha-yonitvaṃ
pariṇāmādibhir guṇa-vṛtti-virodhāc ca ādyantavattvaṃ guṇa-vṛttasya calatvād iti yoga-mate vyākhyā |

aupaniṣadānāṃ tu anādi bhāva-rūpam ajñānam avidyā | ahaṃkāra-dharmy-adhyāso 'smitā | rāga-dveṣābhiniveśās tad-vṛtti-viśeṣā ity avidyā-mūlatvāt sarve 'py avidyātmakatvena mithyā-bhūtā rajju-bhujaṅgādhyāsavan mithyātve 'pi duḥkha-yonayaḥ svapnādivad dṛṣṭi-sṛṣṭi-mātratvenādyantavantaś ceti budho 'dhiṣṭhāna-sākṣātkāreṇa nivṛtta-bhramas teṣu na ramate, mṛga-tṛṣṇikā-svarūpa-jñānavān iva tatrodakārthī na pravartate | na saṃsāre sukhasya gandha-mātram apy astīti buddhvā tataḥ sarvāṇīndriyāṇi nivartayed ity arthaḥ ||22||

viśvanāthaḥ : vivekavān eva vastuto viṣaya-sukhenaiva sajjatīty āha ye hīti ||22||

baladevaḥ : adṛṣṭākṛṣṭeṣu viṣaya-bhogeṣv anityatva-viniścayān na sajjatīty āha ye hīti | saṃsparśajā viṣaya-janyā bhogāḥ sukhāni | sphuṭam anyat ||22||

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BhG 5.23

śaknotīhaiva yaḥ soḍhuṃ prāk śarīra-vimokṣaṇāt |
kāma-krodhodbhavaṃ vegaṃ sa yuktaḥ sa sukhī naraḥ ||23||

śrīdharaḥ : yasmān mokṣa eva paramaḥ puruṣārthaḥ | tasya ca kāma-krodha-vego 'tipratipakṣaḥ | atas tat-sahana-samartha eva mokṣa-bhāg ity āha śaknotīti | kāmāt kordhāc codbhavati yo vego mano-netrādi-kṣobhādi-lakṣaṇaḥ | tam ihaiva tad-uttara-samaya eva yo naraḥ soḍhuṃ pratiroddhuṃ śaknoti, tad api na kṣaṇa-mātram | kintu śarīra-vimokṣaṇāt prāk, yāvad-deha-pātam ity arthaḥ | ya evaṃbhūtaḥ sa eva yuktaḥ samāhitaḥ sukhī ca bhavati | nānyaḥ | yad vā maraṇād ūrdhvaṃ vilapantībhir yuvatībhir āliṅgyamāno 'pi putrādibhir dahyamāno 'pi yathā prāṇa-śūnyaḥ
kāma-krodha-vegaṃ sahate tathā maraṇāt prāg api jīvann eva yaḥ sahate sa eva yuktaḥ sukhī cety arthaḥ | tad uktaṃ vaśiṣṭhena -

prāṇe gate yathā dehaḥ sukhaṃ duḥkhaṃ na vindati |
tathā cet prāṇa-yukto 'pi sa kaivalyāśrayo bhavet || iti ||23||

madhusūdanaḥ : sarvānartha-prāpti-hetur durnivāro 'yaṃ śreyo-mārga-pratipakṣaḥ kaṣṭatamo doṣo mahatā yatnena mumukṣuṇā nivāraṇīya iti yatnādhikya-vidhānāya punar āha śaknotīti | ātmano 'nukūleṣu sukha-hetuṣu dṛśyamāneṣu smaryamāṇeṣu vā tad-guṇānusandhānābhyāsena yo raty-ātmako gardho 'bhilāṣas tṛṣṇā lobhaḥ sa kāmaḥ | strī-puṃsayoḥ paraspara-vyatikarābhilāṣe tv atyanta-nirūḍhaḥ kāma-śabdaḥ | etad-abhilāṣeṇa kāmaḥ krodhas tathā lobha ity atra dhana-tṛṣṇā lobhaḥ strī-vyatikara-tṛṣṇā kāma iti kāma-lobhau pṛthag uktau | iha tu
tṛṣṇā-sāmānyābhiprāyeṇa kāma-śabdaḥ prayukta iti lobhaḥ pṛthaṅ noktaḥ | evam ātmanaḥ pratikūleṣu duḥkha-hetuṣu dṛśyamāneṣu śrūyamāṇeṣu vā tad-doṣānusandhānābhyāsena yaḥprajvalanātmako dveṣo manyuḥ sa krodhaḥ | tayor utkaṭāvasthā loka-veda-virodha-pratisandhāna-pratibandhakatayā loka-veda-viruddha-pravṛtty-unmukhatva-rūpā nadī-vega-sāmyena vega ity ucyate | yathā hi nadyā vego varṣāsv atiprabalatayā loka-veda-virodha-pratisandhānenānicchantam api garte pātayitvā majjayati cādho nayati ca, tathā kāma-krodhayor vego viṣayābhidhyānābhyāsena varṣā-kāla-sthānīyenātiprabalo loka-veda-virodha-pratisandhānenānicchantam api
viṣaya-garte pātayitvā saṃsāra-samudre majjayati cādho mahā-narakān nayati ceti vega-pada-prayogeṇa sūcitam | etac cātha kena prayukto 'yam ity atra nivṛttam |

tam etādṛśaṃ kāma-krodhodbhavaṃ vegam antaḥkaraṇa-prakṣobha-rūpaṃ stambha-svedādy-aneka-bāhya-vikāra-liṅgam ā-śarīra-vimokṣaṇāc charīra-vimokṣaṇa-paryantam aneka-nimitta-vaśāt sarvadā sambhāvyamānatvenāvisrambhaṇīyam antar utpanna-doṣa-darśanābhyāsajena vaśīkāra-saṃjñaka-vairāgyeṇa soḍhuṃ tad-anurūpa-kāryāsampādanenānarthakaṃ kartuṃ śaknoti samartho bhavati, sa eva yukto yogī, sa eva sukhī, sa eva naraḥ pumān puruṣārtha-sampādanāt | tad-itaras tv āhāra-nidrā-bhaya-maithunādi-paśu-dharma-mātra-ratatvena manuṣyākāraḥ paśur eveti bhāvaḥ |

ā-śarīra-vimokṣaṇād ity atrānyad vyākhyānam - yathā maraṇād ūrdhvaṃ vilapantībhir yuvatībhir āliṅgyamāno 'pi putrādibhir dahyamāno 'pi prāṇa-śūnyatvāt kāma-krodha-vegaṃ sahate, tathā maraṇāt prāg api jīvann eva yaḥ sahate sa yukta ity ādi | atra yadi maraṇavaj jīvane 'pi kāma-krodhānutpatti-mātraṃ brūyāt tadaitad yujyate | yathoktaṃ vaśiṣṭhena -

prāṇe gate yathā dehaḥ sukhaṃ duḥkhaṃ na vindati |
tathā cet prāṇa-yukto 'pi sa kaivalyāśrame vaset || iti |

iha tūpannayoḥ kāma-krodhayor vega-sahane prastute tayor anutpatti-mātraṃ na dārṣṭānta iti kim atinirbandhena ||23||

viśvanāthaḥ : saṃsāra-sindhau patito 'py eṣa eva yogī eṣa eva sukhīty āha śaknotīti ||23||

baladevaḥ : śaknotīhaiva yaḥ soḍhuṃ prāk śarīra-vimokṣaṇāt | kāma-krodhodbhavaṃ vegaṃ sa yuktaḥ sa sukhī naraḥ ||23||


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BhG 5.24

yo 'ntaḥ-sukho 'ntarārāmas tathāntar-jyotir eva yaḥ |
sa yogī brahma-nirvāṇaṃ brahma-bhūto 'dhigacchati ||24||

śrīdhara : na kevalaṃ kāma-krodha-vega-saṃharaṇa-mātreṇa mokṣaṃ prāpnoti | api tu yo 'ntaḥ-sukha iti | antarātmany eva sukhaṃ yasya | na viṣayeṣu | antar evārāma ākrīḍā yasya na bahiḥ | antar eva jyotir dṛṣṭir yasya | na gīta-nṛtyādiṣu | sa evaṃ brahmaṇi bhūtaḥ sthitaḥ san brahmaṇi nirvāṇaṃ layam adhigacchati prāpnoti ||24||

madhusūdanaḥ : kāma-krodha-vega-sahana-mātreṇaiva mucyante iti na, kintu yo 'ntar iti |
antar-bāhya-viṣaya-nirapekṣam eva svarūpa-bhūtaṃ sukhaṃ yasya so 'ntaḥ-sukho bāhya-viṣaya-janita-sukha-śūnya ity arthaḥ | kuto bāhya-sukhābhāvas tatrāha antar ātmany eva na tu stry-ādi-viṣaye bāhya-sukha-sādhana ārāma āramaṇaṃ krīḍā yasya so 'ntar-ārāmas tyakta-sarva-parigrahatvena bāhya-sukha-sādhana-śūnya ity arthaḥ |

nanu tyakta-sarva-parigrahasyāpi yater yadṛcchopanataiḥ kokilādi-madhura-śabda-śravaṇa-manda-pavana-sparśana-candrodaya-mayūra-nṛtyādi-darśanāti-madhura-śītala-gaṅgodaka-pāna-ketakī-kusuma-saurabhādy-avaghrāṇādibhir grāmyaiḥ sukhotpatti-sambhavāt kathaṃ bāhya-sukha-tat-sādhana-śūnyatvam iti tatrāha tathāntar-jyotir eva yaḥ | yathāntar eva sukhaṃ na bāhyair viṣayais tathāntar evātmani jyotir vijñānaṃ na bāhyair indriyair yasya so 'ntar-jyotiḥ śrotrādi-janya-śabdādi-viṣaya-vijñāna-rahitaḥ | eva-kāro viśeṣaṇa-traye 'pi sambadhyate | samādhi-kāle śabdādi-pratibhāsābhāvād vyutthāna-kāle tat-pratibhāse 'pi mithyātva-niścayān na bāhya-viṣayais tasya sukhotpatti-sambhava ity arthaḥ |

ya evaṃ yathokta-viśeṣaṇa-sampannaḥ sa yogī samāhito brahma-nirvāṇaṃ brahma paramānanda-rūpaṃ kalpita-dvaitopaśama-rūpatvena nirvāṇaṃ tad eva, kalpita-bhāvasyādhiṣṭhānātmakatvāt | avidyāvaraṇa-nivṛttyādhigacchati nitya-prāptam eva prāpnoti | yataḥ sarvadaiva brahma-bhūto nānyaḥ | brahmaiva san brahmāpy eti iti śruteḥ | avasthiter iti kāśa-kṛtsnaḥ iti nyāyāc ca ||24||

viśvanātha - yas tu saṃsārātītas tasya tu brahmānubhava eva sukham ity āha ya iti | antarātmany eva sukhaṃ yasya saḥ | yato 'ntarātmany eva ramate, ato 'ntarātmany eva jyotir dṛṣṭir yasya saḥ ||24||

baladeva - yat prītyā taṃ soḍhuṃ śaktas tad āha yo 'ntar iti | antarvartinānubhūtenātmanā sukhaṃ yasya saḥ, tenaivārāmaḥ krīḍā yasya saḥ | tasminn eva jyotir dṛṣṭir yasya saḥ | īdṛśo yogī niṣkāma-karmī brahma-bhūto labdha-śuddha-jaiva-svarūpo brahmādhigacchati paramātmānaṃ labhate | nirvāṇaṃ mokṣa-rūpaṃ tenaiva tal-lābhāt ||24||

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BhG 5.25

labhante brahma-nirvāṇam ṛṣayaḥ kṣīṇa-kalmaṣāḥ |
chinna-dvaidhā yatātmānaḥ sarva-bhūta-hite ratāḥ ||25||

śrīdharaḥ : kiṃ ca labhanta iti | ṛṣayaḥ samyag-darśinaḥ | kṣīṇaṃ kalmaṣaṃ yeṣām | sarveṣāṃ bhūtānāṃ hite ratāḥ kṛpalavaḥ | te brahma-nirvāṇaṃ mokṣaṃ labhante ||25||

madhusūdanaḥ : mukti-hetor jñānasya sādhanāntarāṇi vivṛṇvann āha labhanta iti | prathamaṃ yajñādibhiḥ kṣīṇa-kalmaṣāḥ | tato 'ntaḥkaraṇa-śuddhayā ṛṣayaḥ sūkṣma-vastu-vivecana-samarthāḥ saṃnyāsinaḥ | tataḥ śravaṇādi-paripākeṇa cchinna-dvaidhā nivṛtta-sarva-saṃśayāḥ | tato nididhyāsana-paripākeṇa saṃyatātmānaḥ paramātmany evaikāgra-cittāḥ | etādṛśāś ca dvaitādarśitvena sarva-bhūta-hite ratā hiṃsā-śūnyā brahma-vido brahma-nirvāṇaṃ labhante |

yasmin sarvāṇi bhūtāni ātmaivābhūd vijānataḥ |
tatra ko mohaḥ kaḥ śoka ekatvam anupaśyataḥ || iti śruteḥ |

bahu-vacanam, tad yo devānāṃ ity ādi-śruty-uktāniyama-pradarśanārtham ||25||

viśvanāthaḥ : evaṃ bahava eva sādhana-siddhā bhavantīty āha labhanta iti ||25||

baladevaḥ : evaṃ sādhana-siddhā bahava bhavantīty āha labhanta iti | ṛṣayas tattva-draṣṭāraḥ | chinna-dvaidhā vinaṣṭ-saṃśayāḥ | sphuṭam anyat ||25||


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BhG 5.26

kāma-krodha-viyuktānāṃ yatīnāṃ yata-cetasām |
abhito brahma-nirvāṇaṃ vartate viditātmanām ||26||

śrīdharaḥ : kiṃ ca kāmety ādi | kāma-krodhābhyāṃ viyuktānām | yatīnāṃ saṃnyāsinām | saṃyata-cittānāṃ jñātātma-tattvānām abhita ubhayato jīvatāṃ mṛtānāṃ ca | na dehānta eva teṣāṃ brahmaṇi layaḥ, api tu jīvatām api vartata ity arthaḥ ||26||

madhusūdanaḥ : pūrvaṃ kāma-krodhayor utpannayor api vegaḥ soḍhavya ity uktam adhunā tu tayor utpatti-pratibandha eva kartavya ity āha kāmeti | kāma-krodhayor viyogas tad-anutpattir eva tad-yuktānāṃ kāma-krodha-viyuktānām | ataeva yata-cetasāṃ saṃyata-cittānāṃ yatīnāṃ yatna-śīlānāṃ saṃnyāsināṃ viditātmanāṃ sākṣāt-kṛta-paramātmanām abhita ubhayato jīvatāṃ mṛtānāṃ ca teṣāṃ brahma-nirvāṇaṃ mokṣo vartate nityatvāt, na tu bhaviṣyati sādhyatvābhāvāt ||26||

viśvanāthaḥ : jñātas tvaṃ-padārtha-nāma-prāpta-paramātma-jñānānāṃ kiyatā kālena brahma-nirvāṇa-sukhaṃ syād ity apekṣāyām āha kāmeti | yata-cetasām uparata-manasāṃ kṣīṇa-liṅga-śarīrāṇām iti yāvat, abhitaḥ sarvato-bhāvenaiva vartata eveti brahma-nirvāṇe tasya naivātivilambam iti bhāvaḥ ||26||

baladevaḥ : īdṛśān paramātmāpy anuvartata ity āha kāmeti | yatīnāṃ prayatnavatāṃ tān abhito brahma vartata ity arthaḥ | yad uktaṃ -

darśana-dhyāna-saṃsparśair matsya-kūrma-vihaṅgamāḥ |
svāny apatyāni puṣṇanti tathāham api padmaja || iti ||26||

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BhG 5.27-28

sparśān kṛtvā bahir bāhyāṃś cakṣuś caivāntare bhruvoḥ |
prāṇāpānau samau kṛtvā nāsābhyantara-cāriṇau ||27||
yatendriya-mano-buddhir munir mokṣa-parāyaṇaḥ |
vigatecchā-bhaya-krodho yaḥ sadā mukta eva saḥ ||28||

śrīdharaḥ : sa yogī brahma-nirvāṇam ity ādiṣu yogī mokṣam avāpnotīty uktam | tam eva yogaṃ saṅkṣepeṇāha sparśān iti dvābhyām | bāhyā eva sparśā rūpa-rasādayo viṣayāś cintitāḥ santo 'ntaḥ praviśanti | tāṃs tac-cintā-tyāgena bahir eva kṛtvā | cakṣur bhruvor antare bhrū-madhya eva kṛtvātyantaṃ netrayor nimīlane hi nidrayā mano līyate | unmīlane ca bahiḥ prasarati | tad-ubhaya-doṣa-parihārārtham ardha-nimīlanena bhrū-madhye dṛṣṭiṃ nidhāyety arthaḥ | ucchvāsa-niḥśvāsa-rūpeṇa nāsikayor abhyantare carantau prāṇāpānāv ūrdhvādho-gati-rodhena samau kṛtvā, kumbhakaṃ kṛtvety arthaḥ | yad vā prāṇo 'yaṃ yathā na
bhair niryāti yathā cāpāno 'ntar na praviśati, kintu nāsā-madhya eva dvāv api yathā caratas tathā mandābhyām ucchvāsa-niḥśvāsābhyāṃ samau kṛtveti ||27||

yateti | anenopāyena yatāḥ saṃyatā indriya-mano-buddhayo yasya | mokṣa eva param ayanaṃ prāpyaṃ yasya | ataeva vigatā icchā-bhaya-krodhā yasya | evaṃbhūto yo muniḥ sa sadā jīvann api mukta evety arthaḥ ||27-28||

madhusūdanaḥ : pūrvam īśvarārpita-sarva-bhāvasya karma-yogenāntaḥ-karaṇa-śuddhis tataḥ sarva-karma-saṃnyāsas tataḥ śravaṇādi-parasya tattva-jñānaṃ mokṣa-sādhanam udetīty uktam | adhunā sa yogī brahma-nirvāṇam ity atra sūcitaṃ dhyāna-yogaṃ samyag-darśana-syāntaraṅga-sādhanaṃ vistareṇa vaktuṃ sūtra-sthānīyāṃs trīn ślokān āha bhagavān | eteṣām eva vṛtti-sthānīyaḥ kṛtsnaḥ ṣaṣṭho 'dhyāyo bhaviṣyati | tatrāpi dvābhyāṃ saṅkṣepeṇa yoga ucyate | tṛtīyena tu tat-phalaṃ paramātma-jñānam iti vivekaḥ |

sparśān śabdādīn bāhyān bahir bhavān api śrotrādi-dvārā tat-tad-ākārāntaḥ-karaṇa-vṛttibhir antaḥ-praviṣṭān punar bahir eva kṛtvā para-vairāgya-vaśena tat-tad-ākārāṃ vṛttim anutpādyety arthaḥ | yady eta āntarā bhaveyus tadopāya-sahasreṇāpi bahir na syuḥ svabhāva-bhaṅga-prasaṅgāt | bāhyānāṃ tu rāga-vaśād antaḥ-praviṣṭānāṃ vairāgyeṇa bahir gamanaṃ sambhavatīti vadituṃ bāhyān iti viśeṣaṇam | tad anena vairāgyam uktvābhyāsam āha cakṣuś caivāntare bhruvoḥ kṛtvety anuṣajyate | atyanta-nimīlane hi nidrākhyā layātmikā vṛttir ekā bhavet | prasāreṇa tu pramāṇa-viparyaya-viveka-vikalpa-smṛtayaś catasro vikṣepātmikā vṛttayo bhaveyuḥ | pañcāpi
tu vṛttayo niroddhavyā iti ardha-nimīlanena bhrū-madhye cakṣuṣo nidhānam | tathā prāṇāpānau samau tulyāv ūrdhvādho-gati-vicchedena nāsābhyantara-cāriṇau kumbhakeṇa kṛtvā, anenopāyena yatāḥ saṃyatā indriya-mano-buddhayo yasya sa tathā | mokṣa-parāyaṇaḥ sarva-viṣaya-virakto munir manana-śīlo bhavet | vigatecchā-bhaya-krodha iti vīrta-rāga-bhaya-krodha ity atra vyākhyātam | etādṛśo yaḥ saṃnyāsī sadā bhavati mukta eva saḥ | na tu tasya mokṣaḥ kartavyo 'sti | athavā ya etādṛśaḥ sa sadā jīvann api mukta eva ||27-28||

viśvanāthaḥ : tad evam īśvarārpita-niṣkāma-karma-yogenāntaḥ-karaṇa-śuddhiḥ | tato jñānaṃ tvaṃ-padārtha-viṣayakam | tatas tat-padārtha-jñānārthaṃ bhaktiḥ | tad-uttha-jñānena guṇātītena brahmānubhava ity uktam | idānīṃ niṣkāma-karma-yogena śuddhāntaḥkaraṇasyāṣṭāṅga-yogaṃ brahmānubhava-sādhanaṃ jñāna-yogād apy utkṛṣṭatvena ṣaṣṭhādhyāye vaktuṃ tat-sūtra-rūpaṃ śloka-trayam āha sparśān iti | bāhyā eva śabda-sparśa-rūpa-rasa-gandhāḥ sparśa-śabda-vācyāḥ | manasi praviśya ye vartante tān, tasmān manasaḥ sakāśād bahiṣkṛtya viṣayebhyo
manaḥ pratyāhṛtyety arthaḥ | cakṣuṣī ca bhruvor antare madhye kṭvā netrayoḥ sampūrṇa-nimīlane nidrayā mano līyata unmīlanena bahiḥ prasarati | tad-ubhaya-doṣa-parihārārtham ardha-nimīlanena bhrū-madhye dṛṣṭiṃ nidhāyocchvāsa-niśvāsa-rūpeṇa nāsikayor abhyantare carantau prāṇāpānāv ūrdhvādho-gati-nirodhena samau kṛtvā | yatā vaśīkṛtā indriyādayo yena saḥ ||27-28||

baladevaḥ : atha karmaṇā niṣkāmeṇa viśuddha-manāḥ samuditātma-jñānas tad-darśanāya samādhiṃ kuryād iti sāṅgaṃ yogaṃ sūcayann āha sparśān iti | sparśā śabdādayo viṣayās te bāhyā eva smṛtāḥ santo manasi praviśanti | tāṃs tat-smṛti-parityāgena bahiṣkṛtya viṣayebhyo manaḥ pratyāhṛtyety arthaḥ | bhruvor antare madhye cakṣuś ca kṭvā netrayoḥ saṃnimīlane nidrayā manaso layaḥ | pronmīlane ca bahis tasya prasāraḥ syāt | tad-ubhaya-vinivṛttaye 'rdha-nimīlanena bhrū-madhye dṛṣṭiṃ nidhāyety arthaḥ | tathā nāsābhyantara-cāriṇau prāṇāpānāv ūrdhvādho-gati-nirodhena samau tulyau kṛtvā kumbhayitvety arthaḥ
| etenopāyena yatā ātmāvalokanāya sthāpitā indriyādayo yena saḥ | munir ātma-manana-śīlaḥ | mokṣa-parāyaṇo mokṣaika-prayojanaḥ | ato vigatecchādiḥ | īdṛśo yaḥ sarvadā phala-kālavat sādhana-kāle 'pi mukta eva ||27-28||

__________________________________________________________

BhG 5.29

bhoktāraṃ yajña-tapasāṃ sarva-loka-maheśvaram |
suhṛdaṃ sarva-bhūtānāṃ jñātvā māṃ śāntim ṛcchati ||29||

śrīdharaḥ : nanv evam indriyādi-saṃyamana-mātreṇa kathaṃ muktiḥ syāt ? na tan-mātreṇa, kintu jñāna-dvāreṇety āha bhoktāram iti | yajñānāṃ tapasāṃ caiva mama bhaktaiḥ samarpitānāṃ yadṛcchayā bhoktāraṃ pālakam iti vā | sarveṣāṃ lokānāṃ mahāntam īśvaram | sarva-bhūtānāṃ suhṛdaṃ nirapekṣopakāriṇam | antaryāmiṇaṃ māṃ jñātvā mat-prasādena śāntiṃ mokṣam ṛcchati prāpnoti ||29||

vikalpa-śaṅkāpohena yenaivaṃ sāṅkhya-yogayoḥ |
samuccayaḥ krameṇoktaḥ sarvajñaṃ naumi taṃ harim ||

iti śrī-śrīdhara-svāmi-kṛtāyāṃ bhagavad-gītā-ṭīkāyāṃ subodhinyāṃ
saṃnyāsa-yogo nāma pañcamo 'dhyāyaḥ
||5||

madhusūdanaḥ : evaṃ yoga-yuktaḥ kiṃ jñātvā mucyata iti tadāha bhoktāram iti | sarveṣāṃ yajñānāṃ tapasāṃ ca kartṛ-rūpeṇa devatā-rūpeṇa ca bhoktāraṃ bhoga-kartāraṃ pālakam iti vā | bhuja pālanābhyavahārayoḥ iti dhātuḥ | sarveṣāṃ lokānāṃ mahāntam īśvaraṃ hiraṇyagarbhādīnām api niyantāram | sarveṣāṃ prāṇināṃ suhṛdaṃ pratyupakāra-nirapekṣatayopakāriṇaṃ sarvāntgaryāmiṇaṃ sarva-bhāsakaṃ paripūrṇa-sac-cid-ānanadaika-rasaṃ paramārtha-satyaṃ sarvātmānaṃ nārāyaṇaṃ māṃ jñātvātmatvena
sākṣātkṛtya śāntiṃ sarva-saṃsāroparatiṃ muktim ṛcchati prāpnotīty arthaḥ | tvāṃ paśyann api kathaṃ nāhaṃ mukta ity āśaṅkyānirākaraṇāya viśeṣaṇāni | ukta-rūpeṇaiva mama jñānaṃ mukti-kāraṇam iti bhāvaḥ ||29||

aneka-sādhanābhyāsa-niṣpannaṃ hariṇeritam |
sva-svarūpa-parijñānaṃ sarveṣāṃ mukti-sādhanam ||5||

iti śrīmat-paramahaṃsa-parivrājakācārya-śrī-viśveśvara-sarasvatī-pāda-śiṣya-śrī-madhusūdana-sarasvatī-viracitāyāṃ śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā-gūḍhārtha-dīpikāyām sva-svarūpa-parijñānaṃ nāma
pañcamo 'dhyāyaḥ ||5||

viśvanāthaḥ : evambhūtasya yogino 'pi jñānina iva bhakty-utthena paramātma-jñānenaiva mokṣa ity āha bhoktāram iti | yajñānāṃ karmi-kṛtānāṃ tapasāṃ ca jñāni-kṛtānāṃ bhoktāraṃ pālayitāram iti karmiṇāṃ jñānināṃ copāsyam | sarva-lokānāṃ maheśvaraṃ mahā-niyantāram antaryāminaṃ yoginām upāsyam | sarva-bhūtānāṃ suhṛdaṃ kṛpayā sva-bhakta-dvārā sva-bhakty-upadeśena hita-kāriṇam iti bhaktānām upāsyaṃ māṃ jñātveti sattva-guṇa-maya-jñānena nirguṇasya mamānubhavāsambhavāt bhaktyāham ekayā grāhyaḥ iti mad-ukteḥ | nirguṇayā bhaktyaiva yogī svopāsyaṃ paramātmānaṃ mām aparokṣānubhava-gocarīkṛtya
śāntiṃ mokṣam ṛcchati prāpnoti ||29||

niṣkāma-karmaṇā jñānī yogī cātra vimucyate |
jñātvātma-paramātmānāv ity adhyāyārtha īritaḥ ||
iti sārārtha-darśinyāṃ harṣiṇyāṃ bhakta-cetasām |
gītāsu pañcamo 'dhyāyaḥ saṃgataḥ saṅgataḥ satām ||5||

baladevaḥ : evaṃ samādhi-sthaḥ kṛta-svātmāvalokanaḥ paramātmānam upāsyam ucyata ity āha bhoktāram iti | yajñānāṃ tapasāṃ ca bhoktāraṃ pālakam | sarveṣāṃ lokānāṃ vidhi-rudrādīnām api maheśvaram | tam īśvarāṇāṃ paramaṃ maheśvaraṃ [ŚvetU 6.7] ity ādi śravaṇāt | sarva-bhūtānāṃ suhṛdaṃ nirapekṣopakārakam | īdṛśaṃ māṃ jñātvā svārādhyatayānubhūya śāntiṃ saṃsāra-nivṛttim ṛcchati labhate | sarveśvarasya suhṛdaś ca samārādhanaṃ khalu sukhāvahaṃ sukha-sādhanam iti ||29||

niṣkāma-karmaṇā yoga-śiraskena vimucyate |
sa-niṣṭho jñāna-garbheṇety eṣa pañcama-nirṇayaḥ ||
iti śrīmad-bhagavad-gītopaniṣad-bhāṣye pañcamo 'dhyāyaḥ
||5||


pañcamo 'dhyāyaḥ sannyāsa-yogaḥ



**********************************************************


Bhagavadgita 6

BhG 6.1

anāśritaḥ karma-phalaṃ kāryaṃ karma karoti yaḥ |
sa saṃnyāsī ca yogī ca na niragnir na cākriyaḥ ||1||

śrīdharaḥ :
citte śuddhe 'pi na dhyānaṃ vinā saṃnyāsa-mātrataḥ |
muktiḥ syād iti ṣaṣṭhe 'smin dhyāna-yogo vitanvate ||

pūrvādhyāye saṃkṣepeṇoktaṃ yogaṃ prapañcayituṃ ṣaṣṭhādhyāyārambhaḥ | tatra tāvat sarva-karmāṇi manasā saṃnyasya [Gītā 5.13] ity ārabhya saṃnyāsa-pūrvikāyā jñāna-niṣṭhāyās tātparyenābhidhānād duḥkha-rūpatvāc ca karmaṇaḥ sahasā saṃnyāsātiprasaṅgaṃ prāptaṃ vārayituṃ saṃnyāsād api śreṣṭhatvena karma-yogaṃ stauti anāśrita iti dvābhyām | karma-phalam anāśrito 'napekṣamāṇaḥ sann avaśya-kāryatayā vihitaṃ karma yaḥ karoti, sa eva saṃnyāsī yogī ca na tu niragnir agni-sādhyeṣṭākhya-karma-tyāgī | na cākriyo 'nagni-sādhya-pūrtākhya-karma-tyāgī ||1||

madhusūdanaḥ :
yoga-sūtraṃ tribhiḥ ślokaiḥ pañcamānte yad īritam |
ṣaṣṭhas tv ārabhyate 'dhyāyas tad-vyākhyānāya vistarāt ||

tatra sarva-karma-tyāgena yogaṃ vidhāsyaṃs tyājyatvena hīnatvam āśaṅkya karma-yogaṃ stauti anāśrita iti dvābhyām | karmaṇāṃ phalam āśrito 'napekṣamāṇaḥ phalābhisaṃdhi-rahitaḥ san kāryaṃ kartavyatayā śāstreṇa vihitaṃ nityam agnihotrādi karma karoti yaḥ sa karmy api san saṃnyāsī ca yogī ceti stūyate |

sannyāso hi thyāgaḥ | citta-gata-vikṣepābhāvaś ca yogaḥ | tau cāsya vidyete phala-tyāgāt phala-tṛṣṇā-rūpa-citta-vikṣepābhāvāc ca | karma-phala-tṛṣṇā-tyāga evātra gauṇyā vṛttyā saṃnyāsa-yoga-śabdābhyām abhidhīyate sakāmānapekṣya prāśastya-kathanāya | avaśyambhāvinau hi niṣkāma-karmānuṣṭhātur mukhyau saṃnyāsa-yogau | tasmād ayaṃ yadyapi na niragnir agni-sādhya-śrauta-karma-tyāgī na bhavati, na cākriyo 'gni-nirapekṣa-smārta-kriyā-tyāgī ca na bhavati | tathāpi saṃnyāsī yogī ceti mantavyaḥ |

athavā na niragnir na cākriyaḥ saṃnyāsī yogī ceti mantavyaḥ | kintu sāgniḥ sakriyaś ca niṣkāma-karmānuṣṭhāyī saṃnyāsī yogī ceti mantavya iti stūyate | apaśavo vā anye go-aśvebhyaḥ paśavo go-aśvān ity atreva praśaṃsā-lakṣaṇayā nañ-anvayopapattiḥ | atra cākriya ity anenaiva sarva-karma-saṃnyāsini labdhe niragnir iti vyarthaṃ syād ity agni-śabdena sarvāṇi karmāṇy upalakṣya niragnir iti saṃnyāsī kriyā-śabdena citta-vṛttīr upalakṣyākriya iti niruddha-citta-vṛttir yogī ca kathyate | tena na niragniḥ saṃnyāsī mantavyo na cākriyo yogī mantavya iti yathā-saṅkhyam ubhaya-vyatireko darśanīyaḥ | evaṃ sati nañ-dvayam apy upapannam
iti draṣṭavyam ||1||

viśvanāthaḥ :
ṣaṣṭheṣu yogino yoga-prakāra-vijitātmanaḥ |
manasaś cañcalasyāpi naiścalyopāya ucyate ||

aṣṭāṅga-yogābhyāse pravṛttenāpi citta-śodhakaṃ niṣkāma-karma na tyājyam ity āha karma-phalam āśrito 'napekṣamāṇaḥ kāryam avaśya-kartavyatvena śāstra-vihitaṃ karma yaḥ karoti, sa eva karma-phala-saṃnyāsāt saṃnyāsī, sa eva viṣaya-bhogeṣu cittābhāvād yogī cocyate | na ca niragnir agnihotrādi-karma-mātra-tyāgavān eva sannyāsy ucyate | na cākriyo na daihika-ceṣṭā-śūnyo 'rdha-nimīlita-netra eva yogī cocyate ||1||

baladevaḥ :
ṣaṣṭhe yoga-vidhiḥ karma-śuddhasya vijitātmanaḥ |
sthairyopāyaś ca manaso 'sthirasyāpīti kīrtyate ||

proktaṃ karma-yogam aṣṭāṅga-yoga-śiraskam upadekṣyann ādau tau tad-upāyatvāt taṃ karma-yogam stauti bhagavān anāśrita iti dvābhyām | karma-phalam paśv-anna-putra-svargādi-kāmanāśrito 'nicchan kāryam avaśya-kartavyatayā vihitaṃ karma yaḥ karoti, sa saṃnyāsī jñāna-yoga-niṣṭhaḥ, yogī cāṣṭāṅga-yoga-niṣṭhaḥ sa eva | karma-yogenaiva tayoḥ siddhir iti bhāvaḥ | na niragnir agnihotrādi-karma-tyāgī yati-veśaḥ sannyāsī na cākriyaḥ śarīra-karma-tyāgī ardha-mudrita-netro yogī | atra yogam aṣṭāṅgaṃ cikīrṣūṇāṃ sahasā karma na tyājyam iti matam ||1||

__________________________________________________________

BhG 6.2

yaṃ saṃnyāsam iti prāhur yogaṃ taṃ viddhi pāṇḍava |
na hy asaṃnyasta-saṃkalpo yogī bhavati kaścana ||2||

śrīdharaḥ : kuta ity apekṣāyāṃ karma-yogasyaiva saṃnyāsatvaṃ pratipādayann āha yam iti | saṃnyāsam iti prāhuḥ prakarṣeṇa śreṣṭhatvenāhuḥ | nyāsa evāty arecayat ity ādi śruteḥ | kevalāt phala-saṃnyasanād dhetor yogam eva taṃ jānīhi | kuta ity apekṣāyām iti śabdokto hetur yoge 'py astīty āha na hīti | na saṃnyastaḥ phala-saṃkalpo yena sa karma-niṣṭho jñāna-niṣṭho vā kaścid api na hi yogī bhavati | ataḥ phala-saṅkalpa-tyāga-sāmyāt saṃnyāsī ca phala-saṅkalpa-tyāgād eva citta-vikṣepābhāvād yogī ca bhavaty eva sa ity arthaḥ ||2||

madhusūdanaḥ : asaṃnyāse 'pi saṃnyāsa-śabda-prayoge nimitta-bhūtaṃ guṇa-yogaṃ darśayitum āha yaṃ saṃnyāsam iti | yaṃ sarva-karma-tat-phala-parityāgaṃ saṃnyāsam iti prāhuḥ śrutayaḥ nyāsa evāty arecayat, brāhmaṇāḥ puatraiṣaṇāyāś ca vittaiṣaṇāyāś ca lokaiṣaṇāyāś ca vyutthāyātha bhikṣā-caryaṃ caranti ity ādyāḥ | yogaṃ phala-tṛṣṇā-kartṛtvābhimānayoḥ parityāgena vihita-karmānuṣṭhānaṃ taṃ saṃnyāsaṃ viddhi he pāṇḍava | abrahma-dattaṃ brahma-dattam ity āha taṃ vayaṃ manyāmahe
brahma-datta-sadṛśo 'yam iti nyāyāt para-śabdaḥ paratra prayujyamānaḥ sādṛśyaṃ bodhayati gauṇyā vṛttyā tad-bhāvāropeṇa vā | prakṛte tu kiṃ sādṛśyam ? iti tad āha nahīti | hi yasmād asaṃnyasta-saṃkalpo 'tyakta-phala-saṅkalpaḥ kaścana kaścid api yogī na bhavati | api tu sarvo yogī tyakta-phala-saṅkalpa eva bhavatīti phala-tyāga-sāmyāt tṛṣṇā-rūpa-vitta-vṛtti-nirodha-sāmyāc ca gauṇyā vṛttyā karmy eva saṃnyāsī ca yogī ca bhavatīty arthaḥ | tathā hi - yogaś citta-vṛtti-nirodhaḥ [YogaS 1.2] pramāṇa-viparyaya-vikalpa-nidrā-smṛtaya [YogaS 1.6] iti vṛttayaḥ pañca-vidhāḥ | tatra pratyakṣānumāna-śāstropamānārthāpatty-abhāvākhyāni pramāṇāni ṣaḍ iti vaidikāḥ | pratyakṣānumānāgamāḥ
pramāṇāni [YogaS 1.7] trīṇīti yogāḥ | antarbhāva-bahir-bhāvābhyāṃ saṅkoca-vikāsau draṣṭavyau | ataeva tārkikādīnāṃ mata-bhedāḥ | viparyayo mithyā-jñānam tasya pañca bhedā avidyāsmitā-rāga-dveṣābhiniveśaḥ [YogaS 2.3] ta eva ca kleśāḥ | śabda-jñānānupātī vastu-śūnyo vikalpaḥ [YogaS 1.9] pramā-bhrama-vilakṣaṇo 'sad-artha-vyavahāraḥ śaśa-viṣāṇam asat-puruṣasya catanyam ity ādiḥ | abhāva-pratyayālambanā vṛttir nidrā [YogaS 1.10] na tu jñānādy-abhāva-mātram ity arthaḥ | anubhūta-viṣayāsaṃpramoṣaḥ smṛtiḥ [YogaS 1.11] pūrvānubhava-saṃskārajaṃ jñānam ity arthaḥ | sarva-vṛtti-janyatvād
ante kathanam | lajjādi-vṛttīnām api āñcasv evāntarbhāvo draṣṭavyaḥ | etādṛśāṃ sarvāsāṃ citta-vṛttīnāṃ norodho yoga iti ca samādhir iti ca kathyate | phala-saṅkalpas tu rāgākhyas tṛtīyo viparyaya-bhedas tan-nirodha-mātram api gauṇyā vṛttyā yoga iti saṃnyāsa iti cocyata iti na virodhaḥ ||2||

viśvanāthaḥ : karma-phala-tyāga eva saṃnyāsa-śabdārthaḥ | vastutas tathā viṣayebhyaś citta-naiścalyam eva yoga-śabdārthaḥ | tasmāt saṃnyāsa-yoga-śabdayor aikyārtham evāgatam ity āha yam iti | asaṃnyasto na saṃnyastas tyaktaḥ saṅkalpaḥ phalākāṅkṣā viṣaya-bhoga-spṛhā yena saḥ ||2||

baladevaḥ : nanu sarvendriya-vṛtti-virati-rūpāyāṃ jñāna-niṣṭhāyāṃ saṃnyāsa-śabdaś citta-vṛtti-nirodhe yoga-śabdaś ca paṭhyate | sa ca sarvendriya-vyāpārātmake karma-yoge sa saṃnyāsī ca yogī ceti bruvatā bhavatā kayā vṛttyā nīyata iti cet tatrāha yam iti | yaṃ karma-yogam artha-tātparya-jñāḥ saṃnyāsṃ prāhus tam eva taṃ yogam aṣṭāṅgaṃ viddhi | he pāṇḍava !

nanu siṃho mānavakaḥ ity ādau śauryādi-guṇa-sādṛśyena tathā prayogaḥ | prakṛteḥ kiṃ sādṛśyam iti cet tatrāha na hīti | asaṃnyasta-saṃkalpaḥ kaścana kaścid jñāna-yogy aṣṭāṅga-yogī ca na bhavaty api tu saṃnyasta-saṃkalpa eva bhavatīty arthaḥ | saṃnyastaḥ parityaktaḥ saṅkalpaḥ phalecchā ca yena saḥ | tathā phala-tyāga-sādṛśyāt tṛṣṇā-rūpa-citta-vṛtti-nirodha-sādṛśyāc ca karma-yoginas tad-ubhayatvena prayogo gauṇa-vṛttyeti ||2||

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BhG 6.3

ārurukṣor muner yogaṃ karma kāraṇam ucyate |
yogārūḍhasya tasyaiva śamaḥ kāraṇam ucyate ||3||

śrīdharaḥ : tarhi yāvaj-jīvaṃ karma-yoga eva prāpta ity āśaṅkya tasyāvadhim āha ārurukṣor iti | jñāna-yogam āroḍhuṃ prātum icchoḥ puṃsas tad-ārohe kāraṇaṃ karmocyate | citta-śuddhi-karatvāt | jñāna-yogam ārūḍhasya tu tasyaiva dhyāna-niṣṭhasya śamaḥ samādhiś citta-vikṣepaka-karmoparamo jñāna-paripāke kāraṇam ucyate ||3||

madhusūdanaḥ : tat kiṃ praśastatvāt karma-yoga eva yāvaj-jīvam anuṣṭheya iti nety āha ārurukṣor iti | yogam antaḥ-karaṇa-śuddhi-rūpaṃ vairāgyam ārurukṣor āroḍhum icchor na tvārūḍhasya muner bhaviṣyataḥ karma-phala-tṛṣṇā-tyāginaḥ karma śāstra-vihitam agnihotrādi nityaṃ bhagavad-arpaṇa-buddhyā kṛtaṃ kāraṇaṃ yogārohaṇe sādhanam anuṣṭheyam ucyate veda-mukhena mayā | yogārūḍhasya yogam antaḥ-karaṇa-śuddhi-rūpaṃ vairāgyaṃ prāptavatas tu tasyaiva pūrvaṃ karmiṇo 'pi sataḥ śamaḥ sarva-karma-saṃnyāsa eva kāraṇam anuṣṭheyatayā jñāna-paripāka-sādhanam ucyate
||3||

viśvanāthaḥ : nanu tarhy aṣṭāṅga-yogino yāvaj-jīvam eva niṣkāma-karma-yogaḥ prāpta ity āśaṅkya tasyāvadhim āha ārurukṣor iti | muner yogābhyāsino yogaṃ niścala-dhyāna-yogam āroḍhuṃ icchos tad-ārohe kāraṇaṃ karma cocyate citta-śuddhi-karatvāt | tatas tasya yogaṃ dhyāna-yogam ārūḍhasya dhyāna-niṣṭhā-prāptaḥ śamaḥ vikṣepaka-sarva-karmoparamaḥ kāraṇam | tad evaṃ samyak-citta-śuddhi-rahito yogārurukṣuḥ ||3||

baladevaḥ : nanv evam aṣṭāṅga-yogino yāvaj jīvaṃ karmānuṣṭhānaṃ prāptam iti cet tatrāha ārurukṣor iti | muner yogābhyāsino yogaṃ dhyāna-niṣṭhām ārurukṣos tad-ārohe karma kāraṇaṃ hṛd-viśuddhi-kṛttvāt | tasyaiva yogārūḍhasya dhyāna-niṣṭhasya tad-dāḍhye śamo vikṣepaka-karmoparatiḥ kāraṇam ||3||

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BhG 6.4

yadā hi nendriyārtheṣu na karmasv anuṣajjate |
sarva-saṃkalpa-saṃnyāsī yogārūḍhas tadocyate ||4||

śrīdharaḥ : kīdṛśo 'yaṃ yogārūḍho yasya śamaḥ kāraṇam ucyata iti ? atrāha yadeti | indriyārtheṣv indriya-bhogyeṣu śabdādiśu tat-sādhaneṣu ca karmasu yadā nānuṣajjate āsaktiṃ na karoti | tatra hetuḥ āsakti-mūla-bhūtān sarvā bhoga-viṣayān karma-viṣayāṃś ca saṅkalpān saṃnyasituṃ tyaktuṃ śīlaṃ yasya saḥ | tadā yogārūḍha ucyate ||4||

madhusūdanaḥ : kadā yogārūḍho bhavatīty ucyate yadeti | yadā yasmiṃś citta-samādhāna-kāla indriyārtheṣu śabdādiśu karmasu ca nitya-naimittika-kāmya-laukika-pratiṣiddheṣu nānuṣajjate teṣāṃ mithyātva-darśanenātmano 'kartr-abhoktṛ-paramānanadādvaya-svarūpa-darśanena ca prayojanābhāva-buddhyāham eteṣāṃ kartā mamaite bhogyā ity abhiniveśa-rūpam anuṣaṅgaṃ na karoti | hi yasmāt tasmāt sarva-saṅkalpa-saṃnyāsī sarveṣāṃ saṅkalpānām idaṃ mayā kartavyam etat phalaṃ bhoktavyam ity evaṃ rūpāṇāṃ mano-vṛtti-viśeṣāṇāṃ tad-viṣayāṇāṃ ca kāmānāṃ tat-sādhanānāṃ
ca karmaṇāṃ tyāga-śīlaḥ | tadā śabdādiṣu karmasu cānuṣaṅgasya tad-dhetoś ca saṅkalpasya yogārohaṇa-pratibandhakasyābhāvād yogaṃ samādhim ārūḍho yogārūḍha ity ucyate ||4||


viśvanāthaḥ : samyak-śuddha-cittas tu yogārūḍhas taj-jñāpakaṃ lakṣaṇam āha yadeti | indriyārtheṣu śabdādiṣu karmasu tat-sādhaneṣu ||4||

baladevaḥ : yogārūḍhatva-jñāpakaṃ cihnam āha yadeti | indriyārtheṣu śabdādiṣu tat-sādhaneṣu karmasu ca yadātmānanda-rasikaḥ san na sajjate | tatra hetuḥ sarveti | sarvān bhoga-viṣayān karma-viṣayāś ca saṅkalpānāsattimūla-bhūtān saṃnyasituṃ parityaktuṃ śīlaṃ yasya saḥ ||4||

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BhG 6.5

uddhared ātmanātmānaṃ nātmānam avasādayet |
ātmaiva hy ātmano bandhur ātmaiva ripur ātmanaḥ ||5||

śrīdharaḥ : ato viṣayāsakti-tyāge mokṣaṃ tad-āsaktau ca bandhaṃ paryālocya rāgādi-svabhāvaṃ tyajed ity āha uddhared iti | ātmanā viveka-yuktenātmānaṃ saṃsārād uddharet | na tv avasādayed adho na nayet | hi yata ātmaiva manaḥ-saṅgādy-uparata ātmanaḥ svasya bandhur upakārakaḥ | ripur apakārakaś ca ||5||

madhusūdanaḥ : yo yadaivaṃ yogārūḍho bhavati tadā tenātmanaivātmoddhṛto bhavati saṃsārānartha-vrātāt | ata uddhared iti | ātmanā viveka-yuktena manasātmānaṃ svaṃ jīvaṃ saṃsāra-samudre nimagnaṃ tata uddharet | ut ūrdhvaṃ haret | viṣayāsaṅga-parityāgena yogārūḍhatām āpādayed ity arthaḥ | na tu viṣayāsaṅgenātmānam avasādayet saṃsāra-samudre majjayet | hi yasmād ātmaivātmano bandhur hitakārī saṃsāra-bandhanān mocana-hetur nānyaḥ kaścil laukikasya bandhor api snehānubandhena bandha-hetutvāt | ātmaiva nānyaḥ | kaścit ripuḥ śatru-rahita-kāri-viṣaya-bandhanāgāra-praveśāt kośakāra ivātmanaḥ svasya | bāhyasyāpi ripor
ātma-prayuktatvād yuktam avadhāraṇam ātmaivaa ripur ātmana iti ||5||

viśvanāthaḥ : yasmād indriyārthāsaktyaivātmā saṃsāra-kūpe patitas taṃ yatnenoddhared iti | ātmanā viṣayāsakti-rahitena manasātmānaṃ jīvam uddharet | viṣayāsakti-sahitena manasā tv ātmānaṃ nāvasādayet na saṃsāra-kūpe pātayet | tasmād ātmā mana eva bandhur mana eva ripuḥ ||5||

baladevaḥ : indriyārthādy-anāsaktau hetu-bhāvenāha uddhared iti | viṣayādy-āsakta-manaskatayā saṃsāra-kūpe nimagnam ātmānaṃ jīvam ātmanā viṣayāsakti-rahitena manasā tasmād uddhared ūrdhvaṃ haret | viṣayāsaktena manasātmānaṃ nāvasādayet tatra na nimajjayet | hi niścaye naivam ātmaiva mana evātmanaḥ svasya bandhus tad eva ripuḥ | smṛtiś ca -

mana eva manuṣyāṇāṃ kāraṇaṃ bandha-mokṣayoḥ |
bandhāya viṣayāsaṅgo muktyai nirviṣayaṃ manaḥ || iti ||5||

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BhG 6.6

bandhur ātmātmanas tasya yenātmaivātmanā jitaḥ |
anātmanas tu śatrutve vartetātmaiva śatruvat ||6||

śrīdharaḥ : katham-bhūtasyātmaiva bandhuḥ ? katham-bhūtasya cātmaiva ripur ity apekṣāyām āha bandhur iti | yenātmanaivātmā kārya-kāraṇa-saṅghāta-rūpo jito vaśīkṛtasya tathābhūtasyātmana ātmaiva bandhuḥ | anātmano 'jitātmanas tv ātmaivātmanaḥ śatrutve śatruvad apakāra-kāritve varteta ||6||

madhusūdanaḥ : idānīṃ kiṃ-lakṣaṇa ātmātmano bandhuḥ kiṃ-lakṣaṇo vātmano ripur ity ucyate bandhur iti | ātmā kārya-karaṇa-saṃghāto yena jitaḥ sva-vaśīkṛta ātmanaiva viveka-yuktena manasaiva na tu śastrādinā | tasyātmā svarūpam ātmano bandhur ucchṛṅkhala-sva-pravṛtty-abhāvena sva-hita-karaṇāt | anātmanas tv ajitātmana ity etat | śatrutve śatru-bhāve vartetātmaiva śatruvat | bāhya-śatrur ivocchṛṅkhala-pravṛttyā svasya svenāniṣṭācaraṇāt ||6||

viśvanāthaḥ : kasya sa bandhuḥ ? kasya sa ripur ity apekṣāyām āha bandhur iti | yenātmanā jīvenātmā mano jitas tasya jīvasya sa ātmā mano bandhuḥ | anātmano 'jita-manasas tv ātmaiva mana eva śatruvat śatrutve 'pakārakatve varteta ||6||

baladevaḥ : kīdṛśasya sa bandhuḥ ? kīdṛśasya sa ripur ity apekṣāyām āha bandhur iti | yenātmanā jīvenātmā mana eva jitas tasya jīvasya sa ātmā mano bandhus tad-upakārī | anātmano 'jita-manasas tu jīvasyātmaiva mana eva śatruvat śatrutve 'pakārakatve varteta ||6||

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BhG 6.7

jitātmanaḥ praśāntasya paramātmā samāhitaḥ |
śītoṣṇa-sukha-duḥkheṣu tathā mānāpamānayoḥ ||7||

śrīdharaḥ : jitātmanaḥ svasmin bandhutvaṃ sphuṭayati jitātmana iti | jita ātmā yena tasya praśāntasya rāgādi-rahitasyaiva | paraṃ kevalam ātmā śītoṣṇādiṣu satsv api samāhitaḥ svātma-niṣṭho bhavati nānyasya | yad vā tasya hṛdi paramātmā samāhitaḥ sthito bhavati ||7||

madhusūdanaḥ : jitātmanaḥ sva-bandhutvaṃ vivṛṇoti jitātmana iti | śītoṣṇa-sukha-duḥkheṣu citta-vikṣepa-kareṣu satsv api tathā mānāpamānayoḥ pūjā-paribhavayoś citta-vikṣepa-hetvoḥ sator iti teṣu samatveneti vā | jitātmanaḥ prāg-uktasya jitendriyasya praśāntasya sarvatra sama-buddhayā rāga-dveṣa-śūnyasya paramātmā sva-prakāśa-jñāna-svabhāva ātmā samāhitaḥ samādhi-viṣayo yogārūḍho bhavati | param iti vā cchedaḥ | jitātmanaḥ praśāntasyaiva paraṃ kevalam ātmā samāhito bhavati nānyasya | tasmāj jitātmā praśāntaś ca bhaved ity arthaḥ ||7||

viśvanāthaḥ : atha yogārūḍhasya cihnāni darśayati tribhiḥ | jitātmano jita-manasaḥ praśāntasya rāgādi-rahitasya yoginaḥ param atiśayena samāhitaḥ samādhi-stha ātmā bhavet | śītādiṣu satsv api mānāpamānayoḥ prāptayor api ||7||

baladevaḥ : yogārambha-yogyām avasthām āha jiteti tribhiḥ | śītoṣṇādiṣu mānāpamānayoś ca jitātmano 'vikṛta-manasaḥ praśāntasya rāgādi-śūnyasyātmā param atyarthaṃ samāhitaḥ samādhistho bhavati ||7||


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BhG 6.8

jñāna-vijñāna-tṛptātmā kūṭastho vijitendriyaḥ |
yukta ity ucyate yogī sama-loṣṭāśma-kāñcanaḥ ||8||

śrīdharaḥ : yogārūḍhasya lakṣaṇaṃ śraiṣṭhyaṃ coktam upapādya upasaṃharati jñāneti | jñānam aupadeśikaṃ vijñānam aparokṣānubhavaḥ tābhyāṃ tṛpto nirākāṅkṣa ātmā cittaṃ yasya | ataḥ kūṭastho nirvikāraḥ | ataeva vijitānīndriyāṇi yena | ataeva samāni loṣṭādīni yasya | mṛt-piṇḍa-pāṣāṇa-suvarṇeṣu heyopādeya-buddhi-śūnyaḥ | sa yukto yogārūḍha ity ucyate ||8||

madhusūdanaḥ : kiṃ ca jñāneti | jñānaṃ śāstroktānāṃ padārthānām aupadeśikaṃ jñānaṃ vijñānaṃ tad-aprāmāṇya-śaṅkā-nirākaraṇa-phalena vicāreṇa tathaiva teṣāṃ svānubhavenāparokṣīkaraṇaṃ tābhyāḥ tṛptaḥ saṃjātālaṃ-pratyaya ātmā cittaṃ yasya sa tathā | kūṭāstho viṣaya-saṃnidhāv api vikāra-śūnyaḥ | ataeva vijitāni rāga-dveṣa-pūrvakād viṣaya-grahaṇādvayāvartitānīndriyāṇi yena saḥ | ataeva heyopādeya-buddhi-śūnyatvena samāni mṛt-piṇḍa-pāṣāṇa-kāñcanāni yasya saḥ | yogī paramahaṃsa-parivrājakaḥ para-vairāgya-yukto yogārūḍha ity
ucyate ||8||

viśvanāthaḥ : jñānam aupadeśikaṃ vijñānam aparokṣānubhavas tābhyāṃ tṛpto nirākāṅkṣa ātmā cittaṃ yasya saḥ | kūṭastha ekenaiva svabhāvena sarva-kālaṃ vyāpya sthitaḥ sarva-vastuṣv anāsaktatvāt | samāni loṣṭādīni yasya saḥ | loṣṭaṃ mṛt-piṇḍaḥ ||8||

baladevaḥ : jñāneti | jñānam śāstrajaṃ vijñānam viviktātmānubhavas tābhyāṃ tṛptātmā pūrṇa-manāḥ | kūṭastha eka-svabhāvatayā sarva-kālaṃ sthitaḥ | ato vijitendriyaḥ prakṛti-viviktātma-mātra-niṣṭhatvāt | prākṛteṣu loṣṭrādiṣu | loṣṭaṃ mṛt-piṇḍaḥ | īdṛśo yogī niṣkāma-karmī yukta ātma-darśana-rūpa-yogābhyāsa-yogya ucyate ||8||

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BhG 6.9

suhṛn-mitrāry-udāsīna-madhyastha-dveṣya-bandhuṣu |
sādhuṣv api ca pāpeṣu sama-buddhir viśiṣyate ||9||

śrīdharaḥ : suhṛn-mitrādiṣu sama-buddhi-yuktas tu tato 'pi śreṣṭha ity āha suhṛd iti | suhṛt svabhāvenaiva hitāśaṃsī | mitraṃ sneha-vaśenopakārakaḥ | arir ghātakaḥ | udāsīno vivadamānayor apy upekṣakaḥ | madhya-stho vivadamānayor ubhayor api hitāśaṃsī | dveṣyo dveṣa-viṣayaḥ | bandhuḥ saṃbandhī | sādhavaḥ sad-ācārāḥ | pāpā durācārāḥ | eteṣu samā rāga-dveṣādi-śūnyā buddhir yasya sa tu viśiṣṭaḥ ||9||

madhusūdanaḥ : suhṛn-mitrādiṣu sama-buddhis tu sarva-yogi-śreṣṭha ity āha suhṛd iti | suhṛt pratyupakāram anapekṣya pūrva-snehaṃ sambandhaṃ ca vinaivopakartā | mitraṃ snehenopakārakaḥ | ariḥ svakṛtāpakāram anapekṣya svabhāva-krauryeṇāpakartā | udāsīno vivadamānayor ubhayor apy upekṣakaḥ | madhya-stho vivadamānayor ubhayor api hitaiṣī | dveṣyaḥ sva-kṛtāpakāram apekṣyāpakartā | bandhuḥ saṃbandhenopakartā | eteṣu sādhuṣu śāstra-vihita-kāriṣu pāpeṣu śāstra-pratiṣiddha-kāriṣv api | ca-kārād anyeṣu ca sarveṣu sama-buddhiḥ
kaḥ kīdṛk-karmety avyāpṛta-buddhiḥ sarvatra rāga-dveṣa-śūnyao viśiṣyate sarvatra utkṛṣṭo bhavati | vimucyate iti vā pāṭhaḥ ||9||

viśvanāthaḥ : suhṛt svabhāvenaiva hitāśaṃsī | mitraṃ kenāpi snehena hita-kārī | arir ghātakaḥ | udāsīno vivadamānayor upekṣakaḥ | madhya-stho vivadamānayor vivādāpahārārthī | dveṣyo 'pakārakatvāt dveṣārhaḥ | bandhuḥ saṃbandhī | sādhavo dhārmikāḥ | pāpā adhārmikāḥ | eteṣu sama-buddhis tu viśiṣyate | sama-loṣṭāśma-kāñcanāt sakāśād api śreṣṭhaḥ ||9||

baladevaḥ : suhṛd iti | yaḥ suhṛd-ādiṣu sama-buddhiḥ, sa sama-loṣṭāśma-kāñcanād api yoginaḥ sakāśād viśiṣyate śreṣṭho bhavati | tatra suhṛt svabhāvena hitecchuḥ | mitraṃ kenāpi snehena hita-kṛt | arir nirmitrato 'narthecchuḥ | udāsīno vivadamānayor anapekṣakaḥ | madhya-sthas tayor vivādāpahārārthī | dveṣo 'pakārikatvāt dveṣārhaḥ | bandhuḥ saṃbandhena hitecchuḥ | sādhavo dhārmikāḥ | pāpā adhārmikāḥ ||9||

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BhG 6.10

yogī yuñjīta satatam ātmānaṃ rahasi sthitaḥ |
ekākī yata-cittātmā nirāśīr aparigrahaḥ ||10||

śrīdharaḥ : evaṃ yogārūḍhasya lakṣaṇam uktvedānīṃ tasya sāṅgaṃ yogaṃ vidhatte yogīty ādinā sa yogī paramo mata ity antena granthena yogīti | yogī yogārūḍhaḥ | ātmānaṃ manaḥ | yuñjīta samāhitaṃ kuryāt | satataṃ nirantaram | rahasy ekānte sthitaḥ san | ekākī saṅga-śūnyaḥ | yataṃ saṃyataṃ cittam ātmā dehaś ca yasya | nirāśīr nirākāṅkṣaḥ | aparigrahaḥ parigraha-śūnyaś ca ||10||

madhusūdanaḥ : evaṃ yogārūḍhasya lakṣaṇaṃ phalaṃ coktvā tasya sāṅgaṃ yogaṃ vidhatte yogīty ādibhiḥ sa yogī paramo mata ity antais trayoviṃśatyā ślokaiḥ | tatraivam uttama-phala-prāptaye yogīti | yogī yogārūḍha ātmānaṃ cittaṃ satataṃ nirantaraṃ yuñjīta kṣiptam ūḍha-vikṣipta-bhūmi-parityāgenaikāgra-nirodha-bhūmibhyāṃ samāhitaṃ kuryāt | rahasi giri-guhādau yoga-pratibandhaka-durjanādi-varjite deśe sthita ekākī tyakta-sarva-gṛha-parijanaḥ saṃnyāsī | cittam antaḥ-karaṇam ātmā dehaś ca saṃyatau yoga-pratibandhaka-vyāpāra-śūnyau yasya sa yata-cittātmā | yato nirāśīr vairāgya-dārḍhyena
vigata-tṛṣṇaḥ | ataeva cāparigrahaḥ śāstrābhyanujñātenāpi yoga-pratibandhakena parigraheṇa śūnyaḥ ||10||

viśvanāthaḥ : atha sāṅgaṃ yogaṃ vidhatte yogīty ādinā sa yogī paramo mata ity atas tena | yogī yogārūḍha ātmānaṃ mano yuñjīta samādhi-yuktaṃ kuryāt ||10||

baladevaḥ : atha tasya sāṅgaṃ yogam upadiśati yogīty ādi trayoviṃśatyā | yogī niṣkāma-karmī | ātmānaṃ manaḥ satatam aharahar yuñjīta samādhi-yuktaṃ kuryāt | rahasi nirjane niḥśabde deśe sthitaḥ | tatrāpy ekākī dvitīya-śūnyas tatrāpi yata-cittātmā yatau yoga-pratikūla-vyāpāra-varjitau citta-dehau yasya saḥ | yato nirāśīr dṛḍha-vairāgyatayetaratra nispṛhaḥ | aparigraho nirāhāraḥ ||10||

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BhG 6.11-12

śucau deśe pratiṣṭhāpya sthiram āsanam ātmanaḥ |
nātyucchritaṃ nātinīcaṃ cailājinakuśottaram ||11||
tatraikāgraṃ manaḥ kṛtvā yata-cittendriya-kriyaḥ |
upaviśyāsane yuñjyād yogam ātma-viśuddhaye ||12||

śrīdharaḥ : āsana-niyamaṃ darśayann āha śucāv iti dvābhyām | śuddhe sthāne ātmanaḥ svasya āsanaṃ sthāpayitvā | kīdṛśam ? sthiram acalam | nātyucchritaṃ nātīvonnatam | na cātinīcam | celaṃ vastram | ajinaṃ vyāghrādi-carma | celājine kuśebhya uttare yasya | kuśānām upari carma tad upari vastram āstīryetety arthaḥ ||11||

tatreti | tatra tasminn āsana upaviśyaikāgraṃ vikṣepa-rahitaṃ manaḥ kṛtvā yogaṃ yuñjyād abhyaset | yatāḥ saṃyatāś cittasyendriyāṇāṃ ca kriyā yasya saḥ | ātmano manaso viśuddhaya upaśāntaye ||12||

madhusūdanaḥ : tatrāsana-niyamaṃ darśayann āha śucau deśa iti dvābhyām | śucau svabhāvataḥ saṃskārato vā śuddhe jana-samudāya-rahite nirbhaye gaṅgā-taṭa-guhādau deśe sthāne pratiṣṭhāpya sthiram niścalam nātyucchritaṃ nātyuccaṃ nāpy atinīcam cailājina-kuśottaraṃ cailaṃ mṛdu-vastram ajinaṃ mṛdu-vyāghrādi-carma te kuśebhya uttare uparitane yasmiṃs tat | āsyate 'sminn ity āsanaṃ kuśamaya-vṛṣy-upari mṛdu-carma tad-upari mṛdu-vastra-rūpam ity arthaḥ | tathā cāha bhagavān patañjaliḥ sthira-sukham āsanam iti | ātmana iti parāsana-vyāvṛtty-arthaṃ tasyāpi parecchā-niyamābhāvena yoga-vikṣepa-paratvāt ||11||

evam āsanaṃ pratiṣṭhāpya kim kuryād iti tatrāha tatraikāgram iti | tatra tasminn āsana upaviśyaiva na tu śayānas tiṣṭhan vā | āsīnaḥ sambhavāt iti nyāyena | yatāḥ saṃyatā uparatāś cittasyendriyāṇāṃ ca kriyā vṛttayo yena sa yata-cittendriya-kriyaḥ san yogaṃ samādhiṃ yuñjītābhyaset | kim-artham ? ātma-viśuddhaya ātmano 'ntaḥ-karaṇasya sarva-vikṣepa-śūnyatvenātisūkṣmatayā brahma-sākṣātkāra-yogyatāyai | dṛśyate tv agryayā buddhyā sūkṣmayā sūkṣma-darśibhiḥ [KaṭhU 1.3.12] iti śruteḥ |

kiṃ kṛtvā yogam abhyased iti tatrāha ekāgraṃ rājasatāmasa-vyutthānākhya-prāg-ukta-bhūmi-traya-parityāgenaika-viṣayaka-dhārāvāhikāneka-vṛtti-yuktam udrikta-sattvaṃ manaḥ kṛtvā dṛḍha-bhūmikena prayatnena sampādyaikāgratā-vivṛddhy-arthaṃ yogaṃ samprajñāta-samādhim abhyaset | sa ca brahmākāra-mano-vṛtti-pravāha eva nididhyāsanākhyaḥ | tad uktam -

brahmākāra-mano-vṛtti-pravāho 'haṅkṛtiṃ vinā |
saṃprajñāta-samādhiḥ syād dhyānābhyāsa-prakarṣataḥ || iti |

etad evābhipretya dhyānābhyāsa-prakarṣaṃ vidadhe bhagavān - yogī yuñjīta satataṃ [Gītā 6.10] yuñjyād yogam ātma-viśuddhaye [Gītā 6.12] | yukta āsīta mat-para [Gītā 6.14]ity ādi bahu-kṛtvaḥ ||12||

viśvanāthaḥ : pratiṣṭhāpya stthāpayitvā | celājina-kuśottaram iti kuśāsanopari mṛga-carmāsanam | tad upari vastrāsanaṃ nidhāyety arthaḥ | ātmano 'ntaḥ-karaṇasya viśuddhatve vikṣepa-śūnyatvenātisūkṣmatayā brahma-sākṣātkāra-yogyatāyai dṛśyate tv agryayā buddhyā [KaṭhU 1.3.12] iti śruteḥ ||11-12||

baladevaḥ : āsanam āha śucāv iti dvābhyām | śucau svataḥ saṃskārataś ca śuddhe gaṅgā-taṭa-giri-guhādau deśe sthiraṃ niścalam | nātyucchritaṃ nātyuccam | nātinīcam dārvādi-nirmitam āsanaṃ pratiṣṭhāpya saṃsthāpya | cailājine kuśebhya uttare yatra tat | cailaṃ mṛdu-vastram | ajinaṃ mṛdu-mṛgādi-carma | kuśopari vastram āstīryetety arthaḥ | ātmana iti parāsanasya vyāvṛttaye parecchāyau aniyatatvena tasya yoga-pratikūlatvāt | tatreti tasmin pratiṣṭhāpite āsane upaviśya, na tu tiṣṭhan śayāno vety arthaḥ | evam āha sūtrakāraḥ -- āsīnaḥ sambhavāt [Vs 4.1.7] iti | yatā niruddhāś cittādi-kriyā yasya saḥ mana ekāgram avyākulaṃ kṛtvā yogaṃ yuñjīta
samādhim abhyaset | ātmano 'ntaḥkaraṇasya viśuddhaye atinairmalyena saukṣmyeṇātma-darśana-yogyatāyai dṛśyate tv agryayā buddhyā sūkṣmayā sūkṣma-darśibhiḥ [KaṭhU 1.3.12] iti śravaṇāt ||11-12||

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BhG 6.13-14

samaṃ kāya-śiro-grīvaṃ dhārayann acalaṃ sthiraḥ |
saṃprekṣya nāsikāgraṃ svaṃ diśaś cānavalokayan ||13||
praśāntātmā vigata-bhīr brahmacāri-vrate sthitaḥ |
manaḥ saṃyamya mac-citto yukta āsīta mat-paraḥ ||14||

śrīdharaḥ : cittaikāgryāpayoginīṃ dehādhikāriṇāṃ darśayann āha samam iti dvābhyām | kāya iti dehasya madhya-bhāgo vivakṣitaḥ | kāyaś ca śiraś ca grīvā ca kāya-śiro-grīvam | mūlādhārād ārabhya mūrdhāgra-paryantaṃ samam avakram | acalaṃ niścalam | dhārayan | sthiro dṛḍha-prayatno bhūtvety arthaḥ | svīyaṃ nāsikāgraṃ samprekṣya ity ardha-nimīlita-netra ity arthaḥ | itas tato diśaś cānavalokayan āsīta ity uttareṇānvayaḥ ||13||

praśānteti | praśānta ātmā cittaṃ yasya | vigatā bhīr bhayaṃ yasya | brahmacāri-vrate brahmacarye sthitaḥ san | manaḥ saṃyamya pratyāhṛtya | mayy eva cittaṃ yasya | aham eva paraṃ puruṣārtho yasya sa mat-paraḥ | evaṃ yukto bhūtvāsīta tiṣṭhet ||14||

madhusūdanaḥ : tad-arthaṃ bāhyam āsanam uktvādhunā tatra kathaṃ śarīra-dhāraṇam ity ucyate samam iti | kāyaḥ śarīra-madhyaṃ sa ca śiraś ca grīvā ca kāya-śiro-grīvaṃ mūlādhārād ārabhya mūrdhānta-paryantaṃ samam avakram acalam akampaṃ dhārayann eka-tattvābhyāsena vikṣepa-saha-bhāvya-aṅgam ekayattvābhāvaṃ sampādayan sthiro dṛḍha-prayatno bhūtvā | kiṃ ca svaṃ svīyaṃ nāsikāgraṃ saṃprekṣyaiva laya-vikṣepa-rāhityāya viṣaya-pravṛtti-rahito 'nimīlita-netra ity arthaḥ | diśaś cānavalokayann antarāntarā diśāṃ cāvalokanam akurvan yoga-pratibandhakatvāt tasya | evambhūtaḥ sann āsīnety uttareṇa
sambandhaḥ ||13||
kiṃ ca praśāntātmeti | nidāna-nivṛtti-rūpeṇa prakarṣeṇa śānto rāgādi-doṣa-rahita ātmāntaḥkaraṇaṃ yasya sa praśāntātmā śāstrīya-niścaya-dārḍhyād vigatā bhīḥ | sarva-karma-parityāgena yuktavāyuktatva-śaṅkā yasya sa vigata-bhīḥ | brahmacāri-vrate brahmacarya-guru-śuśrūṣā-bhikṣānna-bhojanādau sthitaḥ san | manaḥ saṃyamya viṣayākāra-vṛtti-śūnyaṃ kṛtvā | mayi parameśvare pratyak-citi sa-guṇe nirguṇe vā cittaṃ yasya sa mac-citto mad-viṣayaka-dhārāvāhika-citta-vṛttimān | putrādau priye cintanīye sati katham evaṃ syād ata āha mat-paraḥ | aham eva paramānanda-rūpatvāt paraḥ puruṣārthaḥ priyo yasya sa
tathā | tad etat preyaḥ putrāt preyo vittāt preyo 'nyasmāt sarvasmād antarataraṃ yad ayam ātmā [BAU 1.4.8] iti śruteḥ | evaṃ viṣayākāra-sarva-vṛtti-nirodhena bhagavad-ekākāra-citta-vṛtti-yuktaḥ samprajñāta-samādhimān āsītopaviśed yathā-śakti, na tu svecchayā vyuttiṣṭhed ity arthaḥ |

bhavati kaścid rāgī strī-citto na tu striyam eva paratvenārādhyatvena gṛhṇāti | kiṃ tarhi ? rājānaṃ vā devaṃ vā | ayaṃ tu mac-citto mat-paraś ca sarvārādhyatvena mām eva manyata iti bhāṣya-kṛtāṃ vyākhyā |

vyākhyātṛtve 'pi me nātra bhāṣya-kāreṇa tulyatā |
guñjāyāḥ kiṃ nu hemnaika-tulārohe 'pi tulyatā ||14||

viśvanāthaḥ : kāyo deha-madhya-bhāgaḥ samam avakram acalaṃ niścalaṃ dhārayan kurvan manaḥ saṃyamya pratyāhṛtya mac-citto māṃ caturbhujaṃ sundarākāraṃ cintayan | mat-paro mad-bhakti-parāyaṇaḥ ||13-14||

baladevaḥ : āsane tasminn upaviṣṭasya śarīra-dhāraṇa-vidhim āha samam iti | kāyo deha-madhya-bhāgaḥ | kāyaś ca śiraś ca grīvā ca teṣāṃ samāhāraḥ prāṇy-aṅgatvāt | samam avakram | acalam akampam dhārayan kurvan | sthiro dṛḍha-prayatno bhūtvā sva-nāsikāgraṃ samprekṣya sampaśyan mano-laya-vikṣepa-nivṛttaye bhrū-madhya-dṛṣṭiḥ sann ity arthaḥ | antarāntarā diśaś cānavalokayan | evambhūtaḥ sann āsītety uttareṇa sambandhaḥ | praśāntātmā akṣubdha-manāḥ | vigatā bhīr nirbhayaḥ | brahmacāri-vrate brahmacarye sthitaḥ | manaḥ saṃyamya viṣayebhyaḥ pratyāhṛtya | mac-cittaś caturbhujaṃ
sundarāṅgaṃ māṃ cintayan | mat-paro mad-eka-puruṣārthaḥ | yukto yogī ||13-14||

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BhG 6.15

yuñjann evaṃ sadātmānaṃ yogī niyata-mānasaḥ |
śāntiṃ nirvāṇa-paramāṃ mat-saṃsthām adhigacchati ||15||

śrīdharaḥ : yogābhyāsa-phalam āha yuñjann evam iti | evam ukta-prakāreṇa sadātmānaṃ mano yuñjan samāhitaṃ kurvan | niyataṃ niruddhaṃ mānasaṃ cittaṃ yasya saḥ | śāntiṃ saṃsāroparamaṃ prāpnoti | kathambhūtam ? nirvāṇaṃ paramaṃ prāpyaṃ yasyāṃ tām | mat-saṃsthāṃ mad-rūpeṇāvasthitām ||15||

madhusūdanaḥ : evaṃ saṃprajñāta-samādhināsīnasya kiṃ syād ity ucyate yuñjann iti | evaṃ raho 'vasthānādi-pūrvokta-niyamenātmānaṃ mano yuñjann abhyāsa-vairāgyābhyāṃ samāhitaṃ kurvan yogī sadā yogābhyāsa-paro 'bhāysātiśayena niyataṃ niruddhaṃ mānasaṃ mano yena niyatā niruddhā mānasā mano-vṛtti-rūpā vikārā yeneti vā niyata-mānasaḥ san, śāntiṃ sarva-vṛtty-uparati-rūpāṃ praśāntavāhitāṃ nirvāṇa-paramāṃ tattva-sākṣātkārotpatti-dvāreṇa sakāryāvidyān-nivṛtti-rūpa-mukti-paryavasāyinīṃ mat-saṃsthāṃ mat-svarūpa-paramānanda-rūpāṃ niṣṭhām adhigacchati, na tu sāṃsārikāṇy
aiśvaryāṇi anātma-viṣaya-samādhi-phalāny adhigacchati, teṣām apavargopayogi-samādhy-upasargatvāt |

tathā ca tat-tat-samādhi-phalāny uktvāha bhagavān patañjaliḥ -- te samādhāv upasargā vyutthāne siddhayaḥ [YogaS 3.37] iti, sthāny-upanimantraṇe saṅga-smayākaraṇaṃ punaḥ aniṣṭa-prasaṅgāt [YogaS 3.51] iti ca | sthānino devāḥ | tathā coddālako devair āmantrito 'pi tatra saṅgam ādaraṃ smayaṃ garvaṃ cākṛtvā devān avajñāya punar aniṣṭa-prasaṅga-nivāraṇāya nirvikalpakam eva samādhim akarod iti vasiṣṭhenopākhyāyate |

mumukṣubhir heyaś ca samādhiḥ sūtritaḥ patañjalinā -- vitarka-vicārānandāsmitā-rūpānugamāt saṃprajñātaḥ [YogaS 1.17] | samyak saṃśaya-viparyayānadhyavasāya-rahitatvena prajñāyate prakarṣeṇa viśeṣa-rūpeṇa jñāyate bhāvyasya rūpaṃ yena sa samprajñātaḥ samādhir bhāvanā-viśeṣaḥ | bhāvanā hi bhāvyasya viṣayāntara-parihāreṇa cetasi punaḥ punar niveśanam | bhāvyaṃ ca trividhaṃ grāhya-grahaṇa-grahītṛ-bhedāt | grāhyam api dvividhaṃ sthūla-sūkṣma-bhedāt | tad uktaṃ -- kṣīṇa-vṛtter abhijātasyeva maṇer grahītṛ-grahaṇa-grāhyeṣu tat-stha-tad-añjanatā-samāpattiḥ [YogaS 1.41] | kṣīṇā
rājasa-tāmasa-vṛttayo yasya tasya cittasya grahītṛ-grahaṇa-grāhyeṣv ātmendriya-viṣayeṣu tat-sthatā tatraivaikāgratā | tad-añjanatā tan-mayatā nyag-bhūte citte bhāvyamānasya evotkarṣaṃ iti yāvat | tathā-vidhā-samāpattis tad-rūpaḥ pariṇāmo bhavati | yathābhijātasya nirmalasya sphaṭika-maṇes tat-tad-upāśraya-vaśāt tat-tad-rūpāpattir evaṃ nirmalasya cittasya tat-tad-bhāvanīya-vastūparāgāt tat-tad-rūpāpattiḥ samāpattiḥ samādhir iti ca paryāyaḥ | yadyapi garhītṛ-grahaṇa-grāhyeṣv ity uktaṃ tathāpi bhūmikā-krama-vaśād grāhya-grahaṇa-grahītṛṣv iti boddhavyam | yataḥ prathamaṃ grāhya-niṣṭha eva samādhir bhavati tato grahaṇa-niṣṭhas tato grahītṛ-niṣṭha iti |
grahītrādi-kramo 'py agre vyākhyāsyate |

tatra yadā sthūlaṃ mahā-bhūtendriyātmaka-ṣoḍaśa-vikāra-rūpaṃ viṣayam ādāya pūrvāparānusandhānena śabdārthollekhena ca bhāvanā kriyate tadā sa-vitarkaḥ samādhiḥ | asminn evālambate pūrvāparānusandhāna-śabdārthollekha-śūnyatvena yadā bhāvanā pravartate tadā nirvitarkaḥ | etāv ubhāv apy atra vitarka-śabdenoktau | tan-mātrāntaḥ-karaṇa-lakṣaṇaṃ sūkṣmaṃ viṣayam ālambya tasya | deśa-kāla-dharmāvacchedena yadā bhāvanā pravartate tadā sa-vicāraḥ | asminn evālambane deśa-kāla-dharmāvacchedaṃ vinā dharmi-mātrāvabhāsitvena yadā bhāvanā pravartate tadā nirvicāraḥ | etāv uabhāv apy atra vicāra-śabdenoktau | tathā ca bhāṣyaṃ vitarkaś
cittasya sthūla ālambana ābhogaḥ sūkṣme vicāra iti | iyaṃ grāhya-samāpattir iti vyapadiśyate | yadā rajas-tamo-leśānubiddham antaḥ-karaṇa-sattvaṃ bhāvyate tadā guṇa-bhāvāc cic-chakteḥ sukha-prakāśamayasya sattvasya bhāvayamānasyodrekātmānanadaḥ samādhir bhavati | asminn eva samādhau ye baddha-dhṛtayas tattvāntaraṃ pradhāna-puruṣa-rūpaṃ na paśyanti te vigata-dehāhaṅkāratvād videha-śabdenocyate | iyaṃ grahaṇa-sampattiḥ | tataḥ paraṃ rajas-tamo-leśānabhibhūtaṃ śuddhaṃ sattvam ālambanīkṛtya yā bhāvanā pravartate tasyāṃ grāhyasya sattvasya nyag-bhāvāc citi-śakter udrekāt sattā-mātrāvaśeṣatvena samādhiḥ sāsmita ity ucyate
| na cāhaṅkārāsmitayor abhedaḥ śaṅkanīyaḥ | yato yatrāntaḥkaraṇam ahim ity ullekhena viṣayān vedayate so 'haṅkāraḥ | yatra tv antarmukhatayā pratiloma-pariṇāmena prakṛti-līne cetasi sattā-mātram avabhāti so 'smitā | asminn eva samādhau ye kṛta-paritoṣās te paraṃ puruṣam apaśyantaś cetasaḥ prakṛtau līnatvāt prakṛti-layā ity ucyante | seyaṃ grahītṛ-samāpattir asmitā-mātra-rūpa-grahītṛ-niṣṭhatvāt | ye tu paraṃ puruṣaṃ vivicya bhāvanāyāṃ pravartante teṣām api kevala-puruṣa-viṣayā viveka-khyātir grahītṛ-samāpattir api na sāsmitaḥ samādhir vivekenāsmitāyās tyāgāt |

tatra grahītṛ-bhāna-pūrvakam eva grahaṇa-bhānaṃ tat-pūrvakaṃ ca sūkṣma-grāhya-bhānaṃ tat-pūrvakaṃ ca sthūla-grāhya-bhānam iti sthūla-viṣayo dvi-vidho 'pi vitarkaś catuṣṭayānugataḥ | dvitīyo vitarka-vikalas tritayānugataḥ | tṛtīyo vitarka-vicārābhyāṃ vikalo dvitayānugataḥ | caturtho vitarka-vicārānandair vikalo 'smitā-mātra iti caturavastho 'yaṃ samprajñāta iti | evaṃ sa-vitarkaḥ sa-vicāraḥ sānandaḥ sāsmitaś ca samādhir antardhānādi-siddhi-hetutayā mukti-hetu-samādhi-virodhitvād dheya eva mumukṣubhiḥ | grahītṛ-grahaṇayor api citta-vṛtti-viṣayatā-daśāyāṃ grāhya-koṭau nikṣepād dheyopādeya-vibhāga-kathanāya
grāhya-samāpattir eva vivṛtā sūtra-kāreṇa | catur-vidhā hi grāhya-samāpattiḥ sthūla-grāhya-gocarā dvividhā sa-vitarkā nirvitarkā ca | sūkṣma-grāhya-gocarāpi dvivdihā sa-vicārā nirvikārā ca | tatra śabdārtha-jñāna-vikalpaiḥ saṃkīrṇā savitarkā samāpattiḥ [YogaS 1.42] śabdārtha-jñāna-vikalpa-sambhinnā sthūlārthāvabhāsa-rūpā savitarkā samāpattiḥ sthūla-gocarā savikalpaka-vṛttir ity arthaḥ |

smṛti-pariśuddhau svarūpa-śūnyevārtha-mātra-nirbhāsā nirvitarkā [YogaS 1.43] tasminn eva sthūla ālambane śabdārtha-smṛti-pravilaye pratyudita-spaṣṭa-grāhyākāra-pratibhāsitayā nyag-bhūta-jñānāṃśatvena svarūpa-śūnyeva nirvitarkā samāpattiḥ sthūla-gocarā nirvikalpaka-vṛttir ity arthaḥ | etayaiva savicārā nirvicārā ca sūkṣma-viṣayā vyākhyātā [YogaS 1.44] sūkṣmas tan-mātrādir viṣayo yasyāḥ sā sūkṣma-viṣayā samāpattir dvividhā sa-vicārā nirvicārā ca savikalpaka-nirvikalpaka-bhedena | etayaiva savitarkayā nirvitarkayā ca sthūla-viṣayayā samāpattyā vyākhyātā | śabdārtha-jñāna-vikalpa-sahitatvena deśa-kāla-dharmādy-avacchinnaḥ sūkṣmo 'rthaḥ pratibhāti yasyāṃ sā sa-vicārā | sa-vicāra-nirvicārayoḥ
sūkṣma-viṣayatva-viśeṣaṇāt savitarka-nirvitarkayoḥ sthūla-viṣayatvam arthād vyākhyātam | sūkṣma-viṣayatvaṃ cāliṅga-paryavasānam [YogaS 1.45] sa-vicārāyā nirvicārāyāś ca samāpatter yat sūkṣma-viṣayatvam uktaṃ tad-aliṅga-paryantaṃ draṣṭavyam | tena sānanda-sāsmitayor grahitṛ-grahaṇa-samāpattyor api grāhya-samāpattāv evāntar-bhāva ity arthaḥ | tathā hi - pārthivasyāṇor gandha-tanmātraṃ sūkṣmo viṣayaḥ | āpasyāpi rasa-tanmātraṃ, taijasasya rūpa-tanmātram, vāyavīyasya sparśa-tanmātraṃ, nabhasaḥ śabda-tanmātraṃ, teṣām ahaṅkāras tasya liṅga-mātraṃ mahat-tattvaṃ
tasyāpy aliṅgaṃ pradhānaṃ sūkṣmo viṣayaḥ | saptānām api prakṛtīnāṃ pradhāna eva sūkṣmatā-viśrāntes tat-paryantam eva sūkṣma-viṣayatvam uktam | yadyapi pradhānād api puruṣaḥ sūkṣmo 'sti tathāpy anvayi-kāraṇatvābhāvāt tasya sarvānvayi-kāraṇe pradhāna eva niratiśayaṃ saukṣmyaṃ vyākhyātam | puruṣas tu nimitta-kāraṇaṃ sad api nānanvayi-kāraṇatvena sūkṣmatām arhati | anvayi-kāraṇatva-vivakṣāyāṃ tu puruṣo 'pi sūkṣmo bhavaty eveti draṣṭavyam | tā eva sa-bījaḥ samādhiḥ [YogaS 1.46] tāś catasraḥ samāpattayo grāhyeṇa bījena saha
vartanta iti sa-bījaḥ samādhir vitarka-vicārānandāsmitānugamāt samprajñāta iti prāg uktaḥ | sthūle 'rthe sa-vitarko nirvitarkaḥ | sūkṣme 'rthe sa-vicāro nirvicāra iti |

tatrāntimasya phalam ucyate -- nirvicāra-vaiśāradye 'dhyātma-prasādaḥ [YogaS 1.47] sthūla-viṣayatve tulye 'pi sa-vitarkaṃ śabdārtha-jñāna-vikalpa-saṅkīrṇam apekṣya tad-rahitasya nirvikalpaka-rūpasya nirvitarkasya prādhānyam | tataḥ sūkṣma-viṣayasya sa-vikalpaka-pratibhāsa-rūpasya sa-vicārasya | tato 'pi sūkṣma-viṣayasya nirvikalpaka-pratibhāsa-rūpasya nirvicārasya prādhānyam | tatra pūrveṣāṃ trayāṇāṃ nirvicārārthatvān nirvicāra-phalenaiva phalavattvam | nirvicārasya tu prakṛṣṭābhyāsa-balād vaiśāradye rajas-tamo-nabhibhūta-sattvodreke saty adhyātma-prasādaḥ kleśa-vāsanā-rahitasya cittasya bhūtārtha-viṣayaḥ kramānanurodhī sphuṭaḥ prajñālokaḥ prādurbhavati
| tathā ca bhāṣyam -

prajñā-prasādam āruhya aśocyaḥ śocato janān |
bhūmiṣṭhān iva śailasthaḥ sarvān prājño 'nupaśyati || iti |

ṛtaṃbharā tatra prajñā [YogaS 1.48] tatra tasmin prajñā-prasāde sati samāhita-cittasya yogino yā prajñā jāyate sā ṛtam-bharā | ṛtaṃ satyam eva bibharti na tatra viparyāsa-gandho 'py astīti yogikyeveyaṃ samākhyā | sā cottamo yogaḥ | tathā ca bhāṣyam -

āgamenānumānena dhyānābhyāsa-rasena ca |
tridhā prakalpayan prajñāṃ labhate yogam uttamam || iti |

sā tu śrutānumāna-prajñābhyām anya-viṣayā viśeṣārthatvāt [YogaS 1.49] | śrutam āgama-vijñānānaṃ tat-sāmānya-viṣayam eva | na hi viśeṣeṇa saha kasyacic chabdasya saṅgatir grahītuṃ śakyate | tathānumānaṃ sāmānya-viṣayam eva | na hi viśeṣeṇa saha kasyacid vyāptir grahītuṃ śakyate | tasmāc chrutānumāna-viṣayo na viśeṣaḥ kaścid asti | na cāsya sūkṣma-vyavahita-viprakṛṣṭasya vastuno loka-pratyakṣeṇa grahaṇam asti | kiṃ tu samādhi-prajñā-nirgrāhya eva sa viśeṣo bhavati bhūta-sūkṣma-gato vā puruṣa-gato vā | tasmān nirvicāra-vaiśāradya-samudbhavāyāṃ śrutānumāna-vilakṣaṇāyāṃ
sūkṣma-vyavahita-prakṛṣṭa-sarva-viśeṣa-viṣayāyāmṛtaṃbharāyām eva prajñāyāṃ yoginā mahān prayatna āstheya ity arthaḥ |

nanu kṣipta-mūḍha-vikṣiptākhya-vyutthāna-saṃskārāṇām ekāgratāyām api sa-vitarka-nirvitarka-sa-vicāra-janānāṃ saṃskārāṇāṃ sad-bhāvāt taiś cālyamānasya cittasya kathaṃ nirvicāra-vaiśāradya-pūrvakādhyātma-prasāda-labhya-rtambharā prajñā pratiṣṭhitā syād ata āha -- taj-jaḥ saṃskāro 'nya-saṃskāra-pratibandhī [YogaS 1.50] tayā ṛtambharayā prajñayā janito yaḥ saṃskāraḥ sa tattva-viṣayayā prajñayā janitatvena balavattvād anyān vyutthānajān samādhijāṃś ca saṃskārān atattva-viṣaya-prajñā-janitatvena durbalān pratibadhnāti sva-kāryākṣamān karoti nāśyatīti vā | teṣāṃ saṃskārāṇām abhibhavāt
tat-prabhavāḥ pratyayā na bhavanti | tataḥ samādhir upatiṣṭhate | tataḥ samādhijā prajñā | tataḥ prajñā-kṛtāḥ saṃskārā iti navo navaḥ saṃskārāśayo vardhate | tataś ca prajñā | taataś ca saṃskārā iti |

nanu bhavatu vyutthāna-saṃskārāṇām atattva-viṣaya-prajñā-janitānāṃ tattva-mātra-viṣaya-samprajñāta-samādhi-prajñā-prabhavaiḥ saṃskāraiḥ pratibandhas teṣāṃ tu saṃskārāṇāṃ pratibandhakābhāvād ekāgra-bhūmāv eva sa-bījaḥ samādhiḥ syān na tu nirbījo nirodha-bhūmāv iti tatrāha -- tasyāpi nirodhe sarva-nirodhān nirbījaḥ samādhiḥ [YogaS 1.51] tasya samprajñātasya samādher ekāgra-bhūmijasya | api-śabdāt kṣipta-mūḍha-vikṣiptānām api nirodhe yogi-prayatna-viśeṣeṇa vilaye sati sarva-nirodhāt samādheḥ samādhijasya saṃskārasyāpi nirodhān nirbījo nirālambano 'saṃprajñāta-samādhir bhavati | sa ca sopāyaḥ
prāk sūtritaḥ -- virāma-pratyayābhyāsa-pūrvaḥ saṃskāra-śeṣo 'nyaḥ [YogaS 1.18] iti | viramyate 'neneti virāmo vitarka-vicārānandāsmitādi-rūpa-cintā-tyāgaḥ | tasya pratyayaḥ kāraṇaṃ paraṃ vairāgyam iti yāvat | virāmaś cāsau pratyayaś citta-vṛtti-viśeṣa iti vā | tasyābhyāsaḥ paunaḥpunyena cetasi niveśanaṃ tad eva pūrvaṃ kāraṇaṃ yasya sa tathā saṃskāra-mātra-śeṣaḥ sarvathā nivṛttiko 'nyaḥ pūrvoktāt sa-bījād vilakṣaṇo nirbījo 'saṃprajñāta-samādhir ity arthaḥ | asamprajñātasya hi samādher dvāv upāyāv uktāv abhyāso vairāgyaṃ ca | tatra sālambanatvād abhyāsasya na nirālambana-samādhi-hetutvaṃ
ghaṭata iti nirālambanaṃ paraṃ vairāgyam eva hetutvenocyate |
abhyāsas tu samprajñāta-samādhi-dvārā praṇāḍyopayujyate | tad uktaṃ -- trayam antaraṅgaṃ pūrvebhyaḥ [YogaS 3.7] | dhāraṇā-dhyāna-samādhi-rūpaṃ sādhana-trayaṃ yama-niyamāsana-prāṇāyāma-pratyāhāra-rūpa-sādhana-pañcakāpekṣayā sa-bījasya samādher antaraṅgaṃ sādhanam | sādhana-koṭau ca samādhi-śabdenābhyāsa evocyate | mukhyasya samādheḥ sādhyatvāt | tad api bahiraṅgaṃ nirbījasya [YogaS 3.8] | nirbījasya tu samādhes tad api trayaṃ bahiraṅgaṃ paramparayopakāri tasya tu paraṃ vairāgyam evāntaraṅgam ity arthaḥ |

ayam api dvividho bhava-pratyaya upāya-pratyayaś ca | bhava-pratyayo videha-prakṛti-layānām [YogaS 1.19] | videhānāṃ sānandānāṃ prakṛti-layānāṃ ca sāsmitānāṃ daivānāṃ prāg-vyākhyātānāṃ janma-viśeṣād auṣadhi-viśeṣān mantra-viśeṣāt tapo-viśeṣād vā yaḥ samādhiḥ sa bhava-pratyayaḥ | bhavaḥ saṃsāra ātmānātma-vivekābhāva-rūpaḥ pratyayaḥ kāraṇaṃ yasya sa tathā | janma-mātra-hetuko vā pakṣiṇām ākāśa-gamanavat | punaḥ saṃsāra-hetutvān mumukṣubhir heya ity arthaḥ | śraddhā-vīrya-smṛti-samādhi-prajñā-pūrvaka itareṣām [YogaS 1.20] |
janmauṣadhi-mantra-tapaḥ-siddha-vyatiriktānām ātmānātma-viveka-darśināṃ tu yaḥ samādhiḥ sa śraddhā-pūrvakaḥ | śraddhādayaḥ pūrva upāyā yasya sa tathā | upāya-pratyaya ity arthaḥ |

teṣu śraddhā yoga-viṣaye cetasaḥ prasādaḥ | sā hi jananīva yoginaṃ pāti | tataḥ śraddadhānasya vivekārthino vīryam utsāha upajāyate | samupajāta-vīryasya pāścātyāsu bhūmiṣu smṛtir utpadyate | tat-smaraṇāc ca cittam anākulaṃ sat samādhīyate | samādhir atraikāgratā | samāhita-cittasya prajñā bhāvya-gocarā vivekena jāyate | tad-abhyāsāt parāc ca vairāgyād bhavaty asamprajñātaḥ samādhir mumukṣūṇām ity arthaḥ | pratikṣaṇa-pariṇāmino hi bhāvā ṛte citi-śakteḥ iti nyāyena tasyām api sarva-vṛtti-nirodhāvasthāyāṃ citta-pariṇāma-pravāhas taj-janya-saṃskāra-pravāhaś ca bhavaty evety abhipretya saṃskāra-viśeṣa ity uktam |

tasya ca saṃskārasya prayojanam uktam -- tataḥ praśānta-vāhitā saṃskārāt [YogaS 3.10] iti | praśānta-vāhitā nāmāvṛttikasya cittasya nirindhanāgnivat pratiloma-pariṇāmenopaśamaḥ | yathā samid-ājyādy-āhuti-prakṣepe vahnir uttarottara-vṛddhyā prajvalati, samid-ādi-kṣaye tu prathama-kṣaṇe kiṃcic chāmyati | uttarottara-kṣaṇeṣu tv adhikam adhikaṃ śāmyatīti krameṇa śāntir vardhate | tathā niruddha-cittasyottarottarādhikaḥ praśamaḥ pravahati | tatra pūrva-praśama-janitaḥ saṃskāra evottarottara-praśamasya kāraṇam | tadā ca nirindhanāgnivac cittaṃ krameṇopaśāmyad-vyutthāna-samādhi-nirodha-saṃskāraiḥ saha svasyāṃ prakṛtau līyate | tadā ca
samādhi-paripāka-prabhavena vedānta-vākyajena samyag-darśanenāvidyāyāṃ nivṛttāyāṃ tad-dhetuka-dṛg-dṛśya-saṃyogābhāvād vṛttau pañca-vidhāyām api nivṛttāyāṃ svarūpa-pratiṣṭhaḥ puruṣaḥ śuddhaḥ kevalo mukta ity ucyate |

tad uktaṃ -- tadā draṣṭuḥ svarūpe 'vasthānam [YogaS 1.3] iti | tadā sarva-vṛtti-nirodhe | vṛtti-daśāyāṃ tu nityāpariṇāmi-caitanya-rūpatvena tasya sarvadām śuddhatve 'py anādinā dṛśya-saṃyogenāvidyakenāntaḥkaraṇa-tādātmyādhyāsād antaḥkaraṇa-vṛtti-sārūpyaṃ prāpnuvan nabhoktāpi bhokteva duḥkhānāṃ bhavati |

tad uktaṃ -- vṛtti-sārūpyam itaratra [YogaS 4] | itaratra vṛtti-prādurbhāve | etad eva vivṛttaṃ draṣṭṛ-dṛśyoparaktaṃ cittaṃ sarvārtham [YogaS 4.23] cittam eva draṣṭṛ-dṛśyoparaktaṃ viṣayi-viṣaya-nirbhāsaṃ cetanācetana-svarūpāpannaṃ viṣayātmakam apy aviṣayātmakam ivācetanam api cetanam iva sphaṭika-maṇi-kalpaṃ sarvārtham ity ucyate | tad anena citta-sārūpyeṇa bhrāntāḥ kecit tad eva cetanam ity āhuḥ | tad asaṃkhyeya-vāsanā-citram api parārthaṃ saṃhatya-kāritvāt [YogaS 4.24] | yasya bhogāpavargārthaṃ tat sa eva paraś cetano 'saṃhataḥ puruṣo na tu ghaṭādivat saṃhatya-kāri
cittaṃ cetanam ity arthaḥ | evaṃ ca viśeṣa-darśina ātma-bhāva-bhāvanā-vinivṛttiḥ [YogaS 4.25] | evaṃ yo 'ntaḥ-karaṇa-puruṣayor viśeṣa-darśī tasya yāntaḥ-karaṇe prāg-aviveka-vaśād ātma-bhāva-bhāvanāsīt sā nivartate | bheda-darśane saty abheda-bhramānupapatteḥ |

sattva-puruṣayor viśeṣa-darśanaṃ ca bhagavad-arpita-niṣkāma-karma-sādhyam | tal-liṅgaṃ ca yoga-bhāṣye darśitam | yathā prāvṛṣi tṛṇāṅkurasyodbhedena tad-bīja-sattānumīyate thatā mokṣa-mārga-śravaṇena siddhānta-ruci-vaśād yasya lomaharṣāśru-pātau dṛśyete tatrāpy asti viśeṣa-darśana-bījam apavarga-mārgīyaṃ karmābhinirvartitam ity anumīyate | yasya tu tādṛśaṃ karma-bījaṃ nāsti tasya mokṣa-mārga-śravaṇe pūrva-pakṣa-yuktiṣu rucir bhavaty aruciś ca siddhānta-yuktiṣu | tasya ko 'ham āsaṃ katham aham āsam ity ādir ātma-bhāva-bhāvanā svābhāvikī pravartate | sā tu viśeṣa-darśino nivartata iti |

evaṃ sati kiṃ syād iti tad āha -- tadā viveka-nimnaṃ kaivalya-prāg-bhāraṃ cittam [YogaS 4.26] | nimnaṃ jala-pravahaṇa-yogyo nīca-deśaḥ | prāg-bhāras tad-ayogya ucca-pradeśaḥ | cittaṃ ca sarvadā pravartamāna-vṛtti-pravāheṇa pravahaj-jala-tulyaṃ tat prāg-ātmānātmāviveka-rūpa-vimārga-vāhi-viṣaya-bhoga-paryantam asyāsīt | adhunā tv ātmānātma-viveka-mārga-vāhi-kaivalya-paryantaṃ sampadyata iti | asmiṃś ca viveka-vāhini citte ye 'ntarāyās te sa-hetukā nivartanīyā ity āha sūtrābhyām -- tac-chidreṣu pratyayāntarāṇi saṃskārebhyaḥ | hānam eṣāṃ kleśavad uktam [YogaS 4.27-8] | tasmin viveka-vāhini citte chidreṣv antarāleṣu pratyayāntarāṇi vyutthāna-rūpāṇy
ahaṃ mamety evaṃrūpāṇi vyutthānānubhavajebhyaḥ saṃskārebhyaḥ kṣīyamāṇbhyo 'pi prādurbhavanti | eṣāṃ ca saṃskārāṇāṃ kleśānām iva hānam uktam | yathā kleśā avidyādayo jñānāgninā dagdha-bīja-bhāvā ca punaś citta-bhūmau prarohaṃ prāpnuvanti tathā jñānāgninā dagdha-bīja-bhāvāḥ saṃskārāḥ pratyayāntarāṇi na praroḍhum arhanti | jñānāgni-saṃskārās tu yāvac cittam anuśerata iti |

evaṃ ca pratyayāntarānudayena viveka-vāhini citte sthirībhūte sati prasaṃkhyāne 'py akusīdasya sarvathāviveka-khyāter dharma-meghaḥ samādhiḥ [YogaS 4.29] prasaṅkhyānaṃ sattva-puruṣānyatā-khyātiḥ śuddhātma-jñānam iti yāvat | tatra buddheḥ sāttvike pariṇāme kṛta-saṃyamasya sarveṣāṃ guṇa-pariṇāmānāṃ svāmivad ākramaṇaṃ sarvādhiṣṭhātṛtvaṃ teṣām eva ca śāntoditāvyapadeśya-dharmitvena sthitānāṃ yathāvad viveka-jñānaṃ sarva-jñātṛtvaṃ ca viśokā nāma siddhiḥ phalaṃ tad-vairāgyāc ca kaivalyam uktaṃ -- sattva-puruṣānyatā-khyāti-mātrasya sarva-bhāvādhiṣṭhātṛtvaṃ
sarva-jñātṛtvaṃ ca [YogaS 3.49] sattva-puruṣayoḥ śuddhi-sāmye kaivalyam [YogaS 3.55] iti sūtrābhyām | tad etad ucyate tasmin prasaṅkhyāne saty apy akusīdasya phalam alipsoḥ pratyayāntarāṇām anudaye sarva-prakārair viveka-khyāteḥ paripoṣād dharma-meghaḥ samādhir bhavati |

ijyācāra-damāhiṃsā-dāna-svādhyāya-karmaṇām |
ayaṃ tu paramo dharmo yad yogenātma-darśanam || iti smṛteḥ ||

dharmaṃ pratyag-brahmaikya-sākṣātkāraṃ mehati siñcatīti dharma-meghas tattva-sākṣātkāra-hetur ity arthaḥ | tataḥ kleśa-karma-nivṛttiḥ | tato dharma-meghāt samādher dharmād vā kleśānāṃ pañca-vidhānām avidyāsmitā-rāga-dveṣābhiniveśānāṃ karmaṇāṃ ca kṛṣṇa-śuklakṛṣṇa-śukla-bhedena trividhānām avidyā-mūlānām avidyā-kṣaye bīja-kṣayād ātyantikī nivṛttiḥ kaivalyaṃ bhavati | kāraṇa-nivṛttyā kārya-nivṛtter ātyantikyā ucitatvād ity arthaḥ |

evaṃ sthite yuñjann eva sadātmānam ity anena samprajñātaḥ samādhir ekāgra-bhūmāv uktaḥ | niyata-mānasa ity anena tat-phala-bhūto 'samprajñāta-samādhir nirodha-bhūmāv uktaḥ | śāntim iti nirodha-samādhija-saṃskāra-phala-bhūtā praśānta-vāhitā | nirvāṇa-paramam iti dharma-meghasya samādhes tattva-jñāna-dvārā kaivalya-hetutvaṃ, mat-saṃsthām ity anenaupaniṣadābhimataṃ kaivalyaṃ darśitam | yasmād evaṃ mahā-phalo yogas tasmāt taṃ mahatā prayatnena sampādayed ity abhiprāyaḥ ||15||

viśvanāthaḥ : ātmānaṃ mano yuñjan dhyāna-yoga-yuktaṃ kurvan | yato niyata-mānaso viṣayoparata-cittaḥ | nirvāṇo mokṣa eva paramaḥ prāpyo yasyāṃ mayy eva nirviśeṣa-brahmaṇi samyak sthā sthitir yasyāṃ tāṃ śāntiṃ saṃsāroparatiṃ prāpnoti ||15||

baladevaḥ : evam āsīnasya kiṃ syāt tad āha yuñjann iti | yogī sadā pratidinam ātmānaṃ yuñjann arpayan | niyata-mānasaḥ mat-sparśa-pariśuddhatayā niyataṃ niścalaṃ mānasaṃ cittaṃ yasya sa, mat-saṃsthāṃ mad-adhīnāṃ nirvāṇa-paramāṃ śāntim adhigacchati labhate | tam eva viditvātimṛtyum eti [ŚvetU 3.8] ity ādi śravaṇāt | nirvāṇa-paramāṃ mokṣāvadhikām iti siddhayo 'pi yoga-phalānīty uktam ||15||

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BhG 6.16

nātyaśnatas tu yogo 'sti na caikāntam anaśnataḥ |
na cātisvapna-śīlasya jāgrato naiva cārjuna ||16||

śrīdharaḥ : yogābhyāsa-niṣṭhasyāhārādi-niyamam āha nātyaśanata iti dvyābhyām | atyantam adhikaṃ bhuñjānasya ekāntam atyantam abhuñjānasyāpi yogaḥ samādhir na bhavati | tathātinidrā-śīlasyātijāgrataś ca yogo naivāsti ||16||

madhusūdanaḥ : evaṃ yogābhyāsa-niṣṭhasyāhārādi-niyamam āha nātyaśanata iti dvyābhyām | yad bhuktaṃ sajjīryati śarīrasya ca kārya-kṣamatāṃ sampādayati tad-ātma-saṃmitam annaṃ tad atikramya lobhenādhikam aśnato na yogo 'sti ajīrṇa-doṣeṇa vyādhi-pīḍitatvāt | na caikāntam anaśnato yogo 'sti | anāhārād atyalpāhārād vā rasa-poṣaṇābhāvena śarīrasya kāryākṣamatvāt | yad u ha vā ātma-saṃmitam annaṃ tad avati tan na hinasti yad bhūyo hinasti tad yat kanīyo 'nnaṃ na tad avati [ŚatapathaB 9.2.1.2] iti śatapatha-śruteḥ | tasmād yogī nātma-saṃmitād annād adhikaṃ nyūnaṃ vāśnīyād ity arthaḥ |

athavā -
pūrayed aśanenārdhaṃ tṛtīyam udakena tu |
vāyoḥ saṅcaraṇārthaṃ tu caturtham avaśeṣayet ||

ity ādi yoga-śāstrokta-parimāṇād adhikaṃ nyūnaṃ vāśnato yogo na sampadyata ity arthaḥ | tathātinidrā-śīlasyātijāgrataś ca yogo naivāsti he 'rjuna sāvadhāo bhavety abhiprāyaḥ | yathā mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇe -

nādhmātaḥ kṣudhitaḥ śrānto na ca vyākula-cetanaḥ |
yuñjīta yogaṃ rājendra yogī siddhy-artham ātmanaḥ ||
nātīśīte na caivoṣṇe na dvandve nānilānvite |
kāleṣv eteṣu yuñjīta na yogaṃ dhyāna-tat-paraḥ || ity ādi ||16||

viśvanāthaḥ : yogābhyāsa-niṣṭhasya niyamam āha nātyaśanata iti dvyābhyām | atyaśnato 'dhikaṃ bhuñjānasya | yad uktaṃ -

pūrayed aśanenārdhaṃ tṛtīyam udakena tu |
vāyoḥ saṅcaraṇārthaṃ tu caturtham avaśeṣayet || iti ||16||

baladevaḥ : yogam abhyasyato bhojanādi-niyamam āha nātīti dvyābhyām | atyaśanam anatyaśanaṃ ca, atisvāpo 'tijāgaraś ca, yoga-virodhy-ativihārādi cottarāt ||16||

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BhG 6.17

yuktāhāra-vihārasya yukta-ceṣṭasya karmasu |
yukta-svapnāvabodhasya yogo bhavati duḥkha-hā ||17||

śrīdharaḥ : tarhi kathambhūtasya yogo bhavatīti ? ata āha - yuktāhāreti | yukto niyata āhāro vihāraś ca gatir yasya | karmasu kāryeṣu yuktā niyatā ceṣṭā yasya | yuktau niyatau svapnāvabodhau nidrā-jāgarau yasya | tasya duḥkha-nivartako yogo bhavati sidhyati ||17||

madhusūdanaḥ : evam āhārādi-niyama-virahiṇo yoga-vyatirekam uktvā tan-niyamavato yogānvayam āha yuktāhāra iti | āhriyata ity āhāro 'nnam | viharaṇaṃ vihāraḥ pāda-kramaḥ | tau yuktau niyata-parimāṇau yasya | tathānyeṣv api praṇava-japopaniṣad-āvartanādiṣu karmasu yuktā niyata-kālā ceṣṭā yasya | tathā svapno nidrā avabodho jāgaraṇaṃ tau yuktau niyata-kālau yasya tasya yogo bhavati | sādhana-pāṭavād ātma-samādhiḥ sidhyati nānyasya | evaṃ prayanta-viśeṣeṇa sampādito yogaḥ kiṃ-phala iti tatrāha duḥkhaheti | sarva-saṃsāra-duḥkha-kāraṇāvidyonmūlana-hetu-brahma-vidyotpādakatvāt sa-mūla-sarva-duḥkha-nivṛtti-hetur ity arthaḥ
| atrāhārasya niyatatvam |

ardham aśanasya sa-vyañjanasya tṛtīyam udakasya tu |
vāyoḥ saṃcāraṇārthaṃ tu caturtham avaśeṣayet ||

ity ādi prāg uktam | vihārasya niyatatvaṃ yoganān na paraṃ gacched ity ādi | karmasu ceṣṭāyā niyatatvaṃ vāg-ādi-cāpala-parityāgaḥ | rātrer vibhāga-trayaṃ kṛtvā prathamānyayor jāgaraṇaṃ madhye svapanam iti svapnāvabodhayor niyata-kālatvam | evam anye 'pi yoga-śāstroktā niyamā draṣṭavyāḥ ||17||

viśvanāthaḥ : yukto niyata evāhāro bhojanaṃ vihāro gamanaṃ ca yasya tasya karmasu vyavahārika-pāramārthika-kṛtyeṣu yuktā niyatā eva ceṣṭā vāg-vyāpārādyā yasya tasya ||17||

baladevaḥ : yukteti | mitāhāra-vihārasya karmasu laukika-pāramārthika-kṛtyeṣu mita-vāgādi-vyāpārasya mita-svāpa-jāgarasya ca sarva-duḥkha-nāśako yogo bhavati tasmād yogī tathā tathā vartate ||17||

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BhG 6.18

yadā viniyataṃ cittam ātmany evāvatiṣṭhate |
niḥspṛhaḥ sarva-kāmebhyo yukta ity ucyate tadā ||18||

śrīdharaḥ : kadā niṣpanna-yogaḥ puruṣo bhavatīty apekṣāyām āha yadeti | viniyataṃ viśeṣeṇa niruddhaṃ sac-cittam ātmany eva yadā niścalaṃ tiṣṭhati | kiṃ ca sarva-kāmebhya aihikāmuṣmika-bhogebhyo niḥspṛho vigata-tṛṣṇo bhavati | tadā muktaḥ prāpta-yoga ity ucyate ||18||

madhusūdanaḥ : evam ekāgra-bhūmau samprajñātaṃ samādhim abhidhāya nirodha-bhūmāv asamprajñātaṃ samādhiṃ vaktum upakramate yadeti | yadā yasmin kāle para-vairāgya-vaśād viniyataṃ viśeṣeṇa niyataṃ sarva-vṛtti-śūnyatām āpāditaṃ cittaṃ vigata-rajas-tamaskam antaḥkaraṇa-sattvaṃ svacchatvāt sarva-viṣayākāra-grahaṇa-samartham api sarvato-niruddha-vṛttikatvād ātmany eva pratyak citi anātmānuparakte vṛtti-rāhitye 'pi svataḥ-siddhasyātmākārasya vārayitum aśakyatvāc citer eva prādhānyān nyag-bhūtaṃ sad avatiṣṭhate niścalaṃ bhavati | tadā tasmin sarva-vṛtti-nirodha-kāle yuktaḥ samāhita ity ucyate | kaḥ ? yaḥ sarva-kāmebhyo niḥspṛhaḥ
| nirgatā doṣa-darśanena sarvebhyo dṛṣṭādṛṣṭa-viṣayebhyaḥ kāmebhyaḥ spṛhā tṛṣṇā yasyeti paraṃ vairāgyam asamprajñāta-samādher antaraṅgaṃ sādhanam uktam | tathā ca vyākhyātaṃ prāk ||18||

viśvanāthaḥ :yogī niṣpanna-yogaḥ kadā bhaved ity ākāṅkṣāyām āha yadeti | viniyataṃ niruddhaṃ cittam ātmani svasminn evāvatiṣṭhate niścalī-bhavatīty arthaḥ ||18||

baladevaḥ : yogī niṣpanna-yogaḥ kadā syād ity apekṣāyām āha yadeti | yogam abhyasyato yoginaś cittam yadā viniyataṃ niruddhaṃ sadātmany eva svasminn evāvasthitaṃ sthiraṃ bhavati, tad-ātmetara-sarva-spṛhā-śūnyo yukto niṣpanna-yogaḥ kathyate ||18||

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BhG 6.19

yathā dīpo nivāta-stho neṅgate sopamā smṛtā |
yogino yata- cittasya yuñjato yogam ātmanaḥ ||19||

śrīdharaḥ : ātmaikyākāratayāvasthitasya cittasyopamānam āha yatheti | vāta-śūnye deśe sthito dīpo yathā neṅgate na vicalati | sopamā dṛṣṭāntaḥ | kasya ? ātma-viṣayaṃ yogaṃ yuñjato 'bhyasyato yoginaḥ | yataṃ niyataṃ cittaṃ yasya tasya niṣkampatayā prakāśakatayā cācañcalaṃ tac cittaṃ tadvat tiṣṭhatīty arthaḥ ||19||

madhusūdanaḥ : samādhau nivṛttikasya cittasyopamānam āha yatheti | dīpa-calana-hetunā vātena rahite deśe sthito dīpo yathā calana-hetv-abhāvān neṅgate na calati, sopamā smṛtā sa dṛṣṭāntaś cintito yogajñaiḥ | kasya ? yogina ekāgra-bhūmau samprajñāta-samādhi-mato 'bhyāsa-pāṭavād yata-cittasya niruddha-sarva-citta-vṛtter asamprajñāta-samādhi-rūpaṃ yogaṃ nirodha-bhūmau yuñjato 'nutiṣṭhato ya ātmāntaḥkaraṇaṃ tasya niścalatayā sattvodrekeṇa prakāśakatayā ca niścalo dīpo dṛṣṭānta ity arthaḥ |

ātmano yogaṃ yuñjata iti vyākhyāne dārṣṭāntikālābhaḥ sarvāvasthasyāpi cittasya sarvadātmākāratayātma-pada-vaiyarthyaṃ ca | na hi yogenātmākāratā cittasya sampādyate, kintu svata evātmākārasya sato 'nātmākāratā nivartyata iti | tasmād dārṣṭāntika-pratipādanārtham evātma-padam | yata-cittasyeti bhāva-paro nirdeśaḥ karma-dhārayo vā yatasya cittasyety arthaḥ ||19||

viśvanāthaḥ : nivāta-stho nirvāta-deśa-sthito dīpo neṅgate na calati yaḥ sa eva dīpa upamā yathā yathāvad ity arthaḥ | so 'ci lope cet pāda-pūraṇam [Pāṇ 6.1.134] iti sandhiḥ | kasyopamā ity ata āha yogina iti |

baladevaḥ : tadā yogī kīdṛśo bhavatīty apekṣāyām āha yatheti | nirvāta-deśa-stho dīpo neṅgate na calati niścalaḥ sa-prabhas tiṣṭhati sa dīpo yathā yathāvad upamā yogajñaiḥ smṛtā cintitā | sopamety atra so 'ci lope cet pāda-pūraṇam [Pāṇ 6.1.134] iti sūtrāt sandhiḥ | upamā-śabdenopamānaṃ bodhyam | kasyety āha yogina iti | yata-cittasya niruddha-sarva-citta-vṛtter ātmano yogaṃ dhyānaṃ yuñjato 'nutiṣṭhataḥ | nivṛtta-sakaletara-citta-vṛttir abhyudita-jñāna-yogī niścala-sa-pradīpa-sadṛśo bhavatīti ||19||

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BhG 6.20-23

yatroparamate cittaṃ niruddhaṃ yoga-sevayā |
yatra caivātmanātmānaṃ paśyann ātmani tuṣyati ||20|
sukham ātyantikaṃ yat tad buddhi-grāhyam atīndriyam |
vetti yatra na caivāyaṃ sthitaś calati tattvataḥ ||21||
yaṃ labdhvā cāparaṃ lābhaṃ manyate nādhikaṃ tataḥ |
yasmin sthito na duḥkhena guruṇāpi vicālyate ||22||
taṃ vidyād duḥkha-saṃyoga-viyogaṃ yoga-saṃjñitam |
sa niścayena yoktavyo yogo 'nirviṇṇa-cetasā ||23||

śrīdharaḥ : yaṃ saṃnyāsam iti prāhur yogaṃ taṃ viddhi pāṇḍava [Gītā 6.2] ity ādau karmaiva yoga-śabdenoktam | nātyaśnatas tu yogo 'sti [Gītā 6.16] ity ādau tu samādhir yoga-śabdenoktaḥ | tatra mukhyo yogaḥ ka ity apekṣāyāṃ samādhim eva svarūpataḥ phalataś ca lakṣayan sa eva mukhyo yoga ity āha yatreti sārdhais tribhiḥ | yatra yasmin avasthā-viśeṣe yogābhyāsena niruddhaṃ cittam uparataṃ bhavatīti yogasya svarūpa-lakṣaṇam uktam | tathā ca pātañjalaṃ sūtram yogaś citta-vṛtti-nirodhaḥ [YogaS 1.2] iti | iṣṭa-prāpti-lakṣaṇena phalena tam eva lakṣayati | yatra ca yasminn avasthā-viśeṣe | ātmanā śuddhena
manasā ātmānam eva paśyati na tu dehādi | paśyaṃś cātmany eva tuṣyati | na tu viṣayeṣu | yatrety ādīnāṃ yac-chandānāṃ taṃ yoga-saṃjñitaṃ vidyād iti caturthena ślokenānvayaḥ ||20|

ātmany eva toṣe hetum āha sukham iti | yatra yasminn avasthā-viśeṣe yat tat kim api niratiśayam ātyantikaṃ nityaṃ sukhaṃ vetti | nanu tadā viṣayendriya-sambandhābhāvāt kutaḥ sukhaṃ syāt ? tatrāha atīndriyaṃ viṣayendriya-sambandhātītam | kevalaṃ buddhyaivātmākāratayā grāhyam | ataeva ca yatra sthitaḥ saṃs tattvata ātma-svarūpān naiva calati ||21||

acalatvam evopapādayati yam iti | yam ātma-sukha-rūpaṃ lābhaṃ labdhvā tato 'dhikam aparaṃ lābhaṃ na manyate | tasyaiva niratiśaya-sukhatvāt | yasmiṃś ca sthito mahatāpi śītoṣṇādi-duḥkhena na vicālyate nābhibhūyate | etenāniṣṭa-nivṛtti-phalenāpi yogasya lakṣaṇam uktaṃ draṣṭavyam ||22||

tam iti | ya evaṃ-bhūto 'vasthā-viśeṣas taṃ duḥkha-saṃyoga-viyogaṃ yoga-saṃjñitaṃ vidyāt | duḥkha-śabdena duḥkha-miśritaṃ vaiṣayikaṃ sukham api gṛhyate | duḥkhasya saṃyogena saṃsparśa-mātreṇāpi viyogo yasmin tam avasthā-viśeṣaṃ yoga-saṃjñitaṃ yoga-śabda-vācyaṃ jānīyāt | paramātmānā kṣetrajñasya yojanaṃ yogaḥ | yad vā duḥkha-saṃyogena viyoga eva śūre kātara-śabda-vad viruddha-lakṣaṇayā yoga ucyate | karmaṇi tu yoga-śabdas tad-upāyatvād aupacārika eveti bhāvaḥ |

yasmād evaṃ mahā-phalo yogas tasmāt sa eva yatnato 'bhyasanīya ity āha tam iti sārdhena | sa yogo niścayena śāstrācāryopadeśa-janitena nirveda-rahitena cetasā yoktavyaḥ | duḥkha-buddhyā prayatna-śaithilyaṃ nirvedaḥ ||23||

madhusūdanaḥ : evaṃ sāmānyena samādhim uktvā nirodha-samādhiṃ vistareṇa vivarītum ārambhate yatreti | yatra yasmin pariṇāma-viśeṣe yoga-sevayā yogābhyāsa-pāṭavena jāte sati niruddham eka-viṣayaka-vṛtti-pravāha-rūpām ekāgratāṃ tyaktvā nirindhanāgnivad upaśāmyan nirvṛttikatayā sarva-vṛtti-nirodha-rūpeṇa pariṇataṃ bhavati | yatra ca yasmiṃś ca pariṇāme sati ātmanā rajas-tamo 'nabhibhūta-śuddha-sattva-mātreṇāntaḥ-karaṇenātmānaṃ pratyak-caitanyaṃ paramātmābhinnaṃ sac-cid-ānanda-ghanam anantam advitīyaṃ paśyan vedānta-pramāṇajayā vṛttyā sākṣātkurvann ātmany eva paramānanda-ghane tuṣyati, na dehendriya-saṃghāte, na vā tad-bhogye 'nyatra | paramātma-darśane
saty atuṣṭi-hetv-abhāvāt tuṣyaty eveti vā | tam antaḥ-karaṇa-pariṇāmaṃ sarva-citta-vṛtti-nirodha-rūpaṃ yogaṃ vidyād iti pareṇānvayaḥ | yatra kāla iti tu vyākhyānam asādhu tac-chabdānanvayāt ||20||

ātmany eva toṣe hetum āha sukham iti | yatra yasminn avasthā-viśeṣa ātyantikam anantaṃ niratiśayaṃ brahma-svarūpam atīndriyaṃ viṣayendriya-saṃyogānabhivyaṅgyaṃ buddhi-grāhyaṃ buddhyaiva rajas-tamo-mala-rahitayā sattva-mātra-vāhinyā grāhyaṃ sukhaṃ yogī vetti anubhavati | yatra ca sthito 'yaṃ vidvāṃs tattvata ātma-svarūpān naiva calati | taṃ yoga-saṃjñitaṃ vidyād iti pareṇānvayaḥ samānaḥ |

atrātyantikam iti brahma-sukha-svarūpa-kathanam | atīndriyam iti viṣaya-sukha-vyāvṛttiḥ | tasya viṣayendriya-saṃyoga-sāpekṣatvāt | buddhi-grāhyam iti sauṣupta-sukha-vyāvṛttiḥ suṣuptau buddher līnatvāt | samādhau nirvṛttikāyās tasyāḥ sattvāt | tad uktaṃ gauḍa-pādaiḥ - līyate tu suṣuptau tan nigṛhītaṃ na līyate iti | tathā ca śrūyate -

samādhi-nirdhūta-malasya cetaso
niveśitasyātmani yat sukhaṃ bhavet |
na śakyate varṇayituṃ girā tadā
yad etad antaḥ-karaṇena gṛhyate || iti |

antaḥkaraṇena niruddha-sarva-vṛttikenety arthaḥ | vṛttyā tu sukhāsvādanaṃ gauḍācāryais tatra pratiṣiddham - nāsvādayet sukhaṃ tatra niḥsaṅgaṃ prajñayā bhavet iti | mahad idaṃ samādhau sukham anubhavāmīti sa-vikalpa-vṛtti-rūpā prajñā sukhāsvādaḥ | taṃ vyutthāna-rūpatvena samādhi-virodhitvād yogī na kuryāt | ataevaitādṛśyā prajñayā saha saṅgaṃ parityajet tāṃ nirundhyād ity arthaḥ | nirvṛttikena tu cittena svarūpa-sukhānubhavas taiḥ pratipāditaḥ | svasthaṃ śāntaṃ sa-nirvāṇa-kathyaṃ sukham uttamam iti spaṣṭaṃ caitad upariṣṭhāt kariṣyate ||21||

yatra na caivāyaṃ sthitaś calati tattvata ity uktam upapādayati yaṃ labdhveti | yaṃ ca niratiśayātmaka-sukha-vyañjakaṃ nirvṛttika-cittāvasthā-viśeṣaṃ labdhvā santatābhyāsa-paripākena sampādyāparaṃ lābhaṃ tato 'dhikaṃ na manyate | kṛtaṃ kṛtyaṃ prāptaṃ prāpaṇīyam ity ātma-lābhāc ca paraṃ vidyate iti smṛteḥ | evaṃ viṣaya-bhoga-vāsanayā samādher vicalanaṃ nāstīty uktvā śīta-vāta-maśakādy-upadrava-nivāraṇārtham api tan nāstīty āha yasmin paramātma-sukha-maye nirvṛttika-cittāvasthā-viśeṣe sthito yogī guruṇā mahatā śastra-nipātādi-nimittena mahatāpi duḥkhena na vicālyate kim uta kṣudreṇety arthaḥ ||22||

yatroparamata ity ārabhya bahubhir viśeṣaṇair yo nivṛttikaḥ paramānandābhivyañjakaś cittāvasthā-viśeṣa uktas taṃ citta-vṛtti-nirodhaṃ citta-vṛtti-maya-sarva-duḥkha-virodhitvena duḥkha-viyogam eva santaṃ yoga-saṃjñitaṃ viyoga-śabdārtham api virodhi-lakṣaṇayā yoga-śabda-vācyaṃ vidyāj jānīyāc ca tu yoga-śabdānurodhāt kaṃcit sambandhaṃ pratipadyetety arthaḥ | tathā ca bhagavān patañjalir asūtrayat yogaś citta-vṛtti-nirodhaḥ [YogaS 1.2] iti | yogo bhavati duḥkhahā [6.17] iti yat prāg uktaṃ tad etad upasaṃhṛtam |

evaṃ-bhūte yoge niścayānirvedayoḥ sādhanatva-vidhānāyāha sa niścayeneti | sa

yathokta-phalo yogo niścayena śāstrācārya-vacana-tātparya-viṣayo 'rthaḥ satya evety adhvayasāyena yoktavyo 'bhyasanīyaḥ | anirviṇṇa-cetasā etāvatāpi kālena yogo na siddhaḥ kim ataḥ paraṃ kaṣṭam ity anutāpo nirvedas tad-rahitena cetasā | iha janmani janmāntare vā setsyati kiṃ tvarayety evaṃ dhairyam uktena manasety arthaḥ | tad etad gauḍa-pādā udājahruḥ -

utseka udadher yadvat kuśāgreāika-bindunā |
manaso nigrahas tadvad bhaved aparikhedataḥ || iti |

utseka utsecanaṃ śoṣaṇādhvasyāyena jaloddharaṇam iti yāvat | atra sampradāya-vida ākhyāyikām ācakṣate | kasyacit kila pakṣiṇo 'ṇḍāni tīra-sthāni taraṅga-vegena sumudro 'pajahāra | sa ca samudraṃ śoṣayiṣāmy eveti pravṛttaḥ sva-mukhāgreṇaikaikaṃ jala-bindum upari pracikṣepa | tadā ca bahubhiḥ pakṣibhir bandhu-vargair vāryamāṇo 'pi naivopararāma | yadṛcchayā ca tatrāgatena nāradena nivārito 'py asmin janmani janmāntare vā yena kenāpy upāyena samudraṃ śoṣayiṣyāmy eveti pratijajñe | tataś ca daivānukūlyāt kṛpālur nārado garuḍaṃ tat-sāhāyyāya preṣayāmāsa | samudras tvaj-jñāti-droheṇa tvām avamanyata iti vacanena | tato garuḍa-pakṣa-vātena
śuṣyan samudro bhītas tāny aṇḍāni tasmai pakṣiṇe pradadāv iti | evam akhedena mano-nirodhe parama-dharme pravartamānaṃ yoginam īśvaro 'nugṛhṇāti | tataś ca pakṣiṇa iva tasyābhimataṃ sidhyatīti bhāvaḥ ||23||

viśvanāthaḥ : nātyaśnatas tu yogo 'stīty ādau yoga-śabdena samādhir uktaḥ | sa ca saṃprajñāto 'saṃprajñātaś ca | sa-vitarka-sa-vicāra-bhedāt saṃprajñāto bahu-vidhaḥ | asaṃprajñāta-samādhi-rūpo yogaḥ kīdṛśa ity apekṣāyām āha yatrety-ādi-sārdhais tribhiḥ | yatra samādhau sati cittam uparamate vastu-mātram eva na spṛśatīty arthaḥ | tatra hetuḥ niruddham iti | tathā ca pātañjala-sūtram - yogaś citta-vṛtti-nirodhaḥ [YogaS 1.2] iti | yatrety-ādi-padānāṃ yoga-saṃjñitaṃ vidyād iti caturthenānvayaḥ | ātmanā paramātmākārāntaḥkaraṇenātmānaṃ paśyan tasmin tuṣyati | tatratyaṃ sukhaṃ prāpnoti | yad ātyantikaṃ
sukhaṃ prasiddham | atīndriyaṃ viṣayendriya-samparka-rahitam | ataeva yatra sthitaḥ san tattvata ātma-svarūpān naiva calati, ataeva yaṃ lābhaṃ labdhvā tataḥ sakāśād aparaṃ lābham adhikaṃ na manyate | duḥkhasya saṃyogena sparśa-mātreṇāpi viyogo yasmin taṃ yoga-saṃjñtaṃ yoga-saṃjñāṃ prāptaṃ samādhiṃ vidyāt | yadyapi śīghraṃ na sidhyati tad apy ayaṃ me yogaḥ saṃsetsyaty eveti yo niścayas tena | anirviṇṇa-cetasaitāvatāpi kālena yogo na siddhaḥ | kim ataḥ paraṃ kaṣṭenety anutāpo nirvedas tad-rahitena cetasā | iha janmani janmāntare vā sidhyatu,
kiṃ me tvarayeti dhairya-yuktena manasety arthaḥ | tad etad gauḍa-pādā udājahruḥ -

utseka udadher yadvat kuśāgreāika-bindunā |
manaso nigrahas tadvad bhaved aparikhedataḥ || iti |

utseka utsecanam | śoṣaṇādhyavasāyena jaloddharaṇam iti yāvat | atra kācid ākhyāyikāsti | kasyacit kila pakṣiṇo 'ṇḍāni tīra-sthitāni taraṅga-vegena sumudro jahāra | sa ca samudraṃ śoṣayiṣāmīty eveti pratijñāya sva-mukhāgreṇaikaikaṃ jala-bindum upari pracikṣepa | taṃ ca bahubhiḥ pakṣibhir bandhubhir yuktyā vāryamāṇo 'pi naivopararāma | yadṛcchayā ca tatrāgatena nāradena nivārito 'py asmin janmani janmāntare vā samudraṃ śoṣayiṣyāmy eveti tad-agre 'pi punaḥ pratijajñe | tataś ca daivānukūlyāt kṛpālur nārado garuḍaṃ tat-sāhāyyāya preṣayāmāsa | samudras tvadīya-jñāti-droheṇa tvām avamanyata iti vākyena | tato garuḍa-pakṣa-vātena śuṣyan samudro
'tibhītas tāny aṇḍāni tasmai pakṣiṇe dadāv iti |
evam eva śāstra-vacanāstikyena yoge jñāne bhaktau vā pravartamānam utsāhavantam adhyavasāyinaṃ janaṃ bhagavān evānugṛhṇātīti niścetavyam ||20-23||

baladevaḥ : nātyaśnata ity ādau yoga-śabdenoktaṃ samādhiṃ svarūpataḥ phalataś ca lakṣayati yatrety-ādi-sārdha-trayeṇa | yac-chabdānāṃ taṃ vidyād yoga-saṃjñitam ity uttareṇānvayaḥ | yogaysa sevayābhyāsena niruddhaṃ nivṛttetara-vṛttikaṃ cittaṃ yatroparamate mahat sukham etad iti sajjati | na tu dehādi paśyan viṣayeṣv iti citta-vṛtti-nirodhena svarūpeṇeṣṭa-prāpti-lakṣaṇena phalena ca yogo darśitaḥ | sukham iti | yatra samādhau yat tat prasiddham ātyantikaṃ nityaṃ sukhaṃ vetty anubhavati | atīndriyaṃ viṣayendriya-sambandha-rahitaṃ, buddhyātmākārayā grāhyam | ataeva yatra sthitas tattvata
ātma-svarūpān naiva calati, yaṃ yogaṃ labdhvaiva tato 'paraṃ lābham adhikaṃ na manyate | guruṇā guṇavat putra-vicchedādinā na vicāyate tam iti | duḥkha-saṃyogasya viyogaḥ pradhvaṃso yatra taṃ yoga-saṃjñtaṃ samādhim ||20-23||

__________________________________________________________

BhG 6.24

saṃkalpa-prabhavān kāmāṃs tyaktvā sarvān aśeṣataḥ |
manasaivendriya-grāmaṃ viniyamya samantataḥ ||24||

śrīdharaḥ : kiṃ ca saṅkalpeti | saṃkalpāt prabhavo yeṣāṃ tān yoga-pratikūlān sarvān kāmān aśeṣataḥ sa-vāsanāṃs tyaktvā manasaiva viṣaya-doṣa-darśinā sarvataḥ prasarantam indriya-samūhaṃ viśeṣeṇa niyamya | yogo yoktavya iti pūrveṇānvayaḥ ||24||

madhusūdanaḥ : kiṃ ca kṛtvā yogo 'bhyasnīyaḥ ? saṅkalpo duṣṭeṣv api viṣayeṣv aśobhanatvādarśanena śobhanādhyāsaḥ | tasmāc ca saṅkalpād idaṃ me syād idaṃ me syād ity evaṃ-rūpāḥ kāmāḥ prabhavanti | tān śobhanādhyāsa-prabhavān viṣayābhilāṣān vicāra-janyāśobhanatva-niścayena śobhanādhyāsa-bādhād dṛṣṭeṣu srak-candana-vanitādiṣv adṛṣṭeṣu cendra-loka-pārijātāpsaraḥ-prabhṛtiṣu śva-vānta-pāyasavat svata eva sarvān brahma-loka-paryantān aśeṣato niravaśeṣān savāsanāṃs tyaktvā, ataeva kāma-pūrvakatvād indirya-pravṛttes tad-apāye sati viveka-yuktena
manasaivendriya-prāptaṃ cakṣur-ādi-karaṇa-samūhaṃ viniyamya samantataḥ sarvebhyo viṣayebhyaḥ pratyāhṛtya śanaiḥ śanair uparamed ity anvayaḥ ||24||

viśvanāthaḥ : etādṛśa-yogābhyāse pravṛttasya prāthamikaṃ kṛtyam antyaṃ ca kṛtyam āha saṅkalpeti dvābhyām | kāmāṃs tyaktveti prāthamikaṃ kṛtyam | na kiṃcid api cintayed ity antyaṃ kṛtyam ||24-25||

baladevaḥ : sa yogaḥ prārambha-daśāyāṃ niścayena prayatne kṛte saṃsetsyaty evety adhyavasāyena yoktavyo 'nuṣṭheyaḥ | ātmany ayogatva-mananaṃ nirvedas tad-rahitena cetasā hṛtāṇḍārṇava-śoṣakat-pakṣivat sotsāhenety arthaḥ | etādṛśaṃ yogam ārabhamāṇasya prāthamikaṃ kṛtyam āha saṅkalpeti | saṅkalpāt prabhavo yeṣāṃ tān yoga-virodhinaḥ kāmān viṣayān aśeṣataḥ sa-vāsanāṃs tyaktvā | sphuṭam anyat | manasā viṣaya-doṣa-darśinā ||24||

__________________________________________________________

BhG 6.25

śanaiḥ śanair uparamed buddhyā dhṛti-gṛhītayā |
ātma-saṃsthaṃ manaḥ kṛtvā na kiṃcid api cintayet ||25||
śrīdharaḥ : yadi tu prāktana-karma-saṃskāreṇa mano vicalet tarhi dhāraṇayā sthirīkuryād ity āha śanair iti | dhṛtir dhāraṇā | tayā gṛhītayā vaśīkṛtayā buddhyā | ātma-saṃstham ātmany eva samyak sthitaṃ niścalaṃ manaḥ kṛtvoparamet | tac ca śanaiḥ śanair abhyāsa-krameṇa | na tu sahasā | uparama-svarūpam āha na kiṃcid api cintayet | niścale manasi svayam eva prakāśamāna-paramānanda-svarūpo bhūtvātma-dhyānād api nivartetety arthaḥ ||25||

madhusūdanaḥ : bhūmikā-jaya-krameṇa śanaiḥ śanair uparamet | dhṛti-dhairyam akhinnatā tayā gṛhītā yā buddhir avaśya-kartavyatā-niścaya-rūpā tayā yadā kadācid avaśyaṃ bhaviṣyaty eva yogaḥ kiṃ tvarayety evaṃ-rūpayā śanaiḥ śanair gurūpadiṣṭa-mārgeṇa mano nirundhyāt | etenānirveda-niścayau prāg uktau darśitau | tathā ca śrutiḥ -

yacched vāṅ-manasī prājñas
tad yacchej jñāna ātmani |
jñānam ātmani mahati niyacchet
tad yacchec chānta ātmani || [KaṭhU 1.3.13] iti |

vāg iti vācaṃ laukikīṃ vaidikīṃ ca manasi vyāpāravati niyacchet | nānudhyāyād bahūn śabdān vāco viglāpanaṃ hi tat [BAU 4.4.21] iti śruteḥ | vāg-vṛtti-nirodhena mano-vṛtti-mātra-śeṣo bhaved ity arthaḥ | cakṣur-ādi-nirodho 'py etasyāṃ bhūmau draṣṭavyaḥ | manasīti cchāndasaṃ dairghyam | tan manaḥ karmedriya-jñānendriya-sahakāri nana-vidha-vikalpa-sādhanaṃ karaṇaṃ jñāne jānātīti jñānam iti vyutpattyā jñātary ātmani jñātṛtvopādhāv ahaṅkāre niyacchet | mano-vyāpārān parityajyāhaṅkāra-mātraṃ pariśeṣayet | tac ca jñānaṃ jñātṛtvopādhim ahaṅkāram ātmani mahati mahat-tattve sarva-vyāpake niyacchet | dvividho hy ahaṅkāro viśeṣa-rūpaḥ
sāmānya-rūpaś ceti | ayam aham etasya putra ity evaṃ vyaktam abhimanyamāno viśeṣa-rūpo vyaṣṭy-ahaṅkāraḥ | asmīty etāvan-mātram abhimanyamānaḥ sāmānya-rūpaḥ samaṣṭy-ahaṅkāraḥ | sa ca hiraṇyagarbho mahān ātmeti ca sarvānusyūtatvād ucyate | tābhyām ahaṅkārābhyāṃ vivikto nirupādhikaḥ śāntātmā sarvāntaś cid-eka-rasas tasmin mahāntam ātmānaṃ samaṣṭi-buddhiṃ niyacchet | evaṃ tat-kāraṇam avyaktam api niyacchet | tato nirupādhikas tvaṃ-pada-lakṣyaḥ śuddha ātmā sākṣātkṛtau bhavati |

śuddhe hi cid-eka-rase pratyag-ātmani jaḍa-śakti-rūpam anirvācyam avyaktaṃ prakṛtir upādhiḥ | sā ca prathamaṃ sāmānyāhaṅkāra-rūpaṃ mahat tattvaṃ nāma dhṛtvā vyaktībhavati | tato bahir viśeṣāhaṅkāra-rūpeṇa | tato bahir mano-rūpeṇa | tato bahir vāg-ādīn indriya-rūpeṇa | tad etac chrutyābhihitam -

indriyebhyaḥ parā hy arthā arthebhyaś ca paraṃ manaḥ |
manasas tu parā buddhir buddher ātmā mahān paraḥ ||
mahataḥ parama-vyaktam avyaktāt puruṣaḥ paraḥ |
puruṣān na paraṃ kiṃcit sā kāṣṭhā sā parā gatiḥ || [KaṭhU 1.3.10-1] iti |

tatra gavādiṣv iva vāṅ-nirodhaḥ prathamā bhūmiḥ | bāla-mugdhādiṣv iva nirmanastvaṃ dvitīyā | tandryām ivāhaṅkāra-rāhityaṃ tṛtīyā | suṣuptāv iva mahat-tattva-śāntātmanor madhye mahat-tattvopādānam avyākṛtākhyaṃ tattvaṃ śrutyodāhāri, tathāpi tatra mahat-tattvasya niyamanaṃ nābhyadhāyi | suṣuptāv iva svarūpa-laya-prasaṅgāt | tasya ca karma-kṣaye sati puruṣa-prayatnam antareṇa svata eva siddhatvāt tattva-darśanānupayogitvāc ca | dṛśyate tvam agrayā buddhyā sūkṣmayā sūkṣma-darśibhiḥ iti pūrvam abhidhāya sūkṣmatva-siddhaye nirodha-samādher abhidhānāt | sa ca tattva-didṛkṣor darśana-sādhanatvena dṛṣṭa-tattvasya ca
jīvan-mukti-rūpa-kleśa-kṣayāyāpekṣitaḥ |

nanu śāntātmany avaruddhasya cittasya vṛtti-rahitatvena suṣuptivan na darśana-hetutvam iti cet, na | svataḥ-siddhasya darśanasya nivārayitum aśakyatvāt | tad uktaṃ -

ātmānātmākāraṃ svabhāvato 'sthitaṃ sadā cittam |
ātmaikākāratayā tiraskṛtānātma-dṛṣṭiṃ vidadhīta ||

yathā ghaṭa utpadyamānaḥ svato viyat-pūrṇaṃ evotpadyate | jala-taṇḍulādi-pūraṇaṃ tūtpanne ghaṭe paścāt puruṣa-prayatnena bhavati | tatra jalādau niḥsārite 'pi viyan-niḥsārayituṃ na śakyate | mukha-pidhāne 'py antarviyad avatiṣṭhata eva tathā cittam utpadyamānaṃ caitanya-pūrṇam evotpadyate | utpanne tu tasmin mūṣāniṣikta-druta-tāmravad ghaṭa-duḥkhādi-rūpatvaṃ bhoga-hetu-dharmādharma-sahakṛta-sāmagrī-vaśād bhavati | tatra ghaṭa-duḥkhādy-anātmākāre virāma-pratyayābhyāsena nivārite 'pi nirnimittaś cid-ākāro vārayituṃ na śakyate | tato nirodha-samādhinā nirvṛttikena cittena saṃskāra-mātra-śeṣatayātisūkṣmatvena nirupādhika-cid-ātma-mātrābhimukhatvād
vṛttiṃ vinaiva nirvighnam ātmānubhūyate | tad etad āha ātma-saṃsthaṃ manaḥ kṛtvā na kiṃcid api cintayed iti | ātmani nirupādhike pratīci saṃsthā samāptir yasya tad-ātma-saṃsthaṃ sarva-prakāra-vṛtti-śūnyaṃ svabhāva-siddhātmākāra-mātra-viśiṣṭaṃ manaḥ kṛtvā dhṛti-gṛhītayā viveka-buddhyā sampādyāsaṃprajñāta-samādhi-sthaḥ san kiṃcid api anātmānam ātmānaṃ vā na cintayet, na vṛttyā viṣayīkuryāt | anātmākāra-vṛttau hi vyutthānam eva syāt | ātmākāra-vṛttau ca samprajñātaḥ samādhir ity asamprajñāta-samādhi-sthairyāya kām api citta-vṛttiṃ notpādayed ity arthaḥ ||25||
viśvanāthaḥ : See BhG 6.24.

baladevaḥ : antimaṃ kṛtyam āha dhṛti-gṛhītayā dhāraṇāvaśīkṛtyā buddhyā mana ātma-saṃsthaṃ kṛtvātmānaṃ dhyātvā samādhāv uparameta tiṣṭhet | ātmano 'nyat kiṃcid api na cintayet | etac ca śanaiḥ śanair abhyāsa-krameṇa, na tu haṭhena ||25||

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BhG 6.26

yato yato niścarati manaś cañcalam asthiram |
tatas tato niyamyaitad ātmany eva vaśaṃ nayet ||26||

śrīdharaḥ : evam api rajo-guṇa-vaśād yadi manaḥ pracalet tarhi punaḥ pratyāhāreṇa vaśīkuryād ity āha yato yata iti | svabhāvataś cañcalaṃ dhāryamāṇam apy asthiraṃ mano yaṃ yaṃ viṣayaṃ prati nirgacchati, tatas tataḥ pratyāhṛtyātmany eva sthiraṃ kuryāt ||26||

madhusūdanaḥ : evaṃ nirodha-samādhiṃ kurvan yogī śabdādīnāṃ citta-vikṣepa-hetūnāṃ madhye yato yato yasmād yasmān nimittāc chabdāder viṣayād rāga-dveṣādeś ca cañcalaṃ vikṣepābhimukhaṃ san mano niścarati vikṣiptaṃ sad viṣayābhimukhīṃ pramāṇa-viparyaya-vikalpa-smṛtīnām anyatamām api samādhi-virodhinīṃ vṛttim utpādayati, tathā laya-hetūnāṃ nidrāśeṣa-bahv-aśana-śramādīnāṃ madhye yato yato nimittād asthiraṃ layābhimukhaṃ san mano niścarati līnaṃ sat samādhi-virodhinīṃ nidrākhyāṃ vṛttim utpādayati, tatas tato vikṣepa-nimittāl laya-nimittāc
ca niyamyaitan mano nirvṛttikaṃ kṛtvātmany eva sva-prakāśa-paramānanda-ghane vaśaṃ nayen nirundhyāt | yathā na vikṣipyeta na vā līyeteti | eva-kāro 'nātma-gocaratvaṃ samādher vārayati | etac ca vivṛtaṃ gauḍācārya-pādaiḥ-

upāyena nigṛhṇīyād vikṣiptaṃ kāma-bhogayoḥ |
suprasannaṃ laye caiva yathā kāmo layas tathā ||
duḥkhaṃ sarvam anusmṛtya kāma-bhogān nivartayet |
ajaṃ sarvam anusmṛtya jātaṃ naiva tu paśyati ||
laye sambodhayec cittaṃ vikṣiptaṃ śamayet punaḥ |
sakaṣāyaṃ vijānīyāt sama-prāptaṃ na cālayet ||
nāsvādayet sukhaṃ tatra niḥsaṅgaḥ prajñayā bhavet |
niścalaṃ nicśarac cittam ekīkuryāt prayatnataḥ ||
yadā na līyate cittaṃ na ca vikṣipyate punaḥ |
aniṅganam anābhāsaṃ niṣpannaṃ brahma tat tadā || iti pañcabhiḥ ślokaiḥ |

upāyena vakṣyamāṇena vairāgyābhyāsena kāma-bhogayor vikṣiptaṃ pramāṇa-viparyaya-vikalpa-smṛtīnām anyatamayāpi vṛttyā pariṇataṃ mano nigṛhṇīyān nirundhyād ātmany evety arthaḥ | kāma-bhogayor iti cintyamānāvasthā-bhujyamānāvasthā-bhedena dvi-vacanam | tathā līyate 'sminn iti layaḥ suṣuptaṃ tasmin suprasannam āyāsa-varjitam api mano nigṛhṇīyād eva | suprasannaṃ cet kuto nigṛhyate ? tatrāha - yathā kāmo viṣaya-gocara-pramāṇādi-vṛtty-utpādanena samādhi-virodhī tathā layo 'pi nidrākhya-vṛtty-utpādanena samādhi-virodhī | sarva-vṛtti-nirodho hi samādhiḥ | ataḥ kāmādi-kṛta-vikṣepād iva śramādi-kṛta-layād api mano niroddhavyam ity arthaḥ |

upāyena nigṛhṇīyāt kena ? ity ucyate sarvaṃ dvaitam avidyā-vijṛmbhitam alpaṃ duḥkham evety anusmṛtya -- yo vai bhūmā tat sukhaṃ, nālpe sukham asti | [ChāU 7.23.1] atha yad alpaṃ tan martyaṃ [ChāU 7.23.1] tad duḥkham iti śruty-arthaṃ gurūpadeśād anu paścāt paryālocya kāmāṃś cintyamānāvasthān viṣayān bhogān bhujyamānāvasthāṃś ca viṣayān nivartayet | manasaḥ sakāśād iti śeṣaḥ | kāmaś ca bhogaś ca kāma-bhogaṃ tasmān mano nivartayed iti vā | evaṃ dvaita-smaraṇa-kāle vairāgya-bhāvanopāya ity arthaḥ | dvaita-vismaraṇaṃ tu paramopāya ity āha ajaṃ brahma sarvaṃ na tato 'tiriktaṃ kiṃcid
astīti śāstrācāryopadeśād anantaram anusmṛtya tad-viparītaṃ dvaita-jātaṃ na paśyaty eva | adhiṣṭhāne jñāne kalpitasyābhāvāt | pūrvopāyāpekṣayā vailakṣaṇya-sūcanārthas tu-śabdaḥ |

evaṃ vairāgya-bhāvanā-tattva-darśanābhyāṃ viṣayebhyo nivartyamānaṃ cittaṃ yadi dainandina-layābhyāsa-vaśāl layābhimukhaṃ bhavet tadā nidrā-śeṣājīrṇa-bahv-aśana-śramāṇāṃ laya-kāraṇānāṃ nirodhena cittaṃ samyak prabodhayed utthāna-prayatnena | yadi punar evaṃ prabodhyamānaṃ dainandina-prabodhābhyāsa-vaśāt kāma-bhogayor vikṣiptaṃ syāt tadā vairāgya-bhāvanayā tattva-sākṣātkāreṇa ca punaḥ śamayet | evaṃ punaḥ punar abhyasyato layāt sambodhitaṃ viṣayebhyaś ca vyāvartitam | nāpi samaprāptam antarālāvasthaṃ cittaṃ stabdhībhūtaṃ, sa-kaṣāyaṃ
rāga-dveṣādi-prabala-vāsanā-vaśena stabdhībhāvākhyena kaṣāyeṇa doṣeṇa yuktaṃ vijānīyāt samāhitāc cittād vivekena jānīyāt |

tataś ca nedaṃ samāhitam ity avagamya laya-vikṣepābhyām iva kaṣāyād api cittaṃ nirundhyāt | tataś ca laya-vikṣepa-kaṣāyeṣu parihṛteṣu pariśeṣāc cittena samaṃ brahma prāpyate | tac ca samaprāptaṃ cittaṃ kaṣāya-laya-bhrāntyā na cālayet, viṣayābhimukhaṃ na kuryāt | kintu dhṛti-gṛhītayā buddhyā laya-kaṣāya-prāpter vivicya tasyām eva sama-prāptāv atiyatnena sthāpayet | tatra samādhau parama-sukha-vyañjake 'pi sukhaṃ nāsvādayet | etāvantaṃ kālam ahaṃ sukhīti sukhāsvāda-rūpāṃ vṛttiṃ na kuryāt samādhi-bhaṅga-prasaṅgāt iti prāg eva kṛta-vyākhyānam | prajñayā yad upalabhyate sukhaṃ tad apy
avidyā-parikalpitaṃ mṛṣaivety evaṃ-bhāvanayā niḥsaṅgo nispṛhaḥ sarva-sukheṣu bhavet |

athavā prajñayā sa-vikalpa-sukhākāra-vṛtti-rūpayā saha saṅgaṃ parityajet | na tu svarūpa-sukham api nirvṛttikena cittena nānubhavet svabhāva-prāptasya tasya vārayitum aśakyatvāt | evaṃ sarvato nivartya niścalaṃ prayatna-vaśena kṛtaṃ cittaṃ svabhāva-cāñcalyād viṣayābhimukhatayā niścarad bahir nirgacchad ekīkuryāt prayatnataḥ, nirodha-prayatnena same brahmaṇy ekatāṃ nayet |

sama-prāptaṃ cittaṃ kīdṛśam ? ity ucyate yadā na līyate nāpi stabdhībhavati tāmasatva-sāmyena laya-śabdenaiva stabdhībhāvasyopalakṣaṇāt | na ca vikṣipyate punaḥ, na śabdādy-ākāra-vṛttim anubhavati | nāpi sukham āsvādayati, rājasatva-sāmyena sukhāsvādasyāpi vikṣepa-śabdenopalakṣaṇāt | pūrvaṃ bheda-nirdeśas tu pṛthak-prayatna-karaṇāya | evaṃ laya-kaṣāyābhyāṃ vikṣepa-sukhāsvādābhyāṃ ca rahitam aniṅganam iṅganaṃ calanaṃ sa-vāta-pradīpaval layābhimukhya-rūpaṃ tad-rahitaṃ nivāta-pradīpa-kalpam | anābhāsaṃ na kenacid viṣayākāreṇābhāsata ity etat | kaṣāya-sukhāsvādayor ubhayāntarbhāva ukta eva | yadaivaṃ
doṣa-catuṣṭaya-rahitaṃ cittaṃ bhavati tadā tac cittaṃ brahma niṣpannaṃ samaṃ brahma prāptaṃ bhavatīty arthaḥ |

etādṛśaś ca yogaḥ śrutyā pratipāditaḥ -

yadā pañcāvatiṣṭhante jñānāni manasā saha |
buddhiś ca na viceṣṭeta tām āhuḥ paramāṃ gatim ||
tāṃ yogam iti manyante sthirām indriya-dhāraṇām |
apramattas tadā bhavati yogo hi prabhavāpyayau || [KaṭhU 2.3.11-2] iti |

etan-mūlakam eva ca yogaś citta-vṛtti-nirodhaḥ [YogaS 1.2] iti sūtram | tasmād yuktaṃ tatas tato niyamyaitad ātmany evaṃ vaśaṃ nayed iti ||27||

viśvanāthaḥ : yadi ca prāktana-doṣodgama-vaśād rajo-guṇa-spṛṣṭaṃ manaś cañcalaṃ syāt, tadā punar yogam abhyased ity āha yato yata iti ||26||

baladevaḥ : yadi kadācit prāktana-sūkṣma-doṣān manaḥ pracalet tadā tat pratyāhared ity āha yata iti | yaṃ yaṃ viṣayaṃ prati mano nirgacchati, tatas tata etan mano niyamya pratyāhṛtyātmany eva niratiśaya-sukhatva-bhāvanayā vaśaṃ kuryāt ||26||

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BhG 6.27

praśānta-manasaṃ hy enaṃ yoginaṃ sukham uttamam |
upaiti śānta-rajasaṃ brahma-bhūtam akalmaṣam ||27||

śrīdharaḥ : evaṃ pratyāhārādibhiḥ punaḥ punar mano vaśīkurvan rajo-guṇa-kṣaye sati yoga-sukhaṃ prāpnotīty āha praśānteti | evam ukta-prakāreṇa śāntaṃ rajo yasya tam | ataeva praśāntaṃ mano yasya tam enaṃ niṣkalmaṣam brahmatvaṃ prāptaṃ yoginaṃ uttamam sukhaṃ samādhi-sukhaṃ svayam evopaiti prāpnoti ||27||

madhusūdanaḥ : evaṃ yogābhyāsa-balād ātmany eva yoginaḥ praśāmyati manaḥ | tataś ca praśānteti | prakarṣeṇa śāntaṃ nirvṛttikatayā niruddhaṃ saṃskāra-mātra-śeṣaṃ mano yasya taṃ praśānta-manasaṃ vṛtti-śūnyatayā nirmanaskam | nirmanaskatve hetu-garbhaṃ viśeṣaṇa-dvayaṃ śānta-rajasaṃ akalmaṣam iti | śāntaṃ vikṣepakaṃ rajo yasya taṃ vikṣepa-śūnyam | tathā na vidyate kalmaṣam laya-hetus tamo yasya tam akalmaṣam laya-śūnyam | śānta-rajasam ity anenaiva tamo-guṇopalakṣaṇe ' kalmaṣam saṃsāra-hetu-dharmādharmādi-varjitam
iti vā | brahma-bhūtaṃ brahmaiva sarvam iti niścayena samaṃ brahma prāptaṃ jīvan-muktam enaṃ yoginam | evam uktena prakāreṇeti śrīdharaḥ | uttamaṃ niratiśayaṃ sukham upaity upagacchati | manas tad-vṛttyor abhāve suṣuptau svarūpa-sukhāvirbhāva-prasiddhiṃ dyotayati hi-śabdaḥ | tathā ca prāg-vyākhyātaṃ sukham ātyantikaṃ yat tad ity atra ||27||

viśvanāthaḥ : tataś ca pūrvavad eva tasya samādhisukhaṃ syād ity āha praśānteti | sukhaṃ kartṛ yoginam upaiti prāpnoti |

baladevaḥ : evaṃ prayatamānasya pūrvavad eva samādhi-sukhaṃ syād ity āha praśānteti | praśāntam ātmany acalaṃ mano yasya tam | ataevākalmaṣaṃ dagdha-prāktana-sūkṣma-doṣam | ataeva śānta-rajasam | brahma-bhūtaṃ sākṣāt-kṛta-viviktāvirbhāvitāṣṭa-guṇakātma-svarūpaṃ yoginaṃ praty uttamam ātmānubhava-rūpaṃ mahat sukhaṃ kartā svayam evopaiti ||27||

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BhG 6.28

yuñjann evaṃ sadātmānaṃ yogī vigata-kalmaṣaḥ |
sukhena brahma-saṃsparśam atyantaṃ sukham aśnute ||28||

śrīdharaḥ : tataś ca kṛtārtho bhavatīty āha yuñjann iti | evam anena prakāreṇa sarvadātmānaṃ mano yuñjan vaśīkurvan | viśeṣeṇa sarvātmanā | vigataṃ kalmaṣaṃ yasya saḥ | yogī sukhenānāyāsena brahmaṇaḥ saṃsparśo 'vidyā-nivartakaḥ sākṣātkāras tad evātyantaṃ sukham aśnute | jīvanmukto bhavatīty arthaḥ ||28||

madhusūdanaḥ : uktaṃ sukhaṃ yoginaḥ sphuṭīkaroti yuñjann iti | evam manasaivendriya-grāmam ity ādy-ukta-krameṇātmānaṃ manaḥ sadā yuñjan samādadhad yogī yogena nitya-sambandhī vigata-kalmaṣo vigata-malaḥ saṃsāra-hetu-dharmādharma-rahitaḥ sukhenānāyāseneśvara-praṇidhānāt sarvāntarāya-nivṛttyā brahma-saṃsparśaṃ samyaktvena viṣayāsparśena saha brahmaṇaḥ sparśas tādātmyaṃ yasmiṃs tad-viṣayāsaṃsparśi brahma-svarūpam ity etat | atyantaṃ sarvānantān paricchedān atikrāntaṃ niratiśayaṃ sukham ānandam aśnute vyāpnoti, sarvato-nirvṛttikena cittena laya-vikṣepa-vilakṣaṇam
anubhavati, vikṣepe vṛtti-sattvāt, laye ca manaso 'pi svarūpeṇāsattvāt | sarva-vṛtti-śūnyena sūkṣmeṇa manasā sukhānubhavaḥ samādhāv evety arthaḥ |

atra cānāyāsenety antarāya-nivṛttir uktā | te cāntarāyā darśitā yoga-sūtreṇa - vyādhi-styāna-saṃśaya-pramādālasyāvirati-bhrānti-darśanālabdha-bhūmikatvānavasthitatvāni citta-vikṣepās te 'ntarāyāḥ [YogaS 1.30] | cittaṃ vikṣipanti yogād apanayantīti citta-vikṣepā yoga-pratipakṣāḥ | saṃśaya-bhrānti-darśane tāvad vṛtti-rūpatayā vṛtti-nirodhasya sākṣāt-pratipakṣau | vyādhy-ādayas tu sapta vṛtti-sahacaritatayā tat-pratipakṣā ity arthaḥ | vyādhir dhātu-vaiṣamya-nimitto vikāro jvarādiḥ | styānam akarmaṇyatā guruṇā śikṣyamāṇasyāpy āsanādi-karmānarhateti yāvat | yogaḥ sādhanīyo na vety ubhaya-koṭi-spṛg-vijñānaṃ saṃśayaḥ | sa
cātad-rūpa-pratiṣṭhatvena viparyayāntargato 'pi sann ubhaya-koṭi-sparśitvaika-koṭi-sparśitva-rūpāvāntara-viśeṣa-vivakṣayātra viparyayād bhedenoktaḥ | pramādaḥ samādhi-sādhanānām anuṣṭhāna-sāmarthye 'py ananuṣṭhāna-śīlatā viṣayāntara vyāpratatayā yoga-sādhaneṣv audāsīnyam iti yāvat | ālasyaṃ satyām apy audāsīnya-pracyutau kaphādinā tamasā ca kāya-cittayor gurutvam | tac ca vyādhitvenāprasiddham api yoga-viṣaye pravṛtti-virodhi | aviratiś cittasya viṣaya-viśeṣa aikāntiko 'bhilāṣaḥ | bhrānti-darśanaṃ yogāsādhane 'pi tat-sādhanatva-buddhis tathā tat-sādhane 'piy asādhanatva-buddhiḥ | alabdha-bhūmikatvaṃ samādhi-bhūmer ekāgratāyā alābhaḥ
| kṣipta-mūḍha-vikṣipta-rūpatvam iti yāvat | anavasthitatvaṃ labdhāyām api samādhi-bhūmau prayatna-śaithilyāc cittasya tatrāpratiṣṭhitatvam | ta ete citta-vikṣepā nava yogamalā yoga-pratipakṣā yogāntarāyā iti cābhidhīyante |

duḥkha-daurmanasyāṅgam ejayatva-śvāsa-praśvāsā vikṣepa-saha-bhuvaḥ [YogaS 1.31] duḥkhaṃ cittasya rājasaḥ pariṇāmo bādhanālakṣaṇaḥ | tac cādhyātmikaṃ śārīraṃ mānasaṃ ca vyādhi-vaśāt kāmādi-vaśāc ca bhavati | ādhibhautikaṃ graha-pīḍādi-janitaṃ dveṣākhya-viparyaya-hetutvāt samādhi-virodhi | daurmanasyam icchā-vighātādi-balavad duḥkhānubhava-janitaś cittasya tāmasaḥ pariṇāma-viśeṣaḥ kṣobhā-para-paryāyaḥ stabdhībhāvaḥ | sa tu kaṣāyatvāl laya-vat samādhi-virodhī | aṅgam ejayatvam aṅga-kampanam āsana-sthairya-virodhi | prāṇena bāhyasya vāyor antaḥ-praveśanaṃ
śvāsaḥ samādhy-aṅga-recaka-virodhī | prāṇana koṣṭhyasya vāyor bahir niḥsaraṇaṃ praśvāsaḥ samādhy-aṅga-pūraka-virodhī | samāhita-cittasyaite na bhavanti vikṣipta-cittasyaiva bhavantīti vikṣepa-sahabhuvo 'ntarāyā eva | ete 'bhyāsa-vairāgyābhyāṃ niroddhavyāḥ | īśvara-praṇidhānena vā | tīvra-saṃvegānām āsanne [YogaS 1.21] samādhi-lābhe prastuta īśvara-praṇidhānād vā [YogaS 1.23] iti pakṣāntaram uktvā praṇidheyam īśvaraṃ kleśa-karma-vipākāśayair aparāmṛṣṭaḥ puruṣa-viśeṣa īśvaraḥ | tatra niratiśayaṃ sarvajñatva-bījam | sa pūrveṣām api guruḥ kālenānavacchedāt [YogaS 1.24-6] iti tribhiḥ sūtraiḥ
pratipādya tat-praṇidhānaṃ dvābhyām asūtrayat -- tasya vācakaḥ praṇavaḥ | taj-japas tad-artha-bhāvanam [YogaS 1.27-8] iti | tataḥ pratyak-cetanādhigamo 'py antarāyābhāvaś ca [YogaS 1.29] tataḥ praṇava-japa-rūpāt tad-artha-dhyāna-rūpāc ceśvara-praṇidhānāt pratyak-cetanasya puruṣasya prakṛti-vivekenādhigamaḥ sākṣātkāro bhavati | uktānām antarāyāṇām abhāvo 'pi bhavatīty arthaḥ |

abhyāsa-vairāgyābhyām antarāya-nivṛttau kartavyāyām abhyāsa-dārḍhyārtham āha -- tat-pratiṣedhārtham eka-tattvābhyāsaḥ [YogaS 1.32] | teṣām antarāyāṇāṃ pratiṣedhārtahm ekasmin kasmiṃścid abhimate tattve 'bhyāsaś cetasaḥ punaḥ punar niveśanaṃ kāryam | tathā -- maitrī-karuṇā-muditopekṣaṇāṃ sukha-duḥkha-puṇyāpuṇya-viṣayāṇāṃ bhāvanātaś citta-prasādanam [YogaS 1.33] | maitrī sauhārdaṃ, karuṇā kṛpā, muditā harṣaḥ, upekṣaudāsīnyam, sukhādi-śabdais tadvantaḥ pratipādyante | sarva-prāṇiṣu sukha-sambhogāpanneṣu sādhv etan mama mitrāṇāṃ sukhitvam iti maitrīṃ bhāvayet
| na tv īrṣyām | duḥkhiteṣu kathaṃ nu nāmaiṣā duḥkha-nivṛttiḥ syād iti kṛpām eva bhāvayet | nopekṣāṃ na vā harṣam | puṇyavatsu puṇyānumodanena harṣaṃ kuryān na tu vidveṣaṃ na copekṣām | apuṇyavatsu caudāsīnyam eva bhāvayen nānumodanaṃ na vā dveṣam | evam asya bhāvayataḥ śuklo dharma upajāyate | tataś ca vigata-rāga-dveṣādi-malaṃ cittaṃ prasannaṃ sad ekāgratā-yogyaṃ bhavati | maitry-ādi-catuṣṭayaṃ copalakṣaṇam abhayaṃ sattva-saṃśuddhir ity ādīnām amānitvam adambhitvam ity ādīnāṃ
ca dharmāṇām, sarveṣām eteṣāṃ śubha-vāsanā-rūpatvena malina-vāsanā-nivartakatvāt | rāga-dveṣau mahā-śatrū sarva-puruṣārtha-pratibandhakau mahatā prayatnena parihartavyāv ity etat-sūtrārthaḥ |

evam anye 'pi prāṇāyāmādaya upāyāś citta-prasādanāya darśitāḥ | tad etac citta-prasādanaṃ bhagavad-anugraheṇa yasya jātaṃ taṃ praty evaitad vacanam - sukheneti | anyathā manaḥ-praśamānupapatteḥ ||28||

viśvanāthaḥ : tataś ca kṛtārtha eva bhavatīty āha yuñjann iti | sukham aśnute jīvan-mukta eva bhavatīty arthaḥ ||28||

baladevaḥ : evaṃ svātma-sākṣātkārānantaraṃ paramātma-sākṣātkāraś ca labhata ity āha yuñjann iti | evam ukta-prakāreṇa ātmānaṃ svaṃ yuñjan yogenānubhavata tenaiva vigata-kalmaṣo dagdha-sarva-doṣo yogī sukhenānāyāsena brahma-saṃsparśaṃ paramātmānubhavam atyantam aparimitaṃ sukham aśnute prāpnoti ||28||

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BhG 6.29

sarva-bhūta-stham ātmānaṃ sarva-bhūtāni cātmani |
īkṣate yoga-yuktātmā sarvatra sama-darśanaḥ ||29||

śrīdharaḥ : brahma-sākṣātkāram eva darśayati sarva-bhūta-stham iti | yogenābhyasyamānena yuktātmā samāhita-cittaḥ | sarvatra samaṃ brahmaiva paśyatīti sama-darśanaḥ | tathā sa svam ātmānam avidyākṛta-dehādi-pariccheda-śūnyaṃ sarva-bhūteṣu brahmādi-sthāvarānteṣv avasthitaṃ paśyati | tāni cātmany abhedena paśyati ||29||

madhusūdanaḥ : tad evaṃ nirodha-samādhinā tvaṃ-pada-lakṣye tat-pada-lakṣye ca śuddhe sākṣātkṛte tadaikya-gocarā tattvam asīti vedānta-vākya-janyā nirvikalpaka-sākṣātkāra-rūpā vṛttir brahma-vidyābhidhānā jāyate | tataś ca kṛtsnāvidyā-tat-kārya-nivṛttyā brahma-sukham atyantam aśnuta ity upapādayati tribhiḥ ślokaiḥ | tatra prathamaṃ tva-pada-lakṣyopasthitim āha sarveti |

sarveṣu bhūteṣu sthāvara-jaṅgameṣu śarīreṣu bhoktṛtayā sthitam ekam eva vibhum ātmānaṃ pratyak-cetanaṃ sākṣiṇaṃ paramārtha-satyam ānanda-ghanaṃ sākṣyebhyo 'nṛta-jaḍa-paricchinna-duḥkha-rūpebhyo vivekenekṣate sākṣātkaroti | tasmiṃś cātmani sākṣiṇi sarvāṇi bhūtāni sākṣyāṇy ādhyāsikena sambandhena bhogyatayā kalpitāni sākṣi-sākṣyayoḥ sambandhāntarānupapatter mithyā-bhūtāni paricchinnāni jaḍāni duḥkhātmakāni sākṣiṇo vivekenekṣate |

kaḥ ? yoga-yuktātmā yogena nirvikcāra-vaiśāradya-rūpeṇa yuktaṃ prasādaṃ prāpta ātmāntaḥkaraṇaṃ yasya sa tathā | tathā ca prāg evoktaṃ - nirvicāra-vaiśāradye 'dhyātma-prasādaḥ [YogaS 1.47] ṛtaṃbharā tatra prajñā [YogaS 1.48] śrutānumāna-prajñābhyām anya-viṣayā viśeṣārthatvāt [YogaS 1.49] iti | tathā ca śabdānumānāgocara-yathārtha-viśeṣa-vastu-gocara-yoga-pratyakṣeṇa ṛtaṃbhara-saṃjñena yugapat sūkṣmaṃ vyavahitaṃ viprakṛṣṭaṃ ca sarvaṃ tulyam eva paśyatīti sarvatra samaṃ darśanaṃ yasyeti sarvatra sama-darśanaḥ sann ātmānam anātmānaṃ ca yoga-yuktātmā yathā-sthitam
īkṣata iti yuktam |

athavā yo yoga-yuktātmā yo vā sarvatra-sama-darśanaḥ sa ātmānam īkṣata iti yogi-sama-darśināv ātmekṣaṇādhikāriṇāv uktau | yathā hi citta-vṛtti-nirodhaḥ sākṣi-sākṣātkāra-hetus tathā jaḍa-vivekena sarvānusyūta-caitanya-pṛthak-karaṇam api | nāvaśyaṃ yoga evāpekṣitaḥ | ata evāha vasiṣṭhaḥ -

dvau kramau citta-nāśasya yogo jñānaṃ ca rāghava |
yogo vṛtti-nirodho hi jñānaṃ samyag-avekṣaṇam ||
asādhyaḥ kasyacid yogaḥ kasyacit tattva-niścayaḥ |
prakārau dvau tato devo jagāda paramaḥ śivaḥ || iti |

citta-nāśasya sākṣiṇaḥ sakāśāt tad-upādhi-bhūta-cittasya pṛthak-karaṇāt tad-adarśanasya | tasyopāya-dvayam - eko 'samprajñāta-samādhiḥ | samprajñāta-samādhau hi ātmaikākāra-vṛtti-pravāha-yuktam antaḥ-karaṇa-sattvaṃ sākṣiṇānubhūyate niruddha-sarva-vṛttikaṃ tūpaśāntatvān nānubhūyata iti viśeṣaḥ | dvitīyas tu sākṣiṇi kalpitaṃ sākṣyam anṛtatvān nāsty eva sākṣy eva tu paramārtha-satyaḥ kevalo vidyata iti vicāraḥ | tatra pratamam upāyaṃ prapañca-paramārthatā-vādino hairaṇyagarbhādayaḥ prapedire | teṣāṃ paramārthasya cittasyādarśanena sākṣi-darśane nirodhātiriktopāya-sambhavāt | śrīmac-chaṅkara-bhagavat-pūjya-pāda-matopajīvinas
tv aupaniṣadāḥ prapañcānṛtatva-vādino dvitīyam evopāyam upeyuḥ | teṣāṃ hy adhiṣṭhāna-jñāna-dārḍhye sati tatra kalpitasya bādhitasya cittasya tad-dṛśyasya cādarśanam anāyāsenaivopapadyate | ataeva bhagavat-pūjya-pādāḥ kutrāpi brahma-vidāṃ yogāpekṣāṃ na vyutpādayāṃ babhūva | ataeva caupaniṣadāḥ paramahaṃsāḥ śraute vedānta-vākya-vicāra eva gurum upasṛtya pravartante brahma-sākṣātkārāya na tu yoge | vicāreṇaiva citta-doṣa-nirākaraṇena tasyānyathā-siddhatvād iti kṛtam adhikena ||29||

viśvanāthaḥ : jīvan-muktasya tasya brahma-sākṣātkāraṃ darśayati sarva-bhūta-stham ātmānam iti | paramātmanaḥ sarva-bhūtādhiṣṭhātṛtvam ātmanīti paramātmanaḥ sarva-bhūtādhiṣṭhānaṃ ca | īkṣate aparokṣatayānubhavati | yoga-yuktātmā brahmākārāntaḥkaraṇaḥ | samaṃ brahmaiva paśyatīti sama-darśanaḥ ||29||

baladevaḥ : evaṃ niṣpaṇṇa-samādhiḥ pratyakṣita-sva-parātma-yogī parātmanaḥ sarvagatatvaṃ tad anyātmanāṃ druhiṇādīnāṃ sarveṣāṃ tad-āśrayatvaṃ tasyāviṣayamatvaṃ cānubhavatīty āha sarveti | yoga-yuktātmā siddha-samādhis tad ātmānaṃ ātatatvāc ca mātṛtvād ātmā hi paramo hariḥ iti smṛteḥ | yo mām iti vivaraṇāc ca paramātmānaṃ sarva-bhūta-stham nikhilaṃ jīvāntaryāmiṇam īkṣate | ātmani tasminn āśraya-bhūte sarva-bhūtāni ca tam eva sarva-jīvāśrayaṃ cekṣate | sa ity āha sarvatreti | tat tat-karmānuguṇyenoccāvacatayā sṛṣṭeṣu sarveṣu jīveṣu
samam vaiṣamya-śūnyaṃ parātmānaṃ paśyatīti tathā ||29||

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BhG 6.30

yo māṃ paśyati sarvatra sarvaṃ ca mayi paśyati |
tasyāhaṃ na praṇaśyāmi sa ca me na praṇaśyati ||30||

śrīdharaḥ : evambhūtātma-jñāne ca sarva-bhūtātmayā mad-upāsanaṃ mukhyaṃ kāraṇam ity āha yo mām iti | māṃ parameśvaraṃ sarvatra bhūta-mātre yaḥ paśyati | sarvaṃ ca prāṇi-mātraṃ mayi yaḥ paśyati | tasyāhaṃ na praṇaśyāmy adṛśyo na bhavāmi | sa ca mamādṛśyo na bhavati | pratyakṣo bhūtvā kṛpā-dṛṣṭyā taṃ vilokyānugṛhṇāmīty arthaḥ ||30||

madhusūdanaḥ : evaṃ śuddhaṃ tva-padārthaṃ nirūpya śuddhaṃ tat-padārthaṃ nirūpayati yo mām iti | yo yogī mām īśvaraṃ tat-padārtham aśeṣa-prapañca-kāraṇa-māyopādhikam upādhi-vivekena sarvatra prapañce sad-rūpeṇa sphuraṇa-rūpeṇa cānusyūtaṃ sarvopādhi-vinirmuktaṃ paramārtha-satyaam ānanda-ghanam anantaṃ paśyati yoga-jena pratyakṣeṇāparokṣīkaroti | tathā sarvaṃ ca prapañca-jātaṃ māyayā mayy āropitaṃ mad-bhinnatayā mṛṣātvenaiva paśyati | tasyaivaṃ-viveka-darśino 'haṃ tat-padārtho bhagavān na praṇaśyāmi | īśvaraḥ kaścin mad-bhinno 'stīti parokṣa-jñāna-viṣayo na bhavāmi, kintu
yogajāparokṣa-jñāna-viṣayo bhavāmi | yadyappi vākyajāparokṣa-jñāna-viṣayatvaṃ tvaṃ-padārthābhedenaiva tathāpi kevalasyāpi tat-padārthasya yogajāparokṣa-jñāna-viṣayatvam upapadyata eva | evaṃ yogajena pratyakṣeṇa mām aparokṣīkurvan sa ca me na praṇaśyati parokṣo na bhavati | svātmā hi mama sa vidvān atipriyatvāt sarvadā mad-aparokṣa-jñāna-gocaro bhavati | ye yathā māṃ prapadyante tāṃs tathaiva bhajāmy aham [Gītā 4.11] ity ukteḥ | tathiava śara-śayyā-stha-bhīṣma-dhyānasya yudhiṣṭhiraṃ prati bhagavatokteḥ | avidvāṃs tu svātmānam api santaṃ bhagavantaṃ na parśyati
| ato bhagavān paśyann api taṃ na paśyati | sa enam avidito na bhunakti [BAU 1.4.15] iti śruteḥ | vidvāṃs tu sadaiva saṃnihito bhagavato 'nugraha-bhājanam ity arthaḥ ||30||

viśvanāthaḥ : evam aparokṣānubhavinaḥ phalam āha yo mām iti | tasyāhaṃ brahma na praṇaśyāmi nāpratyakṣībhavāmi | tathā mat-pratyakṣatāyāṃ śāśvatikyāṃ satyāṃ sa yogī me mad-upāsako na praṇaśyati na kadācid api bhraśyati ||30||

baladevaḥ : etad vivṛṇvan tathātva-darśinaḥ phalam āha yo mām iti | tasya tādṛśasya yogino 'haṃ paramātmā na praṇaśyāmi nādṛśyo bhavāmi | sa ca yogī me na praṇaśyati nādṛśyo bhavati | āvayor mithaḥ-sākṣātkṛtiḥ sarvadā bhavatīty arthaḥ ||30||

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BhG 6.31

sarva-bhūta-sthitaṃ yo māṃ bhajaty ekatvam āsthitaḥ |
sarvathā vartamāno 'pi sa yogī mayi vartate ||31||

śrīdharaḥ : na caivaṃ-bhūto vidhi-kiṅkaraḥ syād ity āha sarva-bhūta-sthitam iti | sarva-bhūteṣu sthitaṃ mām abhedam āsthita āśrito yo bhajati sa yogī jñānī sarvathā karma-parityāgenāpi vartamāno mayy eva vartate mucyate | na tu bhraśyatīty arthaḥ ||31||

madhusūdanaḥ : evaṃ tvaṃ-padārthaṃ tat-padārthaṃ ca śuddhaṃ nirūpya tattvam asīti vākyārthaṃ nirūpayati sarva-bhūtam iti | sarveṣu bhūteṣv adhiṣṭhānatayā sthitaṃ sarvānusyūta-san-mātraṃ mām īśvaraṃ tat-pada-lakṣyaṃ svena tvaṃ-pada-lakṣyeṇa sahaikatvam atyantābhedam āsthito ghaṭākāśo mahākāśa ity atrevopādhi-bheda-nirākaraṇena niścinvan yo bhajati ahaṃ brahmāsmīti vedānta-vākyajena sākṣātkāreṇāparokṣīkaroti so 'vidyā-tat-kārya-nivṛttyā jīvanmuktaḥ kṛta-kṛtya eva bhavati | yāvat tu tasya bādhitānuvṛttyā śarīrādi-darśanam anuvartate tāvat prārabhda-karma-prābalyāt sarva-karma-tyāgena vā yājñavalkyādivat
| vihitena karmaṇā vā janakādivat, pratiṣiddhena karmaṇā vā dattātreyādivat | sarvathā yena kenāpi rūpeṇa vartamāno 'pi vyavaharann aḸ sa yogī brahmāham asamīti vidvān mayi paramātmany evābhedena vartate | sarvathā tasya mokṣaṃ prati nāsti pratibandha-śaṅkā tasya ha na devāś canābhūtyā īśata ātmā hy eṣāṃ sa bhavati [BAU 1.4.10] iti śruteḥ | devā mahā-prabhāvā api tasya mokṣābhavanāya neśate kim utānye kṣudrā ity arthaḥ | brahma-vido niṣiddha-karmaṇi pravartakayo rāga-dveṣayor asambhavena niṣiddha-karmāsambhave 'pi tad aṅgīkṛtya jñāna-stuty-artham idam uktaṃ sarvathā vartamāno 'pīti hatvāpi sa imān lokān na hanti na nibadhyate [Gītā 18.17] itivat ||31||

viśvanāthaḥ : evaṃ mad-aparokṣānubhavāt pūrva-daśāyām api sarvatra parātma-bhāvanayā bhajato yogino na vidhi-kaiṅkaryam ity āha sarveti | paramātmaiva sarva-karaṇatvād eko 'stīty ekatvam āsthitaḥ san yo bhajati, śravaṇa-smaraṇādi-bhajana-yukto bhavati, sa sarvathā śāstroktaṃ karma kurvann akurvan vā vartamāno mayi vartate, na tu saṃsāre ||31||

baladevaḥ : sa yogī mamācintya-svarūpa-śaktim anubhavann atipriyo bhavatīty āśayavān āha sarveti | sarveṣāṃ jīvānāṃ hṛdayeṣu prādeśa-mātraś caturbāhur atasī-puṣpa-prabhaś cakrādidharo 'haṃ pṛthak pṛthaṅ nivasāmi | teṣu bahūnāṃ mad-vigrahāṇām ekatvam abhedam āśrito yo māṃ bhajati dhyāyati, so yogī sarvathā vartamāno vyutthāna-kāle sva-vihitaṃ karma kurvann akurvan vā mayi vartate mamācintya-śaktikatva-dharmānubhava-mahimnā nirdagdha-kāma-cāra-doṣo mat-sāmīpya-lakṣaṇaṃ mokṣaṃ vindati, na tu saṃsāram ity arthaḥ | śrutiś ca harer acintya-śatkikatām āha eko 'pi san bahudhā yo 'vabhāti iti | smṛtiś ca -

eka eva paro viṣṇuḥ sarva-vyāpī na saṃśayaḥ |
aiśvaryād rūpam ekaṃ ca sūryavad bahudheyate || iti ||31||

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BhG 6.32

ātmaupamyena sarvatra samaṃ paśyati yo 'rjuna |
sukhaṃ vā yadi vā duḥkhaṃ sa yogī paramo mataḥ ||32||

śrīdharaḥ : evaṃ ca māṃ bhajatāṃ yogināṃ madhye sarva-bhūtānukampī śreṣṭha ity āha ātmaupamyeneti | ātmaupamyena sva-sādṛśyena | yathā mama sukhaṃ priyaṃ duḥkhaṃ cāpriyaṃ tathānyeṣāṃ apīti sarvatra samaṃ paśyan sukham eva sarveṣāṃ yo vāñchati | na tu kasyāpi duḥkham | sa yogī śreṣṭho mamābhimata ity arthaḥ ||32||

madhusūdanaḥ : evam utpanne 'pi tatva-bodhe kaścin mano-nāśa-vāsanā-kṣayayor abhāvāj jīvanmukti-sukhaṃ nānubhavati citta-vikṣepeṇa ca dṛṣṭa-duḥkham anubhavati so 'paramo yogī deha-pāte kaivalya-bhāgitvāt | deha-sad-bhāva-paryantaṃ ca dṛṣṭa-duḥkhānubhavāt | tattva-jñāna-mano-nāśa-vāsanā-kṣayāṇāṃ tu yugapad abhyāsād dṛṣṭa-duḥkha-nivṛtti-pūrvakaṃ jīvanmukti-sukham anubhavan prārabdha-karma-vaśāt samādher vyutthāna-kāle kiṃ syāt ? ity ucyata ātmaupamyeneti |

ātmaivaupamyam upamā tenātma-dṛṣṭāntena sarvatra prāṇi-jāte sukhaṃ vā yadi vā duḥkhaṃ samaṃ tulyaṃ yaḥ paśyati svasyāniṣṭaṃ yathā na sampādayati evaṃ parasyāpy aniṣṭaṃ yo na sampādayati pradveṣa-śūnyatvāt, sa nirvāsanatayopaśānta-manā yogī brahmavit paramaḥ śreṣṭho mataḥ pūrvasmāt, he arjuna | atas tattva-jñāna-mano-nāśa-vāsanā-kṣayāṇām akramam abhyāsāya mahān prayatna āstheya ity arthaḥ |

tatredaṃ sarvaṃ dvaita-jātam advitīye cid-ānandātmani māyayā kalpitatvān mṛṣaivātmaivaikaḥ paramārtha-satyaḥ sac-cid-ānandādvayo 'ham asmīti jñānaṃ tattva-jñānaṃ pradīpa-jvālā-santānavad vṛtti-santāna-rūpeṇa pariṇamamānam antaḥ-karaṇa-dravyaṃ mananātmakatvān mana ity ucyate | tasya nāśe nāma vṛtti-rūpa-pariṇāmaṃ parityajya sarva-vṛtti-nirodhinā nirodhākāreṇa pariṇāmaḥ | pūrvāpara-parāmarśam antareṇa sahasotpadyamānasya krodhādi-vṛtti-viśeṣasya hetuś citta-gataḥ saṃskāra-viśeṣo vāsanā pūrva-pūrvābhyāsena citte vāsyamānatvāt | tasyāḥ kṣayo nāma viveka-janyāyāṃ citta-praśama-vāsanāyāṃ dṛḍhāyāṃ saty
api bāhye nimitte krodhādy-anutpattiḥ | tatra tattva-jñāne sati mithyā-bhūte jagati nara-viṣāṇādāv iva dhī-vṛtty-anudayād ātmanaś ca dṛṣṭatvena punar-vṛtty-anupayogān nirandhanāgnivan mano naśyati | naṣṭe ca manasi saṃskārodbodhakasya bāhyasya nimittasyāpratītau vāsanā kṣīyate | kṣīṇāyāṃ vāsanāyāṃ hetv-abhāvena krodhādi-vṛtty-anudayān mano naśyati | naṣṭe ca manasi śama-damādi-sampattyā tattva-jñānam udeti | evam utpanne tattva-jñāne rāga-dveṣādi-rūpā vāsanā kṣīyate | kṣīṇāyāṃ ca vāsanāyāṃ pratibandhābhāvāt tattva-jñānodaya iti paraspara-kāraṇatvaṃ darśanīyam |

ataeva bhagavān vasiṣṭha āha -
tattva-jñānaṃ mano-nāśo vāsanā-kṣaya eva ca |
mithaḥ kāraṇatāṃ gatvā duḥsādhyāni sthitāni hi ||
tasmād rāghava yatnena pauruṣeṇa vivekinā |
bhogecchāṃ dūratas tyaktvā trayam etat samāśraya || iti |
pauruṣo yatnaḥ kenāpy upāyenāvaśyaṃ sampādayiṣyāmīty evaṃ-vidhotsāha-rūpo nirbandhaḥ | viveko nāma vivicya niścayaḥ | tattva-jñānasya śravaṇādikaṃ sādhanaṃ mano-nāśasya yogaḥ vāsanā-kṣayasya pratikūla-vāsanotpādanam iti | etādṛśa-viveka-yuktena pauruṣeṇa prayatnena bhogecchāyāḥ svalpāyā api haviṣā kṛṣṇa-vartmeveti nyāyena vāsanā-vṛddhi-hetutvād dūrata ity uktam |

dvividho hi vidyādhikārī kṛtopāstir akṛtopāstiś ca | tatra ya upāsya-sākṣātkāra-paryantām upāstiṃ kṛtvā tattva-jñānāya pravṛttas tasya vāsanā-kṣaya-mano-nāśaayor dṛḍhataratvena jñānād ūrdhvaṃ jīvan-muktiḥ svata eva sidhyati | idānīṃtanas tu prāyeṇākṛtopāstir eva mumukṣur autsukya-mātrāt sahasā vidyāyāṃ pravartate | yogaṃ vinā cij-jaḍa-viveka-mātreṇaiva ca mano-nāśa-vāsanā-kṣayau tātkālikau sampādya śama-damādi-sampattyā śravana-manana-nididhyāsanāni sampādayati | taiś ca dṛḍhābhyastaiḥ sarva-bandha-vicchedi tattva-jñānam udeti | avidyā-granthi-brahmatvaṃ hṛdaya-granthiḥ saṃśayāḥ karmāṇy asarva-kāmatvaṃ mṛtyuḥ punar janma cety aneka-vidho bandho
jñānān nivartate | tathā ca śrūyate - yo veda nihitaṃ guhāyāṃ so 'vidyā-granthiṃ vikiratīha somya [] brahma veda brahmaiva bhavati []

bhidyate hṛdaya-granthiś chidyante sarva-saṃśayāḥ |
kṣīyante cāsya karmāṇi tasmin dṛṣṭe parāvare || [MuṇḍU 2.2.8]

satyaṃ jñānam anantaṃ brahma | yo veda nihitaṃ guhāyāṃ parame vyoman | so 'śnute sarvān kāmān saha [TaittU 1.1] tam eva viditvātimṛtyum eti [ŚvetU 3.8]

yas tu vijñānavān bhavati sa-manaskaḥ sadā śuciḥ |
sa tu tat-padam āpnoti yasmād bhūyo na jāyate || [KaṭhU 1.3.8]

ya evaṃ vedāhaṃ brahmāsmīti sa idaṃ sarvaṃ bhavati [BAU 1.4.10] ity asarvatva-nivṛtti-phalam udāhāryam | seyaṃ videha-muktiḥ saty api dehe jñānotpatti-sama-kālīnā jñeyā | brahmaṇy avidyādhyāropitānām eteṣāṃ bandhānām avidyā-nāśe sati nivṛttau punar utpatty-asambhavāt | ataḥ śaithilya-hetv-abhāvāt tattva-jñānaṃ tasyānuvartate | mano-nāśa-vāsanā-kṣayautu dṛḍhābhyāsābhāvād bhoga-pradena prārabdhena karmaṇā bādhyamānatvāc ca savāta-pradeśa-pradīpavat sahasā nivartete | ata idānīṃtanasya tattva-jñāninaḥ prāk-siddhe tattva-jñāne na prayatnāpekṣā | kiṃ tu mano-nāśa-vāsanā-kṣayau prayatna-sādhyāv iti | tatra mano-nāśao 'samprajñāta-samādhi-nirūpaṇena nirūpitaḥ
prāk | vāsanā-kṣayas tv idānīṃ nirūpyate |

tatra vāsanā-svarūpaṃ vasiṣṭha āha -

dṛḍha-bhāvanayā tyakta-pūrvāpara-vicāraṇam |
yad ādānaṃ padārthasya vāsanā sā prakīrtitā ||

atra ca sva-sva-deśācāra-kula-dharma-svabhāva-bheda-tad-gatāpaśabda-su-śabdādiṣu prāṇinām abhiniveśaḥ sāmānyenodāharaṇam | sā ca vāsanā dvividhā malinā śuddhā ca | śuddhā daivī sampat | śāstra-saṃskāra-prābalyāt tattva-jñāna-sādhanatvenaika-rūpaiva | malinā tu trividhā loka-vāsanā śāstra-vāsanā deha-vāsanā ceti | sarve janā yathā na nindanti tathaivācariṣyāmīty aśakyārthābhiniveśo loka-vāsanā | tasyāś ca ko lokam ārādhayituṃ samartha iti nyāyena sampādayitum aśakyatvāt puruṣārthānupayogitvāc ca malinatvam | śāstra-vāsanā tu trividhā pāṭha-vyasanaṃ bahu-śāstra-vyasanam anuṣṭhāna-vyasanaṃ ceti krameṇa bharadvājasya durvāsaso nidāghasya ca prasiddhā | malinatvaṃ cāsyāḥ kleśāvahatvāt puruṣārthānupayogitvād
darpa-hetutvāj janma-hetutvāc ca | deha-vāsanāpi trividhā ātmatva-bhrāntir guṇādhāna-bhrāntir guṇādhāna-bhrāntir doṣāpanayana-bhrāntiś ceti | tatrātmatva-bhrāntir virocanādiṣu prasiddhā sārvalaukikī | guṇādhānaṃ dvividhaṃ laukikaṃ śāstrīyaṃ ca | samīcīna-śabdādi-viṣaya-sampādanaṃ laukikaṃ, gaṅgā-snāna-śālagrāma-tīrthādi-sampādanaṃ śāstrīyam | doṣāpanayanam api dvividhaṃ laukikaṃ śāstrīyaṃ ca | cikitsakoktair auṣadhair vyādhy-ādy-apanayanaṃ laukikaṃ, vaidika-snānācamanādibhir aśaucādy-apanayanaṃ vaidikam | etasyāś ca sarva-prakārāyā malinatvam aprāmāṇikatvād aśakyatvāt puruṣārthānupayogitvāt punar-janma-hetutvāc
ca | tad etal-loka-śāstra-deha-vāsanā-trayam avivekanām upādeyatvena pratibhāsamānam api vividiṣor vedanotpatti-virodhitvād viduṣo jñāna-niṣṭhā-virodhitvāc ca vivekibhir heyam |

tad evaṃ bāhya-viṣaya-vāsanā trividhā nirūpitā | ābhyantara-vāsanā tu kāma-krodha-dambha-darpādy-āsura-sampad-rūpā sarvānartha-mūlaṃ mānasī vāsanety ucyate | tad evaṃ bāhyābhyantara-vāsanā-catuṣṭayasya śuddha-vāsanayā kṣayaḥ sampādanīyaḥ | tad uktaṃ vasiṣṭhena -

mānasīr vāsanāḥ pūrvaṃ tyaktvā viṣaya-vāsanāḥ |
maitryādi-vāsanā rāma gṛhāṇāmala-vāsanāḥ || iti |

tatra viṣaya-vāsanā-śabdena pūrvoktās tisro loka-śāstra-veda-vāsanā vivakṣitāḥ | mānasa-vāsanā-śabdena kāma-krodha-dambha-darpādy-āsura-sampad-vivakṣitā | yad vā śabda-sparśa-rūpa-rasa-gandhā viṣayāḥ | teṣāṃ bhujyamānatva-daśā-janyaḥ saṃskāro viṣaya-vāsanā | kāmyamānatva-daśā-janyaḥ saṃskāro mānasa-vāsanā | asmin pakṣe pūrvoktānāṃ catasṛṇām anayor evāntarbhāvaḥ | bāhyābhyanara-vyatirekeṇa vāsanāntarāsambhavāt | tāsāṃ vāsanānāṃ parityāgo nāma tad-viruddha-maitry-ādi-vāsanotpādanam | tāś ca maitry-ādi-vāsanā bhagavatā patañjalinā sūtritāḥ prāk saṃkṣepeṇa vyākhyātā api punar vyākhyāyante
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cittaṃ hi rāga-dveṣa-puṇya-pāpaiḥ kaluṣīkriyate | tatra sukhānuśayī rāgaḥ [YogaS 2.7] | mohād anubhūyamānaṃ sukham anuśete kaścid dhī-vṛtti-viśeṣo rājasaḥ sarvaṃ sukha-jātīyaṃ me bhūyād iti | tac ca dṛṣṭādṛṣṭa-sāmagry-abhāvāt sampādayitum aśakyam | ataḥ sa rāgaś cittaṃ kaluṣīkaroti | yadā tu sukhiu prāṇiṣv ayaṃ maitrīṃ bhāvayet sarve 'py ete sukhino madīyā iti tadā tat sukhaṃ svakīyam eva sampannam iti bhāvayatas tatra rāgo nivartate | yathā svasya rājya-nivṛttāv api putrādi-rājyam eva svakīyaṃ rājyaṃ tadvat | nivṛtte ca rāge varṣāvyapāye jalam iva cittaṃ prasīdati | tathā
duḥkhānuśayī dveṣaḥ [YogaS 2.8] duḥkham anuśete kaścd dhī-vṛtti-viśeṣas tamo 'nugata-rajaḥ-pariṇāma īdṛśaṃ sarvaṃ duḥkhaṃ sarvadā me mā bhūd iti | tac ca śatru-vyāghrādiṣu satsya na nivārayituṃ śakyam | na ca sarve te duḥkha-hetavo hantuṃ śakyante | ataḥ sa dveṣaḥ sadā hṛdayaṃ dahati | yadā tu svasyeva pareṣāṃ sarveṣām api duḥkham mā bhūd iti karuṇāṃ duḥkhiṣu bhāvayet tadā vairyādi-dveṣa-nivṛttau cittaṃ prasīdati | tathā ca smaryate -

prāṇā yathātmano 'bhīṣṭā bhūtānām api te tathā |
ātmaupamyena bhūteṣu dayāṃ kurvanti sādhavaḥ || iti |

etad evehāpy uktam - ātmaupamyena sarvatrety ādi | tathā prāṇinaḥ svabhāvata eva puṇyaṃ nānutiṣṭhanti pāpaṃ tv anutiṣṭhanti | tad āhuḥ -

puṇyasya phalam icchanti puṇyaṃ necchanti mānavāḥ |
na pāpa-phalam icchanti pāpaṃ kurvanti yatnataḥ || iti |

te ca puṇya-pāpe akriyamāṇa-kriyamāṇe paścāt-tāpaṃ janayataḥ | sa ca śrutyānūditaḥ - kim ahaṃ sādhu nākaravaṃ kim ahaṃ pāpam akaravam iti | yady asau puṇya-puruṣeṣu muditāṃ bhāvayet tadā tad-vāsanāvān svayam evāpramatto 'śukla-kṛṣṇe puṇye pravartate | tad uktaṃ karmāśukla-kṛṣṇaṃ yoginas trividham itareṣām ayogināṃ trividhaṃ śuklaṃ śubhaṃ kṛṣṇam aśubhaṃ śukla-kṛṣṇaṃ śubhāśubham iti | tathā pāpa-puruṣeṣūpekṣāṃ bhāvayan svayam api tad-vāsanāvān pāpān nivartate |

tataś ca puṇyākaraṇa-pāpa-karaṇa-nimittasya paścāt-tāpasyābhāve cittaṃ prasīdati | evaṃ sukhiṣu maitrīṃ bhāvayato na kevalaṃ rāgo nivartate kiṃtv asūyerṣyādayo 'pi nivartante | para-guṇeṣu doṣāviṣkaraṇam asūyā | para-guṇānām asahanam īrṣyā | yadā maitrī-vaśāt para-sukhaṃ svīyam eva sampannaṃ tadā para-guṇeṣu katham asūyādikaṃ sambhavet | tathā duḥkhiṣu karuṇāṃ bhāvayataḥ śatru-vadhādikaro dveṣo yadā nivartate tadā duḥkhitva-pratiyogika-svasukhitva-prayukta-darpo 'pi nivartate | evaṃ doṣāntara-nivṛttir apy ūhanīyā vāsiṣṭha-rāmāyaṇādiṣu
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tad evaṃ tattva-jñānaṃ mano-nāśo vāsanā-kṣayaś ceti trayam abhyasanīyam | tatra kenāpi dvāreṇa punaḥ punas tattvānusmaraṇaṃ tattva-jñānābhyāsaḥ | tad uktam -

tac-cintanaṃ tat-kathanam anyonyaṃ tat-prabodhanam |
etad eka-paratvaṃ ca brahmābhyāsaṃ vidur budhāḥ ||
sargādāv eva notpannaṃ dṛśyaṃ nāsty eva tat sadā |
idaṃ jagad ahaṃ ceti bodhābhyāsaṃ viduḥ param || iti |

dṛśyāvabhāsa-virodhi-yogābhyāso mano-nirodhābhyāsaḥ | tad uktam -

atyantābhāva-sampattau jñātur jñeyasya vastunaḥ |
yuktyā śāstrair yatante ye te 'py atrābhyāsinaḥ sthitāḥ || iti |

jñātṛ-jñeyor mithyātva-dhīra-bhāva-sampattiḥ | svarūpeṇāpy apratītir atyantābhāva-sampattis tad-artham | yuktyā yogena |

dṛśyāsambhava-bodhena rāga-dveṣādi-tānave |
ratir ghanoditā yāsau brahmābhyāsaḥ sa ucyate ||

iti rāga-dveṣādi-kṣīṇatā-rūpa-vāsanā-kṣayābhyāsa uktaḥ | tasmād upapannam etat tattva-jñānābhyāsena mano-nāśābhyāsena vāsanā-kṣayābhyāsena ca rāga-dveṣa-śūnyatayā yaḥ sva-para-sukha-duḥkhādiṣu sama-dṛṣṭiḥ sa paramo yogī mato yas tu viṣama-dṛṣṭiḥ sa tattva-jñānavān apy aparamo yogīti ||32||

viśvanāthaḥ : kiṃ ca, sādhana-daśāyāṃ yogī sarvatra samaḥ syād ity uktam | tatra mukhyaṃ sāmyaṃ vyacaṣṭe ātmaupamyeneti | sukhaṃ vā duḥkhaṃ veti yathā mama sukhaṃ priyaṃ duḥkham apriyaṃ, tathaivānyeṣām apīti sarvatra samaṃ paśyan sukham eva sarveṣāṃ yo vāñchati, na tu kasyāpi duḥkham, sa yogī śreṣṭho mamābhimataḥ ||32||

baladevaḥ : sarva-bhūta-hite rataḥ iti yat prāg uktaṃ, tad viśadayati ātmaupamyeneti | vyutthāna-daśāyām ātmaupamyena sva-sādṛśyena sukhaṃ duḥkhaṃ ca yaḥ sarvatra samaṃ paśyati | svasyeva parasya sukham evecchati, na tu duḥkham, sa sva-para-sukha-duḥkha-sama-dṛṣṭiḥ sarvānukampī yogī mama paramaḥ śreṣṭho 'bhimataḥ | tad-viṣama-dṛṣṭis tu tattva-jño 'py aparama-yogīti bhāvaḥ ||32||

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BhG 6.33

arjuna uvāca
yo 'yaṃ yogas tvayā proktaḥ sāmyena madhusūdana |
etasyāhaṃ na paśyāmi cañcalatvāt sthitiṃ sthirām ||33||

śrīdharaḥ : ukta-lakṣaṇasya yogasyāsambhavaṃ manvāno 'rjuna uvāca yo 'yam iti | sāmyena manaso laya-vikṣepa-śūnyatayā kevalātmākārāvasthānena | yo 'yaṃ yogas tvayā proktaḥ | etasya sthirāṃ dīrgha-kālāṃ sthitiṃ na paśyāmi | manasaś cañcalatvāt ||33||

madhusūdanaḥ : uktam artham ākṣipan arjuna uvāca yo 'yam iti | yo 'yaṃ sarvatra samaṣṭi-lakṣaṇaḥ paramo yogaḥ sāmyena samatvena citta-gatānāṃ rāga-dveṣādīnāṃ viṣama-dṛṣṭi-hetūnāṃ nirākaraṇena tvayā sarvajñeneśvareṇoktaḥ | he madhusūdana ! sarva-vaidika-sampradāya-pravartaka ! etasya tvad-uktasya sarva-mano-vṛtti-nirodha-lakṣaṇasya yogasya sthitiṃ vidyamānatāṃ sthirāṃ dīrgha-kālānuvartinīṃ na paśyāmi na sambhāvayāmi aham asmad-vidho 'nyo vā yogābhyāsa-nipuṇaḥ | kasmān na sambhāvayasi tatrāha cañcalatvāt, manasa iti śeṣaḥ ||33||

viśvanāthaḥ : bhagavad-ukta-lakṣaṇasya sāmyasya duṣkaratvam ālakṣyovāca yo 'yam iti | etasya sāmyena prāptasya yogasya sthirāṃ sārvadikīṃ sthitiṃ na paśyāmi | eṣa yogaḥ sarvadā na tiṣṭhati kintu tri-catura-dināny evety arthaḥ | kutaḥ ? cañcalatvāt | tathā hy ātma-duḥkha-sukha-samam eva sarva-jagad-varti-janānāṃ sukha-duḥkhaṃ paśyed iti sāmyam uktam | tatra ye bandhavas taṭasthāś ca teṣu sāmyaṃ bhaved api, ye ripavo ghātakā dveṣṭāro nindakāś ca teṣu na sambhaved eva | na hi mayā svasya yudhiṣṭhirasya duryodhanasya ca sukha-duḥkhe sarvathā tulye draṣṭuṃ
śakyete | yadi ca svasya sva-ripūṇāṃ ca jīvātma-paramātma-prāṇendriya-daihika-bhūtāni samāny eveti vivekena prabalasyāticañcalasya manaso nigrahaṇāśakyatvāt | pratyuta viṣayāsaktena tena manasaiva vivekasya grasyamānatva-darśanād iti ||33||

baladevaḥ : uktam ākṣipann arjuna uvāca yo 'yam iti | sāmyena sva-para-sukha-duḥkha-taulyena yo 'yaṃ yogas tvayā sarvajñena proktas tasya sthirāṃ sārvadikīṃ sthitiṃ niṣṭhām apy ahaṃ na paśyāmi, kintu dvi-trāṇy eva dinānīty arthaḥ | kutaḥ ? cañcalatvāt | ayam arthaḥ - bandhuṣu udāsīneṣu ca tat sāmyaṃ kadācit syāt | na ca śatruṣu nindakeṣu ca kadācid api | yadi paramātmādhiṣṭhānatvaṃ sarvatrāviśeṣam iti vivekena tad grāhyaṃ, tarhi na tat sārvadikaṃ aticapalasya baliṣṭhasya ca manasas tena vivekena nigrahītum aśakyatvād iti ||33||


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BhG 6.34

cañcalaṃ hi manaḥ kṛṣṇa pramāthi balavad dṛḍham |
tasyāhaṃ nigrahaṃ manye vāyor iva suduṣkaram ||34||

śrīdharaḥ : etaṃ sphuṭayati cañcalam iti | cañcalaṃ svabhāvenaiva capalam | kiṃ ca pramāthi pramathana-śīlam | dehendriya-kṣobha-karam ity arthaḥ | kiṃ ca balavad vicāreṇāpi jetum aśakyam | kiṃ ca dṛḍhaṃ viṣaya-vāsanānubaddhatayā durbhedam | ato yathākāśe dodhūyamānasya vāyoḥ kumbhādiṣu nirodhanam aśakyaṃ tathāhaṃ tasya manaso nigrahaṃ nirodhaṃ suduṣkaraṃ sarvathā kartum aśakyaṃ manye ||34||

madhusūdanaḥ : sarva-loka-prasiddhatvena tad eva cañcalatvam upapādayati cañcalaṃ hīti | cañcalam atyarthaṃ calaṃ sadā calana-svabhāvaṃ manaḥ | hi prasiddham evaitat | bhaktānāṃ pāpādi-doṣān sarvathā nivārayitum aśakyān api kṛṣati nivārayati teṣām eva sarvathā prāptum aśayān api puruṣārthān ākarṣati prāpayatīti vā kṛṣṇaḥ | tena rūpeṇa sambodhayan durnivāram api citta-cāñcalyaṃ nivārya duṣprāpam api samādhi-sukhaṃ tvam eva prāpayituṃ śaknoṣīti sūcayati | na kevalam atyarthaṃ cañcalaṃ kintu pramāthi śarīram indriyāṇi ca pramathituṃ kṣobhayituṃ śīlaṃ
yasya tat | kṣobhakatayā śarīrendriya-saṃghātasya vivaśatā-hetur ity arthaḥ | kiṃ ca balavat, abhipretād viṣayāt kenāpy upāyena nivārayitum aśakyam | kiṃ ca, dṛḍhaṃ viṣaya-vāsanā-sahasrānusyūtatayā bhettum aśakyam, tantu-nāga-vad acchedyam iti bhāṣye | tantu-nāgo nāga-pāśaḥ | tāntanīti gurjarādau prasiddho mahā-hrada-nivāsī jantu-viśeṣo vā | tasyātidṛḍhatayā balavato balavattayā pramāthinaḥ pramāthitayāticañcalasya mahā-matta-vana-gajasya nigrahaṃ nirodhaṃ nirvṛttikatayāvasthānaṃ suduṣkaraṃ sarvathā kartum aśakyam ahaṃ manye | vāyor iva | yathākāśe dodhūyamānasya vāyor niścalatvaṃ sampādya nirodhanam aśakyaṃ
tadvad ity arthaḥ |

ayaṃ bhāvaḥ |jāte 'pi tattva-jñāne prārabdha-karma-bhogāya jīvataḥ puruṣasya kartṛtva-bhoktṛtva-sukha-duḥkha-rāga-dveṣādi-lakṣaṇaś citta-dharmaḥ kleśa-hetutvād bādhitānuvṛttyāpi bandho bhavati | citta-vṛtti-nirodha-rūpeṇa tu yogena tasya nivāraṇaṃ jīvanmuktir ity ucyate | yasyāḥ sampādanena sa yogī paramo mata ity uktam | tatredam ucyate | bandhaḥ kiṃ sākṣiṇo nivāryate kiṃ vā cittāt | nādyas tattva-jñānenaiva sākṣiṇo bandhasya nivāritatvāt | na dvitīyaḥ svabhāva-viparyayāyogāt | virodhi-sad-bhāvāc ca | na hi jalād ārdratvam agner voṣṇatvaṃ nivārayituṃ śakyate pratikṣaṇa-pariṇamino hi bhāvā ṛte citi-śakteḥ
iti nyāyena pratikṣaṇa-pariṇama-svabhāvatvāc cittasya prārabdha-bhogena ca karmaṇā kṛtsnāvidyā-tat-kārya-nāśane pravṛttasya tattva-jñānasyāpi pratibandhaṃ kṛtvā sva-phala-dānāya dehendriyādikam avasthāpitam | na ca karmaṇā sva-phala-sukha-duḥkhādi-bhogaś citta-vṛttibhir vinā sampādayituṃ śakyate | tasmād yadyapi svābhāvikānām api citta-pariṇāmānāṃ kathaṃcid yogenābhibhavaḥ śakyeta kartuṃ tathāpi tattva-jñānād iva yogād api prārabdha-phalasya karmaṇaḥ prābalyād avaśyambhāvini cittasya cāñcalye yogena tan-nivāraṇam aśakyam ahaṃ sva-bodhād eva manye | tasmād anupapannam etad ātmaupamyena sarvatra sama-darśī paramo yogī mata ity arjunasyākṣepaḥ |34||

viśvanāthaḥ : etad evāha cañcalam iti | nanu ātmānaṃ rathinaṃ viddhi śarīraṃ ratham eva ca [KaṭhU 1.3.3] ity ādi śruteḥ,

āhuḥ śarīraṃ ratham indriyāṇi
hayān abhīṣūn mana indriyeśam |
vartmāni mātrā dhiṣaṇaṃ ca sūtam [BhP 7.15.41] iti smṛteś ca

buddher mano niyantṛtva-darśanād vivekavatyā buddhyā mano vaśīkartuṃ śaktyam eveti ced ata āha balavat | sva-praśamakam auṣudham api balavān rogo yathā na gaṇayati, tathaiva svabhāvād eva baliṣṭhaṃ mano vivekavatīm api buddhim | kiṃ ca dṛḍham atisūkṣma-buddhi-sūcyāpi loham iva sahasā bhettum aśakyam | vāyor ity ākāśe dodhūyamānasya vāyor nigrahaṃ kumbhakādinā nirodham iva yogenāṣṭāṅgena manaso 'pi nirodhaṃ duṣkaraṃ manye ||34||

baladevaḥ : tad evāha cañcalaṃ hīti | manaḥ svabhāvena cañcalam | nanu

ātmānaṃ rathinaṃ viddhi śarīraṃ ratham eva ca |
buddhiṃ tu sārathiṃ viddhi manaḥ pragraham eva ca ||
indriyāṇi hayān āhur viṣayāṃs teṣu gocarān |
ātmendriya-mano-yukto bhoktety āhur manīṣiṇaḥ || [KaṭhU 1.3.3]

iti śruter buddhi-niyamyaṃ manaḥ śrūyate tato vivekinyāṃ buddhyāṃ śakyaṃ tad vaśīkartum iti cet tatrāha pramāthīti | tādṛśīm api buddhiṃ pramathati | kutaḥ ? balavat sva-praśamakam apy auṣadhaṃ yathā balavān rogo na gaṇayati, tadvat | kiṃ ca dṛḍham sūcyā lauham iva tādṛśyāpi buddhyā bhettum aśakyam ato yogenāpi tasya nigraham ahaṃ vāyor iva suduṣkaraṃ manye | na hi vāyor muṣṭinā dhartuṃ śakyate atas tatropāyaṃ brūhīti ||34||

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BhG 6.35

śrī-bhagavān uvāca
asaṃśayaṃ mahābāho mano durṇigrahaṃ calam |
abhyāsena tu kaunteya vairāgyeṇa ca gṛhyate ||35||

śrīdharaḥ : tad uktaṃ cañcalatvādikam aṅgīkṛtyaiva mano-nigrahopāyaṃ śrī-bhagavān uvāca asaṃśayam iti | cañcalatvādinā mano niroddhum aśakyam iti yad vadasi etan niḥsaṃśayam eva | tathāpi tv abhyāsena paramātmākāra-pratyayā vṛttyā viṣaya-vaitṛṣṇyena ca gṛhyate | abhyāsena laya-pratibandhād vairāgyeṇa ca vikṣepa-pratibandhād uparata-vṛttikaṃ sat paramātmākāreṇa tiṣṭhatīty arthaḥ | tad uktaṃ yoga-śāstre -

manaso vṛtti-śūnyasya brahmākāratayā sthitiḥ |
yāsamprajñāta-nāmāsau samādhir abhidhīyate || iti ||35||

madhusūdanaḥ : tam imam ākṣepaṃ pariharan śrī-bhagavān uvāca asaṃśayam iti | samyag viditaṃ te citta-ceṣṭitaṃ mano nigrahītuṃ śakṣyasīti santoṣeṇa sambodhayati he mahābāho mahāntau sākṣān mahādevenāpi saha kṛta-praharaṇau bāhū yasyeti niratiśayam utkarṣaṃ sūcayati | prārabdha-karma-prābalyād asaṃyatātmanā durnigrahaṃ duḥkhenāpi nigrahītum aśakyam | pramāthi balavad dṛḍham iti viśeṣaṇa-trayaṃ piṇḍīkṛtyaitad uktam | calaṃ svabhāva-cañcalaṃ mana ity asaṃśayaṃ nāsty eva saṃśayo 'tra satyam evaitad bravīṣīty arthaḥ | evaṃ
saty api saṃyatātmanā samādhi-mātropāyena yoginābhyāsena vairāgyeṇa ca gṛhyate nigṛhyate sarva-vṛtti-śūnyaṃ kriyate tan mana ity arthaḥ | anigrahītur asaṃyatātmanaḥ sakāśāt saṃyatātmano nigrahītur viśeṣa-dyotanāya tu-śabdaḥ | mano-nigrahe 'bhyāsa-vairāgyayoḥ samuccaya-bodhanāya ca-śabdaḥ | he kaunteyeti pitṛ-ṣvasṛ-putras tvam avaśyaṃ mayā sukhī kartavya iti sneha-sambandha-sūcanenāśvāsayati | atra prathamārdhena cittasya haṭha-nigraho na sambhavatīti dvitīyārdhena tu krama-nigrahaḥ sambhavatīty uktam |

dvividho hi manaso nigrahaḥ | haṭhena krameṇa ca | tatra cakṣuḥ-śrotrādīni jñānendriyāṇi vāk-pāṇy-ādīni karmendriyāṇi ca tad-golaka-mātroparodhena haṭhān nigṛhyante | tad-dṛṣṭāntena mano 'pi haṭhena nigrahīṣyāmīti mūḍhasya bhrāntir bhavati | na ca tathā nigrahītuṃ śakyate tad-golakasya hṛdaya-kamalasya niroddhum aśakyatvāt | ataeva ca krama-nigraha eva yuktas tad etad bhagavān vasiṣṭha āha -

upaviśyopaviśyaiva cittajñena muhur muhuḥ |
na śakyate mano jetuṃ vinā yuktim aninditām ||
aṅkuśena vinā matto yathā duṣṭa-mataṅgajaḥ |
adhyātma-vidyādhigamaḥ sādhu-saṅgama eva ca ||
vāsanā-samparityāgaḥ prāṇa-spanda-nirodhanam |
etās tā yuktayaḥ puṣṭāḥ santi citta-jaye kila ||
satīṣu yuktiṣv etāsu haṭhān niyamayanti ye |
cetas te dīpam utsṛjya vinighnanti tamo 'ñjanaiḥ || iti |

krama-nigrahe cādhyātma-vidyādhigama eka upāyaḥ | sā hi dṛśyasya mithyātvaṃ dṛg-vastunaś ca paramārtha-satya-paramānanda-svaprakāśatavaṃ bodhayati | tathā ca saty etan manaḥ sva-gocareṣu buddhvā nirindhanāgnivat svayam evopaśāmyati | yas tu bodhitam api tattvaṃ na samyag budhyate yo vā vismarati tayoḥ sādhu-saṅgama evopāyaḥ | sādhavo hi punaḥ punar bodhayanti smārayanti ca | yas tu vidyā-madādi-durvāsanayā pīḍyamāno na sādhūn anuvartitum utsahate tasya pūrvokta-vivekena vāsanā-parityāga evopāyaḥ | yas tu vāsanānām atiprābalyāt tās tyaktuṃ na śaknoti tasya prāṇa-spanda-nirodha eva upāyaḥ | prāṇa-spanda-vāsanayoś citta-prerakatvāt tayor nirodhe citta-śāntir upapadyate | tad etad āha sa eva -

dve bīje citta-vṛkṣasya prāṇa-spandana-vāsane |
ekasmiṃś ca tayoḥ kṣīṇe kṣipraṃ dve api naśyataḥ ||
prāṇāyāma-dṛḍhābhyāsair yuktyā ca guru-dattayā |
āsanāśana-yogena prāṇa-spando nirudhyate ||
asaṅga-vyavahāritvād bhava-bhāvana-varjanāt |
śarīra-nāśa-darśitvād vāsanā na pravartate ||
vāsanā-samparityāgāc cittaṃ gacchaty acittatām |
prāṇa-spanda-nirodhāc ca yathecchasi tathā kuru ||
etāvan mātrakaṃ manye rūpaṃ cittasya rāghava |
yad bhāvanaṃ vastuno 'ntarvastutvena rasena ca ||
yadā na bhāvyate kiṃcid dheyopādeya-rūpi yat |
sthīyate sakalaṃ tyaktvā tadā cittaṃ na jāyate ||
avāsanatvāt satataṃ yadā na manute manaḥ |
amanastā tadodeti paramātma-pada-pradā || iti |

atra dvāv evopāyau paryavasitau prāṇa-spanda-nirodhārtham abhyāsaḥ | vāsanā-parityāgārthaṃ ca vairāgyam iti | sādhu-saṅgamādhyātma-vidyādhigamau tv abhyāsa-vairāgyopapādakatayānyathā-siddhau tayor evāntarbhavataḥ | ata eva bhagavatābhyāsena vairāgyeṇa ceti dvayam evoktam | ataeva bhagavān patañjalir asūtrayat abhyāsa-vairāgyābhyāṃ tan-nirodhaḥ [YogaS 1.12] iti | tāsāṃ prāg-uktānāṃ pramāṇa-viparyaya-vikalpa-nidrā-smṛti-rūpeṇa pañca-vidhānām anantānām āsuratvena kliṣṭānāṃ daivatvenākliṣṭānām api vṛttīnāṃ sarvāssām api nirodho nirindhanāgnivad upaśamākhyaḥ pariṇāmo 'bhyāsena vairāgyeṇa ca samuccitena bhavati | tad uktaṃ yoga-bhāṣye - citta-nadī nāmobhayato-vāhinī vahati kalyāṇāya
vahati pāpāya ca | tatra yā kaivalya-prāg-bhārā viveka-nimnā sā kalyāṇa-vahā | yā tv aviveka-nimnā saṃsāra-prāg-bhārā sā pāpa-vahā | tatra vairāgyeṇa viṣaya-srotaḥ khilīkriyate | viveka-darśanābhyāsena ca kalyāṇa-srota udghāṭyate ity ubhayādhīnaś citta-vṛtti-nirodha iti | prāg-bhāra-nimna-pade tadā viveka-nimnaṃ kaivalya-prāg-bhāraṃ cittam ity atra vyākhyāyate | yathā tīvra-vegopetaṃ nadī-pravāhaṃ setu-bandhanena nivārya kulyā-praṇayena kṣetrābhimukhaṃ tiryak-pravāhāntaram utpādyate tathā vairāgyeṇa citta-nadyā viṣaya-pravāhaṃ nivārya samādhy-abhyāsena praśānta-vāhitā sampādyata iti dvāra-bhedāt samuccaya eva | eka-dvāratve hi brīhi-yava-dvi-kalpaḥ syād iti |

mantra-japa-devatā-dhyānādīnāṃ kriyā-rūpāṇām āvṛtti-lakṣaṇo 'bhyāsaḥ sambhavāt | sarva-vyāpāroparamasya tu samādheḥ ko nāmābhyāsa iti śaṅkāṃ nivārayitum abhyāsaṃ sūtrayati sma tatra sthitau yatno 'bhyāsaḥ [YogaS 1.13] iti | tatra svarūpāvasthite draṣṭari śuddhe cid-ātmani cittasyāvṛttikasya praśānta-vāhitā-rūpā niścalatāsthitis tad-arthaṃ yatno mānasa utsāhaḥ svabhāva-cāñcalyād bahiṣpravāha-śīlaṃ cittaṃ sarvathā nirotsyāmīty evaṃ vidhaḥ | sa āvartyamāno 'bhyāsa ucyate | sa tu dīrgha-kāla-nairantarya-satkārāsevito dṛḍha-bhūmiḥ [YogaS 1.14] anirvedena dīrgha-kāla-sevito vicchedābhāvena nirantarāsevitaḥ sat-kāreṇa śraddhātiśayena cāsevitaḥ |
so 'bhyāso dṛḍha-bhūmir viṣaya-sukha-vāsanayā cālayitum aśakyo bhavati | adīrgha-kālatve dīrghakālatve 'pi vicchidya vicchidya sevane śraddhātiśayābhāve ca laya-vikṣepa-kaṣāya-sukhāsvādānām aparihāre vyutthāna-saṃskāra-prābalyād adṛḍha-bhūmir abhyāsaḥ phalāya na syād iti trayam upāttam |

vairāgyaṃ tu dvividham aparaṃ paraṃ ca | yatmāna-saṃjñā-vyatireka-saṃjñaikendriya-saṃjñā-vaśīkāra-saṃjñā-bhedair aparaṃ caturdhā | tatra pūrva-bhūmi-jayenottara-bhūmi-sampādana-vivakṣayā caturtham evāsūtrayat -- dṛṣṭānuśravika-viṣaya-vitṛṣṇasya vaśīkāra-saṃjñā vairāgyam [YogaS 1.15] iti | striyo 'nnaṃ pānam aiśvaryam ity ādayo dṛṣṭā viṣayāḥ | svargo videhatā prakṛti-laya ity ādayo vaidikatvenānuśravikā viṣayās teṣūbhaya-vidheṣv api satyām eva tṛṣṇāyāṃ viveka-tāratamyena yatamānādi-trayaṃ bhavati | atra jagati kiṃ sāraṃ kim asāram iti guru-śāstrābhyāṃ
jñāsāmīty udyogo yatamānam | sva-citte pūrva-vidyamāna-doṣāṇāṃ madhye 'bhyasyamāna-vivekenaite pakvā ete 'vaśiṣṭā iti cikitsakavad vivecanaṃ vyatirekaḥ | dṛṣṭānuśravika-viṣaya-pravṛtter duḥkhātmatva-bodhena bhair indriya-pravṛttim ajanayantyā api tṛṣṇāyā autsukya-mātreṇa manasy avasthānam ekendriyam | manasy api tṛṣṇā-śūnyatvena sarvathā vaitṛṣṇyaṃ tṛṣṇā-virodhinī citta-vṛttir jñāna-prasāda-rūpā vaśīkāra-saṃjñā vairāgyaṃ samprajñātasya samādher antaraṅgaṃ sādhanam asaṃprajñātasya tu bahiraṅgam | tasya tv antaraṅga-sādhanaṃ param evaṃ vairāgyam | tac cāsūtrayat -- tat-paraṃ puruṣa-khyāter
guṇa-vaitṛṣṇyam [YogaS 1.16] iti | samprajñāta-samādhi-pāṭavena guṇa-trayātmakāt pradhānād viviktasya puruṣasya khyātiḥ sākṣātkāra utpadyate | tataś cāśeṣa-guṇa-traya-vyavahāreṣu vaitṛṣṇyaṃ yad bhavati tat-paraṃ śreṣṭhaṃ phala-bhūtaṃ vairāgyam | tat-paripāka-nimittāc ca cittopaśama-paripākād avilambena kaivalyam iti ||35||

viśvanāthaḥ : uktam artham aṅgīkṛtya samadadhāti aśaṃśayam iti | tvayoktaṃ satyam eva, kintu balavān api rogas tat-praśamakauṣadha-sevayā sad-vaidya-prayukta-prakārayā muhur abhyastayā yathā cira-kālena śāmyaty eva, tathā durnigraham api mano 'bhyāsena sad-gurūpadiṣṭa-prakāreṇa parameśvara-dhyāna-yogasya muhur anuśīlanena vairāgyeṇa viṣayeṣv anāsaṅgena ca gṛhyate sva-hasta-vaśīkartuṃ śakyata ity arthaḥ | tathā ca pātañjala-sūtram - abhyāsa-vairāgyābhyāṃ tan-nirodhaḥ [YogaS 1.12] iti | mahābāho iti saṅgrāme tvayā yan mahāvīrā api vijīyante, sa ca pināka-pāṇir api vaśīkṛtas tenāpi kim ? yadi mahā-vīra-śiro-maṇir mano nāmā prādhāniko bhaṭo mahā-yogāstra-prayogeṇa jetuṃ śakyate, tadaiva mahā-bāhuteti bhāvaḥ
| he kaunteyeti tatra tvaṃ mā bhaiṣīḥ | mat-pituḥ svasuḥ kuntyāḥ putre tvayi mayā sāhāyyaṃ vidheyam iti bhāvaḥ ||35||

baladevaḥ : uktam artham svīkṛtya bhagavān uvāca aśaṃśayam iti | tathāpi sva-prakāśa-sukhaikatānatvātma-guṇābhimukhyābhyāsenātma-vyatirikteṣu viṣayeṣu doṣa-dṛṣṭi-janitena vairāgyeṇa ca mano nigrahītuṃ śakyate | tathā cātmānandāsvādhābhyāsena laya-pratibandhād viṣaya-vaitṛṣṇyena ca vikṣepa-pratibandhān nivṛtta-cāpalyaṃ manaḥ sugrahaṃ yathā sad-auṣadha-sevayā sad-vaidya-prayukta-prakārayā muhur abhyastayā yathā cira-kālena śāmyaty eva, tathā durnigraham api mano 'bhyāsena sad-gurūpadiṣṭa-prakāreṇa parameśvara-dhyāna-yogasya muhur anuśīlanena vairāgyeṇa viṣayeṣv anāsaṅgena ca gṛhyate sva-hasta-vaśīkartuṃ śakyata
ity arthaḥ | tathā ca pātañjala-sūtram - abhyāsa-vairāgyābhyāṃ tan-nirodhaḥ [YogaS 1.12] iti | mahābāho iti saṅgrāme tvayā yan mahāvīrā api vijīyante, sa ca pināka-pāṇir api vaśīkṛtas tenāpi kim ? yadi mahā-vīra-śiro-maṇir mano nāmā prādhāniko bhaṭo mahā-yogāstra-prayogeṇa jetuṃ śakyate, tadaiva mahā-bāhuteti bhāvaḥ | he kaunteyeti tatra tvaṃ mā bhaiṣīḥ | mat-pituḥ svasuḥ kuntyāḥ putre tvayi mayā sāhāyyaṃ vidheyam iti bhāvaḥ ||35||

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BhG 6.36

asaṃyatātmanā yogo duṣprāpa iti me matiḥ |
vaśyātmanā tu yatatā śakyo 'vāptum upāyataḥ ||36||

śrīdharaḥ : etāvāṃs tv iha niścaya ity āha asaṃyateti | ukta-prakāreṇābhyāsa-vairāgyābhyām asaṃyata ātmā cittaṃ yasya tena yogo duṣprāpa prāptum aśakyaḥ | abhyāsa-vairāgyābhyāṃ vaśyo vaśavartī ātmā cittaṃ yasya tena puruṣeṇa punaś cānenaivopāyena prayatnaṃ kurvatā yogaḥ prāptuṃ śakyaḥ ||36||

madhusūdanaḥ : yat tu tvam avocaḥ prārabdha-bhogena karmaṇā tattva-jñānād api prabalena sva-phala-dānāya manaso vṛttiṣūtpādyamānāsu kathaṃ tāsāṃ nirodhaḥ kartuṃ śakyaṃ iti tatrocyate asaṃśayātmaneti | HERE

tathā cāha bhagavān vasiṣṭhaḥ -

sarvam eveha hi sadā saṃsāre raghunandana |
samyak prayuktāt sarveṇa pauruṣāt samavāpyate ||
ucchāstraṃ śāstritaṃ ceti pauruṣaṃ dvividhaṃ smṛtam |
tatrocchāstram anarthāya paramārthāya śāstritam ||

ucchāstraṃ śāstra-pratiṣiddham anarthāya narakāya | śāstritaṃ śāstra-vihitam antaḥ-karaṇa-śuddhi-dvārā paramārthāya caturṣv artheṣu paramāya mokṣāya |

śubhāśubhābhyāṃ mārgābhyāṃ vahantī vāsanā sarit |
pauruṣeṇa prayatnena yojanīyā śubhe pathi ||
aśubheṣu samāviṣṭaṃ śubheṣv evāvatāraya |
sva-manaḥ puruṣārthena balena balināṃ vara ||
drāg-abhyāsa-vaśād yāti yadā te vāsanodayam |
tadābhyāsasya sāphalyaṃ viddhi tvam ari-mardana ||

vāsanā śubhedti śeṣaḥ |

sandigdhāyām api bhṛśaṃ śubhām eva samāhara |
śubhāyāṃ vāsanā-vṛddhau tāta doṣo na kaścana ||
avyutpanna-manā yāvad bhavān ajñāta-tatpadaḥ |
guru-śāstra-pramāṇais tvaṃ nirṇītaṃ tāvad ācara ||
tataḥ pakva-kaṣāyeṇa nūnaṃ vijñāta-vastunā |
śubho 'py asau tvayā tyājyo vāsanaugho nirodhinā || iti |

tasmāt sākṣi-gatasya saṃsārasyāviveka-nibandhanasya viveka-sākṣātkārād apanaye 'pi prārabdha-karma-paryavasthāpitasya cittasya svābhāvikīnām api vṛttīnāṃ yogābhyāsa-prayatnenāpanaye sati jīvanmuktaḥ paramo yogī | citta-vṛtti-nirodhābhāve tu tattva-jñānavān apy aparamo yogīti siddham | avaśiṣṭaṃ jīvanmukti-viveke sa-vistaram anusandheyam ||36||

viśvanāthaḥ : atrāyaṃ parāmarśa ity ata āha saṃyatātmanābhyāsa-vairāgyābhyāṃ na saṃyataṃ mano yasya tena | tābhyāṃ tu vaśyātmanā vaśībhūta-manasāpi puṃsā yatatā ciraṃ yatnavataiva yogo mano-nirodha-lakṣaṇaḥ samādhir upāyataḥ sādhana-bhūyastvāt prāptuṃ śakyaḥ ||36||

baladevaḥ : asaṃyateti | uktābhyām abhyāsa-vairāgyābhyāṃ na saṃyata ātmā mano yasya tena vijñenāpi puṃsā citta-vṛtti-nirodha-lakṣaṇo yogo duṣprāpaḥ prāptum aśakyaḥ | tābhyāṃ vaśyo 'dhīna ātmā mano yasya tena puṃsā, tathāpi yatatā tādṛśa-prayatnavatā sa yogaḥ prāptuṃ śakyaḥ | upāyato mad-ārādhana-lakṣaṇāj jñānākārān niṣkāma-karma-yogāc ceti me matiḥ ||36||

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BhG 6.37

arjuna uvāca
ayatiḥ śraddhayopeto yogāc calita-mānasaḥ |
aprāpya yoga-saṃsiddhiṃ kāṃ gatiṃ kṛṣṇa gacchati ||37||

śrīdharaḥ : abhyāsa-vairāgyābhāvena kathañcid aprāpta-samyag-jñānaḥ kiṃ phalaṃ prāpnotīty arjuna uvāca ayatir it | prathamaṃ śraddhayopeta eva yoge pravṛttaḥ, na tu mithyācāratayā | tataḥ paraṃ tv ayatiḥ samyaṅ na yatate | śithilābhyāsa ity arthaḥ | evam abhyāsa-vairāgya-śaithilyād yogasya saṃsiddhiṃ phalaṃ jñānam aprāpya kāṃ gatiṃ prāpnoti ? ||37||

madhusūdanaḥ : evaṃ prāktanena granthenotpanna-tattva-jñāno 'nutpanna-jīvan-mukti-paramo yogī mataḥ | utpanna-tattva-jñāna utpanna-jīvan-muktis tu paramo yogī mata ity uktam | tayor ubhayor api jñānād jñāna-nāśe 'pi yāvat prārabdha-bhogaṃ karma dehendriya-saṅghātāvasthānāt prārabdha-bhoga-karmāpāye ca vartamāna-dehendriya-saṅghātāpāyāt punar-utpādakābhāvād videha-kaivalyaṃ prati kāpi nāsty āśaṅkā | yas tu prāk-kṛta-karmabhir labdha-vividiṣā-paryanta-citta-śuddhiḥ kṛta-kāryatvāt sarvāṇi karmāṇi parityajya prāpta-paramahaṃsa-parivrājaka-bhāvaḥ paramahaṃsa-parivrājakam ātma-sākṣātkāreṇa jīvan-muktaṃ para-prabodhana-dakṣaṃ gurum upasṛtya tato vedānta-mahā-vākyopadeśaṃ
prāpya tatrāsambhāvanā-viparīta-bhāvanākhya-pratibandha-nirāsāya athāto brahma-jijñāsā [Vs 1.1.1] ity ādy anāvṛttiḥ śabdāt [Vs 4.4.23] ity antayā catur-lakṣaṇa-mīmāṃsayā śravaṇa-manana-nididhyāsanāni guru-prasādāt kartum ārabhate sa śraddadhāno 'pi sann āyuṣo 'lpatvenālpa-prayatnatvād alabdha-jñāna-paripākaḥ śravaṇa-manana-nididhyāsaneṣu kriyamāṇeṣv eva madhye vyāpadyate | sa jñāna-paripāka-śūnyatvenānaṣṭājñāno na mucyate | nāpy upāsanā-sahita-karma-phalaṃ devalokam anubhavaty arcir-ādi-mārgeṇa | nāpi kevala-karma-phalaṃ pitṛ-lokam anubhavati dhūmādi-mārgeṇa | karmaṇām upāsanānāṃ ca tyaktatvāt | ata etādṛśo yoga-bhraṣṭaḥ kīṭādi-bhāvena kaṣṭāṃ gatim iyād ajñatve
sati deva-yāna-pitṛ-yāna-mārgāsambandhitvād varṇāśramācāra-bhraṣṭavad athavā kaṣṭāṃ gatiṃ neyāt | śāstra-ninidta-karma-śūnyatvād vāmadevavad iti saṃśaya-paryākula-manā arjuna uvāca ayatir iti |
yatir yatna-śīlaḥ alpārthe nañ alavaṇā yavāgūr ity-ādivat | ayatir alpa-yatnaḥ | śraddhayā guru-vedānta-vākyeṣu viśvāsa-buddhi-rūpayopeto yuktaḥ | śraddhā ca sva-sahacaritānāṃ śamādīnām upalakṣaṇaṃ śānto dānta uparatas titikṣuḥ śraddhānvito bhūtvātmany evātmānaṃ paśyati iti śruteḥ | tena nityānitya-vastu-viveka ihāmutra-bhoga-virāgaḥ śama-damoparati-titikṣā-śraddhādi-sampan-mumukṣutā ceti sādhana-catuṣṭaya-sampanno gurum upasṛtya vedānta-vākya-śravaṇādi kurvann api paramāyuṣo 'lpatvena maraṇa-kāle cendriyāṇāṃ vyākulatvena sādhanānuṣṭhānāsambhavād yogāc calita-mānaso yogāc chravaṇādi-paripāka-labdha-janmanas tattva-sākṣātkārāc
calitaṃ tat-phalam aprāptaṃ mānasaṃ yasya sa yogāniṣpattyaivāprāpya yoga-saṃsiddhiṃ tattva-jñāna-nimittām ajñāna-tat-kārya-nivṛttim apunar-āvṛtti-sahitām aprāpyātattva-jña eva mṛtaḥ san kāṃ gatiṃ he kṛṣṇa gacchati sugatiṃ durgatiṃ vā ? karmaṇāṃ parityāgāj jñānasya cānutpatteḥ śāstrokta-mokṣa-sādhanānuṣṭhāyitvāc chāstra-garhita-karma-śūnyatvāc ca ||37||

viśvanāthaḥ : nanv abhyāsa-vairāgyābhyāṃ prayatnavataiva puṃsā yogo labhyata iti tvayocyate | yasyaitat tritayam api na dṛśyate, tasya kā gatir iti pṛcchati | ayatir alpa-yatnaḥ anavarṇāya vāgur itivad alpārthe nañ | atha ca śraddhayopeto yoga-śāstrāstikyena tatra śraddhayopeto yogābhyāsa pravṛtta eva, na tu loka-vañcakatvena mithyācāraḥ | kintv abhyāsa-vairāgyayor abhāvena yogāc calitaṃ viṣaya-pravaṇī-bhūtaṃ mānasaṃ yasya saḥ | ataeva yogasya saṃsiddhiṃ samyak siddhim aprāpyeti yat kiñcit siddhiṃ tu prāpta eveti yogārurukṣā-bhūmikāto 'grimāṃ yogāroha-bhūmikāyāḥ prathamāṃ kakṣāṃ gata iti bhāvaḥ ||37||

baladevaḥ : jñāna-garbho niṣkāma-karma-yogo 'ṣṭāṅga-yoga-śirasko nikhilopasarga-vimardanaḥ sva-paramātmāvalokanopāyo bhavatīty asakṛd uktam | tasya ca tādṛśasya nehābhikrama-nāśo 'stīti pūrvokta-mahimnas tan-mahimānaṃ śrotum arjunaḥ pṛcchati ayatir iti | abhyāsa-vairāgyābhyāṃ prayatnena ca yogaṃ pumān labhetaiva | yas tu prathamaṃ śraddhayā tādṛśa-yoga-nirūpaka-śruti-viśvāsenopetaḥ | kintv ayatir alpa-svadharmānuṣṭhāna-yatnavān anudārā yuvatiḥ itivad alpārthe 'tra nañ | śithila-prayatnatvād eva yogād aṣṭāṅgāc calitaṃ viṣaya-pravaṇaṃ mānasaṃ yasya saḥ | evaṃ ca svadharmānuṣṭhānābhyāsa-vairāgya-śaithilyād
vividhasya yogasya samyak siddhiṃ hṛd-viśuddh-lakṣaṇām ātmāvalokana-lakṣaṇāṃ cāprāptaḥ kiṃcit siddhiṃ tu prāpta eva | śraddhāluḥ kiṃcid anuṣṭhita-svadharmaḥ prārabdha-yogo 'prāpta-yoga-phalo dehānte kāṃ gatiṃ gacchati ? he kṛṣṇa ||37||
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BhG 6.38

kaccin nobhaya-vibhraṣṭaś chinnābhram iva naśyati |
apratiṣṭho mahābāho vimūḍho brahmaṇaḥ pathi ||38||

śrīdharaḥ : praśnābhiprāyaṃ vivṛṇoti kaccid iti | karmaṇām īśvare 'rpitatvād ananuṣṭhānāc ca tāvat karma-phalaṃ svargādikaṃ na prāpnoti | yogāniṣpatteś ca mokṣaṃ na prāpnoti | evam ubhayasmād bhraṣṭo 'pratiṣṭho nirāśrayaḥ | ataeva brahmaṇaḥ prāpty-upāye pathi mārge vimūḍhaḥ san kaccit kiṃ naśyati ? kiṃ vā na naśyatīty arthaḥ | nāśe dṛṣṭāntaḥ - yathā cchinnam abhraṃ pūrvasmād abhrād viśliṣṭam abhrāntaraṃ cāprāptaṃ san madhya eva vilīyate tadvad ity arthaḥ ||38||

madhusūdanaḥ : etad eva saṃśaya-bījaṃ vivṛṇoti kaccid iti | kaccid iti sābhilāṣa-praśne | he mahābāho mahāntaḥ sarveṣāṃ bhaktānāṃ sarvopadrava-nivāraṇa-samarthāḥ puruṣārtah-catuṣṭaya-dāna-samarthā vā catvāro bāhavo yasyeti praśna-nimitta-krodhābhāvas tad-uttara-dāna-sahiṣṇutvaṃ ca sūcitam | brahmaṇaḥ pathi brahma-prāpti-mārge jñāne vimūḍho vicittaḥ, anutpanna-brahmātmaikya-sākṣātkāra iti yāvat | apratiṣṭho deva-yāna-pitṛ-yāna-mārga-gamana-hetubhyām upāsanā-karmabhyāṃ pratiṣṭhābhyāṃ sādhanābhyāṃ rahitaḥ sopāsanānāṃ sarveṣāṃ
karmaṇāṃ parityāgāt | etādṛśa ubhaya-vibhraṣṭaḥ karma-mārgāj jñāna-mārgāc ca vibhraṣṭaś chinnābhram iva vāyunā chinnaṃ viśakalitaṃ pūrvasmān meghād bhraṣṭam uttaraṃ megham aprāptam abhraṃ yathā vṛṣṭy-ayogyaṃ sad-antarāla eva naśyati tathā yoga-bhraṣṭo 'pi pūrvasmāt karma-mārgād vicchinna uttaraṃ ca jñāna-mārgam aprāpto 'ntarāla eva naśyati karma-phalaṃ jñāna-phalaṃ ca labdhum ayogyo na kim iti praśnārthaḥ | etena jñāna-karma-samuccayo nirākṛtaḥ | etasmin hi pakṣe jñāna-phala-lābhe 'pi karma-phala-lābha-sambhavenobhaya-vibhraṣṭatvāsambhavāt | na ca tasya karma-sambhave 'pi phala-kāmanā-tyāgāt phala-bhraṃśa-vacanam
avakalpata iti vācyaṃ niṣkāmānām api karmaṇāṃ phala-sad-bhāvasyāpastamba-vacanāndy-udāharaṇena bahuśaḥ pratipāditatvāt | tasmāt sarva-karma-tyāginaṃ praty evāyaṃ praśnaḥ | anartha-prāpti-śaṅkāyās tatraiva sambhavāt ||38||

viśvanāthaḥ : kaccid iti praśne | ubhaya-vibhraṣṭaḥ karma-mārgāc cyuto yoga-mārgaṃ ca samyag aprāpta ity arthaḥ | chinnābhram iveti yathā chinnam abhraṃ meghaḥ pūrvasmād abhrād viśliṣṭam abhrāntaraṃ cāprāptaṃ sat madhye vilīyate tenāsya iha loke yoga-mārge praveśād viṣaya-bhoga-tyāgecchā samyag-vairāgyābhāvād viṣaya-bhogecchā ceti kaṣṭam | para-loke ca svarga-sādhanasya karmaṇo 'bhāvāt | mokṣa-sādhanasya yogasyāpy aparipākān na svarga-mokṣāv ity ubhaya-loka evāsya vināśa iti dyotitam | ato brahma-prāpty-upāye pathi mārge vimūḍho 'yam apratiṣṭhaḥ pratiṣṭhām āspadam aprāptaḥ san kaccit kiṃ naśyati
na naśyati tvaṃ pṛcchyase ||38||

baladevaḥ : praśnāśayaṃ viśadayati kaccid iti praśne | niṣkāmatayā karmaṇo 'nuṣṭhānān na svargādi-phalaṃ yogāsiddher nātmāvalokanaṃ ca tasyābhūt | evam ubhayasmād vibhraṣṭo 'pratiṣṭho nirālambaḥ san kiṃ naśyati kiṃ vā na naśyati ? ity arthaḥ | chinnābhram iveti abhraṃ megho yathā pūrvasmād abhrād vicchinnaṃ param abhraṃ cāprāptam antarāle vilīyate, tadvad eveti nāśe dṛṣṭāntaḥ | katham evaṃ śaṅkā ? tatrāha - brahmaṇaḥ pathi prāpty-upāye yad asau vimūḍhaḥ ||38||

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BhG 6.39

etan me saṃśayaṃ kṛṣṇa chettum arhasy aśeṣataḥ |
tvad-anyaḥ saṃśayasyāsya chettā na hy upapadyate ||39||

śrīdharaḥ : tvayaiva sarvajñenāyaṃ mama sandeho nirasanīyaḥ | tvatto 'nyas tv etat sandeha-nivartako nāsti ity āha etad iti etad enam | chettvā nivartakaḥ spaṣṭam anyat ||39||

madhusūdanaḥ : yathopadarśita-saṃśayāpākaraṇāya bhagavantam antaryāmiṇam arthayate pārthaḥ etan ma iti | etad evaṃ pūrvopadarśitaṃ me mama saṃśayaṃ he kṛṣṇa cchettum apanetum arhasy aśeṣataḥ saṃśaya-mūlādharmādy-ucchedena | mad-anyaḥ kaścid ṛṣir vā devo vā tvadīyam imaṃ saṃśayam ucchetsyatīty āśaṅkyāha tvad-anya iti | tvat parameśvarāt sarvajñāc chāstra-kṛtaḥ parama-guroḥ kāruṇikād anyo 'nīśvaratvena asarvajñaḥ kaścid ṛṣir vā devo vāsya yoga-bhraṣṭa-para-loka-gati-viṣayasya saṃśayasya cchettā samyag-uttara-dānena nāśayitā hi yasmā̆n nopapadyate na sambhavati tasmāt tvam
eva pratyakṣa-darśī sarvasya parama-guruḥ saṃśayam etaṃ mama cchettum arhasīty arthaḥ ||39||

viśvanāthaḥ : etad etam ||39||

baladevaḥ : etad iti klībtvam ārṣam | tvad iti sarveśvarāt sarvajñatvatto 'nyo 'nīśvaro 'lpajñaḥ kaścid ṛṣiḥ ||39||

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BhG 6.40

śrī-bhagavān uvāca
pārtha naiveha nāmutra vināśas tasya vidyate |
na hi kalyāṇa-kṛt kaścid durgatiṃ tāta gacchati ||40||

śrīdharaḥ : tatrottaraṃ śrī-bhagavān uvāca pārtheti sārdhaiś caturbhiḥ | iha-loke nāśa ubhaya-bhraṣṭāt pātityam | amutra para-loke nāśo naraka-prāptiḥ | tad ubhayaṃ tasya nāsty eva | yataḥ kalyāṇa-kṛc cubha-kārī kaścid api durgatiṃ na gacchati | ayaṃ ca śubhakārī śraddayā yoge pravṛttatvāt | tāteti loka-rītyopalālayan sambodhayati ||40||

madhusūdanaḥ : evam arjunasya yoginaṃ prati nāśāśaṅkāṃ pariharann uttaraṃ śrī-bhagavān uvāca pārtheti | ubhaya-vibhraṣṭo yogī naśyatīti ko 'rthaḥ | kim iha loke śiṣṭa-garhaṇīyo bhavati veda-vihita-karma-tyāgāt | yathā kaścid ucchṛṅkhalaḥ | kiṃ vā paratra nikṛṣṭāṃ gatiṃ prāpnoti | yathoktaṃ śrutyā - athaitayoḥ pathor na katareṇacana te kīṭāḥ pataṅgā yadi dandaśūkam iti | tathā coktaṃ manunā -- vāntāśy ulkā-mukhaḥ preto vipro dharmāt svakāc cyutaḥ [Manu 12.71] ity ādi | tad ubhayam api nety āha he pārtha pārtha naiveha nāmutra vināśas tasya yathā-śāstraṃ kṛta-sarva-karma-saṃnyāsasya sarvato viraktasya gurum upasṛtya
vedānta-śravaṇādi kurvato 'ntarāle mṛtasya yoga-bhraṣṭasya vidyate |

ubhayatrāpi tasya vināśo nāstīty atra hetum āha hi yasmāt kalyāṇa-kṛc chāstra-vihita-kārī kaścid api durgatim ihākīrtiṃ paratra ca kīṭādi-rūpatāṃ na gacchati | ayaṃ tu sarvotkṛṣṭa eva san durgatiṃ na gacchatīti kim u vaktavyam ity arthaḥ | tanoty ātmānaṃ putra-rūpeṇeti pitā tata ucyate | svārthike 'ṇi tata eva tāto rākṣasa-vāyasādivat | pitaiva ca putra-rūpeṇa bhajatīti putra-sthānīyasya śiṣyasya tāteti sambodhanaṃ kṛpātiśaya-sūcanārtham | yad uktaṃ yoga-bhraṣṭaḥ kaṣṭāṃ gatiṃ gacchati ajñatve sati deva-yāna-pitṛ-yāna-mārgānyatarāsambandhitvāt svadharma-bhraṣṭavad iti | tad ayuktam | etasya devayāna-mārga-sambandhitvena hetor asiddhatvāt | pañcāgni-vidyāyāṃ
ya itthaṃ vidur ye cāmī araṇye śraddhāṃ satyam upāsate te 'rcir abhisambhavantīty aviśeṣeṇa pañcāgni-vidām ivātaskratūnāṃ śraddhā-satyavatāṃ mumukṣūṇām api deva-yāna-mārgeṇa brahma-loka-prāpti-kathanāt | śravaṇādi-parāyaṇasya ca yoga-bhraṣṭasya śraddhānvito bhūtvety anena śraddhāyāḥ prāptatvāt | śānto dānta ity anena cānṛta-bhāṣaṇa-rūpa-vāg-vyāpāra-nirodha-rūpasya satyasya labdhatvāt | bahir indiryāṇām ucchṛṅkhala-vyāpāra-nirodho hi damaḥ | yoga-śāstre ca ahiṃsā-satyāsteya-brahmacaryāparigrahā yamāḥ [YogaS 2.30] iti yogāṅga-svenoktatvāt | yadi tu satya-śabdena brahmaivocyate tadāpi na kṣatiḥ | vedānta-śravaṇāder api satya-brahma-cintana-rūpatvāt | atat-kratutve 'pi ca pañcāgni-vidām
iva brahma-loka-prāpti-sambhavāt | tathā ca smṛtiḥ saṃnyāsād brahmaṇaḥ sthānam iti | tathā prātyahika-vedānta-vākya-vicārasyāpi brahma-loka-prāpti-sādhanatvāt samuditānāṃ teṣāṃ tat-sādhanatvaṃ kiṃ citram | ataeva sarva-sukṛta-rūpatvaṃ yogi-caritasya taittirīyā āmananti tasyaivaṃ viduṣo yajñasya ity ādinā | smaryate ca -
snātaṃ tena samasta-tīrtha-salile sarvā 'pi dattāvanir
yajñānāṃ ca kṛtaṃ sahasram akhilā devāś ca sampūjitāḥ |
saṃsārāc ca samuddhṛtāḥ sva-pitaras trailokya-pūjyo 'py asau
yasya brahma-vicāraṇe kṣaṇam api sthairyaṃ manaḥ prāpnuyāt || iti ||40||

viśvanāthaḥ : iha loke amutra para-loke 'pi kalyāṇaṃ kalyāṇa-prāpakaṃ yogaṃ karotīti saḥ ||40||

baladevaḥ : evaṃ pṛṣṭo bhagavān uvāca pārtheti | tasyokta-lakṣaṇasya yogina iha prākṛtike loke 'mutrāprākṛtike ca loke vināśaḥ svargādi-sukha-vibhraṃśa-lakṣaṇaḥ paramātmāvalokana-vibhraṃśa-lakṣaṇaś ca na vidyate na bhavati | kiṃ cottaratra tat-prāptir bhaved eve | hi yataḥ | kalyāṇa-kṛt niḥśreyasopāya-bhūta-sad-dharma-yogārambhī durgatiṃ tad-ubhayābhāva-rūpāṃ daridratāṃ na gacchati | he tātety ativātsalyāt saṃbodhanam | tenātyātmānaṃ putra-rūpeṇa iti vyutpattes | tataḥ pitā svārthike 'ṇi | tata eva tātaḥ putraṃ śiṣyaṃ cātikṛpayā jyeṣṭas tathā sambodhayati ||40||

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BhG 6.41

prāpya puṇya-kṛtāṃ lokān uṣitvā śāśvatīḥ samāḥ |
śucīnāṃ śrīmatāṃ gehe yoga-bhraṣṭo 'bhijāyate ||41||

śrīdharaḥ : tarhi kim asau prāpnotīty apekṣāyām āha prāpyeti | puṇya-kṛtāṃ puṇya-kāriṇām aśvamedhādi-yājināṃ lokān prāpya tatra śāśvatīḥ samāḥ bahūn saṃvatsarān uṣitvā vāsa-sukham anubhūya śucīnāṃ sad-ācārāṇāṃ śrīmatāṃ dhaninām | gehe sa yoga-bhraṣṭo 'bhijāyate janma prāpnoti ||41||

madhusūdanaḥ : tad evaṃ yoga-bhraṣṭasya śubha-kṛttvena loka-dvaye 'pi nāśābhāve kiṃ bhavatīty ucyate prāpyeti | yoga-mārga-pravṛttaḥ sarva-karma-saṃnyāsī vedānta-śravaṇādi kurvann antarāle mriyamāṇaḥ kaścit pūrvopacita-bhoga-vāsanā-prādurbhāvād viṣayebhyaḥ spṛhayati | kaścit tu vairāgya-bhāvanā-dāḍhyān na spṛhayati | tayoḥ prathamaḥ prāpya puṇya-kṛtām aśvamedha-yājināṃ lokān arcir-ādi-mārgeṇa brahma-lokān | ekasminn api bhoga-bhūmi-bhedāpekṣayā bahu-vacanam | tatra coṣitvā vāsam anubhūya śāśvatīr brahma-parimāṇenākṣāyāḥ samāḥ saṃvatsarān, tad-ante śucīnāṃ śuddhānāṃ śrīmatāṃ
vibhūtimatāṃ mahārāja-cakravartināṃ gehe kule bhoga-vāsanāśoṣa-sad-bhāvād ajātaśatru-janakādivad yoga-bhraṣṭo 'bhijāyate | bhoga-vāsanā-prābalyād brahma-lokānte sarva-karma-saṃnyāsāyogyo mahārājo bhavatīty arthaḥ ||41||

viśvanāthaḥ : tarhi kāṃ gatim asau prāpnotīty ata āha prāpyeti | puṇya-kṛtām aśvamedhādi-yājināṃ lokān iti yogasya phalaṃ mokṣo bhogaś ca bhavati | tatrāpakva-yogino bhogecchāyāṃ satyāṃ yoga-bhraṃśe sati bhoga eva | paripakva-yoginas tu bhogecchāyā asambhavān mokṣa eva | kecit tu paripakva-yogino 'pi daivād bhogecchāyāṃ satyāṃ kardama-saubharyādi-dṛṣṭyā bhoagam apy āhur iti | śucīnāṃ sad-ācārāṇāṃ śrīmatāṃ dhanika-vaṇig-ādīnāṃ rājñāṃ vā ||41||

baladevaḥ : aihikīṃ sukha-sampattiṃ tāvad āha prāpyeti | yādṛśa-viṣaya-spṛhayā sva-dharme śithilo yogāc ca vicyuto 'yaṃ tādṛśān viṣayān ātmoddeśyaka-niṣkāma-svadharma-yogārambha-māhātmyena puṇya-kṛtām aśvamedhādi-yājināṃ lokān pāpya bhuṅkte tān bhuñjāno yāvatībhis tad-bhoga-tṛṣṇā-vinivṛttis tāvatīḥ śāśvatīḥ bahvīḥ samāḥ saṃvatsarāṃs teṣu lokeṣūṣitvā sthitvā tad-bhoga-vitṛṣṇas tebhyo lokebhyaḥ śucīnāṃ sad-dharma-niratānāṃ yogārhāṇāṃ śrīmatāṃ dhanināṃ gehe pūrvārabdha-yoga-māhātmyāt sa yoga-śreṣṭho 'bhijāyata
ity alpa-kālārabdha-yogād bhraṣṭasya gatir iyaṃ darśitā ||41||

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BhG 6.42

atha vā yoginām eva kule bhavati dhīmatām |
etad dhi durlabhataraṃ loke janma yad īdṛśam ||42||

śrīdharaḥ : alpa-kālābhyasta-yoga-bhraṃśe gatir iyam uktā | cirābhyasta-yoga-bhraṃśe tu pakṣāntaram āha athaveti | yoga-niṣṭhānāṃ dhīmatāṃ jñāninām eva kule jāyate | na tu pūrvoktānām ārūḍha-yogānāṃ kule | etaj janma stauti īdṛśaṃ yaj janma etad dhi loke durlabhataraṃ mokṣa-hetutvāt ||42||

madhusūdanaḥ : dvitīyaṃ prati pakṣāntaram āha athaveti | śraddhā-vairāgyādi-kalyāṇa-guṇādhikye tu bhoga-vāsanā-virahāt puṇya-kṛtāṃ lokān aprāpyaiva yoginām eva daridrāṇāṃ brāhmaṇānāṃ na tu śrīmatāṃ rājñāṃ gṛhe yoga-bhraṣṭa-janma tad api durlabham aneka-sukṛta-sādhyatvān mokṣa-paryavasāyitvāc ca | yat tu śucīnāṃ daridrāṇāṃ brāhmaṇānāṃ brahma-vidyāvatāṃ kule janma | etad dhi prasiddhaṃ śukādivat | durlabhataraṃ durlabhād api durlabhaṃ loke yad īdṛśaṃ sarva-pramāda-kāraṇa-śūnyaṃ janmeti dvitīyaḥ stūyate bhoga-vāsanā-śūnyatvena sarva-karma-saṃnyāsārhatvāt ||42||

viśvanāthaḥ : alpa-kālābhyasta-yoga-bhraṃśe gatir iyam uktā | cira-kālābhyasta-yoga-bhraṃśe tu pakṣāntaram āha athaveti | yogināṃ nimi-prabhṛtīnām ity arthaḥ ||42||

baladevaḥ : cirārābdhād yogād bhraṣṭasya gatim āha athaveti | yogināṃ yogam abhyasatāṃ dhīmatāṃ yoga-deśikānāṃ kule bhavaty utpadyate | dvividhaṃ janma stauti etad iti | yogārhāṇāṃ yogam abhyasatāṃ ca kule pūrva-yoga-saṃskāra-bala-kṛtam etaj janma prākṛtānām atidurlabham ||42||

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BhG 6.43

tatra taṃ buddhi-saṃyogaṃ labhate paurvadehikam
yatate ca tato bhūyaḥ saṃsiddhau kurunandana ||43||

śrīdharaḥ : tataḥ kiṃ ? ata āha tatreti sārdhena | sa tatra dvi-prakāre 'pi janmani pūrva-dehe bhavaṃ paurvadehikam | tam eva brahma-viṣayayā buddhyā saṃyogaṃ labhate | tataś ca bhūyo 'dhikaṃ saṃsiddhau mokṣe prayatnaṃ karoti ||43||

madhusūdanaḥ : etādṛśa-janma-dvayasya durlabhatvaṃ kasmāt ? yasmāt tatra tam iti | tatra dvi-prakāre 'pi janmani pūrva-dehe bhavaṃ paurvadehikam sarva-karma-saṃnyāsa-gurūpasadana-śravaṇa-manana-nididhyāsanānāṃ madhye yāvat-paryantam anuṣṭhitaṃ tāvat paryantam eva taṃ brahmātmaikya-viṣayayā buddhyā saṃyogaṃ tat-sādhana-kalāpam iti yāvat | labhate prāpnoti | na kevalaṃ labhata eva kintu tatas tal-lābhānantaraṃ bhūyo 'dhikaṃ labdhāyā bhūmer agrimāṃ bhūmiṃ sampādayituṃ saṃsiddhau saṃsiddhir mokṣas tan-nimittaṃ yatate ca prayatnaṃ karoti ca | yāvan mokṣaṃ
bhūmikāḥ sampādayatīty arthaḥ | he kuru-nandana tavāpi śucīnāṃ śrīmatāṃ kule yoga-bhraṣṭa-janama jātam iti pūrva-vāsanā-vaśād anāyāsenaiva jñāna-lābho bhaviṣyatīti sūcayituṃ mahā-prabhāvasya kuroḥ kīrtanam |

ayam artho bhagavad-vaśiṣṭha-vacane vyaktaḥ | yathā śrī-rāmaḥ -

ekām atha dvitīyāṃ vā tṛtīyāṃ bhūmikām uta |
ārūḍhasya mṛtakasyātha kīdṛśī bhagavan gatiḥ ||

pūrvaṃ hi sapta bhūmayo vyākhyātāḥ | tatra nityānitya-vastu-viveka-pūrvakād ihāmutrārtha-bhoga-vairāgyāc chama-dama-śraddhā-titikṣā-sarva-karma-saṃnyāsādi-puraḥsarā mumukṣā śubhecchākhyā prathamā bhūmikā | sādhana-catuṣṭaya-sampad iti tāvat | tataḥ śravaṇa-manana-pariniṣpannasya tattva-jñānasya nirvicikitsanā-rūpā tanu-mānasā nāma tṛtīyā bhūmikā | nididhyāsana-sampad iti yāvat | caturthī bhūmikā tu tattva-sākṣātkāra eva | pañcama-ṣaṣṭha-saptama-bhūmayas tu jīvanmukter avāntara-bhedā iti tṛtīye prāg-vyākhyātam | tatra caturthīṃ bhūmiṃ prāptasya mṛtasya jīvan-mukty-abhāve 'pi videha-kaivalyaṃ prati nāsty eva saṃśayaḥ | tad-uttara-bhūmi-trayaṃ
prāptas tu jīvann api muktaḥ kim u videha iti nāsty eva bhūmikā-catuṣṭaye śaṅkā | sādhana-bhūta-bhūmikā-traye tu karma-tyāgāj jñānālābhāc ca bhavati śaṅketi tatraiva praśnaḥ |

śrī-vaśiṣṭhaḥ -

yoga-bhūmikayotkrānta-jīvitasya śarīriṇaḥ |
bhūmikāṃśānusāreṇa kṣīyate pūrva-duṣkṛtam ||
tataḥ sura-vimāneṣu loka-pāla-pureṣu ca |
merūpavana-kuñjeṣu ramate ramaṇī-sakhaḥ ||
tataḥ sukṛta-saṃbhāre duṣkṛte ca purākṛte |
bhoga-kṣayāt parikṣīṇe jāyante yogino bhuvi ||
śucīnāṃ śrīmatāṃ gehe gupte guṇavatāṃ satām |
janitvā yogam evaite sevante yoga-vāsitāḥ ||
tatra pāg-bhavanābhyastaṃ yoga-bhūmi-kramaṃ budhāḥ |
dṛṣṭvā paripatanty uccair uttaraṃ bhūmikā-kramam || iti |

atra prāg-upacita-bhoga-vāsanā-prābalyād alpa-kālābhyasta-vairāgya-vāsanā-daurbalyena prāṇotkrānti-samaye prādurbhūta-bhoga-spṛhaḥ sarva-karma-saṃnyāsī yaḥ sa evoktaḥ | yas tu vairāgya-vāsanā-prābalyāt prakṛṣṭa-puṇya-prakaṭita-parameśvara-prasāda-vaśena prāṇotkrānti-samaye 'nudbhūta-bhoga-spṛhaḥ saṃnyāsī bhoga-vyavadhānaṃ vinaiva brāhmaṇānām eva brahma-vidāṃ sarva-pramāda-kāraṇa-śūnye kule samutpannas tasya prāktana-saṃskārābhivyaktenāyāsenaiva sambhavān nāsti pūrvasyaiva mokṣaṃ praty āśaṅketi sa vasiṣṭhena nokto bhagavatā tu parama-kāruṇikenāthaveti pakṣāntaraṃ kṛtvokta eva | spaṣṭam anyat ||43||

viśvanāthaḥ : tatra dvividhe 'pi janmani buddhyā paramātma-niṣṭhayā saha saṃyogaṃ paurvadaihikaṃ pūrva-janma-bhavam ||43||

baladevaḥ : āmutrikīṃ sukha-sampattiṃ vaktuṃ pūrva-saṃskāra-hetukaṃ sādhanam āha tatreti | tatra dvividhe janmani paurvadaihikaṃ pūrva-dehe bhavam | buddhyā svadharma-svātma-paramātma-viṣayā saṃyogaṃ sambandhaṃ labhate | tataś ca hṛd-viśuddhi-sva-paramātmāvaloka-rūpāyāṃ saṃsiddhau nimitte svāpotthitavad bhūyo bahutaraṃ yatate | yathā punar vighna-hato na syāt ||43||

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BhG 6.44

pūrvābhyāsena tenaiva hriyate hy avaśo 'pi saḥ |
jijñāsur api yogasya śabda-brahmātivartate ||44||

śrīdharaḥ : tatra hetuḥ pūrveti | tenaiva pūrva-deha-kṛtābhyāsenāvaśo 'pi kutaścid ambharāyād anicchann api saṃhriyate viṣayebhyaḥ purāvṛtya brahma-niṣṭhaḥ kriyate | tad evaṃ pūrvābhyāsa-balena prayatnaṃ kurvan śanair mucyata itīmam arthaṃ kaimutya-nyāyena sphuṭayati jijñāsur iti sārdhena | yogasya svarūpaṃ jijñāsur eva kevalaṃ na tu prāpta-yogaḥ | evambhūto yoge praviṣṭa-mātro 'pi pāpa-vaśād yoga-bhraṣṭo 'pi śabda-brahma vedam ativartate | vedokta-karma-phalāny atikrāmati | tebhyo 'dhikaṃ phalaṃ prāpya mucyata ity arthaḥ ||44||

madhusūdanaḥ : nanu yo brahma-vidāṃ brāhmaṇānāṃ sarva-pramāda-kāraṇa-śūnye kule samutpannas tasya madhye viṣaya-bhoga-vyavadhānābhāvād avyavahita-prāg-bhavīya-saṃskārodbodhāt punar api sarva-karma-saṃnyāsa-pūrvako jñāna-sādhana-lābho bhavatu nāma | yas tu śrīmatāṃ mahārāja-cakravartināṃ kule bahuvidha-viṣaya-bhoga-vyavadhānenotpannas tasya viṣaya-bhoga-vāsanā-prābalyāt pramāda-kāraṇa-sambhavāc ca katham ativyavahita-jñāna-saṃskārodbodhaḥ kṣatriyatvena sarva-karma-saṃnyāsānarhasya kathaṃ vā jñāna-sādhana-lābha iti | tathocyate pūrvābhyāseneti | aticira-vyavahita-janmopacitenāpi tenaiva pūrvābhyāsena prāg-arjita-jñāna-saṃskāreṇāvaśo 'pi
mokṣa-sādhanāyāprayatamāno 'pi hriyate svavaśīkriyate | akasmād eva bhoga-vāsanābhyo vyutthāpya mokṣa-sādhanonmukhaḥ kriyate, jñāna-vāsanāyā evālpa-kālābhyastāyā api vastu-viṣayatvenāvastu-viṣayābhyo bhoga-vāsanābhyaḥ prābalyāt | paśya yathā tvam eva yuddhe pravṛtto jñānāyāpratayamāno 'pi pūrva-saṃskāra-prābalyād akasmād eva raṇa-bhūmau jñānonmukho 'bhūr iti | ataeva prāg uktaṃ nehābhikrama-nāśo 'sti [Gītā 2.40] iti | aneka-janma-sahasra-vyavahito 'pi jñāna-saṃskāraḥ sva-kāryaṃ karoty eva sarva-virodhy-upamardenety abhiprāyaḥ |

sarva-karma-saṃnyāsābhāve 'pi hi kṣatriyasya jñānādhikāraḥ sthita eva | yathā pāṭac-careṇa bahūnāṃ rakṣiṇāṃ madhye vidyamānam api aśvādi-dravyaṃ svayam anicchad api tān sarvān abhibhūya sva-sāmarthya-viśeṣād evāpahriyate | paścāt tu kadāpahṛtam iti vimarśo bhavati | evaṃ bahūnāṃ jñāna-pratibandhakānāṃ madhye vidyamāno 'pi yoga-bhraṣṭaḥ svayam anicchann api jñāna-saṃskāreṇa balavatā svasāmarthaya-viśeṣād eva sarvān pratibandhakān abhibhūyātma-vaśī kriyata iti hṛñaḥ prayogena sūcitam | ataeva saṃskāra-prābalyāj jijñāsur jñātum icchur api yogasya mokṣa-sādhana-jñānasya viṣayaṃ brahma, prathama-bhūmikāyāṃ
sthitaḥ saṃnyāsīti yāvat | so 'pi tasyām eva bhūmikāyāṃ mṛto 'ntarāle bahūn viṣayān bhuktvā mahārāja-cakravartināṃ kule samutpanno 'pi yoga-bhraṣṭaḥ prāg-upacita-jñāna-saṃskāra-prābalyāt tasmin janmani śabda-brahma vedaṃ karma-pratipādakam ativartate 'tikramya tiṣṭhati karmādhikārātikrameṇa jñānādhikārī bhavatīty arthaḥ | etenāpi jñāna-karma-samuccayo nirākṛta iti draṣṭavyam | samuccaye hi jñānino 'pi karma-kāṇḍātikramābhāvāt ||44||

viśvanāthaḥ : hriyata ākṛṣyate | yogasya yogaṃ jijñāsur api bhavati | ataḥ śabda-brahma veda-śāstram ativartate vedokta-karma-mārgam atikramya vartate | kintu yoga-mārga eva tiṣṭhatīty arthaḥ ||44||

baladevaḥ : tatra hetuḥ | tenaiva yoga-viṣayakeṇa pūrvābhyāsena sa yogī hriyate ākṛṣyate avaśo 'pi kenacid vighnenānicchann apīty arthaḥ | hīti prasiddho 'yaṃ yoga-mahimā | yogasya jijñāsur api tu yogam abhyasituṃ pravṛttaḥ śabda-brahma sa-kāma-karma-nirūpakaṃ vedam ativartate | taṃ na śabda-ghātīty arthaḥ ||44||

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BhG 6.45

prayatnād yat tu yogī saṃśuddha-kilbiṣaḥ |
aneka-janma-saṃsiddhas tato yāti parāṃ gatim ||45||

śrīdharaḥ : prayatnād iti | yadaivaṃ manda-prayatno 'pi yogī parāṃ gaitṃ yāti tadā yas tu yogī prayatnād uttarottaram adhikaṃ yoge yatamāno yatnaṃ kurvan yogenaiva saṃśuddha-kilbiṣo vidhūta-pāpaḥ so 'nekeṣu janmasūcitena yogena saṃsiddhaḥ samyag jñānī bhūtvā tataḥ śreṣṭhāṃ gatiṃ yātīti kiṃ vaktavyam ity arthaḥ ||45||

madhusūdanaḥ : yadā caivaṃ prathama-bhūmikāyāṃ mṛto 'pi aneka-bhoga-vāsanā-vyavahitam api vividha-pramāda-kāraṇavati mahārāja-kule 'pi janma labdhvāpi yoga-bhraṣṭaḥ pūrvopacita-jñāna-saṃskāra-prābalyena karmādhikāram atikramya jñānādhikārī bhavati tadā kim u vaktavyaṃ dvitīyāyāṃ tṛtīyāyāṃ vā bhūmikāyāṃ mṛto viṣaya-bhogānte labdha-mahārāja-kula-janmā yadi vā bhogam akṛtvaiva labdha-brahma-vid brāhmaṇa-kula-janmā yoga-bhraṣṭaḥ karmādhikārātikrameṇa jñānādhikārī bhūtvā tat-sādhanāni sampādya tat-phala-lābhena saṃsāra-bandhanān mucyata iti | tad etad āh prayatnād iti | prayatnāt pūrva-kṛtād apy adhikam adhikaṃ yatamānaḥ prayatnātirekaṃ
kurvan yogī pūrvopacita-saṃskāravāṃs tenaiva yoga-prayatna-puṇyena saṃśuddha-kilbiṣo dhauta-jñāna-pratibandhaka-pāpa-malaḥ | ataeva saṃskāropacayāt puṇyopacayāc cānekair janmabhiḥ saṃsiddhaḥ saṃskārātirekeṇa puṇyātirekeṇa ca prāpta-carama-janmā tataḥ sādhana-paripākād yāti parāṃ prakṛṣṭāṃ gatiṃ muktim | nāsty evātra kaścit saṃśaya ity arthaḥ ||45||

viśvanāthaḥ : evaṃ yoga-bhraṃśe kāraṇaṃ yatna-śaithilyam eva ayatiḥ śraddhayopetaḥ ity uktaḥ | tasya ca yatna-śaithilyavato yoga-bhraṣṭasya janmāntare punar yoga-prāptir evoktā, na tu saṃsiddhiḥ | saṃsiddhis tu yāvadbhir janmabhis tasya yogasya paripākaḥ syāt | tāvadbhir evety avasīyate | yas tu na kadācid api yoge śaithilya-prayatnaḥ | sa na yoga-bhraṣṭa-śabda-vācyaḥ | kintu -

bahu-janma-vipakvena samyag-yoga-samādhinā |
draṣṭuṃ yatante yatayaḥ śūnyāgāreṣu yat-padam || [BhP 3.24.28]

iti kardamokteḥ so 'pi naikena janmanā sidhyatīty āha prayatnād yatamānaḥ prakṛṣṭa-yatnād api yatnavān ity arthaḥ | tu-kāraḥ pūrvoktād yoga-bhraṣṭād asya bhedaṃ bodhayati | saṃśuddha-kilbiṣaḥ samyag-paripakva-kaṣāyaḥ | so 'pi naikena janmanā sidhyatīti saḥ | parāṃ gatiṃ mokṣam ||45||

baladevaḥ : athāmutrikīṃ sukha-sampattim āha prayatnād iti | pūrva-kṛtād api prayatnād adhikam adhikaṃ yatamānaḥ pūrva-vighna-bhayāt prayatnādhikyaṃ kurvan yogī tenopacitena prayatnena saṃśuddha-kilbiṣo nidhauta-nikhilānya-vāsanaḥ | evam anekair janmabhiḥ saṃsiddhaḥ paripakva-yogo yoga-paripākād eva hetoḥ parāṃ sva-parātmāvaloka-lakṣaṇāṃ gatiṃ muktiṃ yāti ||45||

__________________________________________________________

BhG 6.46

tapasvibhyo 'dhiko yogī jñānibhyo 'pi mato 'dhikaḥ |
karmibhyaś cādhiko yogī tasmād yogī bhavārjuna ||46||

śrīdharaḥ : yasmād evaṃ tasmāt tapasvibhya iti | tapasvibhyaḥ kṛcchra-cāndrāyaṇādi-tapo-niṣṭhebhyaḥ | jñānibhyaḥ śāstra-jñāna-vidbhyo 'pi | karmibhya iṣṭa-pūrtādi-karma-kāribhyo 'pi | yogī śreṣṭho mamābhimataḥ | tasmāt tvaṃ yogī bhava ||46||

madhusūdanaḥ : idānīṃ yogī stūyate 'rjunaṃ prati śraddhātiśayotpādana-pūrvakaṃ yogaṃ vidhātuṃ tapasvibhya iti | tapasvibhyaḥ kṛcchra-cāndrāyaṇādi-tapaḥ-parāyaṇebhyo 'pi adhika utkṛṣṭo yogī tattva-jñānotpatty-anantaraṃ mano-nāśa-vāsanākṣaya-kārī |

vidyayā ta ārohanti yatra kāmāḥ parāgatāḥ |
na tatra dakṣiṇā yānti nāvadvāṃsas tapasvinaḥ || iti śruteḥ |

ataeva karmibhyo dakṣiṇā-sahita-jyotiṣṭomādi-karmānuṣṭhānebhyaś cādhiko yogī | karmiṇāṃ tapasvināṃ cājñatvena mokṣānarhatvāt |

jñānibhyo 'pi parokṣa-jñānavadbhyo 'pi aparokṣa-jñānavān adhiko mato yogī | evam aparokṣa-jñānavadbhyo 'pi mano-nāśa-vāsanākṣayābhāvād ajīvan-muktebhyo mano-nāśa-vāsanākṣaya-vattvena jīvan-mukto yogy adhiko mato mama saṃyataḥ | yasmād evaṃ tasmād adhikādhika-prayatna-balāttvaṃ yoga-bhraṣṭa idānīṃ tattva-jñāna-mano-nāśa-vāsanākṣayair yugapat-saṃpāditair yogī jīva-mukto yaḥ sa yogī paramo mata iti prāg-uktaḥ sa tādṛśo bhava sādhana-paripākāt | he 'rjuneti śuddheti sabodhanārthaḥ ||46||

viśvanāthaḥ : karma-jñāna-taop-yogavatāṃ madhye kaḥ śreṣṭha ity apekṣāyām āha tapasvibhyaḥ kṛcchra-cāndrāyaṇādi-tapo-niṣṭhebhyaḥ | jñānibhyaḥ brahmopāsakebhyo 'pi yogī paramātmopāsako 'dhiko mata iti mamedam eva matam iti bhāvaḥ | yadi jñānibhyo 'py adhikas tadā kim uta karmibhya ity āha karmibhyaś ceti ||46||

baladevaḥ : evaṃ jñāna-garbho niṣkāma-karma-yogo 'ṣṭāṅga-yoga-śirasko mokṣa-hetus tādṛśād yogād vibhraṣṭsyāntatas tat-phalaṃ bhaved ity abhidhāya yoginaṃ stauti tapasvibhya iti | tapasvibhyaḥ kṛcchrādi-tapaḥ-parebhyaḥ jñānibhyo 'rtha-śāstra-vidbhyaḥ karmibhyaḥ sakāmeṣṭā-pūrty-ādikṛdbhyaś ca yogī mad-ukta-yogānuṣṭhātādhikaḥ śreṣṭho mataḥ | ātma-jñāna-vaidhuryeṇa mokṣānarhebhyas tapasvy-ādibhyo mad-ukto yogī samuditātma-jñānatvena mokṣārhatvāt śreṣṭhaḥ ||46||

__________________________________________________________

BhG 6.47

yoginām api sarveṣāṃ mad-gatenāntarātmanā |
śraddhāvān bhajate yo māṃ sa me yuktatamo mataḥ ||47||

śrīdharaḥ : yoginām api yama-niyamādi-parāṇāṃ madhye mad-bhaktaḥ śreṣṭha ity āha yoginām apīti | mad-gatena mayy āsaktena | antarātmanā manasā | yo māṃ parameśvaraṃ vāsudevam | śraddā-yuktaḥ san bhajate | sa yoga-yukteṣu śreṣṭho mama saṃmataḥ | ato mad-bhakto bhava iti bhāvaḥ ||47||

ātma-yogam avocad yo bhakti-yoga-śiromaṇim |
taṃ vande paramānandaṃ mādhavaṃ bhakta-sevadhim ||

iti śrī-śrīdhara-svāmi-kṛtāyāṃ bhagavad-gītā-ṭīkāyāṃ subodhinyāṃ
dhyāna-yogo nāma ṣaṣṭho 'dhyāyaḥ
||6||

madhusūdanaḥ : idānīṃ sarva-yogi-śreṣṭhaṃ yoginaṃ vadann adhyāyam upasaṃharati yoginām iti | yogināṃ vasu-rudrādityādi-kṣudra-devatā-bhaktānāṃ sarveṣām api madhye mayi bhagavati vāsudeve puṇya-paripāka-viśeṣād gatena prīti-vaśān niviṣṭena mad-gatenāntarātmanāntaḥ-karaṇena prāg-bhavīya-saṃskāra-pāṭavāt sādhu-saṅgāc ca mad-bhajana evaṃ śraddhāvān atiśayena śraddadhānaḥ sambhajante sevata satataṃ cintayati yo māṃ nārāyaṇam īśvareśvaraṃ sa-guṇaṃ nirguṇaṃ vā manuṣyo 'yam īśvarāntara-sādhāraṇo 'yam ity ādi-bhramaṃ hitvā sa eva mad-bhakto yogī yuktatamaḥ
sarvebhyaḥ samāhita-cittebhyo yuktebhyaḥ śreṣṭho me mama parameśvarasya sarvajñasya mato niścitaḥ | samāne 'pi yogābhyāsa-kleśe samāne 'pi bhajanāyāse mad-bhakti-śūnyebhyo mad-bhaktasyaiva śreṣṭhatvāt tvaṃ mad-bhaktaḥ paramo yuktatamo 'nāyāsena bhavituṃ śakṣyasīti bhāvaḥ |

tad anenādhyāyena karma-yogasya buddhi-śuddhi-hetor maryādāṃ darśayatā tataś ca kṛta-sarva-karma-saṃnyāsasya sāṅgaṃ yogaṃ vivṛṇvatā mano-nigrahopāyaṃ cākṣepa-nirāsa-pūrvakam upadiśatā yoga-bhraṣṭasya puruṣārtha-śūnyatāśaṅkāṃ ca śithilatayā karma-kāṇḍaṃ bhajanīyaṃ ca bhagavantaṃ vāsudevaṃ tat-padārthaṃ nirūpayitum agrima-madhyāya-ṣaṭkam ārabhyata iti śivam ||47||

iti śrīmat-paramahaṃsa-parivrājakācārya-śrī-viśveśvara-sarasvatī-pāda-śiṣya-śrī-madhusūdana-sarasvatī-viracitāyāṃ śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā-gūḍhārtha-dīpikāyām adhyātma-yogo nāma ṣaṣṭho 'dhyāyaḥ
||6||


viśvanāthaḥ : tarhi yoginaḥ sakāśān nāsty adhikaḥ ko 'pīty avasīyate | tatra maivaṃ vācyam ity āha yoginām api | pañcamy-arthe ṣaṣṭhī nirdhāraṇa-yogāt | tapasvibhyo jñānibhyo 'py adhika iti pañcamy-artha-kramāc ca yogibhyaḥ sakāśād apīty arthaḥ | na kevalaṃ yogibhya eka-vidhebhyaḥ sakāśāt | api tu yogibhyaḥ sarvebhyo nānā-vidhebhyo yogārūḍhebhyaḥ samprajñāta-samādhy-asamprajñāta-samādhimadbhyo 'pīti | yad vā yogā upāyāḥ karma-jñāna-tapo-yoga-bhakty-ādayas tadvatāṃ madhye yo māṃ bhajeta | mad-bhakto bhavati sa yuktatama upāyavattamaḥ | karmī tapasvī jñānī ca yogī mataḥ | aṣṭāṅga-yogī yogitaraḥ | śravaṇa-kīrtanādi-bhaktimāṃs
tu yogitama ity arthaḥ | yad uktaṃ śrī-bhāgavate-

muktānām api siddhānāṃ nārāyaṇa-parāyaṇaḥ |
sudurlabhaḥ praśāntātmā koṭiṣv api mahāmune || iti |

agrimādhyāya-ṣaṭkaṃ yad bhakti-yoga-nirūpakam |
tasya sūtramayaṃ ślokā bhakta-kaṇṭha-vibhūṣaṇam ||
prathamena kathā-sūtraṃ gītā-śāstra-śiromaṇiḥ |
dvitīyena tṛtīyena tūryeṇākāma-karma ca ||
jñānaṃ ca pañcamenoktaṃ yogaḥ ṣaṣṭhena kīrtitaḥ |
prādhānyena tad apy etaṃ ṣaṭkaṃ karma-nirūpakam ||
iti sārārtha-darśinyāṃ harṣiṇyāṃ bhakta-cetasām |
gītāsu ṣaṣṭho 'dhyāyo 'yaṃ saṅgataḥ saṅgataḥ satām ||
||6||

baladevaḥ : tad ittham ādyena ṣaṭkena saniṣṭhasya sādhanāni jñāna-garbhāni niṣkāma-karmāṇi yoga-śiraskāny abhidhāya madhyena pariniṣṭhitāder bhagavac-charaṇādīni sādhanāny abhidhāsyan tasmāt tasya śraiṣṭhyāvedakaṃ tat-sūtram abhidhatte yoginām iti | pañcamy-arthe ṣaṣṭhīyaṃ tapasvibhya iti pūrvopakramāt | na ca nirdhāraṇe ṣaṣṭhīyam astu vakṣyamāṇasya yoginas tapasvy-ādi-vilakṣaṇa-kriyatvena teṣv anantar-bhāvāt | yadyapi tapasvy-ādīnāṃ mitho nyūnādhikatābhāvo 'sti | tathāpy avaratvaṃ tasmāt samānam | svarṇa-girer iva tad anyeṣām uccāvacānāṃ girīṇām iti | yaḥ śraddhāvān mad-bhakti-nirūpakeṣu
śruty-ādi-vākyeṣu dṛḍha-viśvāsaḥ san māṃ nīlotpala-śyāmalam ājānu-pīvara-bāhuṃ savitṛ-kara-vikasitāravindekṣaṇaṃ vidyud-ujjvala-vāsasaṃ kirīṭa-kuṇḍala-kaṭaka-keyūra-hāra-kaustubha-nūpuraiḥ vanamālayā ca vibhrājamānaṃ sva-prabhayā diśo vitamisrāḥ kurvāṇaṃ nitya-siddha-nṛsiṃha-raghu-varyādi-rūpaṃ sarveśvaraṃ svayaṃ bhagavantaṃ manuṣya-saṃniveśi-vibhu-vijñānanda-mayaṃ yaśodā-stanandhayaṃ kṛṣṇādi-śabdair abhidhīyamānaṃ sārvajña-sarvaiśvarya-satya-saṅkalpāśrita-vātsalyādibhiḥ saundarya-mādhurya-lāvaṇyādibhiś ca guṇa-ratnaiḥ pūrṇaṃ
bhajate śravaṇādibhiḥ sevate | mad-gatena mad-ekāsaktenāntarātmanā manasā viśiṣṭas tila-mātram api mad-viyogāsahaḥ sann ity arthaḥ | mad-bhaktaḥ sarvebhyas tapasvy-ādibhyo yogibhyo mad-eka-bhakto yuktatama ity arthaḥ |

atra vyācaṣṭe - nanu yoginaḥ sakāśān na ko 'py adhiko 'stīti cet tatrāha yoginām iti | yogāroha-tāratamyāt karma-yogino bahavas tebhyaḥ sarvebhyo 'pīti dhyānārūḍho yuktaḥ samādhy-ārūḍho yuktataraḥ śravaṇādi-bhaktimāṃs tu yuktatama iti | bhakti-śabdaḥ sevābhidhāyī |
bhaja ity eṣa vai dhātuḥ sevāyāṃ parikīrtitaḥ |
tasmāt sevā budhaiḥ proktā bhakti-śabdena bhūyasī || iti smṛteḥ |

etāṃ bhaktiṃ śrutir āha śraddhā-bhakti-dhyāna-yogād avehi iti |

yasya deve parā bhaktir yathā deve tathā gurau |
tasyaite kathitā hy arthāḥ prakāśante mahātmanaḥ || [ŚvetU 6.23] iti |

bhaktir asya bhajanaṃ tad-ihāmutropādhi-nairāsyenāmuṣmin manaḥ-kalpanam etad eva naiṣkarmyam [GTU 1.14] iti |

ātmānam eva lokam upāsīta [BAU 1.4.8] iti |

ātmā vā are draṣṭavyaḥ śrotavyo mantavyo nididhyāsitavyo maitreyi [BAU 2.4.5, 4.5.6] iti caivam ādyāḥ |

sā ca bhaktir bhagavat-svarūpa-śakti-vṛtti-bhūtā bodhyā-

vijñāna-ghanānanda-ghanā sac-cid-ānandaika-rase bhakti-yoge tiṣṭhati [GTU 2.79] iti śruteḥ |

tasyāḥ śravaṇādi-kriyā-rūpatvaṃ tu cit-sukha-mūrteḥ sarveśvarasya kuntalādi-pratīkatvavat pratyetavyam | śravaṇādi-rūpāyā bhakteś cid-ānandatvaṃ tv anuvṛttyānubhāvyaṃ sitānusevayā pitta-vināśe tan-mādhuryam iveti ||47||

gītā-kathā-sūtram avocad ādye
karma dvitīyādiṣu kāma-śūnyam |
tat pañcame vedana-garbham ākhyan
ṣaṣṭhe tu yogojjvalitaṃ mukundaḥ ||

iti śrīmad-bhagavad-gītopaniṣad-bhāṣye ṣaṣṭho 'dhyāyaḥ
||6||

ṣaṣṭho 'dhyāyaḥ - dhyāna-yogaḥ



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Bhagavadgita 7

BhG 7.1

śrī-bhagavān uvāca
mayy āsakta-manāḥ pārtha yogaṃ yuñjan mad-āśrayaḥ |
asaṃśayaṃ samagraṃ māṃ yathā jñāsyasi tac chṛṇu ||1||

śrīdharaḥ -
vijñeyam ātmanas tattvaṃ saṃyogaṃ samudīritam |
bhajanīyam athedānīm aiśvaraṃ rūpam īryate ||

pūrvādhyāyānte mad-gatenāntarātmanā yo māṃ bhajate sa me yuktatamo mataḥ ity uktam | atra kīdṛśas tvaṃ yasya bhaktiḥ kartavyety apekṣāyāṃ sva-svarūpaṃ nirupayiṣyan śrī-bhagavān uvāca mayīti | mayi parameśvara āsaktam abhiniviṣṭaṃ mano yasya saḥ | mad-āśrayo 'ham evāśrayo yasya | ananya-śaraṇaḥ san | yogaṃ yuñjann abhyasan asaṃśayaṃ yathā bhavaty evam | māṃ samagraṃ vibhūti-balaiśvaryādi-sahitaṃ yathā jñāsyasi tad idaṃ mayā vakṣyamāṇaṃ śṛṇu ||1||

madhusūdanaḥ -

yad-bhaktiṃ na vinā muktir yaḥ sevyaḥ sarva-yoginām |
taṃ vande paramānanda-ghanaṃ śrī-nanda-nandanam ||

evaṃ karma-saṃnyāsātmaka-sādhana-pradhānena prathama-ṣaṭkena jñeyaṃ tvaṃ-pada-lakṣyaṃ sa-yogaṃ vyākhyāyādhunā dhyeya-brahma-pratipādana-pradhānena madhyamena ṣaṭkena tat-padārtho vyākhyātavyaḥ | tatrāpi --

yoginām api sarveṣāṃ madgatenāntarātmanā |
śraddhāvān bhajate yo māṃ sa me yuktatamo mataḥ || [Gītā 6.47]

iti prāg-uktasya bhagavad-bhajanasya vyākhyānāya saptamo 'dhyāya ārabhyate | tatra kīdṛśaṃ bhagavato rūpaṃ bhajanīyaṃ kathaṃ vā tad-gato 'ntarātmā syād ity etad-dvayaṃ praṣṭavyam arjunenāpṛṣṭam api parama-kāruṇikatayā svayam eva vivakṣuḥ śrī-bhagavān uvāca mayīti |

mayi parameśvare sakala-jagad-āyatanatvādivividha-vibhūti-bhāgini āsaktaṃ viṣayāntara-parihāreṇa sarvadā niviṣṭaṃ mano yasya tava sa tvam | ataeva mad-āśrayo mad-eka-śaraṇaḥ | rājāśrayo bhāryādy-āsakta-manāś ca rāja-bhṛtyaḥ prasiddho mumukṣus tu mad-āśrayo mad-āsakta-manāś ca | tvaṃ tvad-vidho vā yogaṃ yuñjan manaḥ-samādhānaṃ ṣaṣṭhokta-prakāreṇa kurvan | asaṃśayaṃ yathā bhavaty evaṃ samagraṃ sarva-vibhūti-bala-śaktyaiśvaryādi-sampannaṃ māṃ yathā yena prakāreṇa jñāsyasi tac chṛṇūcyamānaṃ mayā ||1||

viśvanāthaḥ -
kadā sad-ānanda-bhuvo mahāprabhoḥ
kṛpāmṛtābdheś caraṇau śrayāmahe |
yathā tathā projjhita-mukti-tat-pathā
bhakty-adhvanā prema-sudhām ayāmahe ||

saptame bhajanīyasya śrī-kṛṣṇaiśvaryam ucyate |
na bhajante bhajante ye te cāpy uktāś caturvidhāḥ ||

prathamenādhyāya-ṣaṭkenāntaḥ-karaṇa-śuddhy-artha-kaniṣkām akarma-sāpekṣau mokṣa-phala-sādhakau jñāna-yogāv uktau | idānīm anena dvitīyādhyāya-ṣaṭkena karma-jñānādi-vimiśra-śravaṇān niṣkāmatva-sakāmatvābhyāṃ ca sālokyādi-sādhakas tathā sarva-mukhyaḥ karma-jñānādi-nirapekṣa eva premavat pārṣadatva-lakṣaṇa-mukti-phala-sādhakas tathā yat karmabhir yat tapasā jñāna-vairāgyataś ca yat ity ādau, sarvaṃ mad-bhakti-yogena mad-bhakto labhate 'ñjasā, svargāpavargaṃ mad-dhāma [BhP 1.20.32-33] ity ādy-ukter vināpi sādhanānantaraṃ svargāpavargādi-nikhila-sādhakaś ca paramaḥ svatantraḥ sarva-sukaro 'pi sarva-duṣkaraḥ
śrīmad-bhakti-yoga ucyate |

nanu tam eva viditvā atimṛtyum eti [ŚvetU 6.15] iti śruteḥ | jñānaṃ vinā kevalayā bhaktyaiva kathaṃ mokṣaḥ brūṣe ? maivaṃ, tvam eva tat padārthaṃ paramātmānam eva viditvā sākṣād anubhūya, na tu tvaṃ-padārthaṃ ātmānaṃ nāpi prakṛtiṃ nāpi vastu-mātraṃ viditvā mṛtyum atyeti ity asyāḥ śruter arthaḥ | tatra sita-śarkarā-rasa-grahaṇe yathā rasanaiva kāraṇaṃ na tu cakṣuḥ-śrotrādikaṃ tathaiva guṇātītasya brahmaṇe grahaṇaṃ sambhavet, na tu dehādy-atiriktātma-jñānena sāttvikena | bhaktyāham ekayā grāhyaḥ [BhP 11.14.11] iti bhagavad-ukter iti | bhaktyā mām abhijānāti yāvān yaś cāsmi tattvataḥ
[Gītā 18.55] ity atra sa-viśeṣaṃ pratipādayiṣyāmaḥ | jñāna-yogayor mukti-sādhanatva-prasiddhis tu tatrastha-guṇī-bhūta-bhakti-prabhāvād eva | tayā vinā tayor akiñcitkaratvasya bahuśaḥ śravaṇāt |

kiṃ ca, asyāṃ śrutau viditvā ity anantaram eva-kārasyāprayogād eva | yoga-vyavacchedābhāve jñāpite sati, tasmād eva paramātmano viditāt kvacid aviditād api mokṣa ity artho labhyate | tataś ca bhakty-utthena nirguṇena paramātma-jñānena mokṣaḥ | kvacit tu bhakty-utthaṃ taj-jñānaṃ vināpi kevalena bhakti-mātreṇa mokṣa ity arthaḥ paryavasyati | yathā matsyaṇḍikā-piṇḍād rasanā-doṣeṇālabdha-svādād api bhuktāt tad-eka-nāśyo vyādhir naśyaty evātra na sandehaḥ | matsyaṇḍikāni te khaṇḍa-vikārā śarkarāsite ity amaraḥ | śrīmad-uddhavenoktam -

nanv īśvaro 'nubhajato 'viduṣo 'pi sākṣāc
chreyas tanoty agada-rāja ivopayuktaḥ [BhP 10.47.56] iti |

ekādaśe 'py uktaṃ - yat karmabhir yat tapasā jñāna-vairāgyataś ca yat ity ādau sarvaṃ mad-bhakti-yogena mad-bhakto labhate 'ñjasā [BhP 11.20.31-32] iti | ataeva yan-nāma-sakṛc-chravaṇāt pukkaso 'pi vimucyate saṃsārāt ity ādau bahuśo vākyair bhaktyaiva mokṣaḥ pratipādyata iti |

atha prakṛtam anusarāmaḥ |

yoginām api sarveṣāṃ madgatenāntarātmanā |
śraddhāvān bhajate yo māṃ sa me yuktatamo mataḥ || [Gītā 6.47]

iti tvad-vākyena tvan-manaskatve sati tvaj-jana-viṣayaka-śraddhāvattvam iti tvayā sva-bhakta-viśeṣa-lakṣaṇam eva kṛtam ity avagamyate | kintu sa ca kīdṛśo bhaktas tadīya-jñāna-vijñānayor adhikārī bhavatīty apekṣāyām āha mayy āsakteti dvābhyām | yadyapi -

bhaktiḥ pareśānubhavo viraktir
anyatra caiṣa trika eka-kālaḥ |
prapadyamānasya yathāśnataḥ syus
tuṣṭiḥ puṣṭiḥ kṣud-apāyo 'nu-ghāsam || [BhP 11.2.42]

ity ukter bhajan-prakramata eva mad-anubhava-kramo 'pi bhavati, tad apy eka-grāsa-mātra-bhojinas tathā tuṣṭi-puṣṭī na spaṣṭe bhavataḥ, kintu bahutara-grāsa-bhojina eva | tathaiva mayi śyāmasundare pītāmbare āsaktam āsakti-bhūmikārūḍhaṃ mano yasya tathābhūta eva tvaṃ māṃ jñāsyasi | yathā spaṣṭam anubhaviṣyasi, tat śṛṇu kīdṛśaṃ yogaṃ mayā saha saṃyogaṃ yuñjan śanaiḥ śanaiḥ prāpnuvan mad-āśrayaḥ | mām eva, na tu jñāna-karmādikam āśrayamāṇo 'nanya-bhakta ity arthaḥ |

atrāsaṃśayaṃ samagram iti padābhyāṃ madīya-nirviśeṣa-brahma-svarūpa-jñānaṃ

kleśo 'dhikataras teṣām avyaktāsaktacetasām |
avyaktā hi gatir duḥkhaṃ dehavadbhir avāpyate || [Gītā 12.5]

ity agrimokteḥ sa-saṃśayam eva | tathā jñāninām upāsyaṃ yad brahma parama-mahato mama mahima-svarūpam eva | yad uktaṃ mayaiva satyavrataṃ prati matsya-rūpeṇa -

madīyaṃ mahimānaṃ ca paraṃ brahmeti śabditam |
vetsyasy anugṛhītaṃ me sampraśnair vivṛtaṃ hṛdi || [BhP 8.24.38] iti |

atrāpi brahmaṇo hi pratiṣṭhāham [Gītā 14.27] iti | ato maj-jñānam asamagram iti dyotitam ||1||

baladevaḥ -
saptame bhajanīyasya svasyaiśvaryaṃ prakīrtyate |
cāturvidhyaṃ ca bhajatāṃ tathaivābhajatām api ||

ādyena ṣaṭkenopāsakasya jīvasya svarūpaṃ tat-prāpti-sādhanaṃ ca prādhānyenoktam | madhyena tūpāsyasya svasya tat tac ca tathocyate | tatra ṣaṣṭhānta-nirdiṣṭaṃ tava bhajanīyaṃ rūpaṃ kīdṛśaṃ, kathaṃ vā bhajato 'ntarātmā tad-gataḥ syād ity etat pārthenāpṛṣṭam api kṛpālutvena svayam eva vivakṣur bhagavān uvāca mayīti | vyākhyāta-lakṣaṇe svopāsye mayy āsaktam atimātra-nirataṃ mano yasya sa tvam anyo vā tādṛśo mad-āśrayo mad-dāsya-sakhy-ādy-ekatamena bhāvena māṃ śaraṇaṃ gato yogaṃ mac-charaṇādi-lakṣaṇaṃ yuñjan kartuṃ pravṛttaḥ | asaṃśayaṃ
yathā syāt tathā | kṛṣṇa eva paraṃ tattvam ato 'nyad veti sandeha-śūnyo mat-pāramya-niścayavān ity arthaḥ | samagraṃ sādhiṣṭhānaṃ savibhūtiṃ saparikaraṃ ca māṃ sarveśvaraṃ yena jñānena jñāsyasi tan mayocyamānam avahita-manāḥ śṛṇu | he pārtha ! na ca samagram iti kārtsnyena sa jñānam ādiśatīti vācyam anantasya tasya tathājñānāsambhavāt | smṛtiś ca kārtsnyena nājo 'py abhidhātum īśaḥ iti |

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BhG 7.2

jñānaṃ te 'haṃ sa-vijñānam idaṃ vakṣyāmy aśeṣataḥ |
yaj jñātvā neha bhūyo 'nyaj jñātavyam avaśiṣyate ||2||

śrīdharaḥ - vakṣyamāṇaṃ jñānaṃ stauti jñānam iti | jñānaṃ śāstrīyaṃ vijñānam anubhavaḥ | tat-sahitam idaṃ mad-viṣayam aśeṣataḥ sākalyena vakṣyāmi | yaj jñātveha śreyo-mārge vartamānasya punar anyaj jñātavyam avaśiṣṭaṃ na bhavati | tenaiva kṛtārtho bhavatīty arthaḥ ||2||

madhusūdanaḥ - jñāsyasīty ukte parokṣam eva taj jñānaṃ syād iti śaṅkāṃ vyāvartayan stauti śrotur ābhimukhyāya jñānam iti | idaṃ mad-viṣayaṃ svato 'parokṣa-jñānam | asambhāvanādi-pratibandhena phalam ajanayat parokṣam ity upacaryate asambhāvanādi-nirāse tu vicāra-paripākānte tenaiva pramāṇena janitaṃ jñānaṃ pratibandhābhāvāt phalaṃ janayad-aparokṣam ity ucyate | vicāra-paripāka-niṣpannatvāc ca tad eva vijñānaṃ, tena vijñānena sahitam idam aparokṣam eva jñānaṃ śāstra-janyaṃ te tubhyam ahaṃ param āpto vakṣyāmy aśeṣataḥ sādhana-phalādi-sahitatvena niravaśeṣaṃ
kathayiṣyāmi | śrautīm eka-vijñānena sarva-vijñāna-pratijñām anusarann āha yaj-jñānaṃ nitya-caitanya-rūpaṃ jñātvā vedānta-janya-mano-vṛtti-viṣayīkṛtyeha vyavahāra-bhūmau bhūyaḥ punar api anyat kiṃcid api jñātavyaṃ nāvaśiṣyate | sarvādhiṣṭhāna-san-mātra-jñānena kalpitānāṃ sarveṣāṃ bādhe san-mātra-pariśeṣāt tan-mātra-jñānenaiva tvaṃ kṛtārtho bhaviṣyasīty abhiprāyaḥ ||2||

viśvanāthaḥ - tatra mad-bhakter āsakti-bhūmikātaḥ pūrvam api me jñānam aiśvarya-mayaṃ bhavet | tad-uttaraṃ vijñānaṃ mādhuryānubhava-mayaṃ bhavet | tad-ubhayam api tvaṃ śṛṇv ity āha jñānam iti | anyaj jñātavyaṃ nāviśiṣyate iti man-nirviśeṣa-brahma-jñāna-vijñāne 'py etad-antarbhūta evety arthaḥ ||2||

baladevaḥ -- vakṣyamāṇaṃ jñānaṃ stauti jñānam iti | idaṃ cid-acic-chaktimat-svarūpa-viṣayakaṃ jñānaṃ | tac ca sa-vijñānam vakṣyāmi | tac-chakti-dvaya-vivikta-svarūpa-viṣayakaṃ jñānaṃ vijñānaṃ tena sahitaṃ te tubhyaṃ prapannāyāśeṣataḥ sāmagryeṇopadekṣyāmīty arthaḥ | yat svarūpaṃ sarva-kāraṇaṃ yac ca dhyeyaṃ tad ubhaya-viṣayakaṃ jñānam atra vaktuṃ pratijñātaṃ yaj jñānaṃ jñātveha śreyo-vartmani niviṣṭasya jijñāsos tavānyaj jñātavyaṃ nāvaśiṣyate | sarvasya tad-antarbhāvāt ||2||

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BhG 7.3

manuṣyāṇāṃ sahasreṣu kaś cid yatati siddhaye |
yatatām api siddhānāṃ kaś cin māṃ vetti tattvataḥ ||3||

śrīdharaḥ - mad-bhaktiṃ vinā tu yaj jñānaṃ durlabham ity āha manuṣyāṇām iti | asaṅkhyātānāṃ jīvānāṃ madhye manuṣya-vyatiriktānāṃ śreyasi pravṛttir eva nāsti | manuṣyāṇāṃ tu sahasreṣu madhye kaścid eva puṇya-vaśāt siddhaya ātma-jñānāya prayatate | prayatnaṃ kurvatām api sahasreṣu kaścid eva prakṛṣṭa-puṇya-vaśād ātmānaṃ vetti | tādṛśānāṃ cātma-jñānāṃ sahasreṣu kaścid eva māṃ paramātmānaṃ mat-prasādena tattvato vetti | tad evam atidurlabham api yaj jñānaṃ tubhyam ahaṃ vakṣyāmīty arthaḥ ||3||

madhusūdanaḥ - atidurlabhaṃ caitan-mad-anugraham antareṇa mahā-phalaṃ jñānam | yato manuṣyāṇām iti | manuṣyāṇāṃ śāstrīya-jñāna-karma-yogyānāṃ sahasreṣu madhye kaścid eko 'neka-janma-kṛta-sukṛta-samāsādita-nityānitya-vastu-vivekaḥ san yatati yatate siddhaye sattva-śuddhi-dvārā jñānotpattaye | yatatāṃ yatamānānāṃ jñānāya siddhānāṃ prāg-arjita-sukṛtānāṃ sādhakānām api madhye kaścid ekaḥ śravaṇa-manana-nididhyāsana-paripākānte mām īśvaraṃ vetti sākṣātkaroti tattvataḥ pratyag-abhedena tattvam asīty ādi-gurūpadiṣṭa-mahā-vākyebhyaḥ | anekeṣu manuṣyeṣv ātma-jñāna-sādhanānuṣṭhāyī
parama-durlabhaḥ | sādhanānuṣṭhāyiṣv api madhye phala-bhāgī parama-durlabha iti kiṃ vaktavyam asya jñānasya māhātmyam ity abhiprāyaḥ ||3||

viśvanāthaḥ - etac ca sa-vijñānaṃ maj-jñānaṃ pūrvam adhyāya-ṣaṭke prokta-lakṣaṇair jñānibhir yogibhir api durlabham iti vadana prathamaṃ vijñānam āha manuṣyāṇām iti | asaṅkhyātānāṃ jīvānāṃ madhye kaścid eve manuṣyo bhavati | manuṣyāṇāṃ sahasreṣu madhye kaścid eva śreyase yatate | tādṛśānām api manuṣyāṇāṃ sahasreṣu kaścid eva māṃ śyāmasundarākāraṃ tattvato vetti sākṣād anubhavatīti nirviśeṣa-brahmānubhavānandāt sahasra-guṇādhikaṃ sa-viśeṣa-brahmānubhavānandaḥ syād iti bhāvaḥ ||3||

baladevaḥ - sva-jñānasya daurlabhyam āha manuṣyāṇām iti | uccāvaca-dheātma-asaṅkhyātā jīvās teṣu katicid eva manuṣyās teṣāṃ śāstrādhikāra-yogyānāṃ sahasreṣu madhye kaścid eva sat-prasaṅga-vaśāt siddhaye sva-parātmāvalokanāya yatate, na tu sarvaḥ | tādṛśānāṃ yatatāṃ yatamānānāṃ siddhānāṃ labdha-sva-parātmāvalokanānāṃ sahasreṣu madhye kaścid evaiko māṃ kṛṣṇaṃ tattvato vetti | ayam arthaḥ - śāstrīyārthānuṣṭhāyino bahavo manuṣyāḥ paramāṇu-caitanyaṃ svātmānaṃ prādeśa-mātraṃ mat-svāṃśaṃ paramātmānaṃ
cānubhūya vimucyante | māṃ tu yaśodā-stanandhayaṃ kṛṣṇam adhunā tvat-sārathiṃ kaścid eva tādṛśa-sat-prasaṅgāvāpta-mad-bhaktis tattvato yāthātmyena vetti | avicintyānanta-śaktikatvena nikhila-kāraṇatvena sārvajñya-sārvaiśvarya-svabhakta-vātsalyādy-asaṅkhyeya-kalyāṇa-guṇa-ratnākaratvena pūrṇa-brahmatvena cānubhavatīty arthaḥ | vakṣyati ca sa mahātmā sudurlabhaḥ [Gītā 7.19], māṃ tu veda na kaścana [Gītā 7.26] iti ||3||

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BhG 7.4

bhūmir āpo 'nalo vāyuḥ khaṃ mano buddhir eva ca |
ahaṃkāra itīyaṃ me bhinnā prakṛtir aṣṭadhā ||4||

śrīdharaḥ - evaṃ śrotāram abhimukhīkṛtyedānīṃ prakṛti-dvārā sṛṣṭy-ādi-kartṛtveneśvara-tattvaṃ pratijñātaṃ nirūpayiṣyan parāpara-bhedena prakṛti-dvayam āha bhūmir iti dvyābhyām | bhūmy-ādi-śabdaiḥ pañca-gandhādi-tan-mātrāṇy ucyante | manaḥ-śabdena tat-kāraṇa-bhūto 'haṅkāraḥ | buddhi-śabdena tat-kāraṇaṃ mahat-tattvam ahaṅkāra-śabdena tat-kāraṇam avidyā | ity evam aṣṭadhā bhinnā | yad vā bhūmy-ādi-śabdaiḥ pañca-mahā-bhūtāni sūkṣmaiḥ sahikīkṛtya gṛhyante | ahaṅkāra-śabdenaivāhaṅkāras tenaiva tat-kāryāṇīndriyāṇy api gṛhyante | buddhir iti mahat-tattvam | manaḥ-śabdena tu manasaivonneyam avyakta-rūpaṃ pradhānam iti | anena prakāreṇa me
pakṛtir māyākhyā śaktir aṣṭadhā bhinnā vibhāgaṃ prāptā | caturviṃśati-bheda-bhinnāpy aṣṭa-svaivāntarbhāva-vivakṣayāṣṭadhā bhinnety uktam | tathā ca kṣetrādhyāya imām eva prakṛtiṃ caturviṃśati-tattvātmanā prapañcayiṣyati -

mahābhūtāny ahaṅkāro buddhir avyaktam eva ca |
indriyāṇi daśaikaṃ ca pañca cendriya-gocarāḥ || [Gītā 13.5] iti ||4||

madhusūdanaḥ - evaṃ prarocanena śrotāram abhimukhīkṛtyātmanaḥ sarvātmakatvena paripūrṇatvam avatārayann ādāv aparāṃ prakṛtim upanyasyati bhūmir iti | sāṅkhyair hi pañca tan-mātrāṇy ahaṅkāro mahān avyaktam ity aṣṭau prakṛtayaḥ pañca mahā-bhūtāni pañca karmendriyāṇi pañca jñānendriyāṇi ubhaya-sādhāraṇaṃ manaś ceti ṣoḍaśa vikārā ucyante | etāny eva caturviṃśatis tattvāni | tatra bhūmir āpo 'nalo vāyuḥ kham iti pṛthvy-ap-tejo-vāyv-ākāśākhya-pañca-mahābhūta-sūkṣmāvasthā-rūpāṇi gandha-rasa-rūpa-sparśa-śabdātmakāni pañca-tan-mātrāṇi lakṣyante | buddhy-ahaṅkāra-śabdau tu svārthāv eva | manaḥ-śabdena ca pariśiṣṭam avyaktaṃ lakṣyante prakṛti-śabda-sāmānādhikaraṇyena
svārtha-hāner āvaśyakatvāt |

manaḥ-śabdena vā sva-kāraṇam ahaṅkāro lakṣyate pañca-tanmātra-saṃnikarṣāt | buddhi-śabdas tv ahaṅkāra-kāraṇe mahat-tattve mukhya-vṛttir eva | ahaṅkāra-śabdena ca sarva-vāsanā-vāsitam avidyātmakam avyaktaṃ lakṣyante pravartakatvādy-asādhāraṇa-dharma-yogāc ca | iti ukta-prakāreṇeyam aparokṣā sākṣi-bhāsyatvāt prakṛtir māyākhyā pārameśvarī śaktir anirvacanīya-svabhāvā triguṇātmikāṣṭadhā bhinno 'ṣṭabhiḥ prakārair bhedam āgatā | sarvo 'pi jaḍa-vargo 'traivāntarbhavatīty arthaḥ | sva-siddhānte cekṣaṇa-saṅkalpātmakau māyā-pariṇāmāv eva buddhy-ahaṅkārau | pañca-tan-mātrāṇi cāpañcīkṛta-pañca-mahā-bhūtānīty asakṛd avocām ||4||

viśvanāthaḥ -atha bhakti-mate jñānaṃ nāma bhagavad-aiśvarya-jñānam eva, na tu dehādy-atiriktātma-jñānam eveti | ataḥ svīyaiśvarya-jñānaṃ nirūpayan parāpara-bhedena svīya-prakṛti-dvayam āha bhūmir iti dvābhyām | bhūmy-ādi-śabdaiḥ pañca-mahā-bhūtāni sūkṣma-bhūtair gandhādibhiḥ sahaikīkṛtya saṅgṛhyante, ahaṅkāra-śabdena tat-kārya-bhūtānīndriyāṇi tat-kāraṇa-bhūta-mahat-tattvam api gṛhyate | buddhi-manasoḥ pṛthag-uktis tattveṣu tayoḥ prādhānyāt ||4||

baladevaḥ - evaṃ śrotāraṃ pārtham abhimukhīkṛtya svasya kāraṇa-svarūpaṃ cid-acic-chaktimad vaktuṃ te śaktī prāha bhūmir iti dvābhyām | caturviṃśatidhā prakṛtir bhūmy-ādy-ātmanāṣṭadhā bhinnā me madīyā bodhyā tan-mātrādīnāṃ bhūmy-ādiṣv antarbhāvād ihāpi caturviṃśatidhaivāvaseyā | tatra bhūmy-ādiṣu pañcasu bhūteṣu tat-kāraṇānāṃ gandhānāṃ pañcānāṃ tan-mātrāṇām antar-bhāvaḥ | ahaṅkāre tat-kāryāṇām ekādaśānām indriyāṇām | buddhi-śabdo mahat-tattvam āha | manaḥ-śabdas tu mano-gamyam avyakta-rūpaṃ pradhānam iti | śrutiś caivam āha-caturviṃśati-saṅkhyānām avyaktaṃ vyaktam ucyate iti | svayaṃ
ca kṣetrādhyāye vakṣyati mahābhūtāny ahaṅkāraḥ [Gītā 13.5] ity ādinā ||4||

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BhG 7.5

apareyam itas tv anyāṃ prakṛtiṃ viddhi me parām |
jīva-bhūtāṃ mahā-bāho yayedaṃ dhāryate jagat ||5||

śrīdharaḥ - aparām imāṃ prakṛtim upasaṃharan parāṃ prakṛtim āha apareyam iti | aṣṭadhā yā prakṛtir ukteyam aparā nikṛṣṭā jaḍatvāt parārthatvāc ca | itaḥ sakāśāt parāṃ prakṛṣṭām anyāṃ jīva-bhūtāṃ jīva-svarūpāṃ me prakṛtiṃ viddhi jānīhi | paratve hetuḥ yayā cetanayā kṣetrajña-rūpayā svakarma-dvāreṇedaṃ jagad dhāryate ||5||

madhusūdanaḥ - evaṃ kṣetra-lakṣaṇāyāḥ prakṛter aparatvaṃ vadan kṣetrajña-lakṣaṇāṃ parāṃ prakṛtim āha apareyam iti | yā prāg aṣṭadhoktā prakṛtiḥ sarvācetana-varga-rūpā seyam aparā nikṛṣṭā jaḍatvāt parārthatvāt saṃsāra-bandha-rūpatvāc ca | itas tv acetana-varga-rūpāyāḥ kṣetra-lakṣaṇāyāḥ prakṛter anyāṃ vilakṣaṇāṃ tu-śabdād yathā-kathaṃcid apy abhedāyogyāṃ jīva-bhūtāṃ cetanātmikāṃ kṣetrajña-lakṣaṇāṃ me mamātma-bhūtāṃ viśuddhāṃ parāṃ prakṛṣṭāṃ
prakṛtiṃ viddhi he mahābāho, yayā kṣetrajña-lakṣaṇayā jīva-bhūtayāntar-anupraviṣṭayā prakṛtyedaṃ jagad-acetana-jātaṃ dhāryate svato viśīrya uttamyate anena jīvenātmanānupraviśa nāma-rūpe vyākaravāṇi iti śruteḥ | na hi jīva-rahitaṃ dhārayituṃ śakyam ity abhiprāyaḥ ||5||

viśvanāthaḥ - iyaṃ prakṛtir variyaṅgākhyā śaktir aparānutkṛṣṭā jaḍatvāt | ito 'nyāṃ prakṛtiṃ taṭasthāṃ śaktiṃ jīva-bhūtāṃ parām utkṛṣṭāṃ viddhi caitanyatvāt | asyā utkṛṣṭatve hetuḥ yayā cetanayedaṃ jagad acetanaṃ svabhogārthaṃ gṛhyate ||5||

baladevaḥ - eṣā prakṛtir aparā nikṛṣṭā jaḍatvād bhogyatvāc ceto jaḍāyāḥ prakṛter anyāṃ parāṃ cetanatvād bhoktṛtvāc cotkṛṣṭāṃ jīva-bhūtāṃ me madīyāṃ prakṛtiṃ viddhi | he mahābāho pārtha ! paratve hetuḥ yayeti | yayā cetanayā idaṃ jagat sva-karma-dvārā dhāryate śayyāsanādivat sva-bhogāya gṛhyate | śrutiś ca harer eveyaṃ śaktis tvayīty āha pradhāna-kṣetrajña-patir guṇeśaḥ [ŚvetU 6.16] iti |

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BhG 7.6

etad-yonīni bhūtāni sarvāṇīty upadhāraya |
ahaṃ kṛtsnasya jagataḥ prabhavaḥ pralayas tathā ||6||

śrīdharaḥ - anayoḥ prakṛtitvaṃ darśayan svasya tad-dvārā sṛṣṭy-ādi-kāraṇatvam āha etad iti | ete kṣetra-kṣetrajña-rūpe prakṛtī yonī kāraṇa-bhūte yeṣāṃ tāny etad-yonīni | sthāvara-jaṅgamātmakāni sarvāṇi bhūtānīty upadhāraya budhyasva | tatra jaḍā prakṛtir deha-rūpeṇa pariṇamate | cetanā tu mad-aṃśa-bhūtā bhoktṛtvena deheṣu praviśya svakarmaṇā tāni dhārayati | te ca madīye prakṛtī mattaḥ sambhūte | ato 'ham eva kṛtsnasya sa-prakṛtikasya jagataḥ prabhavaḥ | prakarṣeṇa bhavaty asmād iti prabhavaḥ | paraṃ kāraṇam aham ity arthaḥ | tathā pralīyate 'neneti pralayaḥ | saṃhartāpy aham evety arthaḥ ||6||

madhusūdanaḥ - ukta-prakṛti-dvaye kārya-liṅgakam anumānaṃ pramāṇayan svasya tad-dvārā jaga-sṛṣṭy-ādi-kāraṇatvaṃ darśayati etad-yonīnīti | ete aparatvena paratvena ca prāg-ukte kṣetra-kṣetrajña-lakṣaṇe prakṛtī yonir yeṣāṃ tāny etad-yonīni bhūtāni bhavana-dharmakāṇi sarvāṇi cetanācetanātmakāni janimanti nikhilānīty evam upadhāraya jānīhi | kāryāṇāṃ cid-acid-granthi-rūpatvāt kāraṇam api cid-acid-granthi-rūpam anuminv ity arthaḥ | evaṃ kṣetra-kṣetrajña-lakṣaṇe mamopādhi-bhūte yataḥ prakṛtī bhavatas tatas tad-dvārāhaṃ sarvajñaḥ sarveśvaro 'nanta-śakti-māyopādhiḥ kṛtsnasya carācarātmakasya jagataḥ sarvasya kārya-vargasya
prabhava utpatti-kāraṇaṃ pralayas tathā vināśa-kāraṇam | svāpnikasyeva prapañcasya māyikasya māyāśarayatva-viṣayatvābhyāṃ māyāvy aham evopādānaṃ draṣṭā cety arthaḥ ||6||

viśvanāthaḥ - etac chakti-dvaya-dvāraiva svasya jagat-kāraṇatvam āha etad iti | ete māyā-śakti-jīva-śaktī kṣetra-kṣetrajña-rūpe yonī kāraṇa-bhūte yeṣāṃ tāni sthāvara-jaṅgamātmakāni bhūtāni jānīhi | ataḥ kṛtsnasya sarvasyāsya jagataḥ prabhavo mac-chakti-dvaya-prabhūtatvād aham eva sraṣṭā | pralayas tac-chaktimati mayy eva pralīna-bhāvitvād aham evāsya saṃhartā ||6||

baladevaḥ -- etac chakti-dvaya-dvāraiva sarva-jagat-kāraṇatāṃ svasyāha etad iti | sarvāṇi sthira-carāṇi bhūtāny etad-yonīni upadhāraya viddhi | ete 'para-pare kṣetra-kṣetrajña-śabda-vācye mac-chaktī yonī kāraṇa-bhūte yeṣāṃ tānīty arthaḥ | te ca prakṛtī madīye matta eva sambhūte | ataḥ kṛtsnasya sa-prakṛtikasya jagato 'ham eva prabhava utpatti-hetuḥ | prabhavaty asmāt iti vyutpatteḥ | tasya pralaya-saṃhartāpy aham eva pralīyate 'nena iti vyutpatteḥ ||6||

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BhG 7.7

mattaḥ parataraṃ nānyat kiñcid asti dhanañjaya |
mayi sarvam idaṃ protaṃ sūtre maṇi-gaṇā iva ||7||

śrīdharaḥ - yasmād evaṃ tasmāt matta iti | mattaḥ sakāśāt parataraṃ śreṣṭhaṃ jagataḥ sṛṣṭi-saṃhārayoḥ svatantraṃ kāraṇaṃ kiñcid api nāsti | sthiti-hetur apy aham evety āha mayīti | mayi sarvam idaṃ jagat protaṃ grathitam āśritam ity arthaḥ | dṛṣṭāntaḥ spaṣṭaḥ ||7||

madhusūdanaḥ - yasmād aham eva māyayā sarvasya jagato janma-sthiti-bhaṅga-hetus tasmāt paramārthataḥ matta iti | nikhila-dṛśyākāra-pariṇata-māyādhiṣṭhānāt sarva-bhāsakān mattaḥ sad-rūpeṇa sphuraṇa-rūpeṇa ca sarvānusyūtān sva-prakāśa-paramānanda-caitanya-ghanāt paramārtha-satyāt svapna-dṛśa iva svāpnikaṃ māyāvina iva māyikaṃ śukti-śakalāvacchinna-caitanyādivat-tad-ajñāna-kalpitaṃ rajataṃ parataraṃ paramārtha-satyam anyat kiṃcid api nāsti he dhanañjaya | mayi kalpitaṃ paramārthato na matto bhidyata ity arthaḥ tad ananyatvam ārambhaṇa-śabdādibhyaḥ [Vs 2.1.14] iti nyāyāt | vyavahāra-dṛṣṭyā tu mayi sad-rūpe sphuraṇa-rūpe ca sarvam idaṃ jaḍa-jātaṃ protaṃ
grathitaṃ mat-sattayā sad iva mat-sphuraṇena ca sphurad iva vyavahārāya māyā-mayāya kalpate | sarvasya caitanya-grathitatva-mātre dṛṣṭāntaḥ - sūtre maṇi-gaṇā iveti | athavā sūtre taijasātmani hiraṇyagarbhe svapna-dṛśi svapna-protā maṇi-gaṇā iveti sarvāṃśe dṛṣṭānto vyākhyeyaḥ |

anye tu param ataḥ setūn māna-sambandha-bheda-vyapadeśebhyaḥ [Vs 3.2.31] iti sūtroktasya pūrva-pakṣasyottaratvena ślokam imaṃ vyācakṣate | mattaḥ sarvajñāt sarva-śakteḥ sarva-kāraṇāt parataraṃ praśasyataraṃ sarvasya jagataḥ sṛṣṭi-saṃhārayoḥ svatantraṃ kāraṇam anyan nāsti he dhanañjaya ! yasmād evaṃ tasmān mayi sarva-kāraṇe sarvam idaṃ kārya-jātaṃ protaṃ grathitaṃ nānyan na | sūtre maṇi-gaṇā iveti dṛṣṭāntas tu grathitatva-mātre na tu kāraṇatve | kanake kuṇḍalādivad iti tu yogyo dṛṣṭāntaḥ ||7||

viśvanāthaḥ -- yasmād evaṃ tasmād aham eva sarvam ity āha mattaḥ parataram anyat kiñcid apii nāsti | kārya-kāraṇayor aikyāt śakti-śaktimator aikyāc ca | tathā ca śrutiḥ ekam evādvitīyaṃ brahma, neha nānāsti kiñcana iti | evaṃ svasya sarvātmakatvam uktvā sarvāntaryāmitvaṃ cāha mayīti | sarvam idaṃ cij-jaḍātmakaṃ jagat mat-kāryatvān mad-ātmakam api punar mayy antaryāmiṇi protaṃ grathitaṃ yathā sūtre maṇi-gaṇāḥ protāḥ | madhusūdana-sarasvatī-pādās tu sūtre maṇi-gaṇā iveti dṛṣṭāntas tu grathitatva-mātre, na tu kāraṇatve kanake kuṇḍalādivad iti tu yogyo dṛṣṭānta ity āhuḥ ||7||

baladevaḥ - nanu sthira-carayor apara-parayoḥ prakṛtyor api tvam eva tac-chaktimān yonir ity ukter nikhila-jagad-bījatvaṃ tava pratītaṃ, na tu sarva-paratvam | tac ca tad-bījāt tvatto 'nyasyaiva -

tato yad uttarataraṃ tad arūpam anāmayam |
ya etad vidur amṛtās te bhavanti athetare
duḥkham evāpi yanti || [ŚvetU 3.10] iti śravaṇād iti cet tatrāha matta iti |

mattas tvat-sakhāt kṛṣṇāt parataraḥ śreṣṭham anyat kiñcid api nāsty aham eva sarva-śreṣṭhaṃ vastv ity arthaḥ | nanu tato yad uttarataram ity ādāv anyathā śrutim iti cen mandam etat kṣodākṣamatvāt | tathā hi

vedāham etaṃ puruṣaṃ mahāntam
ādity-varṇaṃ tamasaḥ parastāt |
tam eva vidvān amṛta iha bhavati
nānyaḥ panthā vidyate 'nayanāya || iti [ŚvetU 3.8]

śvetāśvataraiḥ sarva-jagad-bījasya mahā-puruṣasya viṣṇor jñānam amṛtasya panthās tato nāstīty upadiśya tad-upapādanāya

yasmāt paraṃ nāparam asti kiñcid
yasmān nāṇīyona jyāyo 'sti kiñcit
iti tasyaiva paramatvaṃ tad-itarasya tad-asambhavaṃ ca pratipādya | tato yad uttarotaraṃ ity ādinā pūrvoktam eva nigamitam | na tu tato 'nyac-chreṣṭham astīti uktam | tathā sati teṣāṃ mṛṣāvāditvāpatteḥ | evam āha sūtrakāraḥ-tathānya-pratiṣedhāt [Vs 3.2.36] iti | mad-anyasya kasyacid api śraiṣṭhyābhāvād aham eva mad-anya-sarvāśraya ity āha mayīti | protaṃ grathitaṃ sphuṭam anyat | etena viśvapālakatvaṃ svasyoktam ||7||

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BhG 7.8

raso 'ham apsu kaunteya prabhāsmi śaśi-sūryayoḥ |
praṇavaḥ sarva-vedeṣu śabdaḥ khe pauruṣaṃ nṛṣu ||8||

śrīdharaḥ - jagataḥ sthiti-hetutvam eva prapañcati raso 'ham iti pañcabhiḥ | apsu raso 'haṃ rasa-tan-mātra-rūpayā vibhūtyā tad-āśrayatenāpsu-sthito 'ham ity arthaḥ | tathā śaśi-sūryayoḥ prabhāsmi | candre sūrye ca prakāśa-rūpayā vibhūtyā tad-āśrayatvena sthito 'ham ity arthaḥ | uttarātrāpy evaṃ draṣṭavyam | sarveṣu vedeṣu vaikharī-rūpeṣu tan-mūla-bhūtaḥ praṇava oṅkāro 'smi | kha ākāśe śabda-tan-mātra-rūpo 'smi | nṛṣu puruṣeṣu pauruṣam udyamam asmi | udyame hi puruṣās tiṣṭhanti ||8||

madhusūdanaḥ - avādīnāṃ rasādiṣu protatva-pratīteḥ kathaṃ tvayi sarvam idaṃ protam iti ca na śaṅkyaṃ rasādi-rūpeṇa mamaiva sthitatvād ity āha raso 'ham iti pañcabhiḥ | rasaḥ puṇyo madhuras tan-mātra-rūpaḥ sarvāsām apāṃ sāraḥ kāraṇa-bhūto yo 'psu sarvāsvanugataḥ so 'haṃ he kaunteya tad-rūpe mayi sarvā āpaḥ protā ity arthaḥ | evaṃ sarveṣu paryāyeṣu vyākhyātavyam | iyaṃ vibhūtir ādhyānāyopadiśyata iti nātīvābhiniveṣṭavyam | tathā porabhā prakāśaḥ śaśi-sūryayor aham asmi | prakāśa-sāmānya-rūpe mayi śaśi-sūryau protāv ity arthaḥ | tathā praṇaya oṅkāraḥ
sarva-vedeṣv anusyūto 'haṃ tad yathā śaṅkunā sarvāṇi parṇāni saṃtṛṇṇāny evam oṅkāreṇa sarvā vāk iti śruteḥ | saṃtṛṇṇāni grathitāni | sarvā vāk sarvo veda ity arthaḥ | śabdaḥ puṇyas tan-mātra-rūpaḥ kha ākāśe 'nusyūto 'ham | pauruṣaṃ puruṣatva-sāmānyaṃ nṛṣu puruṣeṣu yad anusyūtaṃ tad aham | sāmānya-rūpe mayi sarve viśeṣāḥ protāḥ śrautair dundubhy-ādi-dṛṣṭāntair iti sarvatra draṣṭavyam ||8||

viśvanāthaḥ - sva-kārye jagaty atra yathāham antaryāmi-rūpeṇa praviṣṭo varte, tathā kvacit kāraṇa-rūpeṇa kvacit kāryeṣu manuṣyādiṣu sāra-rūpeṇāpy ahaṃ varta ity āha raso 'ham iti caturbhiḥ | apsu rasa tat-kāraṇa-bhūto mad-vibhūtir ity arthaḥ | evaṃ sarvatrāgre 'pi | prabhā prabhā-rūpaḥ | praṇava oṅkāraḥ sarva-veda-kāraṇam | ākāśe śabdas tat-kāraṇam | nṛṣu pauruṣam sakala udyama-viśeṣa eva manuṣya-sāraḥ ||8||

baladevaḥ - tattvaṃ darśayati raso 'ham iti pañcabhiḥ | apsu raso 'haṃ rasa-tan-mātrayā vibhūtyā tāḥ pālayan tāsv ahaṃ vartate | tāṃ vinā tāsām asthiteḥ | śaśini sūrye cāhaṃ prabhāsmi prabhayā vibhūtyā tau pālayan tayor ahaṃ varte | evaṃ paratra draṣṭavyam | vaikharī-rūpeṣu sarva-vedeṣu tan-mūla-bhūtaḥ praṇavo 'ham | khe nabhasi śabdas tan-mātra-lakṣaṇo 'ham | nṛṣu pauruṣaṃ phalavān udyamo 'ham | tenaiva teṣāṃ sthiteḥ ||8||

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BhG 7.9

puṇyo gandhaḥ pṛthivyāṃ ca tejaś cāsmi vibhāvasau |
jīvanaṃ sarva-bhūteṣu tapaś cāsmi tapasviṣu ||9||

śrīdharaḥ - kiṃ ca puṇya iti | puṇyo 'vikṛto gandho gandha-tan-mātram | pṛthivyā āśraya-bhūto 'ham ity arthaḥ | yad vā vibhūti-rūpeṇāśrayatvasya vivakṣitatvāt surabhi-gandhasyaivotkṛṣṭatayā vibhūtitvāt puṇyo gandha ity uktam | tathā vibhāvasāgnau yat tejo duḥsahā sahajā dīptis tad aham | sarva-bhūteṣu jīvanaṃ prāṇa-dhāraṇa-vāyur aham ity arthaḥ | tapasviṣu vānaprasthādiṣu dvandva-sahana-rūpaṃ tapo 'smi ||9||

madhusūdanaḥ - puṇyaḥ surabhir avikṛto gandhaḥ sarva-pṛthivī-sāmānya-rūpas tan-mātrākhyaḥ pṛthivyām anusyūto 'ham | ca-kāro rasādīnām api puṇyatva-samuccayārthaḥ | śabda-sparśa-rūpa-rasa-gandhānāṃ hi svabhāvata eva puṇyatvam avikṛtatvaṃ prāṇinām adharma-viśeṣāt tu teṣām apuṇyatvaṃ na tu svabhāvata iti draṣṭavyam | tathā vibhāvasāv agnau yat tejaḥ sarva-dahana-prakāśana-sāmarthya-rūpam uṣṇa-sparśa-sahitaṃ sita-bhāsvaraṃ rūpaṃ puṇyaṃ tad aham asmi | ca-kārādyo vāyau puṇya uṣṇa-sparśāturāṇām āpyāyakaḥ śīta-sparśaḥ so 'py aham iti draṣṭavyam |
sarva-bhūteṣu sarveṣu prāṇiṣu jīvanaṃ prāṇa-dhāraṇam āyur aham asmi | tad-rūpe mayi sarve prāṇinaḥ protā ity arthaḥ | tapasviṣu nityaṃ tapo-yukteṣu vānaprasthādiṣu yat tapaḥ śītoṣṇa-kṣut-pipāsādi-dvandva-sahana-sāmarthya-rūpaṃ tad aham asmi | tad-rūpe mayi tapasvinaḥ protā viśeṣaṇābhāve viśiṣṭābhāvāt | tapaś ceti ca-kāreṇa cittaikāgryam āntaraṃ jihvopasthādi-nigraha-lakṣaṇaṃ bāhyaṃ ca sarvaṃ tapaḥ samuccīyate ||9||

viśvanāthaḥ -- puṇyo 'vikṛto gandhaḥ puṇyas tu cārv api ity amaraḥ | ca-kāro rasādīnām api puṇyatva-samuccayārthaḥ | tejaḥ sarva-vastu-pācana-prakāśana-śīta-trāṇādi-sāmarthya-rūpaḥ sāraḥ | jīvanam āyur eva sāraḥ | tapo dvandva-sahanādikam eva sāraḥ ||9||

baladevaḥ -- puṇyo 'vikṛto gandhas tan-mātra-lakṣaṇaḥ | ca-kāro rasādīnām aham api puṇyatva-samuccāyakaḥ | vibhāvasau vahnau tejaḥ sarva-vastu-pacana-prakāśanādi-sāmarthya-rūpaṃ ca śadād vāyau yaḥ puṇyaḥ sparśa uṣṇa-sparśa-vyākulānām āpāyakaḥ so 'ham iti bodhyam | jīvanam āyus tapo dvandva-sahanam ||9||

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BhG 7.10

bījaṃ māṃ sarva-bhūtānāṃ viddhi pārtha sanātanam |
buddhir buddhimatām asmi tejas tejasvinām aham ||10||

śrīdharaḥ - kiṃ ca bījam iti | sarveṣāṃ carācarāṇāṃ bhūtānāṃ bījaṃ sajātīya-kāryotpādana-sāmarthyam | sanātanaṃ nityam uttarottara-sarva-kāryeṣv anusyūtam | tad eva bījaṃ mad-vibhūtiṃ viddhi | na tu prativyakti vinaśyam | tathā buddhimatāṃ buddhiḥ prajñāham asmi | tejasvināṃ pragalbhānāṃ tejaḥ pragalbhatām ||10||

madhusūdanaḥ - sarvāṇi bhūtāni sva-sva-bījeṣu protāni na tu svayīti cen nety āha bījam iti | yat sarva-bhūtānāṃ sthāvara-jaṅgamānām ekaṃ bījaṃ kāraṇaṃ | sanātanaṃ nityaṃ bījāntarānapekṣaṃ na tu prativyakti-bhinnam anityaṃ vā tad-avyākṛtākhyaṃ sarva-bījaṃ mām eva viddhi na tu mad-bhinnaṃ he pārtha | ato yuktam ekasminn eva mayi sarva-bīje protatvaṃ sarveṣām ity arthaḥ | kiṃ ca buddhis tattvātattva-viveka-sāmarthyaṃ tādṛśa-buddhimatām aham asmi | buddhi-rūpe mayi buddhimantaḥ protā viśeṣaṇābhāve viśiṣṭābhāvasyoktatvāt | tathā tejaḥ prāgalbhyaṃ
parābhibhava-sāmarthyaṃ pariś cānabhibhāvyatvaṃ tejasvināṃ tathāvidha-prāgalbhya-yuktānāṃ yat tad aham asmi, tejo-rūpe mayi tejasvinaḥ protā ity arthaḥ ||10||
viśvanāthaḥ - bījam avikṛtaṃ kāraṇaṃ pradhānākhyam ity arthaḥ | sanātanaṃ nityaṃ buddhimatāṃ buddhir eva sāraḥ ||10||

baladevaḥ - sarva-bhūtānāṃ carācarāṇāṃ yad eka-bījaṃ sanātanaṃ nityaṃ, na tu prativyakti-bhinnam anityaṃ vā tat pradhānākhyaṃ sarva-bījaṃ mām eva viddhi tad-rūpayā vibhūtyā tāny ahaṃ pālayāmi tat-pareṇa hi tāni puṣyante | buddhiḥ sārāsāra-vivekavatī | tejaḥ prāgalbhyaṃ parābhibhava-sāmarthyaṃ parān abhibhāvyatvaṃ ca ||10||

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BhG 7.11

balaṃ balavatāṃ cāhaṃ kāma-rāga-vivarjitam |
dharmāviruddho bhūteṣu kāmo 'smi bharatarṣabha ||11||

śrīdharaḥ - kiṃ ca balam iti | kāmo 'prāpte vastuny abhilāṣo rājasaḥ | rāgaḥ punar abhilaṣite 'rthe prāpte 'pi punar adhike 'rthe citta-rañjanātmakas tṛṣṇāpara-paryāyas tāmasaḥ | tābhyāṃ vivarjitaṃ balavatāṃ balam aham asmi | sāttvikaṃ sva-dharmānuṣṭhāna-sāmarthyam aham ity arthaḥ | dharmeṇāviruddhaḥ sva-dāreṣu putrotpādana-mātropayogī kāmo 'ham iti ||11||

madhusūdanaḥ - aprāpto viṣayaḥ prāpti-kāraṇābhāve 'pi prāpyatām ity ākāraś citta-vṛtti-viśeṣaḥ kāmaḥ | prāpto viṣayaḥ kṣaya-kāraṇe saty api na kṣīyatām ity evam-ākāraś citta-vṛtti-viśeṣo rañjanātmā rāgas tābhyāṃ viśeṣeṇa varjitaṃ sarvathā tad-akāraṇaṃ rajas-tamo-virahitaṃ yat svadharmānuṣṭhānāya dehendriyādi-dhāraṇa-sāmarthyaṃ sāttvikaṃ balam balavatāṃ tādṛśa-sāttvika-bala-yuktānāṃ saṃsāra-parāṅmukhānāṃ tad aham asmi | tad-rūpe mayi balavantaḥ protā ity arthaḥ | ca-śabdas tu-śabdārtho bhinna-kramaḥ | kāma-rāga-vivarjitam
eva balaṃ mad-rūpatvena dhyeyaṃ na tu saṃsāriṇāṃ kāma-rāga-kāraṇaṃ balam ity arthaḥ |

krodhārtho vā rāga-śabdo vyākhyeyaḥ | dharmo dharma-śāstraṃ tenāviruddho 'pratiṣiddho dharmānukūlo vā yo bhūteṣu prāṇiṣu kāmaḥ śāstrānumata-jāyā-putra-vittādi-viṣayo 'bhilāṣaḥ so 'ham asmi | he bharatarṣabha ! śāstrāviruddha-kāma-bhūte mayi tathāvidha-kāma-yuktānāṃ bhūtānāṃ protatvam ity arthaḥ ||11||

viśvanāthaḥ - kāmaḥ sva-jīvikādy-abhilāṣaḥ | rāgaḥ krodhas tad-vivarjitam | na tad-dvayotthitam ity arthaḥ | dharmāviruddhaḥ sva-bhāryāyāṃ putrotpatti-mātropayogī ||11||
baladevaḥ -- kāmaḥ sva-jīvikādy-abhilāṣaḥ | rāgas tu prāpte 'py abhilaṣite 'rthe punas tato 'py adhike 'rthe citta-rañjanātmako 'titṛṣṇāpara-nāmā, tābhyāṃ vivarjitaṃ balaṃ sva-dharmānuṣṭhāna-sāmarthyam ity arthaḥ | dharmāviruddhaḥ svapatnyāṃ putrotpatti-mātra-hetuḥ ||11||

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BhG 7.12

ye caiva sāttvikā bhāvā rājasās tāmasāś ca ye |
matta eveti tān viddhi na tv ahaṃ teṣu te mayi ||12||

śrīdharaḥ - kiṃ ca ye caiveti | ye cānye 'pi sāttvika-bhāvāḥ śama-damādayaḥ | rājasāś ca harṣa-darpādayaḥ | tāmasāś ca śoka-mohādayaḥ | prāṇināṃ sva-karma-vaśāj jāyante tān matta eva jātān iti viddhi | madīya-prakṛti-guṇa-kāryatvāt | evam api teṣv ahaṃ na varte | jīvavat tad-adhīno 'haṃ na bhavāmīty arthaḥ | te tu mad-adhīnāḥ santo mayi vartanta ity arthaḥ ||12||

madhusūdanaḥ - kim evaṃ parigaṇanena ye caiveti | ye cānye 'pi bhāvāś citta-pariṇāmāḥ sāttvikāḥ śama-damādayaḥ | ye ca rājasā harṣa-darpādayaḥ | ye ca tāmasāḥ śoka-mohādayaḥ prāṇinām avidyā-karmādi-vaśāj jāyante tān matta eva jāyamānān iti ahaṃ kṛtsnasya jagataḥ prabhava ity ādy-ukta-prakāreṇa viddhi samastān eva | athavā sāttvikā rājasās tāmasāś ca bhāvāḥ sarve 'pi jaḍa-vargā vyākhyeyā viśeṣa-hetv-abhāvāt | eva-kāraś ca samastāvadhāraṇārthaḥ | evam api na tv ahaṃ teṣu, matto jātatve 'pi tad-vaśas tad-vikāra-rūṣito rajju-khaṇḍa iva kalpita-sarva-vikāra-rūṣito 'haṃ na bhavāmi saṃsārīva | te tu bhāvā mayi rajjvām
iva sarpādayaḥ kalpitā mad-adhīna-sattā-sphūrtikā mad-adhīnā ity arthaḥ ||12||

viśvanāthaḥ - evaṃ vastu-kāraṇa-bhūtā vastu-sāra-bhūtāś ca rākṣasādyāś ca vibhūtayaḥ kāścid uktāḥ | kintv alam ativistareṇa | mad-adhīnaṃ vastu-mātram eva mad-vibhūtir ity āha ye caiveti | sāttva-bhāvāḥ śama-damādayo devādyāś ca | rājasā harṣa-darpādayo 'surādyāś ca | tāmasāḥ śoka-mohādayo rākṣasādyāś ca | tān matta eveti madīya-prakṛti-guṇa-kāryatvāt | teṣv ahaṃ na varte | jīvavat tad-adhīno 'haṃ na bhavāmīty arthaḥ | te tu mayi mad-adhīnāḥ santa eva vartante ||12||

baladevaḥ -- evaṃ kāṃścid vibhūtir abhidhāya samāsena sarvās tāḥ prāha ye caiveti | ye mitho vilakṣaṇa-svabhāvāḥ sāttvikādayo bhāvāḥ prāṇināṃ śarīrendriya-viṣayātmanā ta-kāraṇatvena cāvasthitās tān sarvān tat-tac-chakty-upetān matta evopapannān viddhi | na tv ahaṃ teṣu varte naivāhaṃ tad-adhīna-sthitiḥ | te mayi mad-adhīna-sthitaya ity arthaḥ ||12||

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BhG 7.13

tribhir guṇa-mayair bhāvair ebhiḥ sarvam idaṃ jagat |
mohitaṃ nābhijānāti mām ebhyaḥ param avyayam ||13||

śrīdharaḥ - evambhūtam īśvaraṃ tvām ayaṃ janaḥ kim iti na jānātīti ? ata āha tribhir iti | tribhis trividhair ebhiḥ pūrvoktair guṇa-mayaiḥ kāma-lobhādibhir guṇa-vikārair bhāvaiḥ svabhāvair mohitam idaṃ jagat | ato māma nābhijānāti | kathambhūtam ? ebhyo bhāvebhyaḥ param | ebhir aspṛṣṭam eteṣāṃ niyantāram | ataevāvyayaṃ nirvikāram ity arthaḥ ||13||

madhusūdanaḥ - tava parameśvarasya svātantrye nitya-śuddha-buddham ukta-svabhāvatve ca sati kuto jagatas tvad-ātmakasya saṃsāritvam | evaṃvidha-matsvarūpāparijñānād iti cet, tad eva kuta ity ata āha tribhir iti | ebhiḥ prāg-uktais tribhis trividhair guṇa-mayaiḥ sattva-rajas-tamo-guṇa-vikārair bhāvaiḥ sarvair api bhavana-dharmabhir sarvam idaṃ jagat prāṇi-jātaṃ mohitam vivekāyogyatvam āpāditaṃ sad ebhyo guṇamayebhyo bhāvebhyaḥ param eṣāṃ kalpanādhiṣṭhānam atyanta-vilakṣaṇam avyayaṃ sarva-vikriyā-śūnyam aprapañcam ānanda-ghanam ātma-prakāśam avyavahitam api māṃ nābhijānāti | tataś ca svarūpāparicayāt saṃsaratīvety aho daurbhāgyam aviveki-janasyety
anukrośaṃ darśayati bhagavān ||13||

viśvanāthaḥ - nanv evambhūtaṃ tvā parameśvaraṃ katham ayaṃ jano na jānātīty ata āha tribhir iti | guṇamayaiḥ śama-damādi-harṣādi-śokādyair bhāvaiḥ svābhāvībhūtair jagaj jagaj-jāta-jīva-vṛndaṃ mohitaṃ sat māṃ nirguṇatvād ebhyaḥ param avyayaṃ nirvikāram ||13||

baladevaḥ - atha śakti-dvaya-viviktaṃ svasya dhyeya-svarūpaṃ darśayan tasyājñāne tad-āsaktim eva hetum āha tribhir iti | ebhiḥ pūrvoditair guṇamayair man-māyā-guṇa-kāryais trividhaiḥ sāttvikādibhir bhāvair bhavana-dharmibhiḥ kṣaṇa-pariṇāmibhis tat-tat-karmānuguṇa-śarīrendriya-viṣayātmanāvasthitair mohitam avivekitāṃ nītaṃ sat sarvam idaṃ jagat surāsura-manuṣyādy-ātmanāvasthitaṃ jīva-vṛndaṃ kartṛ ebhyaḥ sāttvikādibhyo bhāvebhyaḥ paraṃ tair aspṛṣṭam ananta-kalyāṇa-guṇa-ratnākaraṃ vijñānānanda-ghanaṃ sarveśvaram avyayam apracyuta-svabhāvaṃ māṃ kṛṣṇaṃ
nābhijānāti pratyāsūyati ||13||

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BhG 7.14

daivī hy eṣā guṇa-mayī mama māyā duratyayā |
mām eva ye prapadyante māyām etāṃ taranti te ||14||

śrīdharaḥ - ke tarhi tvāṃ jānantīti ? ata āha daivīti | daivy alaukikī | atyadbhutety arthaḥ | guṇa-mayī sattvādi-guṇa-vikārātmikā | mama parameśvarasya śaktir māyā duratyayā dustarā hi | prasiddhim etam | tathāpi mām eva ity eva-kāreṇāvyabhicāriṇyā bhaktyā ye prapadyante bhajanti māyām etāṃ sudustarām api te taranti | tato māṃ jānantīti bhāvaḥ ||14||

madhusūdanaḥ - nanu yathoktānādi-siddha-māyā-guṇa-traya-baddhasya jagataḥ svātntryābhāvena tat-parivarjanāsāmārthyān na kadācid api māyātikramaḥ syād vastu-vivekāsāmārthya-hetoḥ sadātanatvādityāśaṅkya bhagavad-eka-śaraṇatayā tattva-jñāna-dvāreṇa māyātikramaḥ sambhavatīty āha daivīti | daivī eko devo sarva-bhūteṣu gūḍhaḥ [ŚvetU 6.11] ity-ādi-śruti-pratipādite svatodyotanavati deve sva-prakāśa-caitanyānande nirvibhāge tad-āśrayatayā tad-viṣayatayā ca kalpitā āśrayatva-viṣayatva-bhāginī nirvibhāga-citir eva kevalā [Saṃ.Śārī 1.319] ity ukteḥ | eṣā sākṣi-pratyakṣatvenāpalāpānarhā | hi-śabdād bhramopādānatvād arthāpatti-siddhā ca | guṇa-mayī sattva-rajas-tamo-guṇa-trayātmikā | triguṇa-rajjur
ivātidṛdhatvena bandhana-hetuḥ | mama māyāvinaḥ parameśvarasya sarva-jagat-kāraṇasya sarvajñasya sarva-śakteḥ sva-bhūtā svādhīnatvena jagat-sṛṣṭy-ādi-nirvāhikā | māyā tattva-pratibhāsi-pratibandhenātattva-pratibhāsa-hetur āvaraṇa-vikṣepa-śakti-dvayavaty avidyā sarva-prapañca-prakṛtiḥ māyāṃ tu prakṛtiṃ vidyān māyinaṃ tu maheśvaram [ŚvetU 4.19] iti śruteḥ |

atraivaṃ prakriyā | jīveśvara-jagad-vibhāga-śūnye caitanye 'dhyastānādir avidyā sattva-prādhānyena svacchā darpaṇa iva mukha-bhāsaṃ cid-ābhāsam āgṛhṇāti | tataś ca bimba-sthānīyaḥ parameśvara upādhi-doṣānāskanditaḥ pratibimba-sthānīyaś ca jīva upādhi-doṣāskanditaḥ | īśvarāc ca jīva-bhogāyākāśādi-krameṇa śarīrendriya-saṅghātas tad-bhogyaś ca kṛtsnaḥ prapañco jāyata iti kalpanā bhavati | bimba-pratibimba-mukhānugata-mukhavac ceśa-jīvānugataṃ māyopādhi caitanyaṃ sākṣīti kalpyate | tenaiva ca svādhyastā māyā tat-kāryaṃ ca kṛtsnaṃ prakāśyate | ataḥ sākṣy-abhiprāyeṇa daivīti bimbeśvarābhiprāyeṇa tu memeti bhagavtoktam | yadyapy avidyā-pratibimba eka eva jīvas tathāpy avidyā-gatānām
antaḥ-karaṇa-saṃskārāṇāṃ bhinnatvāt tad-bhedenāntaḥ-karaṇopādhes tasyātra bheda-vyapadeśo mām eva ye prapadyante duṣkṛtino mūḍhā na prapadyante, caturvidhā bhajante mām ity ādiḥ | śrutau ca tad yo devānāṃ pratyabudhyata sa eva tad abhavat tatha rṣīṇāṃ tathā manuṣyāṇām [BAU 1.4.10] ity ādiḥ |

antaḥ-karaṇopādhi-bhedāparyālocane tu jīvatva-prayojakopādher ekatvād ekatvenaivātra vyapadeśaḥ | kṣetrajñaṃ cāpi māṃ viddhi sarva-kṣetreṣu [Gītā 13.2], prakṛtiṃ puruṣaṃ caiva viddhy anādī ubhāv api [Gītā 13.19], mamaivāṃśo jīva-loke jīva-bhūtaḥ sanātanaḥ [Gītā 15.7] ity ādi | śrutau ca brahma vā idam agra āsīt tad ātmānam evāvedahaṃ brahmāsmīti tasmāt tat sarvam abhavat [BAU 1.4.10], eko devaḥ sarva-bhūteṣu gūḍhaḥ [ŚvetU 6.11], anena jīvenā ' 'tmanā ' ' nupraviśya [ChāU 6.3.2]

bālāgra-śata-bhāgasya śatadhā kalpitasya ca |
bhāgo jīvaḥ sa vijñeyaḥ sa cānantyāya kalpate || [ŚvetU 5.9] ity ādiḥ |

yadyapi darpaṇa-gataś caitra-pratibimbaḥ svaṃ paraṃ ca na jānāty acetanāṃśasyaiva tatra pratibimbitatvāt tathāpi cit-pratibimbaś cittvād eva svaṃ paraṃ ca jānāti | pratibimba-pakṣe bimba-caitanya evopādhisthatva-mātrasya kalpitatvāt | ābhāsa-pakṣe tasyānirvacanīyatve 'pi jaḍa-vilakṣaṇatvāt | sa ca yāvat sva-bimbaikyam ātmano na jānāti tāvaj jala-sūrya iva jala-gata-kampādikam upādhi-gataṃ vikāra-sahasram anubhavati | tad etad āha duratyayeti | bimba-bhūteśvaraikya-sākṣātkāram antareṇātyetuṃ taritum aśakyeti duratyayā | ataeva jīvo 'ntaḥkaraṇāvacchinnatvāt tat-sambaddham evākṣyādi-dvārā bhāsayan kiṃcij jño bhavati | tataś ca jānāmi karomi bhuñje cety anartha-śata-bhājanaṃ bhavati
| sa ced bimba-bhūtaṃ bhagavantam ananta-śaktiṃ māyā-niyantāraṃ sarva-vidaṃ sarva-phala-dātāram aniśam ānanda-ghana-mūrtim anekaānavatārān bhaktānugrahāya vidadhatam ārādhayati samarpaṇena tadā bimba-samarpitasya pratibimbe pratiphalanāt sarvān api puruṣārthān āsādayati | etad evābhipretya prahlādenoktaṃ -

naivātmanaḥ prabhur ayaṃ nija-lābha-pūrṇo
mānaṃ janād aviduṣaḥ karuṇo vṛṇīte |
yad yaj jano bhagavate vidadhīta mānaṃ
tac cātmane prati-mukhasya yathā mukha-śrīḥ || [BhP 7.9.11] iti |

darpaṇa-pratibimbitasya mukhasya tilakādi-śrīr apekṣitā ced bimba-bhūte mukhe samarpaṇīyā | sā svayam eva tatra pratiphalati nānyaḥ kaścit tat-prāptāv upāyo 'sti yathā tathā bimba-bhūteśvare samarpitam eva tat-pratibimba-bhūto jīvo labhate nānyaḥ kaścit tasya puruṣārtha-lābhe 'sty upāya iti dṛṣṭānta-dārṣṭānikayor arthaḥ |

tasya yadā bhagavantam anantam anavaratam ārādhayato 'ntaḥkaraṇaṃ jñāna-pratibandhaka-pāpena rahitaṃ jñānānukūla-puṇyena copacitaṃ bhavati tadātinirmale mukura-maṇḍala iva mukham atisvacche 'ntaḥkaraṇe sarva-karma-tyāga-śama-damādi-pūrvaka-gurūpasadana-vedānta-vākya-śravaṇa-manana-nididhyāsanaiḥ saṃskṛte tattvam asīti-gurūpadiṣṭa-vedānnta-vākya-karaṇikāhaṃ brahmāsīmty anātmākāra-śūnyā nirupādhi-caitanyākārā sākṣātkārātmikā vṛttir udeti | tasyāṃ ca pratiphalaitaṃ caitanyaṃ sadya eva sva-viṣayāśrayām avidyām unmūlayati dīpa iva tamaḥ | tatas tasyā nāśāt tayā vṛttyā sahākhilasya kārya-prapañcasya nāśaḥ | upādāna-nāśād upādeya-nāśasya sarva-tantra-siddhānta-siddhatvāt
| tad etad āha bhagavān mām eva ye prapadyante māyām etāṃ taranti te iti | ātmety evopāsīta [BAU 1.4.7], tad ātmānam evāvet [BAU 1.4.10], tam eva dhīro vijñāya [BAU 4.4.23], tam eva viditvātimṛtyum eti [ŚvetU 6.15] ity ādi-śrutiṣv ivehāpi mām evety eva-kāro 'py anuparaktatā-pratipatty-arthaḥ | mām eva sarvopādhi-virahitaṃ vidānanda-sadātmānam akhaṇḍaṃ ye prapadyante vedānta-vākya-janyayā nirvikalpa-sākṣātkāra-rūpayā nirvacanānarha-śuddha-cid-ākāratva-dharma-viśiṣṭayā sarva-sukṛta-phala-bhūtayā nididhyāsana-paripāka-prasūtayā ceto-vṛttyā sarvājñāna-tat-kārya-virodhinyā viṣayīkurvanti te ye kecid etāṃ duratikramaṇīyām api māyām akhilānartha-janma-bhuvam anāyāsenaiva taranti atikrāmanti tasya ha na devāś canābhūtyā īśata ātmā hy eṣā sa bhavati
[BAU 1.4.10] iti śruteḥ | sarovādhi-nivṛttyā saccidānanda-ghana-rūpeṇaiva tiṣṭhantīty artaḥ | bahu-vacana-prayogo dehendriyādi-saṃghāta-bheda-nbandhanātma-bheda-bhrānty-anuvādārthaḥ |

prapaśyantīti vaktavye prapadyanta ity ukte 'rthe mad-eka-śaraṇāḥ santo mām eva bhagavantaṃ vāsudevam īdṛśam ananta-saundarya-sāra-sarvasvam akhila-kalā-kalāpa-nilayam abhinava-paṅkaja-śobhādhika-caraṇa-kamala-yugala-prabham anavarata-veṇu-vādana-nirata-vṛndāvana-krīḍāsakta-mānasa-heloddhṛta-govardhanākhya-mahīdharaṃ gopālaṃ niṣūdita-śiśupāla-kaṃsādi-duṣṭa-saṅgham abhinava-jalada-śobhā-sarvasva-haraṇa-caraṇaṃ paramānanda-ghana-maya-mūrtimati-vairiñca-prapañcam anavaratam anucintayanto divasān ativāhayanti te mat-prema-mahānanda-samudra-magna-manasas tathā samasta-māyā-guṇa-vikārair nābhibhūyante | kintu mad-vilāsa-vinoda-kuśalā ete mad-unmūlana-samarthā iti śaṅkamāneva māyā tebhyo 'pasarati vāravilāsinīva krodhanebhyas tapodhanebhyas tasmān māyā-taraṇārthī
mām īdṛśam eva santatam anucintayed ity apy abhipretaṃ bhagavataḥ | śrutayaḥ smṛtayaś cātrārthe pramāṇīkartavyāḥ ||14||

viśvanāthaḥ - nanu tarhi triguṇa-maya-mohāt katham uttīrṇā bhavanti ? tatrāha daivīti | daivī viṣayānandena dīvyantīti devā jīvās tadīyā teṣāṃ mohayitrīty arthaḥ | guṇa-mayī śleṣeṇa triveṣṭana-mahā-pāśa-rūpā | mama parameśvarasya māyā bahiraṅgā śaktir duratyayā duratikramā | pāśa-pakṣe, chettum udgranthayituṃ vā kenāpy aśaktyety arthaḥ | kintu mad-vāci viśvasihi iti sva-vakṣaḥ spṛṣṭvāha māṃ śyāmasundarākāram eva ||14||

baladevaḥ -- nanu triguṇāyas-tan-māyāyā nityatvāt tad-dhetukasya mohasya vinivṛttir durghaṭeti cet tatrāha daivīti | mama sarveśvarasyāvitarkyātivicitrānanta-viśva-sraṣṭur eṣā māyā daivī | alaukiky atyadbhutety arthaḥ | tādṛk viśva-sargopakaraṇatvāt | śrutiś caivam āha - māyāṃ tu prakṛtiṃ vidyān māyinaṃ tu maheśvaram [ŚvetU 4.10] ity ādyā | guṇamayī sattvādi-guṇa-trayātmikā, śleṣeṇa triguṇitā rajjur ivāti-dṛḍhatayā jīvānāṃ bandhu-hetuḥ | ato duratyayā teṣāṃ duratikramā | rajju-pakṣe chettum udgrathituṃ ca tair aśaktyety arthaḥ | yadyapy etādṛśī tathāpi mad-bhaktyā tad-vinivṛttiḥ syād ity āha mām iti | māṃ sarveśvaraṃ māyā-niyantāraṃ
sva-prapanna-vātsalya-nīradhiṃ kṛṣṇaṃ ye tādṛśa-sat-prasaṄgāt prapadyate śaraṇaṃ gacchanti te etām arṇavam ivāpārāṃ māyāṃ goṣpadodakāñjalim ivāśrameṇa taranti | tāṃ tīrtvānadaika-rasaṃ prasādābhimukhaṃ sva-svāminaṃ māṃ prāpnuvantīti | mām evety eva-kāro mad-anyeṣāṃ vidhi-rudrādīnāṃ prapattyā tasyās taraṇaṃ nety āha śrutiś caivam āha tam eva viditvety ādyā mucukundaṃ prati devāś ca -

varaṃ vṛṇīṣva bhadraṃ te ṛte kaivalyam adya naḥ |
eka eveśvaras tasya bhagavān viṣṇur avyayaḥ || [BhP 10.51.20] iti |

ghaṇṭākarṇaṃ prati śivaś ca - mukti-pradātā sarveṣāṃ viṣṇur eva na saṃśayaḥ iti ||14||

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BhG 7.15

na māṃ duṣkṛtino mūḍhāḥ prapadyante narādhamāḥ |
māyayāpahṛta-jñānā āsuraṃ bhāvam āśritāḥ ||15||

śrīdharaḥ - yady evaṃ tarhi sarve tvām eva kim iti na bhajanti ? tatrāha na mām iti | nareṣu ye 'dhamās te māṃ na prapadyante na bhajanti | adhamatve hetuḥ -mūḍhā viveka-śūnyāḥ | tat kutaḥ ? duṣkṛtinaḥ pāpa-śīlāḥ | ato māyayāpahṛtaṃ nirastaṃ śāstrācāryopadeśābhyāṃ jātam api jñānaṃ yeṣāṃ te tathā | ataeva dambho darpo 'bhimānaś ca krodhaḥ pāruṣyam eva cety ādinā vakṣyamāṇam āsuraṃ bhāvam svabhāvaṃ prāptāḥ santo na māṃ bhajanti ||15||

madhusūdanaḥ - yady evaṃ tarhi kim iti nikhilānartha-mūla-māyonmūlanāya bhagavantaṃ bhavantam eva sarve na pratipadyante cira-saṃcita-durita-pratibandhād ity āha bhagavān na mām iti | duṣkṛtino duṣkṛtena pāpena saha nitya-yoginaḥ | ataeva nareṣu madhye 'dhamā iha sādhubhir garhaṇīyāḥ paratra cānartha-sahasra-bhājaḥ | kuto duṣkṛtam anartha-hetum eva sadā kurvanti yato mūḍhā idam artha-sādhanam idam anartha-sādhanam iti viveka-śūnyāḥ | sati pramāṇe kuto na viviñcanti yato māyayāpahṛta-jñānāḥ śarīrendriya-saṃghāta-tādāmtya-bhrānti-rūpeṇa pariṇatayā māyayā pūrvoktayāpahṛtaṃ pratibaddhaṃ jñānaṃ viveka-sāmarthyaṃ yeṣāṃ
te tathā | ataeva te dambho darpo 'bhimānaś ca krodhaḥ pāruṣyam eva ca [Gītā 16.4] ity ādināgre vakṣyamānam āsuraṃ bhāvaṃ hiṃsānṛtādi-svabhāvam āśritā mat-pratipatty-ayogyāḥ santo na māṃ sarveśvaraṃ prapadyante na bhajante | aho daurbhāgyaṃ teṣām ity abhiprāyaḥ ||15||

viśvanāthaḥ - nanu tarhi paṇḍitā api kecit kim iti tvāṃ na prapadyante ? tatra ye paṇḍitās te māṃ prapadyanta eva | paṇḍita-mānina eva na māṃ prapadyanta ity āha na mām iti | duṣkṛtino duṣṭāś ca te kṛtinaḥ paṇḍitāś ceti te kupaṇḍitā ity arthaḥ | te ca caturvidhāḥ | eke mūḍhāḥ paśu-tulyāḥ karmiṇaḥ | yad uktaṃ -

nūnaṃ daivena nihatā ye cācyuta-kathā-sudhām |
hitvā śṛṇvanty asad-gāthāḥ purīṣam iva viḍ-bhujaḥ || [BhP 3.32.19] iti |

mukundaṃ ko vai na seveta vinā naretaraḥ iti ca |

apare narādhamāḥ kañcit kālaṃ bhaktimattvena prāpta-naratvā apy ante phala-prāptau na sādhanopayoga iti matvā svecchayaiva bhakti-tyāginaḥ | svakartṛka-bhakti-tyāga-lakṣaṇam eva teṣām adhamatvam iti bhāvaḥ | apare śāstrādhyāpanādi-mattve 'pi māyayāpahṛtaṃ jñānam eṣāṃ te vaikuṇṭha-virājinī nārāyaṇa-mūrtir eva sārvakālikī-bhakti-prāpyā, na tu kṛṣṇa-rāmādi-mūrtir mānuṣīti manyamānā ity arthaḥ | yad vakṣyate avajānanti māṃ mūḍhā mānuṣīṃ tanum āśritam [Gītā 9.11] iti | te khalu māṃ prapadyamānā api na māṃ prapadyanta iti bhāvaḥ | apare āsuraṃ bhāvam āśritāḥ | asurā jarāsandhādayo mad-vigrahaṃ
lakṣīkṛtya śarair vidhyanti | tathaiva dṛśyatādi-hetu-mat-kutarkair mad-vigrahaṃ vaikuṇṭha-stham api khaṇḍayanty eva | na tu prapadyanta ity arthaḥ ||15||

baladevaḥ - nanu cet tvām eva prapannā vimucyante tarhi paṇḍitā api kecit kim iti tvāṃ na prapadyante tatrāha na mām iti | duṣṭāś ca te kṛtinaḥ śāstrārtha-kuśalāś ceti duṣkṛtinaḥ kupaṇḍitās te māṃ na prapadyante | śrutiś caivam āha -

avidyāyām antare vartamānāḥ
svayaṃ dhīrāḥ paṇḍitaṃmanyamānāḥ |
dandramyamāṇāḥ pariyanti mūḍhā
andhenaiva nīyamānā yathāndhāḥ || [KaṭhU 1.2.5]

te catur-vidhāḥ - eke māyayā mūḍhāḥ karma-jaḍā indrādivan mām api viṣṇuṃ karmāṅgaṃ jīvavat karmādhīnaṃ manyamānāḥ | apare māyayā narādhamā viprādi-kula-janmanā narottamatāṃ prāpyāpy asat kāvyārthāsattyā pāmaratā-bhājaḥ | yad uktam -

nūnaṃ daivena nihatā ye cācyuta-kathā-sudhām |
hitvā śṛṇvanty asad-gāthā purīṣam iva viḍ-bhujaḥ || [BhP 3.32.19] iti |

anye māyayāpahṛta-jñānāḥ sāṅkhyādayaḥ | te hi sārvajña-sārvaiśvarya-sarva-sraṣṭṛtva-muktidatvādi dharmaiḥ śruti-sahasra-prasiddham api mām īśvaram apalapantaḥ prakṛtim eva sarva-sraṣṭrīṃ mokṣa-dātrīṃ ca kalpayanti | tatra tādṛśa-kuṭila-kuyukti-śatāny udbhāvayantī māyayaiva hetuḥ | kecit tu māyayaivāsuraṃ bhāvam āśritā nirviśeṣa-cin-mātra-vādinaḥ | asurā yathā nikhilānanda-karaṃ mad-vigrahaṃ śarair vidhyanti tathādṛśyatvādi-hetubhis te nitya-caitanyātmatayā śruti-prasiddham api taṃ khaṇḍayantīti tatrāpi tādṛśa-buddhy-utpādanī māyaiva hetur iti ||15||

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BhG 7.16

catur-vidhā bhajante māṃ janāḥ sukṛtino 'rjuna |
ārto jijñāsur arthārthī jñānī ca bharatarṣabha ||16||

śrīdharaḥ - sukṛtinas tu māṃ bhajanty eva | te sukṛti-tāratamyena catur-vidhā ity āha catur-vidhā iti | pūrva-janmasu ye kṛta-puṇyās te māṃ bhajanti | te caturvidhāḥ | ārto vegādy-abhibhūtaḥ sa yadi pūrvaṃ kṛta-puṇyas tarhi māṃ bhajati | anyathā kṣudra-devatā-bhajanena saṃsarati | evam uttaratrāpi draṣṭavyam | jijñāsur ātma-jñānecchuḥ | arthārthī atra vā paratra vā bhoga-sādhana-bhūto 'rtha-lipsuḥ | jñānī cātma-vit ||16||

madhusūdanaḥ - ye tv āsura-bhāva-rahitāḥ puṇya-karmāṇo vivekinas te puṇya-karma-tāratamyena catur-vidhāḥ santo māṃ bhajante krameṇa ca kāmanā-rāhityena mat-prasādān māyāṃ tarantīty āha catur-vidhā iti | ye sukṛtinaḥ pūrva-janma-kṛta-puṇya-saṃcayā janāḥ saphala-janmānas ta eva nānye te māṃ bhajante sevante | he arjuna ! te ca trayaḥ sa-kāmā eko 'kāma ity evaṃ caturvidhāḥ | ārta ārtyā śatru-vyādhy-ādy-āpadā grastas tan-nivṛttim icchan | yathā makha-bhaṅgena kupita indre varṣati vraja-vāsī janaḥ | yathā vā jarāsandha-kārāgāravartī rāja-nicayaḥ | dyūta-sabhāyāṃ vastrākarṣaṇe draupadī ca | grāha-grasto gajendraś ca | jijñāsur ātma-jñānārthī mumukṣuḥ
| yathā mucukundaḥ, yathā vā maithilo janakaḥ śrutadevaś ca, nivṛtte mausale yathā coddhavaḥ | arthārthī iha vā paratra vā yad bhogopakaraṇaṃ tal-lipsuḥ | tatreha yathā sugrīvo vibhīṣaṇaś ca, yathā copamanyuḥ paratra yathā dhruvaḥ | ete trayo 'pi bhagavad-bhajanena māyāṃ taranti | tatra jijñāsur jñānotpattyā sākṣād eva māyāṃ tarati ārto 'rthārthī ca jijñāsutvaṃ prāpyeti viśeṣaḥ | ārtasyārthārthinaś ca jijñāsutva-sambhavāj jijñāsoś cārtatva-jñānopakaraṇārthārthitva-sambhavād ubhayor madhye jijñāsur uddiṣṭaḥ |

tad ete trayaḥ sa-kāmā vyākhyātāḥ niṣkāmaś caturtha idānīm ucyate jñānī ca | jñānaṃ bhagavat-tattva-sākṣātkāras tena nitya-yukto jñānī tīrṇa-māyo nivṛtta-sarva-kāmaḥ | ca-kāro yasya kasyāpi niṣkāma-prema-bhaktasya jñāniny-antar-bhāvārthaḥ | he bharatarṣabha tvam api jijñāsur vā jñānī veti katamo 'haṃ bhakta iti mā śaṅkiṣṭhā ity arthaḥ | tatra niṣkāma-bhakto jñānī yathā sanakādir yathā nārado yathā prahlādo yathā pṛthur yathā vā śukaḥ | niṣkāmaḥ śuddha-prema-bhakto yathā gopikādir yathā vākrūra-yudhiṣṭhirādiḥ | kaṃsa-śiśupālādayas tu bhayād dveṣāc ca santata-bhagavac-cintā-parā api na bhaktā bhagavad-anurakter
abhāvāt | bhagavad-anurakti-rūpāyās tu bhakteḥ svarūpaṃ sādhanaṃ bhedās tathā bhaktānām api bhagavad-bhakti-rasāyane 'smābhiḥ sa-viśeṣaṃ prapañcitā itīhoparamyate ||16||

viśvanāthaḥ - tarhi ke tvāṃ bhajanta ity ata āha caturvidhā iti | sukṛtaṃ varṇāśramācāra-lakṣaṇo dharmas tadvantaḥ santo māṃ bhajante | tatra ārto rogādy-āpad-grastas tan-nivṛtti-kāmaḥ | jijñāsuḥ ātma-jñānārthī vyākaraṇādi-śāstra-jñānārthī vā | arthārthī kṣiti-gaja-turaga-kāminī-kanakādyaihika-pāratrika-bhogārthīti | ete trayaḥ sakāmā gṛhasthāḥ | jñānī viśuddhāntaḥ-karaṇaḥ sannyāsīti caturtho 'yaṃ niṣkāmaḥ | ity ete pradhānībhūta-bhakty-adhikāriṇaś catvāro nirūpitāḥ | tatrādimeṣu triṣu karma-miśrā bhaktiḥ | antime caturthe jñāna-miśrā | sarva-dvārāṇi saṃnyasya [Gītā 8.12] ity agrima-granthe yoga-miśrāpi
vakṣyate | jñāna-karmādy-amiśrā kevalā bhaktir yā sā tu saptamādhyāyārambha eva mayy āsakta-manaḥ pārtha [Gītā 7.1] ity anena uktā | punaś cāṣṭame 'py adhyāye ananya-cetāḥ satatam [Gītā 8.14] ity anena, navame mahātmānas tu māṃ pārtha [Gītā 9.13] iti śloka-dvayena ananyāś cintayanto mām [Gītā 9.22] ity anena ca nirūpayitavyeti |

pradhānībhūtā kevalā iti dvividhaiva bhaktir madhyame 'sminn adhyāya-ṣaṭke bhagavatoktā | yā tu tṛtīyā guṇībhūtā bhaktiḥ karmaṇi jñānini yogini ca karmādi-phala-siddhy-arthā dṛśyate | tasyāḥ prādhānyābhāvāt na bhaktitva-vyapadeśaḥ | kintu tatra tatra karmādīnām eva prādhānyāt | prādhānyena vyapadeśā bhavanti iti nyāyena karmatva-jñānatva-yogatva-vyapadeśaḥ | tadvatām api karmitva-jñānitva-yogitva-vyapadeśaḥ | na tu bhaktatva-vyapadeśaḥ | phalaṃ ca sakāma-karmaṇaḥ svargo niṣkāma-karmaṇo jñāna-yogo jñāna-yogayor nirvāṇa-mokṣa iti |

atha dvidhāyā bhakteḥ phalam ucyate | tatra pradhānībhūtāsu bhaktiṣu madhye ārtādiṣu triṣu yāḥ karma-miśrās tisraḥ sa-kāmā bhaktayas tāsāṃ phalaṃ tat-tat-kāma-prāptiḥ | viṣaya-sādguṇyāt tad-ante sukhaiśvarya-pradhāna-sālokya-mokṣa-prāptiś ca, na tu karma-phala-svarga-bhogānta iva pātaḥ | yad vakṣyate yānti mad-yājino 'pi mām [Gītā 9.25] iti | caturthyā jñāna-miśrāyās tata utkṛṣṭāyās tu phalaṃ śānta-ratiḥ sanakādiṣv iva | bhakta-bhagavat-kāruṇyādhikya-vaśāt kasyāścit tasyāḥ phalaṃ premotkarṣaś ca śrī-śukādiṣv iva | karma-miśrā bhaktir yadi niṣkāmā syāt tadā tasyāḥ
phalaṃ jñāna-miśrā bhaktiḥ | tasyāḥ phalam uktam eva | kvacic ca svabhāvād eva dā̆sādi-bhakta-saṅgottha-vāsanā vaśād vā jñāna-karmādi-miśra-bhaktimatām api dāsyādi-premā syāt, kintu aiśvarya-pradhānam eveti |

atha jñāna-karmādy-amiśrāyāḥ śuddhāyā ananyākiñcanottamādi-paryāyāḥ bhakter bahu-prabhedāyā dāsya-sakhyādi-premavat-pārṣadatvam eva phalam ity ādikaṃ śrī-bhāgavata-ṭīkāyāṃ bahuśaḥ pratipāditam | atrāpi prasaṅga-vaśāt sādhya-bhakti-vivekaḥ saṃkṣipya darśitaḥ ||16||

baladevaḥ -- tarhi tvāṃ ke prapadyante tatrāha catur-vidhā iti | sukṛtinaḥ supaṇḍitāḥ sva-varṇāśramocita-karmaṇā mad-ekānti-bhāvena ca sampannā janā māṃ bhajante | te ca catur-vidhāḥ | tatrārtaḥ śatru-kleśādyāpad-grastas tad-vināśecchur gajendrādiḥ | jijñāsur viviktātma-svarūpa-jñānecchuḥ śaunakādiḥ | arthārthī rājyādi-sampad-icchur dhruvādiḥ | jñānī śeṣatvena svāmtānaṃ śeṣitvena parātmānaṃ ca māṃ jñātavān śukādiḥ | eṣv ārtādayaḥ sa-kāmāḥ, jñānī tu niṣkāmaḥ | ārtārthārthinoḥ paratra jijñāsutā-sampattaye tayor antarāle jijñāsor upanyāsaḥ ||16||

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BhG 7.17

teṣāṃ jñānī nitya-yukta eka-bhaktir viśiṣyate |
priyo hi jñānino 'tyartham ahaṃ sa ca mama priyaḥ ||17||

śrīdharaḥ - teṣāṃ madhye jñānī śreṣṭha ity āha teṣām iti | teṣāṃ madhye jñānī viśiṣṭaḥ | atra hetavaḥ -- nitya-yuktaḥ sadā man-niṣṭhaḥ | ekasmin mayy eva bhaktir yasya saḥ | jñānino dehādy-abhimānābhāvena citta-vikṣepābhāvān nitya-yuktatvam ekānta-bhaktitvaṃ ca sambhavati | nānyasya | ataeva hi tasyāhaṃ atyantaṃ priyaḥ | sa ca mama | tasmād etair nitya-yuktatvādibhiś caturbhir hetubhiḥ sa uttama ity arthaḥ ||17||

madhusūdanaḥ - nanu na māṃ duṣkṛtino mūḍhāḥ prapadyante narādhamā ity anena tad-vilakṣaṇāḥ sukṛtino māṃ bhajanta ity arthāt prāpte 'pi teṣāṃ cāturvidhyaṃ catur-vidhā bhajante mām ity anena darśitāḥ tatas te sarve sukṛtina eva nirviśeṣād iti cet tatrāha ca | caturvidhānām api sukṛtitve niyate 'pi sukṛtādhikyena niṣkāmatayā premādhikyāt tata iti |

caturvidhānāṃ teṣāṃ madhye jñānī tattva-jñānavān nivṛtta-sarva-kāmo viśiṣyate sarvato 'tiricyate sarvotkṛṣṭa ity arthaḥ | yato nitya-yukto bhagavati pratyag-abhinne sadā samāhita-cetā vikṣepakābhāvāt | ataevaika-bhaktir ekasmin bhagavaty eva bhaktir anuraktir yasya sa tathā, tasyānurakti-viṣayāntarābhāvāt | hi yasmāt | priyo nirupādhi-premāspadam atyartham atyantātiśayena jñānino 'haṃ pratyag-abhinnaḥ paramātmā ca tasmād ayarthaṃ sa mama parameśvarasya priyaḥ | ātmā priyo 'tiśayena bhavatīti śruti-lokayoḥ prasiddham evety arthaḥ ||17||

viśvanāthaḥ - caturṇāṃ bhakty-adhikāriṇāṃ madhye kaḥ śreṣṭhaḥ ity apekṣāyām āha | teṣāṃ madhye jñānī viśiṣyate śreṣṭhaḥ | nitya-yukto nityaṃ mayi yujyata iti saḥ | jñānābhyāsa-vaśīkṛta-cittatvān manasy aikāgra-citta ity arthaḥ | ārtādyās trayas tu naivambhūtā iti bhāvaḥ |

nanu sarvo 'pi jñānī jñāna-vaiyarthya-bhayāt tvāṃ bhajata eva ? tatrāha ekā mukhyā pradhānībhūtaṃ yasya saḥ | yad vā, ekā bhaktir eva tathaivāsaktimattvāt yasya sa nāma-mātreṇaiva jñānīti bhāvaḥ | evambhūtasya jñānino 'haṃ śyāmasundarākāro 'tyartham atiśayena priyaḥ sādhana-sādhya-daśayoḥ parihātum aśakyaḥ | ye yathā māṃ prapadyante [Gītā 4.11] iti nyāyena mamāpi sa priyaḥ ||17||

baladevaḥ - caturṣu jñāninaḥ śraiṣṭhyam āha teṣām iti | jñānī viśiṣyate śreṣṭho bhavati | yad asau nitya-yukta eka-bhaktiś ca | ārta-vināśādi-kāmanā-virahān nityaṃ mayā yogavān | ārtādeśa tu yāvat-kāmita-prāptir mad-yoga ekasmin mayy eva jñānino bhaktir ārtādes tu sva-kāmite tat-pradātṛtvena mayi cāto jñānī tataḥ śreṣṭhaḥ |

atṛpyann āha priyo hīti | jñānino hy aham atyarthaṃ priyaḥ premāspadam | sa hi mat-priyatā-sudhā-sindhu-nimagno nānyat kiñcid anusandhatte tasya mat-priyatā-parimiteti bodhayitum atyartha-śabdaḥ | sarvajño 'nanta-śaktiś cāhaṃ yāṃ vaktuṃ na śaknotīty arthaḥ | sa ca jñānī ye yathā mām [Gītā 4.11] ity ādi-nyāyena tathaiva mama priyaḥ | mamāpi tat-priyatā tadvad parimitety arthaḥ ||17||

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BhG 7.18

udārāḥ sarva evaite jñānī tv ātmaiva me matam |
āsthitaḥ sa hi yuktātmā mām evānuttamāṃ gatim ||18||

śrīdharaḥ - tarhi kim itare trayas tad-bhaktāḥ saṃsaranti ? na hi na hīty āha udārā iti | sarve 'py eta udārā mahānto mokṣa-bhāja evety arthaḥ | jñānī tu punar ātmaiveti me mataṃ niścayaḥ | hi yasmāt sa jñānī yuktātmā mad-eka-cittaḥ san na vidyata uttamā yasyās tām anuttamāṃ gatiṃ mām evāsthita āśritavān mad-vyatiriktam anyat phalaṃ na manyata ity arthaḥ ||18||

madhusūdanaḥ - tat-kim ārtādayas tava na priyāḥ ? na, atyartham iti viśeṣaṇād ity āha udārā iti | eta ārtādayaḥ sa-kāmā api mad-bhaktāḥ sarve trayo 'py udārā evotkṛṣṭā eva pūrva-janmārjitāneka-sukṛta-rāśitvāt | anyathā hi māṃ na bhajeyur eva | ārtasya jijñāsor arthārthinaś ca mad-vimukhasya kṣudra-devatā-bhaktasyāpi bahulam upalambhāt | ato mama priyā eva te | na hi jñānavān ajño vā kaścid api bhakto mamāpriyo bhavati | kintu yasya yādṛśī mayi prītir mamāpi tatra tādṛśī prītir iti svabhāva-siddham etat | tatra sa-kāmānāṃ trayāṇāṃ kāmyamānam api priyam aham api priyaḥ | jñāninas tu priyāntara-śūnyasyāham eva niratiśaya-prīti-viṣayaḥ | ataḥ so 'pi mama niratiśaya-prīti-viṣaya iti
viśeṣaḥ | anyathā hi mama kṛtajñatā na syāt kṛtaghnatā ca syāt | ataevātyartham iti viśeṣaṇam upāttaṃ prāk | yathā hi yad eva vidyayā karoti śraddhayopaniṣadā tad eva vīryavattaraṃ bhavati ity atra tarab-arthasya vivakṣitatvād vidyā-divyātirekena kṛtam api karma vīryavad bhavaty eva | tathātyarthaṃ jñānī bhakto mama priya ity ukter yo jñāna-vyatirekeṇa bhaktaḥ so 'pi priya iti paryavasyaty eva | atyartham iti viśeṣaṇasya vivakṣitatvāt | uktaṃ hi -- ye yathā māṃ prapadyante tāṃs tathaiva bhajāmy aham [Gītā 4.11] iti | ato mām ātmatvena jñānavān jñānī | ātmaiva na matto bhinnaḥ tv aham eva sa iti mama mataṃ niścayaḥ | tu-śabdaḥ sa-kāma-bheda-darśi-tritayāpekṣayā
niṣkāmatva-bhedādarśitva-viśeṣa-dyotanārthaḥ | hi yasmāt | sa jñānī yuktātmā sadā mayi samāhita-cittaḥ san māṃ bhagavantam anantam ānanda-ghanam ātmānam evānuttamāṃ sarvotkṛṣṭāṃ gatiṃ gantavyaṃ paramaṃ phalam āsthito 'ṅgīkṛtavān, na tu mad-bhinnaṃ kim api phalaṃ sa manyata ity arthaḥ ||18||

viśvanāthaḥ -- tarhi kim ārtādyās trayas tava na priyās tatra na hi na hīty āha udārā iti | ye māṃ bhajante, mattaḥ kiṃcit kāmitaṃ mayāpi ditsitaṃ gṛhṇanti te bhakta-vatsalāya mahyaṃ bahu-pradāyinaḥ priyā eveti bhāvaḥ | jñānī tv ātmaiveti sa hi bhajann atha ca mattaḥ kim api svargāpavargādikaṃ nākaṅkṣata iti | atas tad-adhīnasya mama sa ātmaiveti mama mataṃ matiḥ | yataḥ sa māṃ śyāmasundarākāram evānuttamāṃ sarvottamāṃ gatiṃ prāpyāsthitaḥ niścitavān | na tu mama nirviśeṣa-svarūpa-brahma-nirvāṇam iti bhāvaḥ | evaṃ ca niṣkāma-pradhānībhūta-bhaktimān jñānī
bhakta-vatsalena bhagavatā svātmatvenābhimanyate | kevala-bhaktimān ananyas tu ātmano 'py ādhikyena | yad uktaṃ -
na tathā me priyatama ātma-yonir na śaṅkaraḥ |
na ca saṅkarṣaṇo na śrīr naivātmā ca yathā bhavān || [BhP 11.14.15] iti |
nāham ātmānam āśāse mad-bhaktaiḥ sādhubhir vinā [BhP 9.4.64] iti |
ātmārāmo 'py arīramat [BhP 10.29.42] ity ādi ||18||

baladevaḥ - nanv ārtādayas tava priyā na bhavanti maivam atyartham iti viśeṣaṇād ity āha udārā iti | sarva evaite ārtādaya udārā vadānyāḥ | udāro dātṛ-mahator ity amaraḥ | ye māṃ bhajanto mayā ditsitaṃ kiṃcit svābhīṣṭaṃ matto gṛhṇanti te bhakta-vātsalyaṃ mahyaṃ prayacchanto mama bahu-pradāḥ priyā eveti bhāvaḥ | jñānī tu mamātmaiveti matam | hi yasmāt sa jī̀iānī yuktātmā mad-arpita-manā matto 'nyat kiṃcid apy anicchann atipriyeṇa mayā vinā lavam api sthātum asamartho mām eva sarvottamāṃ matiṃ prāpyam āsthitaḥ niścitavān atas tena tādṛśena vinā lavam api sthātum asamarthasya mamātmaiva saḥ | na ca jñāni-jīvasya hariḥ
svenābhedam āheti vācyam | jñāna-bhajatvāsiddher bhajatāṃ cāturvidhyāsiddher mokṣe bheda-vākya-vyākopāc ca | tasmād atipriyatvād eva tatrātmety uktir mamātmā bhadrasena itivat | ātmaiva mana eva matam ity apare ||18||

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BhG 7.19

bahūnāṃ janmanām ante jñānavān māṃ prapadyate |
vāsudevaḥ sarvam iti sa mahātmā sudurlabhaḥ ||19||

śrīdharaḥ - evambhūto mad-bhakto 'tidurlabha ity āha bahūnām iti | bahūnāṃ janmanām kiṃcit kiṃcit puṇyopacayenānte carame janmani jñānavān san sarvam idaṃ carācaraṃ vāsudeva eveti sarvātma-dṛṣṭyā māṃ prapadyate bhajati | ataḥ sa mahātmāparicchinna-dṛṣṭiḥ sudurlabhaḥ ||19||

madhusūdanaḥ - yasmād evaṃ tasmāt bahūnām iti | bahūnāṃ janmanāṃ kiṃcit kiṃcit puṇyopacaya-hetūnām ante carame janmani sarva-sukṛta-vipāka-rūpe vāsudevaḥ sarvam iti jñānavān san māṃ nirupādhi-premāspadaṃ prapadyate sarvadā samasta-prema-viṣayatvena bhajate | sakalam idam ahaṃ ca vāsudeva iti dṛṣṭyā sarva-premṇāṃ mayy eva paryavasāyitvāt | ataḥ sa evaṃ-jñāna-pūrvaka-mad-bhaktimān mahātmātyanta-śuddhāntaḥkaraṇatvāj jīvanmuktaḥ sarvotkṛṣṭo na tat-samo 'nyo 'sti adhikas tu nāsty eva | ataḥ sudurlabho manuṣyāṇāṃ sahasreṣu duḥkhenāpi labdhum aśakyaḥ
| ataḥ sa niratiśaya-mat-prīti-viṣaya iti yuktam evety arthaḥ ||19||

viśvanāthaḥ - nanu mām evānuttamāṃ gatim āsthita iti brūṣe ataḥ sa jñāni-bhaktas tvām eva prāpnoti | kintu kiyataḥ samayād anantaraṃ sa jñānī bhakty-adhikārī bhavatīty ata āha bahūnām iti | vāsudevaḥ sarvam iti sarvatra vāsudeva-darśī jñānavān bahūnāṃ janmanām ante māṃ prapadyate | tādṛśa-sādhu-yādṛcchika-saṅga-vaśāt mat-prapattiṃ prāpnoti | sa ca jñānī bhakto mahātmā susthira-cittaḥ sudurlabhaḥ | manuṣyāṇāṃ sahasreṣu iti mad-ukteḥ | aikāntika-bhaktas tu kim uteti sa tv atisudurlabha eveti bhāvaḥ ||19||

baladevaḥ - nanv ārtādīnām ante kā niṣṭheti cet tatrāha bahūnām iti | ārtādis trividho mad-bhaktaḥ kṛta-mad-bhakti-mahimnā bahūni janmāny uttamān viṣayānandān anubhūya teṣu vitṛṣṇo 'nte janmani mat-svarūpa-jña-sat-prasaṅgāt jñānavān prāpta-mat-svarūpa-jñānaḥ san māṃ prapadyante | tato vindatīy arthaḥ | jñānākāram āha vāsudeva iti | vasudeva-sutaḥ kṛṣṇa eva sarvam | kṛṣṇāyatta-svarūpa-sthiti-pravṛttikaṃ sarvaṃ vastv ity arthaḥ | yad dhi yad adhīna-svarūpa-sthitikatvāt prāṇa-rūpaṃ vāg-ādi-vyapadiṣṭaṃ chāndogye na vai vāco na cakṣūṃṣi na śrotrāṇi na manāṃsīty ācakṣate
prāṇā ity evācakṣate prāṇo hy evaitāni sarvāṇi bhavati || [ChāU 5.1.15] iti tatrāhuḥ sarvaṃ vastu vāsudevena vyāpyam ataḥ sarvaṃ vāsudeva ity arthaḥ | sarvaṃ samāpnoṣi tato 'si sarvam [Gītā 11.40] iti pārtho vakṣyatīti | sa hi nikhila-spṛhā-nivṛtti-pūrvakaṃ mat-spṛho mad-ātmāty-udāra-manā man-niveditātmā jñāni-koṭiṣv api sudurlabhaḥ | eṣa jñānavān priyo hi jñānino 'tyartham [Gītā 7.17] ity ādy-ukta-lakṣaṇo bodhyaḥ ||19||

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BhG 7.20

kāmais tais tair hṛta-jñānāḥ prapadyante 'nya-devatāḥ |
taṃ taṃ niyamam āsthāya prakṛtyā niyatāḥ svayā ||20||

śrīdharaḥ -tad evaṃ kāmino 'pi santaḥ kāma-prāptaye parameśvaram eva ye bhajanti te kāmān prāpya śanair mucyanta ity uktam | ye tv atyantaṃ rājasās tāmasāś ca kāmābhibhūtāḥ kṣudra-devatāḥ sevante te saṃsarantīty āha kāmair iti caturbhiḥ | ye tu tais taiḥ putra-kīrti-śatru-jayādi-viṣayaiḥ kāmair apahṛta-vivekā santo 'nyāḥ kṣudrā bhūta-preta-yakṣādyā devatā bhajanti | kiṃ kṛtvā ? tat-tad-devatārādhane yo yo niyama upavāsādi-lakṣaṇas taṃ taṃ niyamaṃ svīkṛtya | tatrāpi svayā svīyayā prakṛtyā pūrvābhyāsa-vāsanayā niyatā vaśīkṛtāḥ santaḥ ||20||

madhusūdanaḥ - mohana-stambhanākarṣaṇa-vaśīkaraṇa-māraṇoccāṭanādi-viṣayair bhagavat-sevayā labdhum aśakyatvenābhimatais tais taiḥ kṣudraiḥ kāmair abhilāṣair hṛtam apahṛtaṃ bhagavato vāsudevād vimukhīkṛtya tat-tat-phala-dātṛtvābhimata-kṣudra-devatābhimukhyaṃ nītaṃ jñānam antaḥ-karaṇaṃ yeṣāṃ te 'nya-devatā bhagavato vāsudevād anyāḥ kṣudra-devatās taṃ taṃ niyamaṃ japopavāsa-pradakṣiṇā-namaskārādi-rūpaṃ tat-tad-devatārādhane prasiddhaṃ niyamam āsthāyāśritya prapadyante bhajante tat-tat-kṣudra-phala-prāptīcchayā | kṣudra-devatā-madhye
'pi kecit kāṃcid eva bhajante svayā prakṛtyā niyatā asādhāraṇayā pūrvābhyāsa-vāsanayā vaśīkṛtā santaḥ ||20||

viśvanāthaḥ - nanu ārtādayaḥ sa-kāmā api bhagavantaṃ tvāṃ bhajantaḥ kṛtārthā iva ity avagatam | ye tu ārtādayaḥ ārti-hānādi-kāmanayā devatāntaraṃ bhajante | teṣāṃ kā gatir ity apekṣāyām āha kāmair iti caturbhiḥ | hṛta-jñānā iti rogādy-ārti-harāḥ śīghraṃ yathā sūryādayas tathā na viṣṇur iti naṣṭa-buddhayaḥ | prakṛtyeti svayā prakṛtyā niyatā vaśīkṛtāḥ santas teṣāṃ duṣṭā prakṛtir eva mat-prapattau parāṅmukhīti bhāvaḥ ||20||

baladevaḥ - tad itthaṃ kāmanayāpi māṃ bhajanto mad-bhakti-mahimnā te vimucyanta ity uktam | ye tu śīghra-sukha-kāmā devatāntara-bhaktās te saṃsaranty evety āha kāmair ity ādibhiś caturbhiḥ | tais tair ārti-vināśādi-viṣayakaiḥ kāmair hṛta-jñānā yathādityādayaḥ śīghram eva roga-vināśādikarās tathā na viṣṇur iti naṣṭa-dhiya ity arthaḥ | taṃ tam asādhāraṇaṃ svayā prakṛtyā vāsanayā niyatā niyantritās teṣāṃ prakṛtir eva tādṛśī yā mat-prapattau vaimukhyaṃ karotīti bhāvaḥ ||20||

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BhG 7.21

yo yo yāṃ yāṃ tanuṃ bhaktaḥ śraddhayārcitum icchati |
tasya tasyācalāṃ śraddhāṃ tām eva vidadhāmy aham ||21||

śrīdharaḥ - devatā-viśeṣaṃ ye bhajanti teṣāṃ madhye yo ya iti | yo yo bhakto yāṃ yāṃ tanuṃ devatā-rūpāṃ madīyām eva mūrtiṃ śraddhayārcitum icchati pravartate tasya tasya bhaktasya tat-tan-mūrti-viṣayāṃ tām eva śraddhām acalāṃ dṛḍhām aham antaryāmī vidadhāmi karomi ||21||

madhusūdanaḥ - tat tad devatā-prasādāt teṣām api sarveśvare bhagavati vāsudeve bhaktir bhaviṣyatīti na śaṅkanīyaṃ, yato yo ya iti | teṣāṃ madhye yo yaḥ kāmī yāṃ yāṃ tanuṃ devatā-mūrtiṃ śraddhayā janmāntara-vāsanābala-prādurbhūtayā bhaktyā saṃyuktaḥ sann arcitum arcayitum icchati pravartate | caurādikasyārcayater ṇij-abhāva-pakṣe rūpam idam | tasya tasya kāminas tām eva devatā-tanuṃ prati śraddhāṃ pūrva-vāsanāvaśāt prāptāṃ bhaktim acalāṃ sthirāṃ viddadhāmi karomy aham antaryāmī, na tu mad-viṣayāṃ śraddhāṃ tasya tasya karomīty arthaḥ | tām eva śraddhām iti vyākhyāne
yac-chabdānanvayaḥ spaṣṭas tasmāt pratiśabdam adhyāhṛtya vyākhyātam ||21||

viśvanāthaḥ - te te devāḥ pūjāṃ prāpya prasannās teṣāṃ sva-sva-pūjakānāṃ hitārthaṃ tvad-bhaktau śraddhām utpādayiṣyantīti mā vādīḥ | yatas te devāḥ sva-bhaktāv api śraddhām utpādayitum aśaktāḥ | kiṃ punar mad-bhaktāv ity āha yo ya iti | yāṃ yāṃ tanuṃ sūryādi-deva-rūpāṃ madīyāṃ mūrtiṃ vibhūtim arcitum pūjayituṃ tām eva tat-tad-devatā-viṣayām eva, na tu sva-viṣayāṃ śraddhām aham antaryāmy eva vidadhāmi, na tu sā devatā ||21||

baladevaḥ - sarvāntaryāmī mahā-vibhūtiḥ sarva-hitecchur aham eva tat-tad-devatāsu śraddhām utpādya tāḥ pūjayitvā tat-tad-anurūpāṇi phalāni prayacchāmi, na tu tāsāṃ tatra tatra śaktir astīty āśayavān āha ya iti dvābhyām | yo ya ārtādi-bhakto yāṃ yām ādiyādi-rūpāṃ mat-tanuṃ śraddhayārcituṃ vāñchati | tasya tasya tām eva tat-tad-devatā-viṣayām eva, na tu mad-viṣayām | acalāṃ sthirām | vidadhāmy utpādayāmy aham eva, na tu sā sā devatā | śrutiś ca tat-tad-devatānāṃ mat-tanutvam āha ya āditye tiṣṭhaty ādityād antaro yamādityo na veda yasyādityaḥ śarīram [BAU 3.7.9] ity ādyā ||21||

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BhG 7.22

sa tayā śraddhayā yuktas tasyā rādhanam īhate |
labhate ca tataḥ kāmān mayaiva vihitān hi tān ||22||

śrīdharaḥ - tataś ca tayeti | sa bhaktas tayā dṛḍhayā śraddhayā tasyās tano rādhanm ārādhanam īhate karoti | tataś ca ye saṅkalpitāḥ kāmās tān kāmāṃs tato devatā-viśeṣāl labhate | kintu mayaiva tat-tad-devatāntaryāminā vihitān nirmitān hi | sphuṭam etat tat-tad-devatānām api mad-adhīnatvān man-mūrtitvāc cety arthaḥ ||22||

madhusūdanaḥ - sa kāmī tayā mad-vihitayā sthirayā śraddhayā yuktas tasyā devatā-tanvā rādhanam ārādhanaṃ pūrajam īhate nirvartayati | upasarga-rahito 'pi rādhayatiḥ pūjārthaḥ | sopasargatve hy ākāraḥ śrūyate | labhate ca tatas tasyā devatā-tanvāḥ sakāśāt kāmānīpsitāṃs tān pūrva-saṅkalpitān hi prasiddham | mayaiva sarvajñena sarva-karma-phala-dāyinā tat-tad-devatāntaryāmiṇā vihitāṃs tat-tat-phala-vipāka-samaye nirmitān | hitān manaḥ-priyānityaika-padyaṃ vā | ahitatve 'pi hitatayā pratīyamānānityārthaḥ ||22||

viśvanāthaḥ - īhate karoti | sa tat-tad-devatārādhanāt kāmānārādhana-phalāni labhate | na ca te te kāmā api tais tair devaiḥ pūrṇāḥ kartuṃ śakyanta ity āha mayaiva vihitān pūrṇīkṛtān ||22||

baladevaḥ - sa tayeti | īhate karoti | tato mat-tanu-bhūta-tat-tad-devatārādhanāt | kāmān phalāni tatra tatroktāni | mayaiveti vihitān racitān | yadyapi tasya tasyārādhakasya tathā jñānaṃ nāsti tathāpi mat-tanu-viṣayeyaṃ śraddhety anusandhāyāhaṃ phalāny arpayāmīti bhāvaḥ ||22||

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BhG 7.23

antavat tu phalaṃ teṣāṃ tad bhavaty alpa-medhasām |
devān deva-yajo yānti mad-bhaktā yānti mām api ||23||

śrīdharaḥ - tad evaṃ yadyapi sarvā api devatāḥ sarvātmano mamaiva tanavaḥ | atas tad-ārādhanam api vastuto mad-ārādhanam eva | tatra phala-dātāpi cāham eva | tathāpi sākṣān-mad-bhaktānāṃ teṣāṃ ca phala-vaiṣamyaṃ bhavatīty āha antavad iti | alpa-medhasāṃ paricchanna-dṛṣṭīnāṃ mayā dattam api tat-phalam antavad vināśi bhavati | tad evāha devān yajantīti deva-yajaḥ | te devān antavato yānti | mad-bhaktās tu mām anādy-anantaṃ paramānandaṃ prāpnuvanti ||23||

madhusūdanaḥ - yadyapi sarvā api devatāḥ sarvātmano mamaiva tanavas tad-ārādhanam api vastuto mad-ārādhanam eva sarvatrāpi ca phala-dātāntaryāmy aham eva, tathāpi sākṣān-mad-bhaktānāṃ ca teṣāṃ ca vastu-vivekāviveka-kṛtaṃ phala-vaiṣamyaṃ bhavatīty āha antavad iti | alpa-medhasāṃ manda-prajñatvena vastu-vivekāsamarthānāṃ teṣāṃ tat-tad-devatā-bhaktānāṃ tan mayā vihitam api tat-tad-devatārādhanajaṃ phalam antavad eva vināśy eva na tu mad-bhaktānāṃ vivekinām ivānantaṃ phalaṃ teṣām ity arthaḥ | kutaḥ ? evaṃ yato devān indrādīn antavata eva deva-yajo mad-anya-devatārādhana-parā
yānti prāpnuvanti | mad-bhaktās tu trayaḥ sa-kāmāḥ prathamaṃ mat-prasādād abhīṣṭān kāmān prāpnuvanti | api-śabda-prayogāt tato mad-upāsanā-paripākān mām anantam ānanda-ghanam īśvaram api yānti prāpnuvanti | ataḥ samāne 'pi sakāmatve mad-bhaktānām anya-devatā-bhaktānāṃ ca mahad-antaram | tasmāt sādhūktam udārāḥ sarva evaita iti ||23||

viśvanāthaḥ - kintu teṣāṃ devatāntara-bhaktānām phalaṃ tat-tad-devatārādhana-janyam antavat naśvaraṃ kaiñcitkālikaṃ bhavati | nanu ārādhane śrame tulyo 'pi devatāntara-bhaktānāṃ phalaṃ naśvaraṃ karoṣi, sva-bhaktānāṃ tv anaśvaraṃ karoṣīti tvayi parameśvare 'yam anyāyas tatra nāyam anyāya ity āha deva-yajo deva-pūjakā devān eva yānti prāpnuvanti | mat-pūjakā api mām | ayam arthaḥ | ye hi yat-pūjakās te tān prāpnuvanty eveti nyāya eva | tatra yadi devā api naśvarās tadā tad-bhaktāḥ katham anaśvarā bhavantu | kathantarāṃ yā tad bhajana-phalaṃ vā na naśyatu | ataeva tad-bhaktā alpa-medhasa uktāḥ | bhagavāṃs tu nityas tad-bhaktā
api nityās tad-bhakti-bhakti-phalaṃ ca sarvaṃ nityam eveti ||23||

baladevaḥ - nanu devāś cet tvat-tanavas tarhi deva-bhaktānāṃ tad-bhaktānāṃ ca samānaṃ phalaṃ syād iti cet tatrāha antavad iti | teṣām alpa-medhasām ādityādi-mātra-buddhyā, na tu mat-tanuvudbhyārādhayatāṃ tat-tat-phalam alpam antavad vināśi ca bhavati, mat-tanuvudbhyārādhayatāṃ tu phalam anantam avināśi ceti bhāvaḥ | yasmād ādityādi-deva-yājinas tān svejyān mita-bhogān mitāyuṣo yāntīti, mad-bhaktās tu mām eva nityāparimita-svarūpa-guṇa-vibhūti-mad-ārādhana-phalam anantam avināśi ceit mahad-antaram ity arthaḥ ||23||

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BhG 7.24

avyaktaṃ vyaktim āpannaṃ manyante mām abuddhayaḥ |
paraṃ bhāvam ajānanto mamāvyayam anuttamam ||24||

śrīdharaḥ - nau ca samāne prayāse mahati ca phala-viśeṣe sati sarve 'pi kim iti devatāntaraṃ hitvā tvām eva na bhajanti ? tatrāha avyaktam iti | avyaktaṃ prapañcātītaṃ māṃ vyaktiṃ manuṣya-matsya-kūrmādi-bhāvaṃ prāptam alpa-buddhayo manyante | tatra hetuḥ -- mama paraṃ bhāvaṃ svarūpam ajānantaḥ | katham-bhūtam ? avyayaṃ nityam | na vidyata uttamo bhāvo yasmāt tat mad-bhāvam | ato jagad-rakṣaṇārthaṃ līlayāviṣkṛta-nānā-viśuddhorjita-sattva-mūrtiṃ māṃ parameśvaraṃ ca sva-karma-nirmita-bhautika-dehaṃ ca devatāntaraṃ samaṃ paśyanto manda-matayo māṃ
nātīvādriyante | pratyuta kṣipra-phaladaṃ devatāntaram eva bhajanti | te cokta-prakāreṇāntavat phalaṃ prāpunvantīty arthaḥ ||24||

madhusūdanaḥ - evaṃ bhagavad-bhajanasya sarvottama-phalatve 'pi kathaṃ prāyeṇa prāṇino bhagavad-vimukhyā ity atra hetum āha bhagavān avyaktam iti | avyaktaṃ deha-grahaṇāt prāk-kāryākṣamatvena sthitam idānīṃ vasudeva-gṛhe vyaktiṃ bhautika-dehāvacchedena kārya-kṣamatāṃ prāptaṃ kaṃcij jīvam eva manyante mām īśvaram apy abuddhayo viveka-śūnyāḥ | avyaktaṃ sarva-kāraṇam api māṃ vyaktiṃ kārya-rūpatāṃ matsya-kūrmādy-anekāvatāra-rūpeṇa prāptam iti vā |

kathaṃ te jīvās tvāṃ na viviñcanti ? tatrābuddhaya ity uktaṃ hetuṃ vivṛṇoti | paraṃ sarva-kāraṇa-rūpam avyayaṃ nityaṃ mama bhāvaṃ svarūpaṃ sopādhikam ajānantas tathā nirupādhikam apy anuttamaṃ sarvotkṛṣṭam anatiśayādvitīya-paramānanda-ghanam anantaṃ mama svarūpam ajānanto jīvānukāri-kārya-darśanāj jīvam eva kaṃcin māṃ manyante | tato mām anīśvaratvenābhimataṃ vihāya prasiddhaṃ devatāntaram eva bhajante | tataś cāntavad eva phalaṃ prāpnuvantīty arthaḥ | agre ca vakṣyate avajānanti māṃ mūḍhā mānuṣīṃ tanum āśritam [Gītā 9.11] iti ||24||

viśvanāthaḥ - devatāntara-bhaktānām alpa-medhasāṃ vārtā dūre tāvad āstām | vedādi-samasta-śāstra-darśino 'pi mat-tattvaṃ na jānanti |

athāpi te deva padāmbuja-dvaya-
prasāda-leśānugṛhīta eva hi |
jānāti tattvaṃ bhagavan mahimno
na cānya eko 'pi ciraṃ vicinvan || [BhP 10.14.29]

iti brahmaṇāpi māṃ pratyuktam | ato mad-bhaktān vinā mat-tattva-jñāne sarvatra vālpa-buddhaya ity āha avyaktaṃ prapañcātītaṃ nirākāraṃ brahmaiva māṃ māyikākāratvenaiva vyaktiṃ vasudeva-gṛhe janma prāptaṃ nirbuddhayo manyante māyikākāyasyaiva dṛśyatvād iti bhāvaḥ | yato mama paraṃ bhāvaṃ māyātītaṃ svarūpaṃ janma-karma-līlādikam ajānantaḥ | bhāvaṃ kīdṛśam ? avyayaṃ nityam anuttamaṃ sarvotkṛṣṭam | bhāvaḥ sattā svabhāvābhiprāya-ceṣṭātma-janmasu | kriyā-līlā-padārtheṣu iti medinī | bhagavat-svarūpa-guṇa-janma-karma-līlānām anādy-antatvena nityatvaṃ śrī-rūpa-gosvāmi-caraṇair bhāgavatāmṛta-granthe
pratipāditam | mama paraṃ bhāvaṃ svarūpam avyayaṃ nityam viśuddhorjita-sattva-mūrtṃ iti svāmi-caraṇaiś coktam ||24||

baladevaḥ - atha kā vārtā mad-anya-deva-yājinām alpa-medhasām upaniṣan-niṣṇātānām api mad-bhakti-riktānāṃ mat-tattva-dhīr na syād ity āśayenāha avyaktam iti | abuddhayo mat-tattva-yāthātmya-buddhi-śūnyā janā avyaktaṃ sva-prakāśātma-vigrahatvād indriyāviṣayaṃ māṃ vyaktim āpannaṃ tad-viṣayāṃ manyante | devakyāṃ vasudevāt sattvotkṛṣṭena karmaṇā sañjātam itara-rāja-putra-tulyaṃ māṃ vadanti | yatas te mad-abhijña-sat-prasaṅgābhāvān mama bhāvaṃ param avyayam anuttamam ajānantaḥ -

bhāvaḥ sattā svabhāvābhiprāya-ceṣṭātma-janmasu |
kriyā-līlā-padārtheṣu vibhūti-budha-jantuṣu || iti medinī-kāraḥ |

mad-bhakti-hīnās te mama svarūpa-guṇa-janma-līlādi-lakṣaṇa-bhāvaṃ māyāditaḥ paramato 'vyayaṃ nityam anuttamaṃ sarvottamaṃ na, kintv anyavan māyikam anityaṃ sādhāraṇaṃ ca gṛhṇanta ity arthaḥ | svarūpaṃ harer vijñānānandaika-rasaṃ vijñānam ānandaṃ brahma ity ādeḥ | sārvajñādi-guṇa-gaṇas tasya svarūpānubandhī ananta-kalyāṇa-guṇātmako 'sau ity ādeḥ | abhivyakti-mātraṃ janma ajo 'pi san ity ādeḥ | parantu avyaktasyaiva bhajatsu prasādenaivābhivyakti-śīlaṃ [MBh 12.323.18] -

na śakyaḥ sa tvayā draṣṭum asmābhir vā bṛhaspate |
yasya prasādaṃ kurute sa vai taṃ draṣṭum arhati || ity ādeḥ ||24||

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BhG 7.25

nāhaṃ prakāśaḥ sarvasya yoga-māyā-samāvṛtaḥ |
mūḍho 'yaṃ nābhijānāti loko mām ajam avyayam ||25||

śrīdharaḥ - teṣāṃ svājñāne hetum āha nāham iti | sarvasya lokasya nāhaṃ prakāśaḥ prakaṭo na bhavāmi | kintu mad-bhaktānām eva | yato yoga-māyayā samāvṛtaḥ | yogo yuktir madīyaḥ ko 'py acintyaḥ prajñā-vilāsaḥ | sa eva māyāghaṭana-ghaṭanāpaṭīyastvāt | tayā saṃcchannaḥ ataeva mat-svarūpa-jñāne mūḍhaḥ sann ayaṃ loko 'jam avyayaṃ ca māṃ na jānātīti ||25||

madhusūdanaḥ - nanu janma-kāle 'pi sarva-yogi-dhyeyaṃ śrī-vaikuṇṭha-stham aiśvaram eva rūpam āvirbhāvitavati samprati ca śrīvatsa-kaustubha-vanamālā-kirīṭa-kuṇḍalādi-divyopakaraṇa-śālini kambu-kamala-kaumodakī-cakra-vara-dhāri-catur-bhuje śrīmad-vainateya-vāhane nikhila-sura-loka-sampādita-rāja-rājeśvarābhiṣekādi-mahā-vaibhave sarva-surāsura-jetari vividha-divya-līlā-vilāsa-śīle sarvāvatāra-śiromaṇau sākṣād-vaikuṇṭha-nāyake nikhila-loka-duḥkha-nistārāya bhuvam avatīrṇe viriñci-prapañcāsambhavi-niratiśaya-saundarya-sāra-sarvasva-mūrtau bāla-līlā-vimohita-vidhātari taraṇi-kiraṇojjvala-divya-pītāmbare nirupama-śyāmasundare kara-dīkṛta-pārijātārtha-parājita-purandare bāṇa-yuddha-vijita-śaśāṅka-śekhare samasta-surāsura-vijayi-naraka-prabhṛti-mahā-daiteya-prakara-prāṇa-paryanta-sarvasva-hāriṇi śrīdāmādi-parama-raṅka-mahā-vaibhava-kāriṇi
ṣoḍaśa-sahasra-divya-rūpa-dhāriṇy aparimeya-guṇa-garimaṇi mahā-mahimani nārad-mārkaṇḍeyādi-mahā-muni-gaṇa-stute tvayi katham avivekino 'pi manuṣa-buddhir jīva-buddhir vety arjunāśaṅkām apaninīṣur āha bhagavān nāham iti |

ahaṃ sarvasya lokasya na prakāśaḥ svena rūpeṇa prakaṭo na bhavāmi | kintu keṣāṃcin mad-bhaktānām prakaṭo bhavāmīty abhiprāyaḥ | kathaṃ sarvasya lokasya na prakaṭa ity atra hetum āha yoga-māyā-samāvṛtaḥ | yogo mama saṅkalpas tad-vaśa-vartinī māyā yoga-māyā tathāyam abhakto jano māṃ svarūpeṇa na jānātv iti saṅkalpānuvidhāyinyā māyayā samyag āvṛtaḥ saty api jñāna-kāraṇe jñāna-viṣayatvāyogyaḥ kṛtaḥ | ato yad uktaṃ paraṃ bhāvam ajānanta iti tatra mama saṅkalpa eva kāraṇam ity uktaṃ bhavati | ato mama māyayā mūḍha āvṛta-jñānaḥ sann ayaṃ caturvidha-bhakta-vilakṣaṇo lokaḥ saty api jñāna-kāraṇe mām ajam avyayam
anādy-anantaṃ parameśvaraṃ nābhijānāti, kintu viparīta-dṛṣṭyā manuṣyam eva kaṃcin manyata ity arthaḥ | vidyamānaṃ vastu-svarūpam āvṛṇoty avidyamānaṃ ca kiṃcid darśayatīti laukika-māyām api prasiddham etat ||25||

viśvanāthaḥ - nanu yadi tvaṃ nitya-rūpa-guṇa-līlo 'si, tadā te tathābhūtā sārvakālikī sthitiḥ kathaṃ na dṛśyate? tatrāha nāham iti | ahaṃ sarvasya sarva-deśa-kāla-vartino janasya na prakāśo na prakaṭaḥ | yathā guṇa-līlā-parikaravattvena sadaiva virājamāno 'pi dadācid eva keṣucid eva bhramāṇḍeṣu | kiṃ ca sūryo yathā sumeru-śailāvaraṇa-vaśāt sarvadā loka-dṛśyo na bhavati, kintu kadācid eva, tathaivāham api yogamāyā-samāvṛtaḥ | na ca jyotiścakravartamānānāṃ prāṇināṃ jyotiścakrastho jyotiścakra-madhye sāmastyena sadaiva virājamāno 'pi sūryaḥ sarva-kāla-deśa-varti-janasya na prakaṭaḥ | kintu kādācitkeṣu ca bhāratādiṣu khaṇḍeṣu vartamānasya janasyaiva tathaivāham
api |

sva-dhāmasu svarūpa-sūryo yathā sadaiva dṛśyas tathaiva śrī-kṛṣṇa-dhāmani mathurā-dvārakādau sthitānām idānīntanānāṃ janānāṃ tatrasthaḥ kṛṣṇaḥ kathaṃ na dṛśyo bhavati ? ucyate yadi jyotiścakra-madhye sumerur abhaviṣyat tadā tad-āvṛtaḥ sūryo dṛśyo nābhaviṣyat | tatra tu mathurādi-kṛṣṇa-dyumaṇi-dhāmani sumeru-sthānīyā yoga-māyaiva sadā vartata ity atas tad-āvṛtaḥ kṛṣṇārkaḥ sadā na dṛśyate | kintu kadācid eveti sarvam anavadyam | ato mūḍho loko māṃ śyāmasundarākāraṃ vasudevātmajam avyayaṃ māyika-janmādi-śūnyaṃ nābhijānāti | ataeva kalyāṇa-guṇa-vāridhiṃ mām apy antatas tyaktvā man-nirviśeṣ-svarūpaṃ
brahmaiva upāsata iti ||25||

baladevaḥ - nanu bhaktā ivābhaktāś ca tvāṃ pratyakṣīkurvanti prasādād eva bhajatsv abhivyaktir iti katham ? tatrāha nāham iti | bhaktānām evāhaṃ nitya-vijñām asukha-ghano 'nanta-kalyāṇa-guṇa-karmā prakāśo 'bhivyakto, na tu sarveṣām abhaktānām api | yad ahaṃ yogamāyayā samāvṛto mad-vimukha-vyāmohakatva-yoga-yuktayā māyayā samācchanna-parisara ity arthaḥ | yad uktaṃ -māyā-javanikācchanna-mahimne brahmaṇe namaḥ iti | māyā-mūḍho 'yaṃ loko 'timānuṣa-daivata-prabhāvaṃ vidhi-rudrādi-vanditam api māṃ nābhijānāti | kīdṛśam ? ajaṃ janma-śūnyaṃ yato 'vyayam apracyuta-svarūpa-sāmarthya-sārvajñyādikam ity arthaḥ ||25||

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BhG 7.26

vedāhaṃ samatītāni vartamānāni cārjuna |
bhaviṣyāṇi ca bhūtāni māṃ tu veda na kaścana ||26||

śrīdharaḥ -sarvottamaṃ mat-svarūpam ajānanta ity uktam | tad eva svasya sarvottamatvam anāvṛta-jñāna-śaktitvena darśayann anyeṣām ajñānam āha vedāham iti | samātītāni vinaṣṭāni vartamānāni ca bhaviṣyāṇi bhāvini ca trikāla-vartīni bhūtāni sthāvara-jaṅgamāni sarvāny ahaṃ veda jānāmi | māyāśrayatvān mama | tasyāḥ svāśraya-vyāmohakatvābhāvād iti prasiddham | māṃ tu ke 'pi na vetti man-māyā-mohitatvāt | prasiddhaṃ hi loke māyāyāḥ svāśrayādhīnatvam anya-mohakatvaṃ ceti ||26||

madhusūdanaḥ - ato māyayā svādhīnayā sarva-vyāmohakatvāt svayaṃ cāpratibaddha-jñānatvād āha vedāham iti | aham apratibaddha-sarva-vijñāto māyayā sarvān lokān mohayann api samātītāni cira-vinaṣṭāni vartamānāni ca bhaviṣyāṇi ca | evaṃ kāla-traya-vartīni bhūtāni sthāvara-jaṅgamāni sarvāny veda jānāmi | he 'rjuna ! ato 'haṃ sarva-jñaḥ parameśvara ity atra nāsti saṃśaya ity arthaḥ | māṃ tu | tu-śabdo jñāna-pratibandha-dyotanārthaḥ | māṃ sarva-darśinam api māyāvinam iva tan-māyā-mohitaḥ kaścana ko 'pi mad-anugraha-bhājanaṃ mad-bhaktaṃ vinā na veda man-māyā-mohitatvāt | ato mat-tattva-vedanābhāvād eva prāyeṇa prāṇino māṃ na bhajanta ity abhiprāyaḥ
||26||

viśvanāthaḥ - kiṃ ca māyāyāḥ svāśraya-vyāmohakatvābhāvād bahiraṅgā māyā | antaraṅgā yoga-māyā ca mama jñānaṃ nāvṛṇotīty āha vedāham iti | māṃ tu kaścana prākṛto 'prākṛtaś ca loko mahā-rudrādir mahā-sarvajño 'pi na kārtsnyena veda, yathāyogaṃ māyayā yoga-māyayā ca jñānāvaraṇād iti bhāvaḥ || ||26||

baladevaḥ - nanu māyāvṛtatvāt tava jīvavad ajñatāpattir iti cet tatrāha vedāham iti | na hi mad-adhīnayā mat-tejasābhibhūtayā dūrato javanikayaiva māṃ sevamānayā māyayā mama kācid vikṛtir ity arthaḥ | māṃ tu vedeti maj-jñānī koṭiṣv api sudurlabha ity arthaḥ ||26||

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BhG 7.27

icchā-dveṣa-samutthena dvandva-mohena bhārata |
sarva-bhūtāni saṃmohaṃ sarge yānti parantapa ||27||

śrīdharaḥ - tad evaṃ māyā-viṣayatvena jīvānāṃ parameśvarājñānam uktam | tasyaivājñānasya dṛḍhatve kāraṇam āha iccheti | sṛjyata iti sargaḥ | sarge sthūla-dehotpattau satyāṃ tad-anukūla icchā | tat-pratikūle ca dveṣaḥ | tābhyāṃ samutthaḥ samudbhūto yaḥ śītoṣṇa-sukha-duḥkhādi-dvandva-nimitto moho viveka-bhraṃśaḥ | tena sarvāṇi bhūtāni saṃmohaṃ yānti | aham eva sukhī duḥkhī ceti gāḍhataram abhiniveśaṃ prāpnuvanti | atas tāni maj-jñānābhāvān māṃ na bhajantīti bhāvaḥ ||27||

madhusūdanaḥ - yoga-māyāṃ bhagavat-tattva-vijñāna-pratibandhe dehendriya-saṃghātābhimānātiśaya-pūrvakaṃ bhogābhiniveśaṃ hetv-antaram āha iccheti | icchā-dveṣābhyām anukūla-pratikūla-viṣayābhyāṃ samutthitena śītoṣṇa-sukha-duḥkhādi-dvandva-nimittena mohenāhaṃ sukhy ahaṃ duḥkhīty ādi-viparyayeṇa sarvāṇy api bhūtāni saṃmohaṃ vivekāyogyatvaṃ sarge sthūla-dehotpattau satyāṃ yānti | he bhārata ! he parantapa ! iti sambodhana-dvayasya kula-mahimnā svarūpa-śaktyā ca tvāṃ dvandva-mohākhyaḥ śatrur nābhibhavitum alam iti bhāvaḥ | na hīcchā-dveṣa-rahitaṃ kiṃcid api
bhūtam asti | na ca tābhyām āviṣṭasya bahir viṣayam api jñānaṃ sambhavati, kiṃ punar ātma-viṣayam | ato rāga-dveṣa-vyākulāntaḥ-karaṇatvāt sarvāṇy api bhūtāni māṃ parameśvaram ātma-bhūtaṃ na jānanti | ato na bhajante bhajanīyam api ||27||

viśvanāthaḥ - tan-māyayā jīvāḥ kadārabhya muhyantīty apekṣāyām āha iccheti | sarge jagat-sṛṣṭy-ārambha-kāle sarva-bhūtāni sarve jīvāḥ sammohayanti | kena ? prācīna-karmodbuddhau yāv icchā-dveṣau indriyāṇām anukūle viṣaye icchābhilāṣaḥ pratikūle dveṣaḥ tābhyāṃ samutthaḥ samudbhūto yo dvandvo mānāpamānayoḥ śītoṣṇādyāḥ sukha-duḥkhayoḥ strī-puṃsayor mohaḥ - ahaṃ sammānitaḥ sukhī, aham avamānito duḥkhī | mameyaṃ strī, mamāyaṃ purusaḥ ity ādyākāraka āvidyako yo mohas tena saṃmohaṃ
strī-putrādiṣv atyantāsaktiṃ prāpnuvanti | ataevātyantāsaktānāṃ na mad-bhaktāv adhikāraḥ | yad uddhavaṃ prati mayaiva vakṣyate -

yadṛcchayā mat-kathādau jāta-śraddhas tu yaḥ pumān |
na nirviṇṇo nāti-sakto bhakti-yogo 'sya siddhi-daḥ || [BhP 11.20.8] iti |

baladevaḥ - tvaj-jñānī kutaḥ sudurlabhas tatrāha iccheti | sarge svotpatti-kāle eva sarva-bhūtāni saṃmohaṃ yānti | kenety āha dvandva-moheneti | mānāpamānayoḥ sukha-duḥkhayoḥ strī-puruṣayor dvandvair yo mohaḥ sat-kṛto 'haṃ sukhī syām asat-kṛtas tu duḥkhī mameyaṃ patnī mamāyaṃ patir ity evam abhiniveśa-lakṣaṇas tenety arthaḥ | kīdṛśenety āha iccheti pūrva-janmani yatra yatra yāv icchā-dveṣāv abhūtāṃ tābhyāṃ saṃskārātmanā sthitābhyāṃ samuttiṣṭhati para-janmani tatra tatrotpadyata ity arthaḥ | icchā rāgaḥ | evaṃ sarveṣāṃ bhūtānāṃ
saṃmūḍhatvān maj-jñānī sudurlabhaḥ ||27||

_________________________________________________________

BhG 7.28

yeṣāṃ tv anta-gataṃ pāpaṃ janānāṃ puṇya-karmaṇām |
te dvandva-moha-nirmuktā bhajante māṃ dṛḍha-vratāḥ ||28||

śrīdharaḥ - kutas tarhi kecana tvāṃ bhajanto dṛśyante ? tatrāha yeṣām iti | yeṣāṃ tu puṇya-caraṇa-śīlānāṃ sarva-pratibandhakaṃ pāpam anta-gataṃ naṣṭaṃ te dvandva-nimittena mohena nirmuktā dṛḍha-vratā ekāntinaḥ santo bhajante ||28||

madhusūdanaḥ - yadi sarva-bhūtāni saṃmohaṃ yānti, kathaṃ tarhi catur-vidhā bhajante mām ity uktam ? satyaṃ, sukṛtātiśayena teṣāṃ kṣīṇa-pāpatvād ity āha yeṣām iti | yeṣāṃ tv itara-loka-vilakṣaṇānāṃ janānāṃ saphala-janmanāṃ puṇya-karmaṇām aneka-janmasu puṇyācaraṇa-śīlānāṃ tais taiḥ puṇyaiḥ karmabhir jñāna-pratibandhakaṃ pāpam antagatam antam avasānaṃ prāptaṃ te pāpābhāvena tan-nimittena dvandva-mohena rāga-dveṣādi-nibandhana-viparyāsena svata eva nirmuktāḥ punar āvṛtty-ayogyatvena tyaktā dṛḍha-vratā acālya-saṃkalpāḥ sarvathā bhagavān
eva bhajnīyaḥ sa caivaṃ-rūpa eveti pramāṇa-janitāprāmāṇya-śaṅkā-śūnya-vijñānāḥ santo māṃ paramātmānaṃ bhajante 'nanya-śaraṇāḥ santaḥ sevante etādṛśā eva catur-vidhā bhajante māṃ ity atra sukṛti-śabdenoktāḥ | ataḥ sarva-bhūtāni saṃmohaṃ yāntīty utsargaḥ | teṣāṃ madhye ye sukṛtinas te saṃmoha-śūnyā māṃ bhajanta ity apavāda iti na virodhaḥ | ayam evotsargaḥ prāg api pratipāditas tribhir guṇamayair bhāvair ity atra | tasmāt sarttva-śodhaka-puṇya-karma-saṃcāya sarvadā yatanīyam iti bhāvaḥ ||28||

viśvanāthaḥ -- tarhi keṣāṃ bhaktāv adhikāra ity ata āha yeṣāṃ puṇya-karmaṇāṃ pāpaṃ tvaṃ tu gatam anta-kālaṃ prāntaṃ naśyad-avasthaṃ, na tu samyak naṣṭam ity arthaḥ | teṣāṃ sattva-guṇodreke sati tamo-guṇa-hrāsaḥ | tasmin sati tat-kāryo moho 'pi hrasati | moha-hrāse sati te khalu atyāsakti-rahitā yādṛcchika-mad-bhakta-saṅgena bhajante mātram | ye tu bhajanādy-abhyāsataḥ samyak naṣṭa-pāpās te mohena niḥśeṣeṇa muktā dṛḍha-vratāḥ prāpta-niṣṭhāḥ santo māṃ bhajante | na caivaṃ puṇya-karmaiva sarva-vidhayoḥ bhakteḥ
kāraṇam iti mantavyam |

yaṃ na yogena sāṅkhyena dāna-vrata-tapo- 'dhvaraiḥ |
vyākhyā-svādhyāya-sannyāsaiḥ prāpnuyād yatnavān api || [BhP 11.12.9]

iti bhagavad-ukteḥ | kevala-bhakti-yogasya puṇyādi-karmāśrayaṃ naiva kāraṇam iti bahuśaḥ pratipādanāt ||28||

baladevaḥ - nanu keṣāṃcit tvad-bhaktiḥ pratīyate sā na syāt | sarva-bhūtāni sarge saṃmohaṃ yāntīty ukter iti cet tatrāha yeṣāṃ prāṇināṃ yādṛcchika-mahattama-dṛṣṭi-pātāt pāpam anta-gataṃ nāśaṃ prāptam abhūt viṣṇor bhūtāni bhūtānāṃ pāvanāya caranti hi [BhP 11.2.28] iti smṛteḥ | kīdṛśānām ity āha puṇyeti | puṇyaṃ manojñaṃ karma mahattama-vīkṣaṇa-rūpaṃ yeṣāṃ puṇyaṃ tu cārv api ity amaraḥ | te dṛḍha-vratā mahat-prasaṅga-prāpta-niṣṭhā dvandva-mohena nirmuktā mat-tattva-jñāḥ santo māṃ bhajante ||28||

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BhG 7.29

jarā-maraṇa-mokṣāya mām āśritya yatanti ye |
te brahma tad viduḥ kṛtsnam adhyātmaṃ karma cākhilam ||29||

śrīdharaḥ - evaṃ ca māṃ bhajantaḥ sarvaṃ vijñeyaṃ vijñāya kṛtārthāḥ bhavantīty āha jareti | jarāmaraṇayor mokṣāya nirasanārthaṃ mām āśritya ye prayatante te tat paraṃ brahma viduḥ | kṛtsnam adhyātmaṃ ca viduḥ | yena tat prāptavyaṃ taṃ dehādi-vyatiriktaṃ śuddham ātmānaṃ ca jānantīty arthaḥ | tat-sādhana-bhūtam akhilaṃ sa-rahasyaṃ karma ca jānantīty arthaḥ ||29||

madhusūdanaḥ - athedānīm arjunasya praśyan utthāpayituṃ sūtra-bhūtau ślokāv ucyete | anayor eva vṛtti-sthānīya uttaro 'dhyāyo bhaviṣyati jareti | ye saṃsāra-duḥkhān nirviṇṇā jarā-maraṇayor mokṣāya jarā-maraṇādi-vividha-duḥsaha-saṃsāra-duḥkha-nirāsāya tad-eka-hetuṃ māṃ sa-guṇaṃ bhagavantam āśrityetara-sarva-vaimukhyena śaraṇaṃ gatvā yatanti yatante mad-arpitāni phalābhisandhi-śūnyāni vihitāni karmāṇi kurvanti te krameṇa śuddhāntaḥ-karaṇāḥ santas taj-jagat-kāraṇaṃ māyādhiṣṭhānaṃ śuddhaṃ paraṃ brahma nirguṇaṃ tat-pada-lakṣyaṃ māṃ viduḥ
| karma ca tad-ubhaya-vedana-sādhanaṃ gurūpasadana-śravaṇa-mananaādy-akhilaṃ niravaśeṣṃ phalāvyabhicāri vidur jānantīty arthaḥ ||29||

viśvanāthaḥ - tad evam ārtādyās trayaḥ sakāmā māṃ bhajantaḥ kṛtārthā bhavantīti | devatāntaraṃ bhajantas tu cyavanta ity uktvā svasyābhajane 'py adhikāriṇaś coktā bhagavatā | idānīm anyaḥ sa-kāmaḥ caturtho 'pi mad-bhakto 'stīty āha jareti | jarāmaraṇayor mokṣāya nāśāya ye yogino yatanti yatante | ye mokṣa-kāmā māṃ bhajantīti phalito 'rthaḥ | te taṃ prasiddhaṃ brahma tathā kṛtsnam ātmānaṃ deham adhikṛtya bhoktṛtayā vartamānam adhyātmaṃ jīvātmānam akhilaṃ karma ca nānā-vidha-karma-janyaṃ jīvasya saṃsāraṃ ca mad-bhakti-prabhāvād eva vidur jānanti ||29||

baladevaḥ -- tad evam ārtādayaḥ sa-kāmā mad-bhaktāḥ kāmān anubhūyānte māṃ prapadya vindanti mad-anya-deva-bhaktās tu saṃsarantīty uktam | atha tebhyo 'nyo 'pi sa-kāmo mad-bhakto 'stīty ucyate jareti | ye jarā-maraṇābhyāṃ vimokṣāya tan-mātra-kāmāḥ santo mām āśritya mad-arcāṃ sevitvā yatante | tat-praṇāmādi kurvanti | te tat prasiddhaṃ brahma kṛtsnaṃ sa-parikaraṃ vidur adhyātmaṃ cākhilaṃ karma ca viduḥ | brahmādi-śabdānām adhibhūtādi-śabdānāṃ cārthāḥ parasminn adhyāye bhagavataiva vyākhyāsyante | mad-arcā-sevayā vijñeyaṃ vijñāya muktiṃ labhante, na tu mad-vaśyatā-karīṃ mat-priyatām ity arthaḥ
| smṛtiś caivam āha sakṛd yad aṅga pratmānta-rahitā mona-mayīṃ bhāgavatīṃ dadau gatim ity ādyā ||29||

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BhG 7.30

sādhibhūtādhidaivaṃ māṃ sādhiyajñaṃ ca ye viduḥ |
prayāṇa-kāle 'pi ca māṃ te vidur yukta-cetasaḥ ||30||

śrīdharaḥ - na caivaṃ-bhūtānāṃ yoga-bhraṃśa-śaṅkāpīty āha sādhibhūteti | adhibhūtādi-śabdānām arthaṃ śrī-bhagavān evottarādhyāye vyākhyāsyati | adhibhūtenādhidaivena ca sahādhiyajñena ca saha māṃ ye jānanti te yukta-cetaso mayy āsakta-manasaḥ prayāṇa-kāle 'pi maraṇa-samaye 'pi māṃ vidur jānanti | na tu tad api vyākulībhūya māṃ vismaranti | ato mad-bhaktānāṃ na yoga-bhraṃśa-śaṅketi bhāvaḥ ||30||

kṛṣṇa-bhaktair ayatnena brahma-jñānam avāpyate |
iti vijñāna-yogārthaṃ saptame saṃprakāśitam ||

iti śrī-śrīdhara-svāmikṛtāyāṃ bhagavad-gītā-ṭīkāyāṃ subodhinyāṃ
vijñāna-yogo nāma saptamo 'dhyāyaḥ
||7||

madhusūdanaḥ - na caivaṃ-bhūtānāṃ mad-bhaktānāṃ mṛtyu-kāle 'pi vivaśa-karaṇatayā mad-vismaraṇaṃ śaṅkanīyaṃ, yataḥ sādhibhūtādhidaivam adhibhūtādidaivābhyāṃ sahitaṃ tathā sādhiyajñaṃ cādhiyajñena ca sahitaṃ māṃ ye viduś cintayanti te yukta-cetasaḥ sarvadā mayi samāhita-cetasaḥ santas tat-saṃskāra-pāṭavāt prayāṇa-kāle prāṇotkramaṇa-kāle karaṇa-grāmasyātyanta-vyagratāyām api | ca-kārād ayatnenaiva mat-kṛpayā māṃ sarvātmānaṃ vidur jānanti | teṣāṃ mṛti-kāle 'pi mad-ākāraiva citta-vṛttiḥ pūrvopacita-saṃskāra-pāṭavād bhavati | tathā ca te mad-bhakti-yogāt kṛtārthā eveti bhāvaḥ |

adhibhūtādhidaivādhiyajña-śabdānuttare 'dhyāye 'rjuna-praśna-pūrvakaṃ vyākhyāsyati bhagavān iti sarvam anāvilam | tad atrottamādhikāriṇaṃ prati jñeyaṃ madhyamādhikāriṇaṃ prati ca dhyeyaṃ lakṣaṇayā mukhyayā ca vṛttyā tat-pada-pratipādyaṃ brahma nirūpitam ||30||

iti śrīmat-paramahaṃsa-parivrājakācārya-śrī-viśveśvara-sarasvatī-pāda-śiṣya-śrī-madhusūdana-sarasvatī-viracitāyāṃ śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā-gūḍhārtha-dīpikāyām adhikāri-bhedena jñeya-dhyeya-pratipādya-tattva-brahma-nirūpaṇaṃ nāma
saptamo 'dhyāyaḥ ||7||

viśvanāthaḥ --- mad-bhakti-prabhāvād yeṣām īdṛśaṃ maj-jñānaṃ syāt teṣām anta-kāle 'pi tad eva jñānaṃ syāt | na tv anyeṣām iva karmopasthāpitā bhāvi-deha-prāpty-anurūpā matir ity āha sādhibhūteti | adhibhūtādayo 'grimādhyāye vyākhyāsyante | bhaktā eva hares tattva-vido māyāṃ taranti, te coktāḥ ṣaḍ-vidhā atrety adhyāyārtho nirūpitaḥ ||30||

iti sārārtha-varṣiṇyāṃ harṣiṇyāṃ bhakta-cetasām |
gītāsu saptamo 'dhyāyaḥ saṅgataḥ saṅgataḥ satām ||7||

baladevaḥ - na ca tat-sevayā prāptaṃ taj-jñānaṃ kadācid api bhraṃśety āha sādhīti | adhibhūtenādhidaivenādhiyajñena ca sahitaṃ māṃ ye viduḥ sat-prasaṅgāj jānanti, te prayāṇa-kāle mṛtyu-samaye 'pi māṃ vidur na tu tad-anyavad vyagrāḥ santo māṃ vismarantīty arthaḥ ||30||

māṃ vidus tattvato bhaktā man-māyām uttaranti te |
te punaḥ pañcadhety eṣa saptamasya vinirṇayaḥ ||

iti śrīmad-bhagavad-gītopaniṣad-bhāṣye saptamo 'dhyāyaḥ |
||7||



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Bhagavadgita 8

BhG 8.1

arjuna uvāca
kiṃ tad brahma kim adhyātmaṃ kiṃ karma puruṣottama |
adhibhūtaṃ ca kiṃ proktam adhidaivaṃ kim ucyate ||1||

śrīdharaḥ -
brahma-karmādhibhūtādi viduḥ kṛṣṇaika-cetasaḥ |
ity uktaṃ brahma-karmādi spaṣṭam aṣṭama ucyate ||

pūrvādhyāyānte bhagavatopakṣiptānāṃ brahmādhyātmādi-saptānāṃ padarthānāṃ tattvaṃ jijñāsur arjuna uvāca kiṃ tad brahmeti dvābhyām | spaṣṭo 'rthaḥ ||1||

madhusūdanaḥ - pūrvādhyāyānte te brahma tad viduḥ kṛtsnam adhyātmaṃ karma cākhilam ity ādinā sārdha-ślokena sapta-padārthā jñeyatvena bhagavatā sūtritās teṣāṃ vṛtti-sthānīyo 'yam aṣṭamo 'dhyāya ārabhyate | tatra sūtritāni sapta-vastūni viśeṣato bubhutsamānaḥ ślokābhyām | taj-jñeyatvenoktaṃ brahma kiṃ sopādhikaṃ nirupādhikaṃ vā | evam ātmānaṃ deham adhikṛtya tasminn adhiṣṭhāne tiṣṭhatīty adhyātmaṃ kiṃ śrotrādikaraṇa-grāmo vā pratyak-caitanyaṃ vā | tathā karma cākhilam ity atra kiṃ karma yajña-rūpam anyad vā vijñāntaṃ yajñaṃ tanute karmāṇi tanute 'pi ca iti śrutau dvaividhya-śravaṇāt |

tava mama ca samatvāt kathaṃ tvaṃ māṃ pṛcchasīti śaṅkām apanudan sarva-puruṣebhya uttamasya sarvajñasya tava na kiṃcid ajñeyam iti saṃbodhanena sūcayati he puruṣottameti | adhibhūtaṃ ca kiṃ proktaṃ pṛthivyādibhūtam adhikṛtya yat kiṃcit kāryam adhibhūta-padena vivakṣitaṃ kiṃ vā samastam eva kārya-jātam | ca-kāraḥ sarveṣāṃ praśnānāṃ samuccayārthaḥ | adhidaivaṃ kim ucyate devatā-viṣayam anudhyānaṃ vā sarvadaivateṣv ādiyta-maṇḍalādiṣv anusyūtaṃ caitanyaṃ vā ||1||

viśvanāthaḥ ---

pārtha-praśnottaraṃ yogaṃ miśrāṃ bhaktiṃ prasaṅgataḥ |
śuddhāṃ ca bhaktiṃ provāca dve gatī api cāsṭame ||

pūrvādhyāyānte brahmādi-sapta-padārthānāṃ jñānaṃ bhagavatoktam | atra teṣāṃ tattvaṃ jijñāsuḥ pṛcchati dvābhyām | atra dehe ko 'dhiyajño yajñādhiṣṭhātā, sa cāsmin dehe kathaṃ jñeya ity uttarasyānusaṅgī ||1-2||

baladevaḥ -
utkān pṛṣṭaḥ kramād vyākhyad brahmādīn harir aṣṭame |
yoga-miśrāṃ ca śuddhāṃ ca bhakti-mārga-dvayaṃ tathā ||

pūrvādhyāyānte mumukṣāṇāṃ jñeyatayoddiṣṭān brahmādīn saptārthān viboddhum arjunaḥ pṛcchati | kiṃ tad brahmeti kiṃ paramātma-caitanyaṃ vā | kiṃ jīvātma-caitanyaṃ vā tad brahmety arthaḥ | kim adhyātmam iti ātmānaṃ deham adhikṛtyeti nirukteḥ | śrotrādīndriya-vṛndaṃ vā sūkṣma-bhūta-vṛndaṃ vā tad iti | āvayos taulyāt kim iti māṃ pṛcchasīti śaṅkāṃ nivartayituṃ sambodhanaṃ he puruṣottameti | pareśatvāt tava sarvaṃ suviditaṃ na tu memeti bhāvaḥ | adhibhūtaṃ ca kim iti bhūtāny adhikṛtyeti nirukter ghaṭyādi-kāryaṃ vā sthūla-śarīraṃ
vā tad iti | adhidaivaṃ kim iti devatā-viṣayakam anudhyānaṃ vā samaṣṭir virāṭ vā tad iti ||1||

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BhG 8.2

adhiyajñaḥ kathaṃ ko 'tra dehe 'smin madhusūdana |
prayāṇakāle ca kathaṃ jñeyo 'si niyatātmabhiḥ ||2||

śrīdharaḥ - kiṃ ca - adhiyajña iti | atra dehe you yajño nivartate tasmin ko 'dhiyajño 'dhiṣṭhātā | prayojakaḥ phala-dātā ca ka ity arthaḥ | svarūpaṃ pṛṣṭvādhiṣṭhāna-prakāraṃ pṛcchati - kathaṃ kena prakāreṇāsāv asmin dehe sthito yajñam adhitiṣṭhantīty arthaḥ | yajña-grahaṇaṃ sarva-karmaṇām upalakṣaṇārtham | anta-kāle ca niyata-cittaiḥ puruṣaiḥ kathaṃ kenopāyena jñeyo 'si ||2||
madhusūdanaḥ - adhiyajño yajñam adhigato devatātmā vā para-brahma vā | sa ca kathaṃ kena prakāreṇa cintanīyaḥ | kiṃ tādātmyena kiṃ vātyantābhedena | sarvathāpi sa kim asmin dehe vartate tato bahir vā | dehe cet sa ko 'tra buddhyādis tad-vyatirikto vā | adhiyajñaḥ kathaṃ ko 'treti na praśna-dvayam | kintu saprakāra eka eva praśna iti draṣṭavyam | parama-kāruṇikatvād āyāsenāpi sarvopadrava-nivārakasya bhagavato 'nāyāsena mat-sanehopadrava-nivāraṇam īṣatkaram ucitam eveti sūcayan sambodhayati he madhusūdaneti |

prayāṇa-kāle ca sarva-karaṇa-grāma-vaiyāgryāc citta-samādhānānupapatteḥ kathaṃ kena prakāreṇa niyatātmabhiḥ samāhita-cittairjñeyo 'sīty ukta-śaṅkā-sūcanārthaś cakāraḥ | etat sarvaṃ sarvajñatvāt parama-kāruṇikatvāc ca śaraṇāgataṃ māṃ prati kathayety abhiprāyaḥ ||2||

viśvanāthaḥ --- nothing.

baladevaḥ - adhiyajñaḥ ka iti yajñam adhigata indrādir vā viṣṇur vā sa iti | katham iti tasyādhiyajña-bhāvaḥ katham ity arthaḥ | etat sarvaṃ mat-sandeha-nivāraṇaṃ taveṣatkaram iti bodhayituṃ sambodhanaṃ - he madhusūdaneti | prayāṇeti tadā sarvendriya-vyagratayā citta-samādhānāsmabhavād iti bhāvaḥ ||2||


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BhG 8.3

śrībhagavān uvāca--
akṣaraṃ brahma paramaṃ svabhāvo 'dhyātmam ucyate |
bhūtabhāvodbhavakaro visargaḥ karmasaṃjñitaḥ ||3||

śrīdharaḥ - praśna-krameṇaivottaraṃ śrī-bhagavān uvāca akṣaram iti tribhiḥ | na kṣarati na calatīty akṣaram | nanu jīvo 'py akṣaraḥ | paramaṃ yad akṣaraṃ jagato mūla-kāraṇaṃ tad braham | etad vai tad akṣaraṃ gārgi brāhmaṇā abhivadantīti śruteḥ | svasyaiva brahmaṇa evāṃśatayā jīva-rūpeṇa bhavanaṃ svabhāvaḥ | sa evātmānaṃ deham adhikṛtya bhoktṛtvena vartamāno 'dhyātma-śabdenocyate ity arthaḥ | bhūtānāṃ jarāyujādīnāṃ bhāva utpattiḥ | udbhavaś ca utkṛṣṭatvena bhavanam udbhavaḥ |

agnau prāstāhutiḥ samyag ādityam upatiṣṭhate |
ādityāj jāyate vṛṣṭir vṛṣṭer annaṃ tataḥ prajā ||

iti krameṇa vṛddhiḥ | tau bhūta-bhāvodbhavau karoti yo visargo devatoddeśena dravya-tyāga-rūpo yajñaḥ | sarva-karmaṇām upalakṣaṇam etat sa ca karma-śabda-vācyaḥ ||3||

madhusūdanaḥ - evaṃ saptānāṃ praśnānāṃ krameṇottaraṃ tribhiḥ ślokaiḥ | praśna-krameṇa hi nirṇaye praṣṭur abhīṣṭa-siddhir anāyāsena syādity abhiprāyavān bhagavān atra śloke praśna-trayaṃ krameṇa nirdhāritavān | evaṃ dvitīya-śloke 'pi praśna-trayaṃ tṛtīya-śloke tv ekam iti vibhāgaḥ | nirupādhikam eva brahmātra vivakṣitaṃ brahma-śabdena na tu sopādhikam iti prathama-praśnasyottaram āha - akṣaraṃ na kṣaratīty avināśi aśnute vā sarvam iti sarva-vyāpakam | etad vai tad akṣaraṃ gārgi brāhmaṇā abhivadanty asthūlam anaṇu ity ādy upakramya etasya vā akṣarasya praśāsane gārgi sūryā-candramasau vidhṛtau
tiṣṭhataḥ nānyad ato 'sti draṣṭṛ śrutir ityādi madhye parāmṛśya etasmin tu khalv akṣarae gārgy ākāśa otaś ca protaś ca ity upasaṃhṛtaṃ śrutyā | sarvopādhi-śūnyaṃ sarvasya praśāsitṛ, avyākṛtākāśāntasya kṛtsnasya prapañcasya dhārayitṛ | asmiṃś ca śarīrendriya-saṃghāte vijñātṛ | nirupādhikaṃ caitanyaṃ tad iha brahmeti vivakṣitam | etad eva vivṛṇoti paramam iti | paramaṃ sva-prakāśa-paramānanda-rūpaṃ praśāsanasya kṛtsna-jaḍa-varga-dhāraṇasya ca liṅgasya tatraivopapatteḥ | akṣaram ambarānta-dhṛteḥ (Vs 1.3.10) iti nyāyāt |

na tv ihākṣara-śabdasya varṇa-mātre rūḍhatvāc chruti-liṅgādhikaraṇa-nyāya-mūlakena rūḍhir yogam apaharati iti nyāyena rathakāra-śabdena jāti-viśeṣavat-praṇavākhyam akṣaram eva grāhyaṃ tatrokta-liṅga-sambhavāt | om ity ekākṣaraṃ brahmeti ca pareṇa viśeṣaṇāt ānaarthakya-pratihatānāṃ viparītaṃ balābalam iti nyāyāt | varṣāsu rathakāra ādadhīta ity atra tu jāti-viśeṣe nāsty asambhava iti viśeṣaḥ | ananyathā-siddhena tu liṅgena śruter bādhaḥ ākāśas tal-liṅgāt ity ādau vivṛtaḥ | etāvāṃs tv iha viśeṣaḥ | ananyathā-siddhena liṅgena śruter bādhe yatra yogaḥ sambhavati tatra sa eva gṛhyate mukhyatvāt | yathājyaiḥ stuvate pṛṣṭaiḥ
stuvata ity ādau | yathā cātraivākṣara-śabde | yatra tu yogo 'pi na sambhavati tatra gauṇī vṛttir yathākāśa-prāṇādi-śabdeṣu | ākāśa-śabdasyāpi brahmaṇi ā samantāt kāśata iti yogaḥ sambhavatīti cet | sa eva gṛhyatām iti pañcapādīkṛtaḥ | tathā ca parāmarṣaṃ sūtraṃ prasiddheś ca (Vs 1.3.17) iti | kṛtam atra vistareṇa |

tad evaṃ kiṃ tad brahmeti nirṇītam | adhunā kim adhyātmam iti nirṇīyate | yad akṣaraṃ brahmety uktaṃ tasyaiva svabhāvaḥ svo bhāvaḥ svarūpaṃ pratyak-caitanyaṃ na tu svasya bhāva iti ṣaṣṭhī-samāsaḥ | lakṣaṇāprasaṅgāt, ṣaṣṭhī-tatpuruṣa-bādhena karma-dhāraya-parigrahasya śruta-padārthānvayena viṣāda-sthapaty-adhikaraṇa-siddhatvāt | tasmān na brahmaṇaḥ saṃbandhi kintu brahma-svarūpam eva | ātmānaṃ deham adhikṛtya bhoktṛtayā vartamānam adhyātmam ucyate 'dhyātma-śabdenābhidhīyate na karaṇa-grāma ity arthaḥ |

yāga-dāna-homātmakaṃ vaidikaṃ karmaivātra karma-śabdena vivikṣitam iti tṛtīya-praśnottaram āha bhūtānāṃ bhavana-dharmakāṇāṃ sarveṣāṃ sthāvara-jaṅgamānāṃ bhāvam utpattim udbhavaṃ vṛddhiṃ ca karoti yo visargas tyāgasta-tac-chāstra-vihito yāga-dāna-homātmakaḥ sa iha karma-saṃjñitaḥ | karma-śabdenokta iti yāvat | tatra devatoddeśena dravya-tyāgo yāga uttiṣṭhad dhomo vaṣaṭ-kāra-prayogāntaḥ | sa evopaviṣṭa-homaḥ svāhā-kāra-prayogānta āsecana-paryanto homaḥ | para-svatvāpatti-paryantaḥ svatva-tyāgo dānam | sarvatra ca tyāgāṃśo 'nugataḥ | tasya ca bhā̆ta-bhāvodbhava-karatvam-

agnau prāstāhutiḥ samyag ādityam upatiṣṭhate |
ādityāj jāyate vṛṣṭir vṛṣṭer annaṃ tataḥ prajāḥ || iti smṛteḥ |

te vā ete āhutī hute utkrāmataḥ ity ādi śruteś ca ||3||

viśvanāthaḥ --- uttaram āha akṣaram iti | na kṣaratīti akṣaraṃ nityaṃ yat paramaṃ tad brahma-- etad vai tad akṣaraṃ gārgi brāhmaṇā abhivadantīti śruteḥ | svabhāvaḥ svātmānaṃ dehādhyāsa-vaśād bhāvayati janayatīti svabhāvaḥ jīvaḥ | yad vā svaṃ bhāvayati paramātmānaṃ prāpayatīti svabhāvaḥ śuddha-jīvo 'dhyātmam ucyate | adhyātma-śabda-vācya ity arthaḥ | bhūtair eva bhāvānāṃ manuṣyādi-dehānām udbhavaṃ karotīti sa visargo jīvasya saṃsāraḥ karma-janyatvāt karma-saṃjñaḥ | karma-śabdena jīvasya saṃsāra ucyata ity arthaḥ ||3||

baladevaḥ - evaṃ pṛṣṭo bhagavān krameṇa saptānām uttaram āha akṣaram iti | na kṣaratīti nirkter akṣaraṃ yat paramaṃ dehādi-viviktaṃ jīvātma-caitanyaṃ tan mayā brahmety ucyate | tasyākṣara-śabdatvaṃ brahma-śabdatvaṃ ca-avyaktam akṣare līyate 'kṣaraṃ tamasi līyate tama ekībhavati parasminn iti vijñānaṃ brahma ced veda iti śruteḥ |

svabhāva iti | svasya jīvātmanaḥ sambandhī yo bhāvo bhūta-sūkṣma-tad-vāsanā-lakṣaṇa-padārthaḥ | pañcāgni-vidyāyāṃ paṭhitas tad-ātmani saṃbadhyamānatvān mayādhyātmam ucyate |

bhūteti teṣāṃ sūkṣmāṇāṃ bhūtānāṃ sthūlais taiḥ saṃpṛktānāṃ bhāvo manuṣyādi-lakṣaṇas tad-udbhava-karas tad-utpādako yo visargaḥ sa karma saṃjñitaḥ | jyotiṣṭomādi-karmaṇā svargam āsādya tasmin deva-dehena tat-karmopabhujya-bhāṇḍa-saṃkrānta-ghṛta-śeṣavad-bhogorvarito yaḥ karma-śeṣo bhuvi manuṣyādi-deha-lābhāya visṛṣṭas tan mayā karmocyate | chāndogye dyu-parjanya-pṛthivī-puruṣa-yoṣitsu pañcasv agniṣu śraddhā-soma-vṛṣṭy-anna-retāṃsi kramāt pañcāhutayaḥ paṭhyante | tatrāyam arthaḥ - vaidiko jīva iha loke
'smayāni dadhy-ādīni śraddhayā juhoti | tā dadhy-ādimayyaḥ pañcīkṛtatvāt pañca-bhūta-rūpā āpaḥ śraddhayā hutatvāt śraddhākhyāhuti-svarūpeṇa tasmin jīve saṃbaddhās tiṣṭhanti | atha tasmin mṛte tad-indriyādhiṣṭhātāro devās tā dyulokāgnau juhvati | tadvantaṃ jīvaṃ divaṃ nayantīty arthaḥ | hutāstāḥ soma-rājākhya-divya-dehatayā pariṇamante tena dehena sa tatra karma-phalāni bhuṅkte | tad-bhogāvasāne 'smayo jīvavān dehais tair devaiḥ parjanyāgnau huto vṛṣṭir bhavati | vṛṣṭi-bhūtās tāḥ sajīvāḥ pṛthivy-agnau tair hutā brīhy-ādy-anna-bhāvaṃ labhante | anna-bhūtāḥ sajīvās tāḥ puruṣāgnau hutā reto-bhāvaṃ bhajante
| reto-bhūtāḥ sa-jīvās tā yoṣid-agnau tair hutā garbhātmanā sthitā manuṣya-bhāvaṃ prayāntīti tad-bhāva-hetur anuśaya-śabda-vācyaḥ karma-śeṣaḥ karmeti | evam evoktaṃ sūtrakṛtā tad-antara-pratipattau ity ādibhiḥ ||3||


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BhG 8.4

adhibhūtaṃ kṣaro bhāvaḥ puruṣaś cādhidaivatam |
adhiyajño 'ham evātra dehe dehabhṛtāṃ vara ||4||

śrīdharaḥ - kiṃ ca adhibhūtam iti | kṣaro vinaśvaro bhāvo dehādi-padārthaḥ | bhūtaṃ prāṇi-mātram adhikṛtya bhavatīty adhibhūtam ucyate | puruṣo vairājaḥ sūrya-maṇḍala-madhyavartī svāṃśa-bhūta-sarva-devatānām adhipatir adhidaivatam ucyate | adhidaivatam adhiṣṭhātrī devatā |
sa vai śarīrī prathamaḥ sa vai puruṣa ucyate |
ādikartā sa bhūtānāṃ brahmāgre samavartata || iti śruteḥ |

atrāsmin dehe 'ntaryāmitvena sthito 'ham evādhiyajño yajñādi-karma-pravartakas tat-phala-dātā ca | katham ity asyāpy uttaram anenaivoktaṃ bhraṣṭavyam | antaryāmiṇo 'saṅgatvādibhir guṇair jīva-vailakṣaṇyena dehāntarvartitvasya prasiddhatvāt | tathā ca śrutiḥ-

dvā suparṇā sayujā sakhāyā
samānaṃ vṛkṣaṃ pariṣasvajāte |
tayor anyaḥ pippalaṃ svādv atty
anaśnann anyo 'bhicākaśīti || [MuṇḍU 7.1.1]

deha-bhṛtāṃ madhye śreṣṭheti sambodhayaṃs tvam apy evambhūtam antaryāmiṇaṃ parādhīna-sva-pravṛtti-nivṛtty-anvaya-vyatirekābhyāṃ boddhum arhasīti sūcayati ||4||

madhusūdanaḥ - sampraty agrima-praśna-trayasyottaram āha adhibhūtam iti | kṣaratīti kṣaro vināś